Saturday, February 29, 2020

[Ichthyology • 2020] Cirrhilabrus briangreenei • A New Species of Fairy Wrasse (Teleostei: Labridae: Cirrhilabrus) from Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems of the Verde Island Passage, Philippines

Cirrhilabrus briangreenei
 Tea, Pyle & Rocha, 2020

The new species, Cirrhilabrus briangreenei, is described on the basis of the holotype and six paratypes collected from mesophotic coral ecosystems of the Verde Island Passage, Philippines, between depths of 82 and 110 m. The new species is most closely related to Cirrhilabrus pylei, but it differs primarily in the presence of: more pored scales on the posterior lateral line (7–9 vs. 5–6); a lower number of circumpeduncular scales (14 vs. 16); a lower number of gill rakers (16–17 vs. 18–20); and differences in coloration details of the dorsal and caudal fins. Both species differ from all other congeners in sharing the following combination of characters: pelvic fins very long (56.5–70.0% SL), often extending past anal-fin terminus in males; caudal fin scintillating and iridescent in males; dorsal fin with sinuous scribbling in both sexes; anterior dorsal fin with a metallic blue spot on first one to two interspinous membrane spaces; snout with three parallel stripes from maxilla to anterior edge of orbit; and rest of head with a network of short broken pinstripes in both sexes. These characters are also distributed in part amongst other species of Cirrhilabrus, in particular, C. katoi, C. lineatus, C. rhomboidalis, and C. rubrimarginatus, and their putative relationships are discussed on the basis of meristic, morphometric, and molecular sequence data. We briefly comment on the variability of morphological characters within Cirrhilabrus and their implications towards phylogenetic classification, with remarks on methods for data collection for species of Cirrhilabrus.

Cirrhilabrus briangreenei, new species, aquarium photographs of specimens from Verde Island, Philippines

Cirrhilabrus briangreenei, new species, and Cirrhilabrus pylei in life.
(A, B) Cirrhilabrus briangreenei, new species, aquarium photographs of specimens from Verde Island, Philippines;
(C, D) Cirrhilabrus pylei, aquarium photographs of specimens from Vanuatu. Note the series of parallel stripes on the snout. Specimens not retained.
Photographs by S. K. Tea (A), E. Fleishauer (B), F. Walsh (C), and K. Kohen (D).

A selection of species of Cirrhilabrus in life.
(A) Cirrhilabrus briangreenei, new species, aquarium specimen in nuptial display from Verde Island, Philippines; (B) Cirrhilabrus katoi, aquarium specimen at rest from Cagayan, northern Philippines; (C) Cirrhilabrus pylei, aquarium specimen in nuptial display from Vanuatu; (D) Cirrhilabrus rubrimarginatus, aquarium specimen in nuptial display from Fiji; (E) Cirrhilabrus rhomboidalis, aquarium specimen at rest from the Marshall Islands; (F) Cirrhilabrus lineatus, aquarium specimen at rest from the Coral Sea, Australia. Specimens not retained. Note the similarities in snout and head patterns in these species, and the dorsal- and anal-fin markings for C. rubrimarginatus, C. rhomboidalis, and C. lineatus.
Photographs by H. Tanaka (A), Ameblo, Japan (C), and Y. K. Tea (B, D, E, F).

Freshly euthanized paratypes of Cirrhilabrus briangreenei, new species. 
(A) BPBM 41374 (formerly CAS 238392), 65.7 mm SL, male; (B) CAS 238392, 59.8 mm SL, female; (C) AMS I. 49028-001 (formerly CAS 238389), 58.2 mm SL, male; (D) CAS 238389, 49.6 mm SL, female. Specimens from 95 m, Maricaban Island, Philippines.
Photographs by L. A. Rocha.

Cirrhilabrus briangreenei, new species 
Latigo Fairy Wrasse

Etymology.— We name this species Cirrhilabrus briangreenei in honor of Brian D. Greene, who in addition to collecting the type specimens, has contributed extensively towards the study and exploration of coral-reef diversity (particularly on MCEs) through deep technical diving. To be treated as a noun in apposition. The common name ‘‘latigo’’ is Tagalog for ‘‘whip,’’ given in reference to the long, slender pelvic fins.

Yi-Kai Tea, Richard L. Pyle and Luiz A. Rocha. 2020. A New Species of Fairy Wrasse (Teleostei: Labridae: Cirrhilabrus) from Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems of the Verde Island Passage, Philippines. Copeia. 108(1); 91-102.  DOI: 10.1643/CI-19-297

[Herpetology • 2020] Osteocephalus sangay Description and Phylogenetic Relationships of A New Species of Treefrog of the Osteocephalus buckleyi Species Group (Anura: Hylidae)

Osteocephalus sangay 
Chasiluisa, Caminer, Varela-Jaramillo & Ron, 2020

Sangay casqued Treefrog | Rana de casco del Sangay || DOI: 10.1080/23766808.2020.1729306 

The Osteocephalus buckleyi species group is widely distributed in primary and secondary forests of the Amazon Basin and Guiana Region. Based on integrative analysis, including morphological and genetic data, we estimate the phylogenetic relationships and species boundaries among populations of the Osteocephalus buckleyi group from the Ecuadorian Amazon, focusing on the O. verruciger-O. cannatellai species complex. Our results uncovered the existence of one confirmed candidate species from Sangay National Park and one unconfirmed candidate species. Here, we describe the new species which is morphologically and ecologically distinct from other Osteocephalus species. The new species is unusual because it shows quite distinct morphology, but low genetic distances compared to its closest relatives.

KEYWORDS: Biodiversity, Ecuador, molecular tools, new species, Osteocephalus

Figure 7. Color variation in life of adult specimens of Osteocephalus sangay sp. n. 
A–B QCAZ 58832 (holotype), (SVL = 52.39 mm), adult female; C–D QCAZ 58839, (SVL = 52.82 mm), adult female; E–F QCAZ 58825, (SVL = 48.40 mm), adult female; G–H QCAZ 58840, (SVL = 41.31 mm), adult male.

Osteocephalus sangay sp. n.
Proposed standard English name: Sangay casqued Treefrog. 
Proposed standard Spanish name: Rana de casco del Sangay.

Diagnosis: The diagnosis and comparisons are based on six adult females and two adult males. Coloration corresponds to live individuals. Osteocephalus sangay sp. n. can be diagnosed by the following characters: (1) mean SVL 40.82 mm in males (range 40.32–41.31; n = 2), 49.65 mm in females (range 46.68–52.82; n = 6) (Table 1); (2) skin on dorsum bearing keratinized tubercles in males and scattered tubercles in females; (3) skin on flanks areolate; (4) hand webbing formula varying from I basal II12/3–3+III22/3–21/3IV to I basal II2–31/3III22/3–21/2IV; foot webbing formula varying from I12/3–2−II1+–2III1−–2−IV2−–1−V to I11/2–2+ II1+–21/3III11/3–2+ IV2-–1-V; (5) dorsum light to medium brown with irregular dark brown marks; (6) venter varying from cream to tan with dark brown dots; (7) cream suborbital mark present; irregular black labial stripe; (8) flanks cream with darker reticulations and brown blotches dorsally; (9) dermal roofing bones of the skull weakly exostosed; (10) bones green in life; (11) iris bronze with irregular black reticulations and olive green ring around the pupil; (12) paired lateral vocal sacs, behind jaw articulation; (13) larvae unknown.

Figure 2. Distribution of the Osteocephalus verruciger-O. cannatellai complex (clades A–G). Localities are based on sequenced specimens from Ecuador, Peru and Colombia deposited at Museo de Zoología of Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador QCAZ, Centro de Ornitología y Biodiversidad CORBIDI, and Natural History Museum University of Kansas. Black points refer to locations visited by Rich Haensch [1903], collector of O. verruciger syntypes.

Figure 8. Dorsal and ventral view of species within the Osteocephalus verruciger-O. cannatellai complex.
A–B Osteocephalus sangay sp. n., QCAZ 58825, (SVL = 48.40 mm), adult female;
C–D O. cannatellai, QCAZ 67133, (SVL = 62.24 mm), adult female; E–F O. cf. cannatellai, CORDIBI 10534 (from Cordillera Kampankis, Peru), adult male;
G–H O. cf. verruciger (clade D), QCAZ 58827, (SVL = 62.61 mm), adult female; I–J O. cf. verruciger (clade D), QCAZ 58833, (SVL = 47.50 mm), adult male. 
Photographs by G. Pazmiño, J. C. Sanchez and A. Catenazzi.

Distribution and ecology: Osteocephalus sangay is known from eastern Ecuador, Morona Santiago province, Sangay National Park, at four nearby localities (maximum distance between localities: 3.7 km), and elevations between 1551 and 1795 m above sea level. Osteocephalus sangay occurs sympatrically with O. verruciger at the type locality (Figure 2). This region corresponds to Eastern Montane Forest (based on Ron et al. [2019] classification). Specimens were found at night in primary terra firme forest, perching on vegetation up to 2 m above the ground.

Etymology: The specific epithet sangay refers to the area where the species was discovered: Sangay National Park, in Morona Santiago province. The park has more than 3220 lakes and three volcanoes: Sangay, Tungurahua and Altar. The word sangay originates from the native-American Shuar word “Samkay” that means to scare, in reference to violent explosions of this volcano. Sangay National Park is one of the most amphibian species-rich national parks in the world with a total of 100 species [Ron et al., 2019].

Valeria D. Chasiluisa, Marcel A. Caminer, Andrea Varela-Jaramillo and Santiago R. Ron. 2020. Description and Phylogenetic Relationships of A New Species of Treefrog of the Osteocephalus buckleyi Species Group (Anura: Hylidae). Neotropical Biodiversity. 6(1); 21-36. DOI: 10.1080/23766808.2020.1729306  

[Entomology • 2020] Ten New Species of Parasitoid Wasps Mnioes Townes, 1946 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Banchinae) described from Peru

Mnioes attenboroughi Alvarado. 2020

Mnioes Townes is a predominantly Neotropical genus of the family Ichneumonidae, mainly documented from Central America and, until now, with no described species from South America. In this paper, ten new species are described from Peru: Mnioes attenboroughi sp. nov., M. huk sp. nov., M. iskay sp. nov., M. kinsa sp. nov., M. pisqa sp. nov., M. poncei sp. nov., M. pusaq sp. nov., M. qanchis sp. nov., M. soqta sp. nov., and M. tawa sp. nov. A key to the Peruvian species and maps of their geographical distribution are also presented.

Keywords: Hymenoptera, Ichneumonoidea, taxonomy, parasitoids, wasps, Neotropical

Lateral habitus of Mnioes attenboroughi sp. nov. (paratype): female and male.

Mabel Alvarado. 2020. Ten New Species of Parasitoid Wasps Mnioes Townes, 1946 (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae: Banchinae) described from Peru. Zootaxa. 4743(2); 181–199. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4743.2.3

[Entomology • 2019] Unexpected Diversity of Hyboserica Chafers in South African Forest Remnants: Cladistic Analysis, New Species and the New Genus Leoserica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae)

Hyboserica sebastiani 
Fabrizi, Eberle & Ahrens, 2019

A taxonomic revision of Hyboserica uncovers an unexpected diversity of species from Southern African forest remnants. The work results in the description of a new genus, Leoserica gen. nov., a new combination, a new synonymy and 32 new species are described. The lectotypes of Serica capensis and Triodonta caffra are designated. The habitus and male genitalia of all revised species are illustrated. A species distribution map and an identification key to the species are provided. Phylogenetic analysis reveals a deep split into one very diverse eastern clade that is distributed north to Zimbabwe, and one western clade that is restricted to the fynbos of the Cape Region.

Keywords: beetles, fynbos, morphology, phylogeny, Sericini

Figure 1. Male and female of Hyboserica sebastiani sp. nov. in copulation.

Silvia Fabrizi, Jonas Eberle and Dirk Ahrens. 2019. Unexpected Diversity of Hyboserica Chafers in South African Forest Remnants: Cladistic Analysis, New Species and the New Genus Leoserica (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Melolonthinae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 186(4); 950–982. DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zly095  

Friday, February 28, 2020

[Herpetology • 2020] A Review of the Genus Hemidactylus Goldfuss, 1820 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Angola, with the Description of Two New Species: Hemidactylus nzingae & H. paivae

Hemidactylus nzingae
Ceríaco, Agarwal, Marques & Bauer, 2020

The genus Hemidactylus in Angola is represented by six species, all of them part of taxonomically and nomenclaturally challenging species complexes. We present a detailed taxonomic revision of the group in the region and describe two new species, Hemidactylus nzingae sp. nov. and Hemidactylus paivae sp. nov., both occuring in and potentially endemic to the highlands of Angola. Phylogenetic analysis using a combination of mitochondrial (ND2) and nuclear (MXRA5, PDC, RAG1) markers, as well as morphological and scalation data support the recognition of the new species. In addition, data support the revalidation of Hemidactylus bayonii Bocage, 1893, and Hemidactylus benguellensis Bocage, 1893. We also provide a redefinition of Hemidactylus longicephalus Bocage, 1873 with which we synonymize Hemidactylus mabouia molleri Bedriaga, 1892, from São Tomé in the Gulf of Guinea. Given that the type material of H. bayonii, H. benguellensis, H. longicephalus and H. mabouia molleri have all been lost or destroyed, we designate neotypes for all of these nomina for purposes of nomenclatural stability. The description of the new species and the revision and revalidation of the Angolan species already described contributes to a better understanding of the taxonomy and biogeography of West and Central African Hemidactylus, as well as to the general biogeographic and evolutionary patterns of Angolan fauna. A key to the Angolan species is also presented.

Keywords: Reptilia, Biogeography, neotype, nomenclature, Reptilia, southwestern Africa, integrative taxonomy

 Luis M. P. Ceríaco, Ishan Agarwal, Mariana P. Marques and Aaron M. Bauer. 2020.  A Review of the Genus Hemidactylus Goldfuss, 1820 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Angola, with the Description of Two New Species. Zootaxa. 4746(1); 1-71. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4746.1.1

Thursday, February 27, 2020

[PaleoMammalogy • 2020] Lekaneleo, A New Genus of Marsupial Lion (Marsupialia, Thylacoleonidae) from the Oligocene–Miocene of Australia, and the Craniodental Morphology of L. roskellyae, comb. nov.

 Lekaneleo roskellyae Gillespie, 1997

in Gillespie, Archer & Hand, 2020.
Original artwork by Peter Schouten.

The domestic cat-sized marsupial lion Priscileo roskellyae (Thylacoleonidae) from the Oligocene–Miocene of Australia was originally allocated to the genus Priscileo Rauscher, 1987, on the basis of its plesiomorphic upper dental formula of three premolars and four molars and its relatively small size. Recent reassignment of the Priscileo type species P. pitikantensis to the genus Wakaleo has now necessitated establishment of a new generic name for the species roskellyae Gillespie, 1997. In contrast to W. pitikantensis, which is only known from a fragmented palate and associated postcranial elements, the skull and lower dentition of P. roskellyae, described here, exhibit features that support its generic distinction within Thylacoleonidae. It is renamed here Lekaneleo roskellyae, comb. nov. Distinctive craniodental features include small sagittal and nuchal crests, lack of a prominent rostral tympanic process on the periotic, lack of alisphenopalatine pterygoid processes, a stylomastoid sulcus that courses through the mastoid, three teeth between i1 and p3, and very broad talonid basins on the lower molars. In contrast to species of Wakaleo, which appear to form a morphocline during the late Oligocene and early Miocene, L. roskellyae is a relatively conservative taxon, exhibiting no discernible change over the same interval of time.

Class MARSUPIALIA Illiger, 1811 
Order DIPROTODONTIA Owen, 1866 
Suborder VOMBATIFORMES Woodburne, 1984 

Family THYLACOLEONIDAE Gill, 1872 

LEKANELEO, gen. nov. 
Type and Only Species— Lekaneleo roskellyaecomb. nov.

Etymology— ‘lekane’ is derived from Greek meaning ‘basin’ and refers to the broad talonid basins present on the lower molars; ‘leo,’ which is Latin for ‘lion,’ is the stem term for all members of the family Thylacoleonidae. The genus is assigned feminine gender.

Priscileo roskellyae Gillespie, 1997: figs. 1–3.

Reconstruction of  Lekaneleo roskellyae hunting in the early Miocene rainforest at Riversleigh in northwestern Queensland
(Original artwork by Peter Schouten).

Anna K. Gillespie, Michael Archer and Suzanne J. Hand. 2020. Lekaneleo, A New Genus of Marsupial Lion (Marsupialia, Thylacoleonidae) from the Oligocene–Miocene of Australia, and the Craniodental Morphology of L. roskellyae, comb. nov. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology.  DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2019.1703722


[Mammalogy • 2020] Ailurus fulgens & A. styani • Genomic Evidence for Two Phylogenetic Species and Long-term Population Bottlenecks in Red Pandas

Chinese red panda Ailurus styani Thomas, 1902

 Himalayan red panda Ailurus fulgens F. Cuvier, 1825

in Hu, Thapa, Fan, et al., 2020. 

The red panda (Ailurus fulgens), an endangered Himalaya-endemic mammal, has been classified as two subspecies or even two species – the Himalayan red panda (A. fulgens) and the Chinese red panda (Ailurus styani) – based on differences in morphology and biogeography. However, this classification has remained controversial largely due to lack of genetic evidence, directly impairing scientific conservation management. Data from 65 whole genomes, 49 Y-chromosomes, and 49 mitochondrial genomes provide the first comprehensive genetic evidence for species divergence in red pandas, demonstrating substantial inter-species genetic divergence for all three markers and correcting species-distribution boundaries. Combined with morphological evidence, these data thus clearly define two phylogenetic species in red pandas. We also demonstrate different demographic trajectories in the two species: A. styani has experienced two population bottlenecks and one large population expansion over time, whereas A. fulgens has experienced three bottlenecks and one very small expansion, resulting in very low genetic diversity, high linkage disequilibrium, and high genetic load.

Fig. 1 Distinguishing morphological differences between two red panda species. (A and C) The Chinese red panda Ailurus styani. (B and D) The Himalayan red panda Ailurus fulgens
 (A and B) The face coat color of the Chinese red panda is redder with less white on it than that of the Himalayan red panda. (C and D) The tail rings of the Chinese red panda are more distinct than those of the Himalayan red panda, with the dark rings being more dark red and the pale rings being more whitish. 

Photo credit: (A) Yunfang Xiu, Straits (Fuzhou) Giant Panda Research and Exchange Center, China; does not require permission. (B) Arjun Thapa, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. (C) Yibo Hu, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. (D) Chiranjibi Prasad Pokheral, Central Zoo, Jawalkhel, Lalitpur, Nepal.

Ailurus fulgens F. Cuvier, 1825
Ailurus styani Thomas, 1902


Yibo Hu, Arjun Thapa, Huizhong Fan, Tianxiao Ma, Qi Wu, Shuai Ma, Dongling Zhang, Bing Wang, Min Li, Li Yan and Fuwen Wei. 2020. Genomic Evidence for Two Phylogenetic Species and Long-term Population Bottlenecks in Red Pandas. Science Advances. 6(9); eaax5751. DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aax5751

Red panda genes suggest there are actually two different species

[Ornithology • 2020] Untangling Cryptic Diversity in the High Andes: Revision of the Scytalopus [magellanicus] complex (Rhinocryptidae) in Peru reveals Three New Species

New Scytalopus taxa from the Peruvian Andes. 
(Upper left) Adult male and female of Jalca Tapaculo, Scytalopus frankeae from Huánuco. 
(Upper right) Male Scytalopus frankeae from Junín. 
(Lower left) Adult males of Ampay Tapaculo, Scytalopus whitneyi (left from Apurímac, right from Ayacucho). 
(Lower right) Adult male (top) and female (below) of White-winged Tapaculo, Scytalopus krabbei. 

in Krabbe, Schulenberg, Hosner, Rosenberg, Davis, et al., 2020. 
Watercolor painting by Jon Fjeldså.

Tropical mountains feature marked species turnover along elevational gradients and across complex topography, resulting in great concentrations of avian biodiversity. In these landscapes, particularly among morphologically conserved and difficult to observe avian groups, species limits still require clarification. One such lineage is Scytalopus tapaculos, which are among the morphologically most conserved birds. Attention to their distinctive vocal repertoires and phylogenetic relationships has resulted in a proliferation of newly identified species, many of which are restricted range endemics. Here, we present a revised taxonomy and identify species limits among high-elevation populations of Scytalopus tapaculos inhabiting the Peruvian Andes. We employ an integrated framework using a combination of vocal information, mitochondrial DNA sequences, and appearance, gathered from our own fieldwork over the past 40 yr and supplemented with community-shared birdsong archives and museum specimens. We describe 3 new species endemic to Peru. Within all 3 of these species there is genetic differentiation, which in 2 species is mirrored by subtle geographic plumage and vocal variation. In a fourth species, Scytalopus schulenbergi, we document deep genetic divergence and plumage differences despite overall vocal similarity. We further propose that an extralimital taxon, Scytalopus opacus androstictus, be elevated to species rank, based on a diagnostic vocal character. Our results demonstrate that basic exploration and descriptive work using diverse data sources continues to identify new species of birds, particularly in tropical environs.

Keywords: integrated taxonomy, Neotropics, systematics, tapaculo, vocalizations

New Scytalopus taxa from the Peruvian Andes.
(Upper left) Adult male and female of Jalca Tapaculo, Scytalopus frankeae from Huánuco. (Upper right) Male Scytalopus frankeae from Junín.
(Lower left) Adult males of Ampay Tapaculo, Scytalopus whitneyi (left from Apurímac, right from Ayacucho). (Lower right) Adult male (top) and female (below) of White-winged Tapaculo, Scytalopus krabbei.
Watercolor painting by Jon Fjeldså.

Scytalopus krabbei sp. nov. 
[T. S. Schulenberg, D. F. Lane, A. J. Spencer, F. Angulo, and C. D. Cadena] 
White-winged Tapaculo

Etymology: The modern knowledge of the systematics of Scytalopus, including recognition of a level of diversity in the genus that would have astounded earlier generations of ornithologists, is largely due to Niels K. Krabbe, through his careful and thorough research both in the field and in the collection. Having himself contributed to the descriptions of no fewer than 7 new taxa of Scytalopus, we take great pleasure in taking the opportunity to name this new species in honor of our friend and colleague. The proposed English name refers to the small patch of white on the wing coverts, a feature—otherwise unusual in tapaculos—that is present on all known S. krabbei specimens.

Scytalopus frankeae sp. nov. 
[K. V. Rosenberg, T. J. Davis, G. H. Rosenberg, P. A. Hosner, M. B. Robbins, T. Valqui, and D. F. Lane] 
Jalca Tapaculo

Etymology: We are pleased to name this new tapaculo in honor of Dr. Irma Franke, our friend, colleague, former curator of the bird collection at the MUSM, and a major contributor to Peruvian ornithology for over 30 yr. It is especially fitting to name this taxon after her because she participated in the Millpo expedition that discovered the bird in 1985. The recommended English name uses a local Peruvian term for puna and páramo habitat (“jalca”) that has tussock grasses as a primary component, which was the habitat primarily used by the species at the type locality (although less so in Junín). Colloquially, this species has been called Millpo Tapaculo. However, we consider this name to be inappropriate, primarily because Millpo is now known to be at the geographic periphery of the range of the species. Our proposed English name is more reflective of the habitat of S. frankeae throughout its distribution.

Scytalopus whitneyi sp. nov. 
[N. K. Krabbe, J. Fjeldså, P. A. Hosner, M. B. Robbins, and M. J. Andersen] 
Ampay Tapaculo

Etymology: We take the opportunity to honor our friend and colleague Bret M. Whitney for his outstanding contributions to Neotropical ornithology over the past 3 decades. Bret’s keen eyes and ears, and his insightful attention to vocalizations and natural history, have given us a much greater understanding of variation and species limits in several challenging groups of tropical birds, and particularly in Scytalopus. The recommended English name refers to Bosque Ampay, the only protected area where the species occurs.

Niels K. Krabbe, Thomas S. Schulenberg, Peter A. Hosner, Kenneth V. Rosenberg, Tristan J. Davis, Gary H. Rosenberg, Daniel F. Lane, Michael J. Andersen, Mark B. Robbins, Carlos Daniel Cadena, Thomas Valqui, Jessie F. Salter, Andrew J. Spencer, Fernando Angulo and Jon Fjeldså. 2020. Untangling Cryptic Diversity in the High Andes: Revision of the Scytalopus [magellanicus] complex (Rhinocryptidae) in Peru reveals Three New Species. The Auk. ukaa003. DOI: 10.1093/auk/ukaa003 

RESUMEN: Las zonas montañosas tropicales se caracterizan por un alto grado de reemplazo de especies a través de gradientes altitudinales y de topografías complejas, lo cual se manifiesta en una alta concentración de diversidad aviar. En estos paisajes, particularmente en grupos aviares con morfología conservada y difíciles de observar, los límites entre especies aún requieren ser aclarados. Uno de estos linajes es el género Scytalopus, que reúne a algunas de las aves con morfología más conservada. Estudios enfocados en las diferencias en repertorio vocal y relaciones filogenéticas han conducido a una proliferación de descripciones de especies nuevas, muchas de las cuales son endémicas con distribuciones muy restringidas. Presentamos una revisión taxonómica e identificamos límites de especies entre poblaciones de Scytalopus de grandes elevaciones de los Andes peruanos. Empleamos un enfoque integrado que combina información de vocalizaciones, de secuencias de ADN mitocondrial y de caracteres del plumaje.

Los datos fueron obtenidos mediante nuestro trabajo de campo en los últimos 40 años, complementados con información de archivos de sonidos y especímenes de museo. Describimos tres nuevas especies endémicas de Perú. Dentro de las tres existe diferenciación genética, que en dos casos se asocia con variación geográfica sutil en plumaje y vocalizaciones. Documentamos que en una cuarta especie, Scytalopus schulenbergi, existe divergencia genética profunda y variación en plumaje a pesar de que las poblaciones son similares vocalmente en general. Además, proponemos que un taxón de otra región, Scytalopus opacus androstictus, se eleve al rango de especie, con base en un carácter vocal diagnóstico. Nuestros resultados demuestran que las exploraciones básicas y un trabajo descriptivo basado en fuentes de datos diversos sigue permitiendo identificar nuevas especies de aves, particularmente en ambientes tropicales.

[Crustacea • 2020] Species of the Maera-Clade (Amphipoda: Maeridae) collected from Japan. Part 3: Genera Maera Leach, 1814, Meximaera Barnard, 1969 and Orientomaera Ariyama, 2018 (addendum), with A Key to Japanese Species of the Clade

Maera sagamiensis Ariyama, 2020

Two species of Maera Leach, 1814, a species of Meximaera Barnard, 1969 and a species of Orientomaera Ariyama, 2018 included in the Maera clade, are described from Japan. Maera loveni (Bruzelius, 1859) was collected from the Sea of Japan and can be distinguished from its congeners by the very large body size and the gnathopod 2 palm defined by a blunt tooth bearing a strong robust seta. Maera sagamiensis sp. nov. from Sagami Bay is characterized by the presence of small notches on the coxae 1–3. Meximaera mooreana (Myers, 1989) was collected from Wakayama Prefecture and has two distinct characters: the male gnathopod 2 with wide basis and the very long uropod 3. Morphological characters of the Japanese specimens resemble well those in the literature, but the mandibular palp article 1 is projected acutely. Orientomaera incisa sp. nov. was recently collected from Wakayama Prefecture and its gnathopods 2 in both sexes bear a distinctive incision on the palm. Keys to species of Meximaera in the world and Japanese species of the Maera-clade are provided. Fifteen species included in the Maera-clade occur in Japan.

Keywords: Taxonomy, Crustacea, Amphipoda, Maeridae, Maera, Meximaera, Orientomaera, Japan, new species, key

Maera sagamiensis sp. nov.

Hiroyuki Ariyama. 2020. Species of the Maera-clade collected from Japan. Part 3: Genera Maera Leach, 1814, Meximaera Barnard, 1969 and Orientomaera Ariyama, 2018 (addendum), with A Key to Japanese Species of the Clade (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Maeridae). Zootaxa. 4743(4); 451–479. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4743.4.1

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

[Invertebrate • 2020] Revision of Leocrates Kinberg, 1866 and Leocratides Ehlers, 1908 (Annelida, Errantia, Hesionidae)

Lamprophaea cornuta Salazar-Vallejo, 2020

Leocrates Kinberg, 1866 and Leocratides Ehlers, 1908 are two genera of hesionid errant annelids (Hesionidae, Hesioninae) whose species have 16 chaetigers (21 segments). Leocrates species are free living in rocky or mixed bottoms, whereas Leocratides species are usually symbiotic with hexactinellid sponges. Marian Pettibone revised both genera as part of the R/V Siboga Expedition monographs 50 years ago, and most of her ideas have remained unchallenged regarding synonymy for genera and species. For example, she included three genera as junior synonyms of Leocrates: Lamprophaes Grube, 1867, Tyrrhena Claparède, 1868, and Dalhousia McIntosh, 1885, and from 21 nominal species, she regarded only eight as valid. In this revision, all material available was studied, and different morphological patterns were noted in nuchal organs lobes, pharynx armature, and chaetal features. Leocratides species belong to a single pattern; however, in Leocrates several patterns were detected. Three patterns are present for nuchal organs lobes: barely projected posteriorly (horizontal C-shaped), markedly projected posteriorly (U-shaped), and with lateral transverse projections (L-shaped). In the pharynx, upper jaws were noted as single, fang-shaped, or as double, T-shaped structures, whereas the lower jaw can be single, fang-shaped, or a transverse plate. Neurochaetal blades can be bidentate with guards approaching subdistal tooth, unidentate without guards, or with guards hypertrophied projected beyond distal tooth. The combinations of these features are regarded as different genera and consequently, Leocrates is restricted (including Tyrrhena), but Dalhousia, and Lamprophaea (name corrected) are reinstated, and three new genus-group names are proposed: Paradalhousia n. gen., Paralamprophaea n. gen., and Paraleocrates n. gen. Further, the standardization of morphological features allowed several modifications and the recognition of novelties. Thus, four type species were redescribed, four others were reinstated, 10 were newly combined, and 18 from different World localities are described as new. The new species are Lamprophaea cornuta n. sp. from the French Polynesia, L. ockeri n. sp. from the Hawaiian Islands, L. paulayi n. sp. from the Red Sea, L. pettiboneae n. sp. from the Marshall Islands, L. pleijeli n. sp. from La Réunion, L. poupini n. sp. from the French Polynesia, Leocrates ahlfeldae n. sp. from India, L. harrisae n. sp. from the Revillagigedo Islands, L. mooreae n. sp. from New Caledonia, L. reishi n. sp. from the Marshall Islands, L. rizzoae n. sp. from the Seychelles Islands, L. rousei n. sp. from Papua New Guinea, L. seidae n. sp. from the French Polynesia, Leocratides jimii n. sp. from Madagascar, Paralamprophaea bemisae n. sp. from the Maldives, P. crosnieri n. sp. from Madagascar, P. leslieae n. sp. from Kiribati, and P. meyeri n. sp. from the French Polynesia. However, Leocrates japonicus Gustafson, 1930 is a nomen nudum. Keys are included for identifying all hesioninae genera, and for all species in all the included genera.

Keywords: Annelida, nuchal organs, pharynx, notacicular lobes, neurochaetal blades

Lamprophaea cornuta n. sp. Living specimen, dorsal view. 
photo: Gustav Paulay
Lamprophaea cornuta n. sp. from the French Polynesia

Etymology: The specific epithet is made after the Latin adjective cornutus (-a, -um) meaning horned, or provided with horns. The name indicates the posterolateral prostomial squarish projections resembling small horns, and it is in feminine for matching the genus gender ( ICZN 1999, Art. 31.2).

Sergio I. Salazar-Vallejo. 2020. Revision of Leocrates Kinberg, 1866 and Leocratides Ehlers, 1908 (Annelida, Errantia, Hesionidae). Zootaxa. 4739(1); 1-114. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4739.1.1

[Botany • 2020] Bromheadia petuangensis • A New Species of Bromheadia Sect. Aporodes (Orchidaceae) from Terengganu, peninsular Malaysia

Bromheadia petuangensis R.Go et E.E. Besi  

in Besi, Nikong, Mustafa & Go, 2020. 

A new species, Bromheadia petuangensis R.Go et E.E. Besi belonging to Sect. Aporodes is described from hill dipterocarp forest in Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia. This species was rescued from an active logging site in Hulu Terengganu. A field taxonomic key to some species of Bromheadia from the Sect. Aporodes in Peninsular Malaysia is provided, together with description, including information on colours, distribution, habitat, ecology, and illustration of the newly discovered species.

Key words: Orchidaceae, Bromheadia petuangensis, Hill dipterocarp forest, Malaysia, Field key. 

Bromheadia petuangensis R.Go et E.E. Besi sp. nov. 

Diagnostic Characters. This species shares similarities with Bromheadia humilis Kruiz. & de Vogel, an endemic species to Sabah, by having the tufted habit and short height (only up to 10 cm tall), stems entirely covered by leaf sheaths, basal part terete, top part laterally compressed; and the leaves stiff, curved away from the stem. It differs from the latter by having the leaves 2-3 on one side of the stem; leaves less coriaceous, fewer, narrower, and thinner; and smaller size of the flowers, flower purely white with lip almost glabrous and the side lobes with free narrowly acute forwards pointing tips. A detailed comparison is shown in Table 1. Also, this new species and B. humilis are different from the commonly found Bromheadia species in Malaysia, B. scirpoidea, because of its small size and shorter sterile bracts at the base of the inflorescence.

Etymology. The new species is named after the type locality, a logging site in Petuang, Hulu Terengganu, Terengganu, Malaysia.

Distribution and Ecology. It was first collected from a logged hill dipterocarp forest (251 m a.s.l.) in Petuang, Terengganu and threatened by habitat loss due to the ongoing forest destruction in the region. The microclimate temperature is extreme within 31°C to 34°C with humidity is at 67%. It has been also recorded growing on trees in a lower montane forest (893 m a.s.l.) in Mount Sarut, Setiu, Terengganu.

Edward Entalai Besi, Dome Nikong, Muskhazli Mustafa and Rusea Go. 2020. A New Species of Bromheadia Sect. Aporodes (Orchidaceae) from Terengganu, peninsular Malaysia. Pak. J. Bot. 52(3).  DOI: 10.30848/PJB2020-3(21)