Tuesday, June 30, 2020

[Entomology • 2020] Toleria vietnamica • A New Species of the Genus Toleria Walker, 1865 [“1864”] (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) from Vietnam, with A Catalogue of Asian Cissuvorini

Toleria vietnamica
Gorbunov & Arita, 2020

A new clearwing moth species, Toleria vietnamica sp. nov. from Ba Bể National Park, Bẳc Kan Province, North Vietnam is described and illustrated. An annotated catalogue of Asian members of the tribe Cissuvorini is added to this paper. The catalogue contains the following information: the references to the original descriptions, information on name-bearing types, complete bibliographies of the presented taxa, distribution and available data on host plants. The type series of the new species is deposited in the collection of National Museum of Nature and Science, Tsukuba (formerly Natural Science Museum Tokyo).

Keywords: Lepidoptera, clearwing moths, distribution, host plant, systematic, taxonomy

Female (holotype) of Toleria vietnamica sp. nov.
 upside. Sesiidae picture № 0159–2018. Alar expanse 29.0 mm

Toleria vietnamica sp. nov.

Etymology. This new species is named after Vietnam, the terra typica.

Oleg G. Gorbunov and Yutaka Arita. 2020. A New Species of the Genus Toleria Walker, 1865 [“1864”] from Vietnam, with A Catalogue of Asian Cissuvorini (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae). Zootaxa. 4802(2); 349–360. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4802.2.8

[Crustacea • 2020] Richerius marqueti • A New Freshwater Crab of the Family Hymenosomatidae MacLeay, 1838 (Decapoda, Brachyura) and An Updated Review of the Hymenosomatid Fauna of New Caledonia

Richerius marqueti 
Guinot & Mazancourt, 2020

A new genus and species, Richerius marqueti gen. et sp. nov., of a crab of the family Hymenosomatidae MacLeay, 1838 are described from the inland waters of New Caledonia based on several specimens collected in two streams at altitudes of 180 m and 500 m, respectively. Richerius marqueti gen. et sp. nov. was compared to the other freshwater species known in New Caledonia, Odiomaris pilosus (A. Milne-Edwards, 1873), and to species of Amarinus Lucas, 1980, a genus comprising many freshwater species in New Zealand, Australia, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Papua New Guinea, but never recorded in New Caledonia. The barcode fragment of the COI mitochondrial gene was sequenced for seven specimens of R. marqueti gen. et sp. nov., and all sequences were deposited in GenBank. A brief and updated review of the New Caledonian marine and freshwater hymenosmatid fauna is provided.

Keywords: Richerius marqueti; new genus; new species; New Caledonia; COI

Fig. 5. Richerius marqueti gen. et sp. nov., holotype, ♂, New Caledonia, South Province, Pouéo River, tributary of the Néra, Bouïrou village, Bourail township, 180 m a.s.l., Valentin de Mazancourt and Gérard Marquet leg., 28 Sep. 2016, 4.9 × 5.0 mm (MNHN-IU-2014-21500).
A. Type locality, stream where several specimens of the species were collected. B–D. Views of the holotype in vivo: dorsal (B), ventral (C) and frontal (D).

Infraorder Brachyura Latreille, 1802
Subsection Heterotremata Guinot, 1977

Superfamily Hymenosomatoidea MacLeay, 1838
Family Hymenosomatidae MacLeay, 1838
Subfamily Odiomarinae Guinot, 2011

Genus Richerius gen. nov.

Diagnosis: Carapace circular to oval, width only slightly exceeding length; dorsal carapace surface not strongly outlined by grooves; only gastrocardiac and thoracic grooves well defi ned, not reaching antero- and posterolateral margins; carapace rim continuous across behind rostrum. Rostrum broadly rounded, spade-shaped, slightly defl exed but not ending in narrow triangular tip extending between antennules. Proepistome represented by ventral expansion of rostrum (and not rostrum itself). Antennules obliquely folded along hollowed ventral parts of rostrum, entirely hidden dorsally. Antennae well separated from antennules, at least at their bases; urinary article at level of moderately developed epistome. Proepistome represented by ventral expansion of rostrum (and not rostrum itself). Lower orbital margin with one conspicuous knob, not visible dorsally. Mxp3 gaping at level of ischion/merus junction; merus and ischium broad, short, about subequal.


Etymology: The genus name is in honour of Bertrand Richer de Forges for his lifetime commitment to carcinology, especially of New Caledonia, for having always been an excellent and untiring researcher, and for his friendship. 

Richerius marqueti gen. et sp. nov.

Etymology: The species name is in honour of Gérard Marquet, who made extensive collections of freshwater crustaceans for more than 30 years in the Indo-Pacific islands and in particular in New Caledonia where he collected the new species here described, for his friendship and his constant enthusiasm in the field as well as in the laboratory.

Danièle Guinot and Valentin de Mazancourt. 2020. A New Freshwater Crab of the Family Hymenosomatidae MacLeay, 1838 (Crustacea, Decapoda, Brachyura) and An Updated Review of the Hymenosomatid Fauna of New Caledonia. European Journal of Taxonomy. 671; 1-29. DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2020.671

[Crustacea • 2020] Lacunicambarus mobilensis & L. freudensteini • Two New Species of Burrowing Crayfish in the Genus Lacunicambarus (Decapoda: Cambaridae) from Alabama and Mississippi

 Lacunicambarus mobilensis 
Glon, Adams, Loughman, Myers, Taylor & Schuster. 2020

While sampling for the Rusty Gravedigger, Lacunicambarus miltus, Taylor et al. (2011) found one or more potentially undescribed burrowing crayfish species in the genus Lacunicambarus inhabiting the area between the Pascagoula River and Mobile Bay in southern Alabama and Mississippi. Molecular analyses by Glon et al. (2018) confirmed that samples from this area were genetically distinct from other Lacunicambarus crayfishes. These findings prompted a dedicated sampling trip in January 2020. We used morphological and molecular analyses to investigate the specimens we collected and, based on our results, we describe two new crayfish species: the Lonesome Gravedigger, L. mobilensis sp. nov. and the Banded Mudbug, L. freudensteini sp. nov. Lacunicambarus mobilensis sp. nov. is sister to the Rusty Gravedigger, L. miltus, while L. freudensteini sp. nov. is sister to the Painted Devil Crayfish, L. ludovicianus. Both new species are currently known from a small number of sites in southern Alabama and Mississippi and may require conservation attention. In addition, we provide an updated key to Lacunicambarus crayfishes that includes these new species.

Keywords: Crustacea, miltus, ludovicianus, mobilensis, freudensteini, painted, devil, crayfish, rusty, lonesome, gravedigger, banded, mudbug, taxonomy, systematics

Lacunicambarus mobilensis sp. nov. 

Mael G. Glon, Susan B. Adams, Zachary J. Loughman, Greg A. Myers, Christopher A. Taylor and Guenter A. Schuster. 2020. Two New Species of Burrowing Crayfish in the Genus Lacunicambarus (Decapoda: Cambaridae) from Alabama and Mississippi. Zootaxa. 4802(3); 401–439. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4802.3.1

Researchers Discover Two New Crayfish Species in Alabama and Mississippi

Monday, June 29, 2020

[Herpetology • 2020] Liolaemus qalaywa • An Endemic New Species of Andean Lizard of the Genus Liolaemus(Iguania: Liolaemidae) from southern Peru and Its Phylogenetic Position

Liolaemus qalaywa
Chaparro, Quiroz, Mamani, Gutiérrez, Condori, Riva, Herrera-Juárez, Cerdeña, Arapa & Abdala, 2020

 Amphibian & Reptile Conservation. 14(2)

Integrative evidence of several external morphological characters and molecular phylogenetic analyses of mitochondrial DNA (12S, cyt-b) are used to place a new species of Andean lizard of the genus Liolaemus (Iguania: Liolaemidae) in the Liolaemus montanus group and as sister group of the clade formed by L. signifer. The new species is characterized by a unique combination of morphometric characteristics, scalation, and color pattern. The L. montanus group now contains seventeen species in southern Peru, distributed along the eastern and western slopes of the Andes. 

Keywords: Andes, Apurimac, Eulaemus, Puna, reptile, systematics, taxonomy

Liolaemus qalaywa sp. nov. 

Diagnosis. We assign L. qalaywa sp. nov. to the L. montanus group because it presents a blade-like process on the tibia, associated with the hypertrophy of the tibial muscle tibialis anterior (Abdala et al. 2019b; Etheridge 1995) and based on molecular phylogeny (Fig. 1). The species of the L. montanus group differ from those of the L. boulengeri group by the complete absence of patches of enlarged scales in the posterior part of the thigh (Abdala 2007). Compared to the species of the L. montanus group, L. qalaywa sp. nov. is a robust lizard differing by its larger size (max SVL = 96.06 mm) from L. andinus, L. audituvelatus, L. balagueri, L. cazianiae, L. chiribaya, L. duellmani, L. eleodori, L. erguetae, L. erroneus, L. etheridgei, L. evaristoi, L. fabiani, L. famatinae, L. fttkaui, L. foxi, L. gracielae

Etymology. The specifc epithet Qalaywa, refers to the Quechua word for the Liolaemus lizards from the high Peruvian Andes. 

Juan C. Chaparro, Aarón J. Quiroz, Luis Mamani, Roberto C. Gutiérrez, Peter Condori, Ignacio De la Riva, Gabriela Herrera-Juárez, José Cerdeña, Luis P. Arapa and Cristian S. Abdala. 2020. An Endemic New Species of Andean Lizard of the Genus Liolaemus from southern Peru (Iguania: Liolaemidae) and Its Phylogenetic Position. Amphibian & Reptile Conservation. 14(2); 47–63.  

 Resumen.— Utilizamos evidencia integradora de varios caracteres morfológicos externos y análisis flogenéticos moleculares de ADN mitocondrial (12S, cyt-b) que ubican una nueva especie del género Liolaemus (Iguania: Liolaemidae) en el grupo de Liolaemus montanus y como grupo hermano del clado formado por L. signifer. La nueva especie se caracteriza por una combinación única de patrón morfométrico, escamación y color. El grupo montanus del género Liolaemus en Perú contiene diecisiete especies, distribuidas a lo largo de la vertiente oriental y occidental de los Andes en el sur del país. 
Palabras clave. Andes, Apurímac, Eulaemus, Puna, reptiles, sistemática, taxonomía

[Crustacea • 2020] New Records of Decapod Crustaceans (Malacostraca: Decapoda) from Kuwait

Polyonyx obesulus Miers, 1884

in Al-Kandari, Anker, Hussain, et al., 2020. 

Seventeen species of shrimp-like decapod crustaceans (infraorders Caridea, Axiidea and Gebiidea) and two species of porcelain crabs (infraorder Anomura) are recorded for the first time from Kuwait, some of them also representing new records for the Arabian Gulf. The new records from Kuwait are: (1) Alpheus edamensis De Man, 1888; (2) Alpheus edwardsii (Audouin, 1826); (3) Alpheus macrodactylus Ortmann, 1890; (4) Alpheus maindroni Coutière, 1898; (5) Arete indicus Coutière, 1903; (6) Athanas parvus De Man, 1910; (7) Synalpheus gracilirostris De Man, 1910 [all Alpheidae]; (8) Latreutes mucronatus (Stimpson, 1860) [Hippolytidae]; (9) Thor paschalis (Heller, 1862) [Thoridae] (10) Periclimenella pettithouarsii (Audouin, 1826); (11) Anchistus custos (Forskål, 1775); (12) Urocaridella pulchella Yokes & Galil, 2006 [all Palaemonidae]; (13) Chlorocurtis jactans (Nobili, 1904) [Chlorotocellidae]; (14) Upogebia carinicauda (Stimpson, 1860); (15) Upogebia octoceras Nobili, 1904 [Upogebiidae]; (16) Balsscallichirus masoomi (Tirmizi, 1970), (17) Michaelcallianassa indica Sakai, 2002 [Callianassidae]; (18) Raphidopus persicus Ng, Safaie & Naser, 2012 and Polyonyx obesulus Miers, 1884 [Porcellanidae]. Most of these taxa have been previously recorded from other parts of the Arabian Gulf, mainly from the coasts of Iran and the United Arab Emirates, except for A. maindroni and U. pulchella, which are recorded from the Arabian Gulf for the first time. Most species are shown in colour photographs, some for the first time. In addition, the presence of Synalpheus quinquedens Tattersall, 1921 (Alpheidae), previously known from Kuwait based only on a questionable record in a popular field guide, is confirmed based on a single collected and preserved specimen.

Keywords: Crustacea, Caridea, Gebiidea, Axiidea, Porcellanidae, shrimp, ghost shrimp, mud shrimp, porcelain crab, new records, Kuwait, Arabian Gulf, Indian Ocean

Polyonyx obesulus Miers, 1884 (MNHN-IU-2019-3186):
male from Failaka Island, Kuwait, with partly opened host sponge.

Photograph by A. Anker. 

Manal Al-Kandari, Arthur Anker, Sumaiah Hussain, Zainab Sattari and Sammy De Grave. 2020. New Records of Decapod Crustaceans from Kuwait (Malacostraca: Decapoda). Zootaxa. 4803(2); 251–280. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4803.2.2

[Entomology • 2020] An Enigma No More: An Integrated Taxonomic Revision of Aenigmetopia Malloch (Diptera: Sarcophagidae: Miltogramminae) reveals Novel Phylogenetic Placement and Four New Species

Aenigmetopia sp.
Johnston, Wallman, Szpila & Pape, 2020.

Aenigmetopia Malloch is the only endemic genus of miltogrammine flesh flies (Diptera : Sarcophagidae) in Australia and, until now it has been known from a single species, A. fergusoni Malloch. This study constitutes the first comprehensive taxonomic revision of Aenigmetopia. Four new species, Aenigmetopia amissa, sp. nov., A. corona, sp. nov., A. kryptos, sp. nov. and A. pagoni, sp. nov., are described through the integration of molecular and morphological data and characters for genus- and species-level diagnoses are given. Aenigmetopia is included in a molecular phylogenetic analysis for the first time and the genus emerges as the sister taxon to Metopia Meigen, in agreement with morphological evidence.

Keywords: DNA barcoding, flesh flies, phylogenetics.

Nikolas P. Johnston, James F. Wallman, Krzysztof Szpila and Thomas Pape. 2020. An Enigma No More: An Integrated Taxonomic Revision of Aenigmetopia Malloch reveals Novel Phylogenetic Placement and Four New Species (Diptera : Sarcophagidae : Miltogramminae). Invertebrate Systematics. 34(5); 519-534. DOI: 10.1071/IS19051  

Saturday, June 27, 2020

[Herpetology • 2020] Sphenomorphus phuquocensis • A New Species of Sphenomorphus (Squamata: Scincidae) from Phu Quoc Island, Vietnam with A Discussion of Biogeography and Character State Evolution in the S. stellatus group

Sphenomorphus phuquocensis
Grismer, Nazarov, Bobrov & Poyarkov, 2020

Phu Quoc Island Forest Skink  | Thằn lằn Phê-nô Phú Quốc ||  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4801.3.3 

An integrative taxonomic analysis of the Sphenomorphus stellatus group recovered a newly discovered museum specimen from Phu Quoc Island, Kien Giang Province, Vietnam as a new species most closely related to S. preylangensis from Phnom Chi in central Cambodia, approximately 175 km to the northeast. Most notably, Sphenomorphus phuquocensis sp. nov. lacks the derived condition of having black dorsal stripes that diagnose S. annamiticus—the sister species to S. preylangensis plus S. phuquocensis sp. nov. A BioGeoBEARS analysis recovered the ancestor of the S. stellatus group to likely have ranged across forested regions on an exposed Sunda Shelf from southwestern Indochina to Peninsular Malaysia prior to diverging into northern and southern lineages separated by the Gulf of Thailand. Episodic fluctuations in sea levels and concomitant changes in the physiography of the Mekong Delta contributed to the fragmented distribution within and between species of the northern lineage. Sphenomorphus phuquocensis sp. nov. represents the second species of reptile endemic to Phu Quoc Island.

Keywords: Reptilia, Phylogenetic systematics, Indochina, Cambodia, Kien Giang Biosphere Reserve

FIGURE 1. Known distribution and localities for Sphenomorphus annamiticus, S. praesignis, S. phuquocensis sp. nov., S. preylangensis, and S. stellatus. Stars represent type localities.
Peninsular Malaysia: 1 = Bukit Larut, Perak; 2 = Cameron Highlands, Pahang; 3 = Fraser’s Hill, Pahang; 4 = Genting Highlands, Pahang; 5 = Gunung Tahan, Pahang; 6 = Gunung Lawit, Terengganu; 7 = Gunung Tebu, Terengganu. Thailand: 8 = Khao Wang Hip, Nakon Si Thammarat Province; 9 = Khao Soi Dao Wildlife Sanctuary, Chantaburi Province; 24 = Phu Wiang, Khon Kean Province. Cambodia: 10 = Chum Noab, Koh Kong Province; 11 = Bokor National Park, Kampot Province; 21 = Phnom Chi, Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary, Kampong Thom Province. Vietnam: 12 = Ma Da, Dong Nai Province; 13 = Cat Tien, Dong Nai Province; Dalat, Annam, Lam Dong Province; 15 = Thac Nham, Kon Tum Province; 16 = Buon Luoi Village, Gia Lai Province; 17 = Tram Lap Village, Gia Lai Province; 18–20 = Mang Canh Village and vicinity, Kon Tum Province; 22 = Phuc-Son, Annam (now Phuoc Son District, Quang Nam Province); 23 = K Bang, Gia Lai Province; 25 = Phu Quoc Island, Kien Giang Province.

FIGURE 2. Head scale nomenclature and their positional relationship and size illustrated by the adult female Sphenomorphus phuquocensis sp. nov. ZMMU R-11518 (SVL = 60.8 mm) from the type locality of Phu Quoc National Park, Vietnam. A) dorsal view and B) right lateral view.
Terminology is adapted from Taylor (1935). AL = anterior loreal, Cs = chinshield; F = frontal, Fn = frontonasal, Fp = frontoparietal, IL = infralabial, Ip = interparietal, M = mental, N = nasal, Nu = nuchal, P = parietal, Pf = prefrontal, PL = posterior loreal, Pm = postmental, Pr = preocular, Prs = presubocular, PT = primary temporal, Psl = postsupralabial, R = rostral, Sl = supralabial, So = supraocular, ST = secondary temporal, TT = tertiary temporal, UPT = upper pretemporal, LPT = lower pretemporal, * = superciliary and # = postsubocular. Illustration by NAP.

FIGURE 5. Holotype of Sphenomorphus phuquocensis sp. nov. (ZMMU R-11518) from Phu Quoc Island, Kien Giang Province, Vietnam.

Sphenomorphus phuquocensis sp. nov. 

Distribution. Sphenomorphs phuquocensis sp. nov. is presently known only from a single specimen collected in montane forest of Phu Quoc Island, Kien Giang Province, Vietnam (Fig. 1).

 Etymology. The specific epithet “phuquocensis” is a Latinized toponymic adjective given in reference to the type locality of the new species – Phu Quoc Island, Kien Giang Province, Vietnam. Suggested Common Names: Phu Quoc Island Forest Skink (English); Thằn lằn Phê-nô Phú Quốc (Vietnamese).

FIGURE 3. Maximum clade credibility BEAST tree depicting the relationships of species of the Sphenomorphus stellatus group.

FIGURE 6. A. Sphenomorphus stellatus (LSUHC 13483) from Bukit Larut, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia (photograph by L. L. Grismer).
B. S. preylangensis from Phnom Chi, Preah Vihear Province, Cambodia (photograph by Neang Thy).
C. S. annamiticus (LSUDPC 4854) from Mang Canh Village,Kon Plong districts, Kon Tum Province, Vietnam, Vietnam (photograph by RAN).
D. S. praesignus (LSUDPC 8002) from Gunung Tebu, Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia (photograph by L. L. Grismer).

L. Lee Grismer, Roman A. Nazarov, Vladimir V. Bobrov and Nikolay A. Poyarkov. 2020.  A New Species of Sphenomorphus (Squamata: Scincidae) from Phu Quoc Island, Vietnam with A Discussion of Biogeography and Character State Evolution in the S. stellatus group. Zootaxa. 4801(3); 461–487.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4801.3.3

[Herpetology • 2020] Dryophytes flaviventris • Yellow Sea mediated segregation between North East Asian Dryophytes Species

Dryophytes flaviventris Borzée & Min

in Borzée, Messenger, Chae, ... et Min, 2020.
Yellow-bellied Treefrog  | 노랑배청개구리 | 黄腹雨蛙  ||  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0234299 

While comparatively few amphibian species have been described on the North East Asian mainland in the last decades, several species have been the subject of taxonomical debates in relation to the Yellow sea. Here, we sampled Dryophytes sp. treefrogs from the Republic of Korea, the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea and the People’s Republic of China to clarify the status of this clade around the Yellow sea and determine the impact of sea level change on treefrogs’ phylogenetic relationships. Based on genetics, call properties, adult morphology, tadpole morphology and niche modelling, we determined the segregated status species of D. suweonensis and D. immaculatus. We then proceeded to describe a new treefrog species, D. flaviventris sp. nov., from the central lowlands of the Republic of Korea. The new species is geographically segregated from D. suweonensis by the Chilgap mountain range and known to occur only in the area of Buyeo, Nonsan and Iksan in the Republic of Korea. While the Yellow sea is the principal element to the current isolation of the three clades, the paleorivers of the Yellow sea basin are likely to have been the major factor for the divergences within this clade. We recommend conducting rapid conservation assessments as these species are present on very narrow and declining ranges.

Fig 1. Summary map including ranges, call properties and a phylogenetic tree including the three focal clades of this study: Dryophytes suweonensis and Dryophytes flaviventris sp. nov. and D. immaculatus.
Ranges are drawn based on [Fei, et al., 2012; Borzée et al., 2017; Xie, 2017] and the base layer was created in ArcMap 10.6 (desktop.arcgis.com; ESRI, Redlands, USA). Sampling localities are also included. The waveforms are not bound to axes but are shown to highlight the difference in the number of pulses in the three species. The dark-blue line is the sea shore 21,000 years BP (redrawn from [Li, et al., 2014]) and the dotted lines are paleorivers [Yoo, et al., 2016].

Fig 3. Genetic structures of the Dryophytes immaculatus group. Phylogenetic tree based on ddRAD-seq polymorphic loci, highlighting the divergence of D. immaculatus from the other clades 1.02 mya, and the split between D. suweonensis and D. flaviventris c. 0.97 mya. The estimated divergence time (in mya) is illustrated, together with a 95% confidence interval bar and the posterior probabilities (BEAST2) for each clade.

Fig 10. Dryophytes flaviventris sp. nov.,
holotype (A, B, C), different individuals in life (D) and in amplexus (E).
The pictures of live individuals highlight the yellow coloration based on which the name was selected. The scale bar is for the holotype only.

Dryophytes flaviventris sp. nov. Borzée and Min, 2019

We name this new species Dryophytes flaviventris sp. nov. The specific name “flaviventris” is a masculine noun used in apposition and based on the Latin words “flavus” (yellow) and “ventris”, the genitive singular of venter (belly). The species name refers to the strong yellow marking on males, and the yellow hues on females (Fig 10). We suggest the English vernacular name “Yellow-bellied Treefrog”, the Korean common name 노랑배청개구리and the Chinese common name 黄腹雨蛙.

We recommend D. flaviventris, D. suweonensis and D. immaculatus to be collectively referred as the “Dryophytes immaculatus group” based on the seniority of the species description [Boettger, 1888], in opposition to the D. japonicus group [Hua et al., 2009; Duellman et al., 2016]. To clarify the distinction with the other clades, we recommend the use of “Chinese immaculate treefrog” for D. immaculatus (无斑雨蛙 in Chinese and민무늬청개구리 in Korean) as a way to distinguish with populations of D. japonicus occurring in the country [Fei et al., 2012], and for which taxonomy is yet unresolved [Dufresnes, et al., 2016]. The taxonomy of D. suweonensis is now likely to be stable, 수원청개구리 in Korean and 水原雨蛙 in Chinese.

Amaël Borzée, Kevin R. Messenger, Shinhyeok Chae, Desiree Andersen, Jordy Groffen,Ye Inn Kim, Junghwa An, Siti N. Othman, Kyongsin Ri, Tu Yong Nam, Yoonhyuk Bae, Jin-Long Ren, Jia-Tang Li, Ming-Feng Chuang, Yoonjung Yi, Yucheol Shin, Taejoon Kwon, Yikweon Jang and Mi-Sook Min. 2020. Yellow Sea mediated segregation between North East Asian Dryophytes Species. PLoS ONE. 15(6): e0234299. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0234299

[Entomology • 2020] Ustyurtia zygophyllivora & U. charynica • Ustyurtiidae, A New Family of Urodoidea (Lepidoptera) with Description of A New Genus and Two Species from Kazakhstan, and Discussion on Possible Affinity of Urodoidea to Schreckensteinioidea

Ustyurtia zygophyllivora Kaila, Heikkilä & Nupponen

in Kaila, Nupponen, ... et Heikkilä, 2020.

Ustyurtiidae Kaila, Heikkilä & Nupponen, a new family of Urodoidea is introduced. The family is based on the genus Ustyurtia Kaila, Heikkilä & Nupponen, gen. n. The genus includes the type species U. zygophyllivora Kaila, Heikkilä & Nupponen, sp. n. and U. charynica Kaila, Heikkilä & Nupponen, sp. n., both from Kazakhstan. These two species, in particular the immature stages, have morphological attributes apomorphic of Urodoidea. The close affinity is also supported by DNA data based on several markers. We consider this new family warranted due to its sister group position to the remaining Urodoidea and a number of significant morphological differences in wing venation, male genitalia and the structure of the cocoon, apomorphic for Ustyurtiidae on the basis of an earlier published phylogeny. All other recognized genera of Urodoidea belong to the family Urodidae. The closest relatives and phylogenetic position of Urodoidea are not firmly established, but Urodoidea and Schreckensteinioidea have morphological similarities which, in the light of genetic analyses appear synapomorphic and possibly uniting these groups, rather than homoplasious as assumed earlier. The affinities of these superfamilies are discussed.

Keywords: Ditrysia; phylogenetics; morphology; Zygophyllum; Ustyurtia

Ustyurtia zygophyllivora, a moth species new to science that did not belong to any known Lepidoptera family.

Fig. 6. Adults of Ustyurtia zygophyllivora sp. n. in their natural posture, a. male; b. female.

The caterpillars of Ustyurtia zygophyllivora have distinct warning coloration, an indication of their toxicity.

Ustyurtia zygophyllivora sp. n., a. larva in lateral view, displaying the elongate prolegs; b. larva in dorsal aspect. Explanations of abbreviations: D1–2 = dorsal setae 1 and 2, SD = subdorsal setal group, L1–3 = lateral setae, D2 = dorsal seta 2, A8 = segment 8 of abdomen, L1–2 = lateral setae 1 and 2, V = ventral setal group; c. cocoon and pupal exuvia.

Ustyurtiidae Kaila, Heikkilä & Nupponen fam. n.

 Ustyurtia Kaila, Heikkilä & Nupponen, gen. n.

Type species: Ustyurtia zygophyllivora Kaila, Heikkilä & Nupponen, sp. n.

Diagnosis. Ustyurtia is distinguished from all other urodid genera by the stalked Rs3 and Rs4 and the absence of an accessory cell in the forewing. Male genitalia are distinctive from all other urodid genera by the immobile, basally fused valvae, the long, curved, strongly sclerotized uncus, and the vinculum that is prolonged to form a long and slender saccus. The structure of the cocoon is similarly meshed as in other Urodidae. Yet unlike in others, it is densely filled with silk that forms a stiff layer, and has longitudinal ribs that cephalically separate the cocoon into several lobes during adult eclosion. In addition, the male is distinguished from Urodus Herrich-Schäffer, 1854, Wockia Heinemann, 1870 and Incawockia Heppner, 2010 by the absence of a costal hair-pencil in the hind wing. Spiladarcha Meyrick, 1913 and Anomalomeuta Sohn, 2013 have small black dots of raised scales along the upper side of the forewing veins, which are absent from Ustyurtia. From Geoesthia Sohn, 2014, Anomalomeuta, Incawockia, Spiladarcha, and Wockia it also differs by the absence of a patch of raised scales on the forewing median line. From Anchimacheta Walsingham, 1914 and Glaucotunica Sohn, 2014 Ustyurtia differs by the male genitalia, the absence of a bilobed uncus in the latter being one of the most conspicuous differences.

Etymology. The generic name alludes to the geographical origin of the type species, the Ustyurt plateau in southwestern Kazakhstan.

Fig 7: a–d. Ustyurtia zygophyllivora sp. n., a. male holotype; b. male paratype; c. female paratype; d. ovipositor;
e–f. Ustyurtia charynica, sp. n. male. e. holotype, f. paratype.

Ustyurtia zygophyllivora Kaila, Heikkilä & Nupponen sp. n.

Diagnosis. The adult of U. zygophyllivora is very unlike other members of Urodoidea, in being rather narrow-winged and stout-bodied, and the female with a relatively large abdomen and a conspicuous ovipositor. Rather, its appearance resembles that of species of Brachodidae. The forewing is grey, with a pattern of a brownish grey outwardly angled fascia at the basal ⅓ of the wing, and a fused pair of small spots of the same colour at distal ¾ of wing. The male differs from other urodoids in having strongly capsulated genitalia with the valvae immobile and without strong setae or spines. The female genitalia lack a large dilation at base of the ductus seminalis, typical of most representatives of other urodoid genera. Separation of U. zygophyllivora and U. charynica is explained in the diagnosis of U. charynica. The larva possesses the family synapomorphies of Urodidae listed above, and elaborated below. In outer appearance it is colourful with black ground colour and large, black pinacula that are surrounded with circles, and laterally with a broad, orange longitudinal line. The cocoon is shaped as an upturned boat, mesh-structured, densely filled with silk that forms a stiff layer, and with longitudinal ribs that cephalically separate the cocoon into lobes during adult eclosion.

Distribution. SW Kazakhstan. The species is known only from three sites in a restricted area along shores of a large salt lake located in southern Ustyurt plateau.

Biology. The species inhabits gypsum deserts by shores of a salt lake (Fig. 12). Caterpillars appear in early spring, beginning of April in average year, and pupate no later than early May. The larva feeds on Zygophyllum spp. (Zygophyllaceae), preferring flowers at least in early instars. Zygophyllum turcomanicum Fischer ex Kar. and Z. pinnatum Cham. were verified as hosts in the field. Larvae are most active during the hottest time of the day in the early afternoon; they stay exposed all the time. Pupation takes place in a cream-coloured cocoon attached to a stem or branch of the host. Adult males fly at daylight, from early afternoon to late evening. The moth flies rapidly rather short distances (appr. 10 m) close to the soil surface. Its behavior resembles that of a pyralid moth Ratasa alienalis (Eversmann, 1844). Wings of the female are full-sized, but due to the large abdomen the female is probably capable of flying only very short distances, if at all.
Etymology. The species name refers to its larval host plant, Zygophyllum spp.

Ustyurtia charynica Kaila, Heikkilä & Nupponen sp. n.

Diagnosis. Only the male of Ustyurtia charynica is known. It is distinguished from the male of U. zygophyllivora by the wing pattern, male genitalia and DNA barcodes. The forewings of U. charynica are almost unicolourous dark grey with paler grey peppering with a pair of dark grey spots at ¾ wing length barely visible; these markings as well as a dark, outwards angled fascia at ⅓ wing length, are distinctive in the considerably paler U. zygophyllivora. The base of the uncus is narrower in U. charynica than in U. zygophyllivora. The uncus is also somewhat dorsally directed in U. zygophyllivora, unlike in U. charynica. In dorsal aspect the tegumen is narrower in U. charynica than in U. zygophyllivora. The apex of the ventral margin of the valva is blunter and less tapered in U. charynica than in U. zygophyllivora.

Distribution. SE Kazakhstan, Charyn.

Biology. The specimens were swept in the forenoon at a rocky steppe slope with sparse vegetation. Zygophyllum sp. was present at the collecting site.

Etymology. The species name refers to its geographical origin, the Charyn canyon in southeastern Kazakhstan.

Fig. 12. Host-plant and habitat of Ustyurtia zygophyllivora sp. n.,
a. Zygophyllum pinnatum. b. and c. Gypsum desert of Onere along the southern shore of the salt lake, Ustyurt Nature Reserve, SW Kazakhstan.

The habitat of the Ustyurtia zygophyllivora species is the extremely arid and rugged gypsum desert in Kazakhstan.

The newly described family Ustyurtiidae shares most traits specific to Urodidae (Urodoidea), yet differs in some significant ways from other constituent genera. This, along with its position based on molecular analyses, supports its status as a distinct family of Urodoidea and the sister group relationship between Ustyurtiidae and Urodidae. The only molecular analyses that include both Schreckensteinioidea and Urodoidea give a signal, yet weak, that these superfamilies might be closely related. This view is supported by a number of shared immature characters. However, we deem the current evidence not sufficient to unite these superfamilies, pending on better coverage of immature stages of more urodoid genera or stronger molecular support.

Lauri Kaila, Kari Nupponen, Pavel Yu. Gorbunov, Marko Mutanen and Maria Heikkilä. 2020. Ustyurtiidae, A New Family of Urodoidea with Description of A New Genus and Two Species from Kazakhstan, and Discussion on Possible Affinity of Urodoidea to Schreckensteinioidea (Lepidoptera).  Insect Systematics & Evolution. 51(3); 444–471. DOI:  10.1163/1876312X-00002209
Finnish researchers discover a new moth family bit.ly/2PXeksy via @helsinkiuni @EurekAlert

Friday, June 26, 2020

[PaleoMammalogy • 2020] Mukupirna nambensis • A New Family of Diprotodontian Marsupials from the latest Oligocene of Australia and the Evolution of Wombats, Koalas, and their Relatives (Vombatiformes)

Mukupirna nambensis
 Beck, Louys, Brewer, Archer, Black & Tedford, 2020

Reconstruction by Peter Schouten.

We describe the partial cranium and skeleton of a new diprotodontian marsupial from the late Oligocene (~26–25 Ma) Namba Formation of South Australia. This is one of the oldest Australian marsupial fossils known from an associated skeleton and it reveals previously unsuspected morphological diversity within Vombatiformes, the clade that includes wombats (Vombatidae), koalas (Phascolarctidae) and several extinct families. Several aspects of the skull and teeth of the new taxon, which we refer to a new family, are intermediate between members of the fossil family Wynyardiidae and wombats. Its postcranial skeleton exhibits features associated with scratch-digging, but it is unlikely to have been a true burrower. Body mass estimates based on postcranial dimensions range between 143 and 171 kg, suggesting that it was ~5 times larger than living wombats. Phylogenetic analysis based on 79 craniodental and 20 postcranial characters places the new taxon as sister to vombatids, with which it forms the superfamily Vombatoidea as defined here. It suggests that the highly derived vombatids evolved from wynyardiid-like ancestors, and that scratch-digging adaptations evolved in vombatoids prior to the appearance of the ever-growing (hypselodont) molars that are a characteristic feature of all post-Miocene vombatids. Ancestral state reconstructions on our preferred phylogeny suggest that bunolophodont molars are plesiomorphic for vombatiforms, with full lophodonty (characteristic of diprotodontoids) evolving from a selenodont morphology that was retained by phascolarctids and ilariids, and wynyardiids and vombatoids retaining an intermediate selenolophodont condition. There appear to have been at least six independent acquisitions of very large (>100 kg) body size within Vombatiformes, several having already occurred by the late Oligocene.

Cranium of holotype and only known specimen of Mukupirna nambensis gen. et. sp. nov. (AMNH FM 102646).
(a) Cranium in ventral view, (b) rostral region of right side of cranium in ventromedial view, (c) posterior region of right side of cranium in ventromedial view. I1a, alveolus for first upper incisor; I2a, alveolus for second upper incisor; I3a, alveolus for third upper incisor; C1a, alveolus for upper canine; gf, glenoid fossa; oc, occipital condyle; P3, third upper premolar; pgp, postglenoid process. Scale bar = 5 cm.


Selected postcranial elements of holotype of Mukupirna nambensis gen. et. sp. nov. (AMNH FM 102646).
 (a) ribs, (b) caudal vertebrae, (c) right scapula, (d) left humerus, (e) left ulna, (f) left femur, (g) left tibia, (h) left fibula, (i) phalanges, (j) left carpals and metacarpals, (k) left tarsals and metatarsals. Scale bar = 5 cm.

Systematic palaeontology

Order Diprotodontia Owen, 1866 New Definition 
 Suborder Vombatiformes Woodburne, 1984 New Definition
Infraorder Vombatomorphia Aplin and Archer, 1987 New Definition

Superfamily Vombatoidea Kirsch, 1968 New Definition

Family Mukupirnidae

Included taxa: Mukupirna nambensis new species

Mukupirna nambensis gen. et. sp. nov.

Differential diagnosis: differs from known members of Wynyardiidae in possessing a P3 that lacks a posterolingual cusp (=”hypocone”), less well-developed selenodonty, a less well-developed masseteric process, palatal vacuities entirely enclosed by the palatines, a proportionately longer deltopectoral crest and broader distal end of the humerus (Epicondylar index = 0.4422), a proportionately longer olecranon of the ulna (Index of Fossorial Ability = 0.4223), and a much larger body size (estimated body mass based on postcranial measurements = 143–171 kg); differs from vombatids in lacking bilobate molars (molars are only slightly bilobate in Nimbavombatus, Rhizophascolonus and Warendja, but strongly bilobate in other vombatids); differs from all vombatids except Nimbavombatus in retaining three upper incisors and the upper canine; differs from Nimbavombatus in larger size, more bicuspid P3, and palatal vacuities entirely enclosed by the palatines; differs from vombatids known from postcranial remains in lacking a laterally extensive deltopectoral crest of the humerus; differs from hypselodont vombatids in having closed premolar and molar roots; differs from known members of Thylacoleonidae in retaining only a single upper premolar (P3), with this tooth not as elongate or bladelike, lacking a marked reduction in molar size posteriorly, having a proportionately longer deltopectoral crest and broader distal end of the humerus, and having a proportionately longer olecranon of the ulna; differs from known members of Phascolarctidae in lacking strongly selenodont molars, having a less well-developed masseteric process, a proportionately longer deltopectoral crest and broader distal end of the humerus, and a proportionately longer olecranon of the ulna; differs from known members of Ilariidae in lacking posterobuccal and lingual cusps on P3, in lacking strongly selenodont molars, and in lacking a well-developed masseteric process; differs from known members of Diprotodontidae and Palorchestidae in lacking a molariform P3, molars not strongly bilophodont, in lacking a well-developed masseteric process, and in retaining palatal vacuities. Mukupirna nambensis cannot be compared directly with Marada arcanum (the only known representative of the vombatiform family Maradidae), because Mu. nambensis is only known from the cranium and upper dentition whereas Ma. arcanum is known only from the lower dentition, and it is possible that they represent the same taxon or are closely related (see the supplementary information).

Holotype: AMNH FM 102646 (previously, QMAM 16824), a badly crushed cranium (preserved length = 197 mm; dorsal surface not preserved) with left and right P3-M4, and associated partial postcranial skeleton comprising vertebrae, ribs, left and right scapulae, left humerus, left ulna, left radius, left and right femora, left tibia, left fibula, and parts of the autopodia. The adult dentition is fully erupted, except possibly for M4, which does not appear to be in line with the occlusal surfaces of M1-3 (although this may be the result of post-mortem displacement); the molars are only lightly worn. In the postcranium, most fracturing has occurred at the epiphyseal plates. Collectively this suggests that this individual was probably a late subadult or young adult.

Etymology: The generic name is from the words muku (“bones”) and pirna (“big”) in the Dieri (Diyari) language traditionally spoken in the area around Lake Eyre and refers to the large size of the animal. The species name nambensis is after the Namba Formation in which the only known specimen was found.

Type Locality and Age: Lake Pinpa Site C, Namba Formation, Lake Frome area, South Australia. The Namba Formation has been correlated with the Etadunna Formation, which has been estimated to be 26-24 Ma old (i.e. latest Oligocene) on the basis of isotopic, foraminiferal, magnetostratigraphic and radiometric (Rb-Sr dating of illite) data. More recently, the Etadunna Formation has been proposed to be 26.1-23.6 Ma old based on a best-fit age-model of magnetostratigraphic data. The Pinpa Local Fauna is the oldest of the three distinct faunal units recovered from stratigraphic levels in the Namba Formation, and has been correlated with the oldest faunal zone (Zone A) of the Etadunna Formation, which has been dated as 25.3-24.9 Ma old (chrons 7An and 7Ar) based on magnetostratigraphy25. In summary, available evidence suggests a probable age of between approximately 26 and 25 MYA for the Pinpa Local Fauna.

Robin M. D. Beck, Julien Louys, Philippa Brewer, Michael Archer, Karen H. Black and Richard H. Tedford. 2020. A New Family of Diprotodontian Marsupials from the latest Oligocene of Australia and the Evolution of Wombats, Koalas, and their Relatives (Vombatiformes). Scientific Reports. 10, 9741. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-66425-8