Thursday, April 30, 2020

[Mammalogy • 2020] Neusticomys peruviensis musseri • A Revision of Neusticomys peruviensis (Rodentia: Cricetidae) with the Description of A New Subspecies

Neusticomys peruviensis musseri Pacheco & Sánchez-Vendizú

in Pacheco, Sánchez-Vendizú, Salazar, et al., 2020. 

Neusticomys peruviensis is a poorly known sigmodontine rodent of the tribe Ichthyomyini, represented in collections by only five specimens collected in five localities from lowland forests of central and southern Peru. Recent expeditions in Llanchama, in northern Peru, north of the Río Amazonas, and near Allpahuayo Mishana Natural Reserve (Loreto, Peru), were successful in obtaining three specimens of Neusticomys. Based on morphological and meristic data, we found the population at Llanchama is distinct from the allopatric populations of N. peruviensis, and other species of Neusticomys. A species distribution model also shows the population at Llanchama is not highly predicted by the set of variables of the known localities of N. peruviensis. However, sequence data from the mitochondrial cytochrome-b gene indicate that genetic distinctiveness is low. Because intraspecific variability is important to understand evolutionary and biogeographic processes, and in concordance with the polytypic species concept, we interpret the population at Llanchama to represent a new subspecies of N. peruviensis that we describe in this paper.

Key words: biodiversity, Ichthyomyini, Loreto, Neotropics, Peru, Río Amazonas, Rodentia

Sigmodontinae Wagner, 1843
Tribe Ichthyomini Vorontsov, 1959
Genus Neusticomys Anthony, 1921

Neusticomys peruviensis musseri, new subspecies Pacheco and Sánchez-Vendizú
G. G. Musser’s Neusticomys

Etymology.— The subspecific epithet honors Dr. Guy G. Musser, a remarkable and fine mammalogist, for whom we have a deep admiration. He is author of numerous and key contributions to South American mammalogy and other regions of the world. It is also a pleasure to read his elegant, precise, and encyclopedic contributions, among them the description (with A. L. Gardner) of N. peruviensis.

Víctor Pacheco, Pamela Sánchez-Vendizú, Christian R Loaiza Salazar, Kateryn Pino, César Medina and Dan Vivas-Ruiz. 2020. A Revision of Neusticomys peruviensis (Rodentia: Cricetidae) with the Description of A New Subspecies. Journal of Mammalogy. gyaa011. DOI:  10.1093/jmammal/gyaa011  


Neusticomys peruviensis es un roedor sigmodontino poco conocido de la tribu Ichthyomyini, representado en colecciones por solo cinco especímenes colectados en cinco localidades de bosques de tierras bajas del centro y sur del Perú. En recientes expediciones a Llanchama, en el norte de Perú, al norte del río Amazonas y cerca de la Reserva Natural Allpahuayo Mishana (Loreto, Perú), se lograron obtener tres especímenes de Neusticomys. Basados en datos morfológicos y merísticos, encontramos que la población de Llanchama es distinta de las poblaciones alopátricas de N. peruviensis y otras especies de Neusticomys. Un modelo de distribución de especies también muestra que la población de Llanchama no está altamente predicha por el conjunto de variables de las localidades conocidas de N. peruviensis. Sin embargo, las secuencias del gen mitocondrial citocromo-b indican que la diferenciación genética es baja. Debido a que la variabilidad intraespecífica es importante para comprender los procesos evolutivos y biogeográficos y en concordancia con el concepto de la especie politípica, interpretamos que la población de Llanchama representa una nueva subespecie de N. peruviensis, que describimos en este artículo.

[Fungi • 2020] Tylopilus hayatae • A New Endemic Bolete Species (Basidiomycota: Agaricomycetes) in Relict Mexican Beech Forest

Tylopilus hayatae  Rodríguez-Ramírez & Luna-Vega

in Rodríguez-Ramírez, Martínez-González, González-Ávila & Luna-Vega, 2020.

Tylopilus hayatae Rodríguez-Ramírez & Luna-Vega, sp. nov., is an ectomycorrhizal fungus found in relict Mexican beech forest (Fagus grandifolia subsp. mexicana) in the mountains of Hidalgo State, Sierra Madre Oriental, in eastern Mexico. We propose this new species based on morphological and molecular data evidence. Macro- and microscopic descriptions including illustrations, photographs and scanning electron micrographs of the basidiospores are presented.

Keywords: ectomycorrhizal fungi, molecular phylogeny, tropical montane cloud forest, Fungi

Ernesto Chanes Rodríguez-Ramírez, César Ramiro Martínez-González, Patricia Astrid González-Ávila and Isolda Luna-Vega. 2020. Tylopilus hayatae, A New Endemic Bolete Species in Relict Mexican Beech Forest. Phytotaxa. 441(1); 35–46. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.441.1.3

[Paleontology • 2020] Spinosaurus aegyptiacus • Tail-propelled Aquatic Locomotion in A Theropod Dinosaur

Two Spinosaurus hunt Onchopristis, a prehistoric sawfish, in the waters of the Kem Kem river system in what is now Morocco. 

Reconstructed sequential cross-sections through the tail show proximal-to-distal changes in the arrangement of major muscles and skeletal reconstruction.
in Ibrahim, Maganuco, Dal Sasso, Fabbri, Auditore, et al., 2020.
Art: Davide Bonadonna

In recent decades, intensive research on non-avian dinosaurs has strongly suggested that these animals were restricted to terrestrial environments. Historical proposals that some groups, such as sauropods and hadrosaurs, lived in aquatic environments were abandoned decades ago. It has recently been argued that at least some of the spinosaurids—an unusual group of large-bodied theropods of the Cretaceous era—were semi-aquatic, but this idea has been challenged on anatomical, biomechanical and taphonomic grounds, and remains controversial. Here we present unambiguous evidence for an aquatic propulsive structure in a dinosaur, the giant theropod Spinosaurus aegyptiacus. This dinosaur has a tail with an unexpected and unique shape that consists of extremely tall neural spines and elongate chevrons, which forms a large, flexible fin-like organ capable of extensive lateral excursion. Using a robotic flapping apparatus to measure undulatory forces in physical models of different tail shapes, we show that the tail shape of Spinosaurus produces greater thrust and efficiency in water than the tail shapes of terrestrial dinosaurs and that these measures of performance are more comparable to those of extant aquatic vertebrates that use vertically expanded tails to generate forward propulsion while swimming. These results are consistent with the suite of adaptations for an aquatic lifestyle and piscivorous diet that have previously been documented for Spinosaurus. Although developed to a lesser degree, aquatic adaptations are also found in other members of the spinosaurid clade, which had a near-global distribution and a stratigraphic range of more than 50 million years14, pointing to a substantial invasion of aquatic environments by dinosaurs.

Fig. 1: Reconstructed skeleton and caudal series of FSAC-KK 11888.


Two Spinosaurus hunt Onchopristis, a prehistoric sawfish, in the waters of the Kem Kem river system in what is now Morocco.
Art: Davide Bonadonna 
Source: Dr. Nizar Ibrahim, University of Detroit Mercy
 © Jason Treat, NG Staff, and Mesa Schumacher 


Nizar Ibrahim, Simone Maganuco, Cristiano Dal Sasso, Matteo Fabbri, Marco Auditore, Gabriele Bindellini, David M. Martill, Samir Zouhri, Diego A. Mattarelli, David M. Unwin, Jasmina Wiemann, Davide Bonadonna, Ayoub Amane, Juliana Jakubczak, Ulrich Joger, George V. Lauder and Stephanie E. Pierce. 2020.  Tail-propelled Aquatic Locomotion in A Theropod Dinosaur. Nature.  DOI: 10.1038/s41586-020-2190-3

Bizarre Spinosaurus makes history as first known swimming dinosaur



[Herpetology • 2020] Eryx sistanensis • A New Species of Eryx (Serpentes: Erycidae) from Iran

Eryx sistanensis 
Eskandarzadeh, Rastegar-Pouyani, Rastegar-Pouyani, Zargan, Hajinourmohamadi, Nazarov, Sami, Rajabizadeh, Nabizadeh & Navaian, 2020

We describe a new species of the genus Eryx Daudin, 1803 from southern Iran that is morphologically closely related to the Indian sand boa, E. johnii. The new species, Eryx sistanensis sp. nov. has a distribution range from Zabol in the Sistan Region to the southern parts of Sistan & Baluchistan, as well as Hormozgan Province of Iran. Morphologically, E. sistanensis sp. nov. differs from E. johnii by having fewer dorsal scale rows at midbody and the tail tip is not as blunt as E. johnii. The genetic distance (p-distance) between the new species and the Indian sand boa is considerable (9.1% for cytb and 11.8% for COI).

Keywords: Serpentes, Eryx sistanensis sp. nov., molecular phylogeny, morphology, taxonomy

FIGURE 5. Eryx sistanensis sp. nov. specimen from Gurband Village, Minab County in Hormozgan Province.

FIGURE 6. Eryx sistanensis sp. nov. specimens in (A) Rikukash with damaged tail, and (B) Shamil.

Eryx sistanensis sp. nov. 

Etymology: Eryx sistanensis sp. nov. is named after the Sistan Region in Sistan & Baluchistan Province, where the holotype was collected.

FIGURE 2. Photos of the juvenile specimens of (A) Eryx johnii (Photo by Raju Vyas), and (B) Eryx sistanensis sp. nov.

Distribution: Eryx sistanensis sp. nov. is currently known from Zabol in Sistan Region to the southern parts of Sistan & Baluchistan and Hormozgan Provinces (Fig. 7). 

Habitat: The specimens were observed in agricultural fields with soft substrates (Fig. 8). The farms were surrounded by natural vegetation such as Tamarix, Zygophyllum, Acacia and Chenopodiaceae shrubs. 

 Naeimeh Eskandarzadeh, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Eskandar Rastegar-Pouyani, Jamil Zargan, Ashkan Hajinourmohamadi, Roman A. Nazarov, Soheil Sami, Mahdi Rajabizadeh, Hossein Nabizadeh and Majid Navaian. 2020. A New Species of Eryx (Serpentes: Erycidae) from Iran. Zootaxa. 4767(1); 182–192.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4767.1.8

[Botany • 2020] Begonia caramoanensis (sect. Baryandra, Begoniaceae) • A New Species from Camarines Sur, Philippines

Begonia caramoanensis 

in Rubite, Irabagon, ... et Bustamante, 2020. 

Begonia caramoanensis from Caramoan, Camarines Sur, Luzon Island is described as a new species endemic to the Philippines. This is the latest addition to the species rich Begonia section Baryandra. It resembles Begonia madulidii but is distinguished by the dark green almost orbicular leaves; extensive inflorescence branching five times; and the glandular hairs of the bracts, peduncle, pedicels and ovary. More than 500 individuals, were observed in each of the four barangays of Caramoan, thus according to to the IUCN red list categories and criteria, B. caramoanensis is hereby proposed to be placed under Least Concern (LC) category.

Keywords: Begoniaceae, Begonia section Baryandra, Caramoan, endemic, taxonomy, Eudicots


Illustration of Begonia caramoanensis.
by Y.P. Ang 


Rosario R. Rubite, Madeleine L. Irabagon,  Diane Joy E. Palacio, Yu Pin Ang, Rene Alfred and Anton Bustamante. 2020. Begonia caramoanensis (sect. Baryandra, Begoniaceae) A New Species from Camarines Sur, Philippines. Phytotaxa. 439(3); 287–294. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.439.3.10 


Wednesday, April 29, 2020

[Diplopoda • 2020] The Millipedes Collected by the Museum "La Specola" on Madagascar 1989/1991, with the Description of Three New Species of Giant Pill-millipedes (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Arthrosphaeridae)

Distribution map of the three new Zoosphaerium species and the morphologically related species.
Photograph shows the holotype of Zoosphaerium mangabe Wesener sp. nov., male.

in Wesener & Anilkumar, 2020. 

A large collection of millipedes (Diplopoda) from Madagascar, belonging to the Museum “La Specola” in Florence, Italy were investigated. The collection includes three new species of the giant pill-millipede genus Zoosphaerium Pocock, 1895 which are described here as Zoosphaerium mangabe Wesener, sp. nov., Z. bartolozzii Anilkumar & Wesener, sp. nov., and Z. taitii Anilkumar & Wesener, sp. nov., all belonging to the Z. coquerelianum species group. The latter two are currently only known from a single site. Other specimens belonging to eight orders (Polyxenida, Sphaerotheriida, Polyzoniida, Siphonophorida, Chordeumatida, Polydesmida, Spirobolida, and Spirostreptida) are listed. Three tropical tramp species, Pseudospirobolellus avernus (Butler, 1876), Glyphiulus granulatus Gervais, 1847, and Chondromorpha xanthotricha (Attems, 1898) are recorded for the first time from Madagascar. New locality data is provided for Zoosphaerium neptunus (Butler, 1872), Z. villosum Wesener & Sierwald, 2005, Z. blandum (de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897), Sphaeromimus musicus (de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897), Rhinotus purpureus (Pocock, 1894), Hylekobolus andasibensis Wesener, 2009, Aphistogoniulus infernalis Wesener, 2009, Ostinobolus rufus Wesener, 2009, Ostinobolus subterraneus Wesener, 2009, Dactylobolus bivirgatus (Karsch, 1881), and Eumekius antimena (de Saussure & Zehntner, 1901).

Keywords: Biodiversity, COI, introduced species, Madagascar, museum collection

Figure 1. Maximum likelihood tree inferred from the COI dataset with 1000 bootstrap pseudoreplicates implementing the GTR+I+G model. Colors used to separate species. The circle indicates weakly supported sister-group relationships.

Figure 2. Distribution map of the three new Zoosphaerium species and the morphologically related species. Photograph shows the holotype of Zoosphaerium mangabe sp. nov., male.

Genus Zoosphaerium Pocock, 1895

Zoosphaerium mangabe Wesener, sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Zoosphaerium mangabe sp. nov. shares the large body size, surface structure (like the peel of an orange), presence of only one stridulation rib on the male harp, and > 10 apical cones on the antenna only with Z. coquerelianum (de Saussure & Zehntner, 1897) and Z. tainkintana Wesener, 2009. Zoosphaerium mangabe sp. nov. differs from Z. coquerelianum in the long second locking carina on the anal shield (> times longer than the first), the hairy anal shield, and the presence of sclerotized teeth on the anterior telopods. The former differs from Z. tainkintana in the much shorter marginal bristles of the endotergum (reaching only 1/3 of the distance towards margin), the female operculum (two widely separated tips vs. fused tips), and in structures of the anterior telopod (e.g., three or four large teeth in Z. mangabe sp. nov. but seven in Z. tainkintana).

Etymology: The word mangabe is a noun in apposition, after the type locality of the species, the island of Nosy Mangabe at the NE coast of Madagascar.

Zoosphaerium bartolozzii Anilkumar & Wesener, sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Zoosphaerium bartolozzii sp. nov. is most similar to Z. tigrioculatum due to the presence of three sclerotized crenulated teeth on the podomere three of the anterior telopod, and also in the visibility of the process of the 2nd podomere in anterior view (Figs 6D, 7G). Zoosphaerium bartolozzii sp. nov. differs from Z. tigrioculatum in the presence of a single row cuticular impression on the endotergum (two rows in the latter), the absence of sensilla basiconica on antennomeres one and two, and the presence of a well-rounded anal shield which is slightly bell-shaped in Z. tigrioculatum.

Etymology: Adjective, the species is named after the Italian beetle expert Dr. Luca Bartolozzi who collected this species. 

Zoosphaerium taitii Anilkumar & Wesener, sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Zoosphaerium taitii sp. nov. is mostly similar to Z. isalo, both differing from all other species in the anterior telopod where sclerotized teeth are absent on the third podomere. Zoosphaerium taitii sp. nov. differs from Z. isalo in the shorter marginal bristles of the endotergum (protruding above the tergite margin in Z. isalo), the higher number of ventral spines on leg 2 (four or five versus six or seven) and the slightly differently shaped anal shield (tapering in Z. isalo, well-rounded in Z. taitii sp. nov.).

Etymology: Adjective, the species is named after the land isopod expert Dr. Stefano Taiti who collected this species.

 Thomas Wesener and Pooja Avinipully Anilkumar. 2020. The Millipedes Collected by the Museum "La Specola" on Madagascar 1989/1991, with the Description of Three New Species of Giant Pill-millipedes (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Arthrosphaeridae).  In: Korsós Z, Dányi L (Eds) Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Myriapodology, Budapest, Hungary. ZooKeys. 930: 3-35. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.930.47620

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

[Herpetology • 2020] Sinomicrurus peinani • A New Species of the Genus Sinomicrurus (Serpentes: Elapidae) from China and Vietnam

Sinomicrurus peinani
Liu, Yan, Hou, Wang, Nguyen, Murphy, Che & Guo, 2020

 Guangxi Coral Snake | 广西华珊瑚蛇 || 

A new species of Sinomicrurus Slowinski, Boundy, and Lawson, 2001 is described herein based on a series of specimens. The new species, Sinomicrurus peinani sp. nov., occurs in southern China and northern Vietnam. Sinomicrurus peinani sp. nov. is distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters: (1) 30–35 black cross-bands on body and tail; (2) 13 dorsal scale rows throughout, all smooth; (3) white belly with black cross-bands or irregular spots; (4) broad white transverse bar on top of head with inverted V-shaped anterior margin, white bar wider than anterior black bar; and (5) frontal V-like, 1.3 times as long as wide. In addition, new occurrences of S. houi in Guangxi, China, and Vietnam are discussed.

Sinomicrurus peinani sp. nov.:
General view of holotype (YBU 16086) in life and habitat of new species.

Sinomicrurus peinani sp. nov.: Dorsal and ventral views of holotype (YBU 16086) in preservative. 

Sinomicrurus peinani sp. nov.

Diagnosis: All examined specimens possessed a small to medium-sized body, varying from 368 mm to 620 mm, as well as: (1) 30–35 black cross-bands on body and tail; (2) 13 dorsal scale rows throughout, all smooth; (3) white belly with black speckles or bands; (4) broad white transverse bar on top of head with inverted V-shaped anterior margin, white bar wider than anterior black bar; and (5) frontal V-like, 1.3 times as long as wide.

Sinomicrurus peinani sp. nov.D: Dorsal, ventral, and lateral views of head of holotype (YBU 16086) in preservative.
E: Dorsal, ventral, and lateral views of head and ventral view of belly of Sinomicrurus macclellandi (YBU 14127) from Sichuan Province, China.

Bayesian 50% majority-rule consensus tree inferred from COI. Posterior probabilities and bootstrap support values for clades are shown adjacent to nodes to which they refer. 

Ecological notes: The specimens were found in meadowland in bamboo forest (Figure 1A). An individual of Achalinus sp. was found in the stomach of Sinomicrurus peinani sp. nov. No data on diet or reproduction are available.

Etymology: The species is named after Professor Pei-Nan Yu, a distinguished doctor in China, in recognition of his great contribution to the treatment of snakebite. 
We suggest the following common names for this species: “广西华珊瑚蛇” (Chinese) and Guangxi Coral Snake (English).

Distribution: This species is currently known from China (Cangwu, Guangxi) and Vietnam (Cao Bằng and Vinh Phuc). The speciemens from Vietnam were unavailable for examination, but molecular phylogeney indicated that they should be conspecific with those from Cangwu, Guangxi, China (Supplementary Appendix S3).

Qin Liu, Jiao-Wen Yan, Shao-Bing Hou, Ping Wang, Sang Ngoc Nguyen, Robert W. Murphy, Jing Che and Peng Guo. 2020. A New Species of the Genus Sinomicrurus (Serpentes: Elapidae) from China and Vietnam. Zoological Research. 41(2); 194-198. DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2020.023

[Invertebrate • 2020] Euchonoides moeone • An Abundant New Genus and Species of Fan Worms (Polychaeta: Sabellidae) from Hawaii

Euchonoides moeone
Magalhães, Bailey-Brock & Tovar-Hernández, 2020

A new genus and species of Hawaiian sabellid polychaete, Euchonoides moeone n. gen. et n. sp. is described. This new species has consistently been one of the most abundant polychaetes collected in Mamala Bay, Hawaii, reaching densities of 141,046 ind. m-2 and representing up to 30.6% of all polychaetes collected in that region. The species has a small body (~2 mm length) with a reduced number of abdominal chaetigers (8–10), and is distinguished by the presence of the following features: 1) three pairs of radioles; 2) radiolar skeleton with two longitudinal rows of cells from radiole base to third proximal pair of pinnules, remainder of each radiole skeleton with single rows of cells; 3) pinnules unpaired, alternating (snowflake arrangement); 4) thoracic uncini acicular with a large tooth above the main fang followed by a series of small ones; 5) thoracic chaetiger 3 enlarged; 6) a wide belt on third abdominal chaetiger; and 7) a pre-pygidial depression composed of three chaetigers, with lateral wings, among a combination of several others features. Histological sections have shown that the abdominal belt seems to be a clitellum-like structure where oogenesis takes place. The new genus is compared with other plesiomorphic genera sharing similar morphological features. Patterns of abundance of the new species are presented for the past 27 years in Mamala Bay.

Keywords: Polychaeta, Euchonoides, Euchone, clitellum-like segment, histology, sewage outfall, abundance

Figure 1. Euchonoides moeone n. sp. 
A, complete paratype, lateral view; B, complete paratype, ventral view; C, detail of patch of cilia (pc) on posterior peristomial ring collar and glandular ridge (gr) on chaetiger 2; D, dissected radiolar crown with arrows showing elongate dorsal lips and ventral radiolar appendages; E, inferior, thoracic, short, broadly hooded chaetae; F, inferior, thoracic bayonet chaeta; G, thoracic acicular uncini; H, anterior abdominal uncinus; I, posterior abdominal uncini, frontal and lateral view, respectively; J, posterior end showing pre-pygidial segments and pygidium, ventral view; K, posterior end, dorsal view.
Abbreviations: ar, abdominal ridge; ch, chaetiger; es, eyespots; fg, faecal groove; gr, glandular ridge; pc, patch of cilia; pyg, pygidium; pre-pyg, pre-pygidial chaetigers. 
Pinnules in A–B may be confused with radioles, there are only three pairs or radioles.

Figure 2. Euchonoides moeone n. sp.
 A, anterior end, ventral view, stained with methyl green; B, posterior end, dorso-lateral view, stained with Methyl Green; C, peristomium in ventral view showing brownish eyespots; D, dissected radiolar crown stained with Shirlastain A. 
Abbreviations: ar, abdominal ridge; ch, chaetiger; dl, dorsal lip; pyg, pygidium; R, radiole; vra, ventral radiolar appendage

Family Sabellidae Latreille, 1825

Euchonoides n. gen. 

Diagnosis. Body short with a reduced number of abdominal chaetigers (8–10). Three pairs of radioles. Radiolar skeleton present in branchial lobes, radioles and pinnules. Each radiolar skeleton with two longitudinal rows of cells from radiole base to third proximal pair of pinnules, remainder of each radiole and all pinnular skeletons with single rows of cells. Pinnules unpaired, alternating (snowflake arrangement). Basal membrane absent; radiolar flanges absent; radiolar eyes absent. Dorsal lips without radiolar appendage. Ventral lips absent. Dorsal pinnular appendages absent. Ventral pinnular appendages present. Parallel lamellae absent. Ventral sacs absent. Radiolar lobes fused along dorsal midline; without dorsal or ventral basal flanges. Anterior peristomial ring distinctive, but no visible annulation between anterior and posterior peristomial ring. Peristomial eyes present. Peristomial vascular loops absent. Posterior peristomial ring collar incised ventrally; separated dorsally by distinct gap. Collar chaetae fascicles protruding from a short lobe, narrowly hooded chaetae. Glandular ridge on thoracic chaetiger 2 present. Superior thoracic notochaetae elongate, narrowly hooded. Inferior thoracic notochaetae includes bayonet and broadly hooded chaetae. Thoracic neuropodial uncini acicular, handles long, hoods absent, a large tooth above the main fang followed by a series of small ones. Companion chaetae absent. Thoracic chaetiger 3 always enlarged (2–3 times longer than wide). Ventral thoracic shields not differentiated. Neuropodial abdominal fascicles with elongate, narrowly hooded chaetae. Anterior abdominal uncini with square breasts, handle absent, and rasp-shaped dentition. Belt (clitellum-like) on third abdominal chaetiger present. Pre-pygidial depression composed by three chaetigers, with lateral wings. Uncini from pre-pygidial depression similar to those from anterior abdomen. Pygidium without anal cirrus. Pygidial eyes absent. 

Etymology. The genus name is a free combination of Euchone and the Latin sufix -oides, in relation to the similarities between the new genus with the genus Euchone.

Euchonoides moeone n. sp. 

Etymology. The new species epithet derives from the Hawaiian language and the implied meaning of moeone in Hawaiian is ‘small worm that hides in the sand’. 

Distribution. The type locality is Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii at the vicinity of Barbers Point sewage outfall at 70 m. This species has also been collected at Ala Wai Canal, Kailua Bay, and Waianae on Oahu from shallow subtidal to up to 100 m in fine and medium sand.

Figure 3. SEM of Euchonoides moeone n. sp. A, complete specimen in lateral view, inset showing glandular belt on third abdominal chaetiger; B, radiolar crown; C, anterior peristomial ring and posterior peristomial ring collar in dorsal view; D, posterior peristomial ring collar in ventro-lateral view; E, posterior end with pygidium, ventro-lateral view.

Figure 5. Longitudinal, histological sections of  Euchonoides moeone n. sp. 
A, body, regenerating thorax; B, base of radiolar crown and collar, lateral view; C, same, frontal view; D, pre-pygidial depression and pygidium; E–F, belt on third abdominal chaetiger, G, sexual abdominal segments; H, J, details of glandular epithelium of belt of third abdominal chaetiger; I, detail of a mature oocyte and follicle cells. In A–B, D and I, the section plane is shown, where A refers to the anterior region, P to the posterior region, d dorsal zone and v ventral zone. Black arrows in A, E–G, I–J points to glandular belt on third abdominal chaetiger.
Abbreviations: A1: abdominal chaetiger 1, A2: abdominal chaetiger 2, A3: abdominal chaetiger 3.

 Wagner F. Magalhães, Julie H. Bailey-Brock and María Ana Tovar-Hernández. 2020. An Abundant New Genus and Species of Fan Worms (Polychaeta: Sabellidae) from Hawaii. Zootaxa. 4763(1); 85–98. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4763.1.7