Sunday, May 31, 2020

[Cnidaria • 2020] Chironephthya sirindhornae & C. cornigera • Two New Species of the Genus Chironephthya (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea, Nidaliidae, Siphonogorgiinae) from the Gulf of Thailand

Chironephthya sirindhornae 
 Imahara, Chavanich, Viyakarn, Kushida, Reimer & Fujita, 2020

Two new species of the genus Chironephthya, C. sirindhornae sp. nov. and C. cornigera sp. nov., are described based on three specimens collected from the Gulf of Thailand. Both species are well distinguished from the previously described species of the genus Chironephthya by their colonies consisting of multiple stems that stand upright from a common base, and by a significantly thinner canal wall without large spindles. As a result of phylogenetic analyses using COI, mtMutS, and 28S rDNA sequences of these two species, these three specimens constituted an independent small clade within a large mixed clade of Siphonogorgia and Chironephthya, with the two species slightly different from each other. The discrepancy in the morphology suggested the erection of a new genus to accommodate these species, however, as the subclade was included in a large mixed clade of Siphonogorgia and Chironephthya, we place these species within genus Chironephthya. Our results further highlight the continuing confusion between Siphonogorgia and Chironephthya, and demonstrate the need for taxonomic revision of these genera.

Keywords: Coelenterata, Chironephthya sirindhornae sp. nov., C. cornigera sp. nov., new species, common base, Octocorallia, Nidaliidae, Siphonogorgiinae, Gulf of Thailand


Class Anthozoa Ehrenberg, 1834
Subclass Octocorallia Haeckel, 1866

Order Alcyonacea Lamouroux, 1812
Family Nidaliidae Gray, 1869
Subfamily Siphonogorgiinae Kölliker, 1874

Genus Chironephthya Studer, 1887

FIGURE 2. Live colony of Chironephthya sirindhornae sp. nov. (NSMT-Co 1703).

Chironephthya sirindhornae sp. nov.
Japanese name: Hime-kudayagi
ปะการังอ่อน กรมสมเด็จพระเทพรัตนราชสุดาฯ สยามบรมราชกุมารี

Etymology. The specific epithet is named in honor of Her Royal Highness Princess Maha Chakri Sirindhorn of Thailand, who has initiated and implemented the Plant Genetic Conservation Project for maintenance and conservation of biodiversity both on land and in the ocean.

Chironephthya cornigera sp. nov. 
 Japanese name: Tsuno-kudayagi

Etymology. Specific name cornigera is a Latin word corniger = bearing horns, referring to the colony shape in life.

Yukimitsu Imahara, Suchana Chavanich, Voranop Viyakarn, Yuka Kushida, James D. Reimer and Toshihiko Fujita. 2020. Two New Species of the Genus Chironephthya (Octocorallia, Alcyonacea, Nidaliidae, Siphonogorgiinae) from the Gulf of Thailand. Zootaxa. 4780(2); 324–340. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4780.2.6

#RSPG #อพสธ #โครงการอนุรักษ์พันธุกรรมพืช 
#ปะการังอ่อน #สิรินธร #กรมสมเด็จพระเทพรัตนราชสุดาฯ สยามบรมราชกุมารี 

[Ichthyology • 2020] Acanthobunocephalus scruggsi • A New Miniature Species of Acanthobunocephalus (Silurifomes: Aspredinidae) from the Lower Purus River Basin, Amazon Basin, Brazil

Acanthobunocephalus scruggsi
 Carvalho & Reis, 2020

A second species of Acanthobunocephalus is described from tributaries of the lower Purus River in the Amazon Basin, Brazil. Acanthobunocephalus scruggsi, new species, is distinguished from all other aspredinid species by its reduced number of fin rays: four pectoral-fin rays (vs. five or more), two dorsal-fin rays (vs. three or more, except Amaralia hypsiura), five pelvic-fin rays (vs. six), four to five anal-fin rays (vs. six or more, except Bunocephalus verrucosus), and nine caudal-fin rays (vs. 10, except Hoplomyzontinae, Amaralia, Platystacus, Bunocephalus chamaizelus, and Bunocephalus minerim). Osteological aspects of the new species of Acanthobunocephalus are described using cleared and stained specimens and high-resolution x-ray computed tomography (HRXCT), and compared with Acanthobunocephalus nicoi and other aspredinids. Generic assignment is based on putative apomorphic shared features and a morphological diagnosis for Acanthobunocephalus is presented.

Holotype of Acanthobunocephalus scruggsi, INPA 57946, 21.7 mm SL, Brazil, Amazonas, Beruri, Igarapé Caipirinha, tributary of Lago Ayapuá. 

Acanthobunocephalus scruggsi, new species

Etymology.— Acanthobunocephalus scruggsi in named after Earl Scruggs, a prominent American banjo player known for popularizing a three-finger banjo picking style, also known as ‘‘Scruggs style,’’ which is characteristic of bluegrass music. The name of the species also makes an allusion to the common name given to aspredinid species in general (banjo catfishes), and the remarkable resemblance of the new species with this musical instrument.

Tiago P. Carvalho and Roberto E. Reis. 2020. A New Miniature Species of Acanthobunocephalus (Silurifomes: Aspredinidae) from the Lower Purus River Basin, Amazon Basin, Brazil. Copeia. 108(2); 347-357. DOI: 10.1643/CI-19-309


[Paleontology • 2020] Middle Permian (Roadian) Gastropods from the Khao Khad Formation, Central Thailand: Implications for Palaeogeography of the Indochina Terrane

 Ketwetsuriya, Karapunar, Charoentitirat & Nützel, 2020

A new Permian gastropod assemblage from the Roadian (Middle Permian) Khao Khad Formation, Saraburi Group (Lopburi Province, Central Thailand) which is part of the Indochina Terrane, has yielded one of the most diverse Permian gastropod faunas known from Thailand. A total of 44 gastropod species belonging to 30 genera are described herein, including thirteen new species and one new genus. The new genus is Altotomaria. The new species are Bellerophon erawanensis, Biarmeaspira mazaevi, Apachella thailandensis, Gosseletina microstriata, Worthenia humiligrada, Altotomaria reticulata, Yunnania inflata, Trachydomia suwanneeae, Trachyspira eleganta, Heterosubulites longusapertura, Platyzona gradata, Trypanocochlea lopburiensis and Streptaciskhaokhadensis. Most of the species in the studied assemblage represent vetigastropods  (35.6%) and caenogastropods (26.7%) and most of the species belong to Late Palaeozoic cosmopolitan genera. The studied faunas come from shallow water carbonates that are rich in fusulinids, followed by gastropods, ostracods, bivalves and brachiopods. The gastropod assemblage from the Khao Khad Formation shares no species with the gastropod assemblages from other Permian formations in Thailand, the Tak Fa Limestone and the Ratburi Limestone. However, it is similar to the Late Permian gastropod faunas from South China of the Palaeo-Tethys, therefore it suggests that the Indochina Terrane was not located far from South China.

 Keywords: Gastropoda, Mollusca, Saraburi Group, new species, diversity, Lopburi

Chatchalerm Ketwetsuriya, Baran Karapunar, Thasinee Charoentitirat and Alexander Nützel. 2020. Middle Permian (Roadian) Gastropods from the Khao Khad Formation, Central Thailand: Implications for Palaeogeography of the Indochina Terrane. Zootaxa. 4766(1); 1–47. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4766.1.1 

งานวิจัยนี้เป็นการศึกษาซากดึกดำบรรพ์ (fossil) หอยฝาเดียวยุคเพอร์เมียน (อายุประมาณ 270 ล้านปีมาแล้ว) จากจังหวัดลพบุรี ซึ่งพบทั้งหมด 44 ชนิด โดยในจำนวนนี้พบเป็น 1 สกุลใหม่ และ 13 ชนิดใหม่ของโลก Bellerophon erawanensis, Biarmeaspira mazaevi, Apachella thailandensis, Gosseletina microstriata, Worthenia humiligrada, Altotomaria reticulata, Yunnania inflata, Trachydomia suwanneeae, Trachyspira eleganta, Heterosubulites longusapertura, Platyzona gradata, Trypanocochlea lopburiensis และ Streptacis? khaokhadensis

ผลการศึกษาบางส่วนพบว่าฟอสซิลบางชนิดในกลุ่มนี้มีความเชื่อมโยงกับฟอสซิลในแผ่นทวีป South China และยังบ่งชี้ถึงต้นกำเนิดของบางชนิดในพื้นที่นี้ก่อนมีกระจายตัวไปยังบริเวณดังกล่าว แต่เมื่อเปรียบเทียบกับอีกแผ่นทวีปที่เป็นส่วนของดินแดนไทยด้านตะวันตก (Sibumasu Terrane) ซึ่งตั้งอยู่ในละติจูดที่ต่ำกว่าไปทางขั้วโลกใต้ในช่วงเวลานั้น ไม่พบความเกี่ยวข้อง (ทางสายวิวัฒนาการ) ใดๆ

[Herpetology • 2020] Unravelling Interspecific Relationships Among Highland Lizards: First Phylogenetic Hypothesis using Total Evidence of the Liolaemus montanus group (Iguania: Liolaemidae)

in Abdala, Quinteros, Semhan, Arroyo, Schulte, et al., 2020.

The South American lizard genus Liolaemus comprises > 260 species, of which > 60 are recognized as members of the Liolaemus montanus group, distributed throughout the Andes in central Peru, Bolivia, Chile and central Argentina. Despite its great morphological diversity and complex taxonomic history, a robust phylogenetic estimate is still lacking for this group. Here, we study the morphological and molecular diversity of the L. montanus group and present the most complete quantitative phylogenetic hypothesis for the group to date. Our phylogeny includes 103 terminal taxa, of which 91 are members of the L. montanus group (58 are assigned to available species and 33 are of uncertain taxonomic status). Our matrix includes 306 morphological and ecological characters and 3057 molecular characters. Morphological characters include 48 continuous and 258 discrete characters, of which 70% (216) are new to the literature. The molecular characters represent five mitochondrial markers. We performed three analyses: a morphology-only matrix, a molecular-only matrix and a matrix including both morphological and molecular characters (total evidence hypothesis). Our total evidence hypothesis recovered the L. montanus group as monophyletic and included ≥ 12 major clades, revealing an unexpectedly complex phylogeny.

Keywords: Bayesian analysis, cladistic analysis, lizard, morphological phylogenetics, molecular phylogeny, parsimony analysis, South America, Taxonomy

Regions of body of colour pattern used in the present study, modified from Lobo & Espinoza (1999). A, vertebral line. B, vertebral field. C, dorsolateral stripes. D, paravertebral spots. E, lateral spots. F, scapular region. G, ventrolateral line.

Cristian Simón Abdala, Andrés Sebastián Quinteros, Romina Valeria Semhan, Ana Lucia Bulacios Arroyo, James Schulte, Marcos Maximiliano Paz, Mario Ricardo Ruiz-Monachesi, Alejandro Laspiur, Alvaro Juan Aguilar-Kirigin, Roberto Gutiérrez Poblete, Pablo Valladares Faundez, Julián Valdés, Sabrina Portelli, Roy Santa Cruz, James Aparicio, Noelia Garcia and Robert Langstroth. 2020. Unravelling Interspecific Relationships Among Highland Lizards: First Phylogenetic Hypothesis using Total Evidence of the Liolaemus montanus group (Iguania: Liolaemidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 189(1); 349–377. DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz114

[Ichthyology • 2019] Pseudobatos buthi • A New Guitarfish of the Genus Pseudobatos (Batoidea: Rhinobatidae) with Key to the Guitarfishes of the Gulf of California

Pseudobatos buthi K.M. Rutledge, 2019

A new guitarfish of the genus Pseudobatos is described based on 82 specimens obtained from the Gulf of California. Sixty-three morphometric measurements were taken on all specimens, and on ten specimens from each of three congeners. A principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis were performed on these morphometric data for discrimination. The new species (∼685 mm TL) is most similar to Pseudobatos productus but differs in having a narrower maximum disc width (30–35% vs. 36–38% TL), shorter distance from nostril to disc margin (2.8–4.0% vs. 4.2–5.2% TL), narrower disc width at anterior orbit (12–19% vs. 20–22% TL), and a narrower tip of snout width (3% vs. 4–6% TL). The species is also less densely scaled between the orbits and has less pronounced rostral thorns than Pseudobatos productus. A key to the guitarfishes of the Gulf of California is also provided.

 Holotype of Pseudobatos buthi, new species (SIO 15-405 [formerly UCLA W50-189], 471.1 TL male) 

Fig. 2. All four species of guitarfishes from the Gulf of California, shown from end of disc to snout.
(A) Pseudobatos buthi, new species (allotype, SIO 15-477 [formerly UCLA W49-122], 383.6 mm TL). (B) P. leucorhynchus (UCLA W53-317, 262.7 mm TL). (C) P. glaucostigmus (UCLA W56-117, 319.4 mm TL). (D) P. productus (UCLA W50-128, 364.5 mm TL).

Pseudobatos buthi, new species
 Spadenose Guitarfish, Guitarra Pala

Etymology.— Named in honor of my mentor, UCLA ichthyologist Donald Buth, who provided me with the opportunity to describe this new species and whose support and guidance has been instrumental in my scientific career.

Fig. 6. The distribution of Pseudobatos buthi, new species, caught by Boyd Walker and colleagues on collecting trips in the 1940s and 1950s. Each red dot represents a different sampling locality. The red star represents the type locality of the holotype.

Kelsi M. Rutledge. 2019. A New Guitarfish of the Genus Pseudobatos (Batoidea: Rhinobatidae) with Key to the Guitarfishes of the Gulf of California. Copeia. 107(3); 451-463. DOI: 10.1643/CI-18-166

Se describe una nueva especie de guitarra en el género Pseudobatos basado en 82 especímenes obtenidos del Golfo de California. Se tomaron sesenta y tres mediciones morfométricas en cada espécimen y en diez especímenes de cada uno de los tres congéneres. En estos datos morfométricos, se realizaron análisis de componentes principales y discriminante lineal para discriminación. Esta nueva especie (∼685 mm TL) es más similar a Pseudobatos productus, pero se diferencia por tener un ancho máximo de disco más estrecho (30–35% vs. 36–38% TL), una distancia más corta desde la fosa nasal al margen del disco (2.8–4.0% vs. 4.2–5.2% TL), un ancho de disco más estrecho en la órbita anterior (12–19% vs. 20–22% TL) y el ancho de la punta de la nariz más estrecha (3% vs. 4–6% TL). Esta especie también tiene una escala menos densa entre las órbitas, y espinas rostrales menos pronunciadas, en comparación con Pseudobatos productus. Además, se provee una clave para las guitarras del Golfo de California.

[Entomology • 2020] Revision of Eupines King (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae) of New Zealand

Eupines fraudulenta (Broun, 1886)

in Shen & Leschen, 2020.

The species-rich genus Eupines King of New Zealand is revised to include 48 species, with 22 known species redescribed. Twenty-two new species are described: Eupines (Byraxis) brevis sp. n., E. (B.) caesta sp. n., E. (B.) carinata sp. n., E. (B.) coalita sp. n., E. (B.) complector sp. n., E. (B.) dugdalei sp. n., E. (B.) gigas sp. n., E. (B.) graceae sp. n., E. (B.) huizhenae sp. n., E. (B.) hoarei sp. n., E. (B.) insolita sp. n., E. (B.) mayae sp. n., E. (B.) minuta sp. n., E. (B.) obtusa sp. n., E. (B.) ovalis sp. n., E. (B.) pannicula sp. n., E. (B.) petila sp. n., E. (B.) protibialis sp. n., E. (B.) whirinaki sp. n., E. (B.) waikaremoana sp. n., Eupines (Eupines) undecim sp. n. and Eupines novem sp. n. The following 11 synonymies are proposed: E. (B.) dispar (Sharp) (= E. (B.) munroi Broun syn. n.), E. (B.) hectori Broun (= E. (B.) diversides Newton syn. n.), E. (B.) impar (Sharp) (= E. (B.) sanguineua Broun syn. n., E. (B.) foveatissima Broun syn. n.), E. (B.) monstrosa (Reitter) (= E. (B.) rudicornis Broun syn. n., E. (B.) costata Broun syn. n.), E. (B.) mundula (Schaufuss) (= E. (B.) forficulida Broun syn. n.), E. (B.) paganus (Broun) (= E. (B.) allocera Broun syn. n., E. (B.) sylvicola Broun syn. n., E. (B.) rhyssarthra Broun syn. n.) and Eupinolus altulus (Broun) (= E. (E.) nasuta Broun syn. n.). New combinations are proposed for four species previously described in Eupines: Eupinolus calcaratus (Broun) new comb., Eupinolus nasutus (Broun) new comb., Gastrobothrus ignotus (Broun) new comb. and Gastrobothrus platynotus (Broun) new comb. A key and distribution maps for all New Zealand members of Eupines are provided.

Keywords: Coleoptera, Brachyglutini, rove beetle, taxonomy, nomenclature, New Zealand

Eupines fraudulenta (Broun, 1886)

Jia-Wei Shen and Richard A. B. Leschen. 2020 Revision of Eupines King of New Zealand (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Pselaphinae: Goniaceritae). Zootaxa. 4777(1); 1-84. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4777.1.1

[Entomology • 2020] Neobelocera biprocessa & N. russa • Two New Species of the Bamboo-feeding Planthopper Genus Neobelocera Ding & Yang, 1986 (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Delphacidae) from China

Neobelocera russa
 Li, Yang & Chen, 2020. 

Two new species of the bamboo-feeding genus Neobelocera Ding & Yang, 1986, Neobelocera biprocessa sp. nov. and N. russa sp. nov., are described and illustrated from southwest China (Hainan and Guizhou), giving the genus nine species in total. A key is provided to separate all species.

Keywords: Fulgoromorpha; morphology; oriental region; taxonomy

Order Hemiptera Linnaeus, 1758
Infraorder Fulgoromorpha Evans, 1946

Family Delphacidae Leach, 1815
Subfamily Delphacinae Muir, 1915
Tribe Tropidocephalini Muir, 1915

Genus Neobelocera Ding & Yang, 1986

Type species: Neobelocera asymmetrica Ding & Yang, 1986
 (original designation)

Neobelocera lanpingensis Chen, 2003 

Neobelocera biprocessa sp. nov.

Etymology: The species epithet is derived from the Latin words ‘bi-’ and ‘process’, referring to the inner margin of genital styles with two processes.

Neobelocera russa sp. nov. 

Etymology: The species epithet is derived from the Latin word ‘russa’, referring to the body with rust color

Hong-Xing Li, Lin Yang and Xiang-Sheng Chen. 2020. Two New Species of the Bamboo-feeding Planthopper Genus Neobelocera Ding & Yang, 1986 from China (Hemiptera, Fulgoroidea, Delphacidae). European Journal of Taxonomy. 641; 1–14. DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2020.641

[Entomology • 2020] Rivudiva inma & R. oonirikoperi • New Species of Rivudiva Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) with Comments on R. minantenna and R. trichobasis

Rivudiva inma Salles & Nieto

in Salles, Nieto & Cruz, 2020. 

Based on nymphs collected in Espírito Santo and Amazonas, Southeastern and Northern Brazil, two new species of the genus Rivudiva Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, 1998 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) are described. Rivudiva inma sp. nov. shares several characteristics with R. minantenna Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, 1998, but can be distinguished by details of leg setation, such as length and shape of robust setae and presence of setae on trochanter. Rivudiva oonirikoperi sp. nov. is more similar to R. trichobasis Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty, 1998, but can be separated by the absence of setae on scape and pedicel, shape of distal margin of labrum, and length of maxillary palp. New diagnoses and illustrations are provided for R. minantenna and R. trichobasis, as well as a key to the known nymphs of Rivudiva species.

Keywords: Ephemeroptera, Taxonomy, Neotropics, Atlantic Forest, Amazon, key

Male of Rivudiva inma, sp. nov. 

Rivudiva inma Salles & Nieto, sp. nov.

Etymology. After the Instituto Nacional da Mata Atlântica (INMA), the Brazilian National Institute of the Atlantic Forest. INMA is located in the city of Santa Teresa, locality of the new species, and one of the institute’s most important mission is the conservation of the Atlantic Forest and, therefore, of the new species.

Rivudiva oonirikoperi Cruz, sp. nov.

Etymology. Õonirikoperi is a word in Baniwa language, from Baniwa indigenous ethnicity, a group of Native American inhabiting the area where the species was collected. This word is attributed to any specimen of Ephemeroptera. However, its literal meaning is “a being [malevolent] that walk inside the water”. The name is in apposition.

F.F. Salles, C. Nieto and P.V. Cruz. 2020. New Species of Rivudiva Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) with Comments on R. minantenna Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty and R. trichobasis Lugo-Ortiz & McCafferty. Zootaxa. 4786(1); 37–52. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4786.1.3

[Paleontology • 2020] Scelidosaurus harrisonii from the Early Jurassic of Dorset, England: Postcranial Skeleton

 Scelidosaurus harrisonii Owen, 1861

in Norman, 2020. 

Scelidosaurus fossils were first discovered during the commercial quarrying of the Liassic sea-cliffs between Charmouth and Lyme Regis in Dorset during the late 1850s. The original specimens included a well-preserved skull embedded in a block of argillaceous limestone (marlstone). Shortly after this skull was retrieved, a series of more-or-less contiguous marlstone slabs were recovered, containing most of the skeleton of the same animal (NHMUK R1111). After rudimentary (hammer and chisel) mechanical preparation, Owen published descriptions of this material (Owen, 1861, 1863). These two monographs have been the sole references pertaining to the anatomy of Scelidosaurus for >150 years. The skeleton of the lectotype of Scelidosaurus harrisonii (NHMUK R1111) has since been extracted from the surrounding matrix using an acid-immersion technique. Some additional specimens held in the collections of the Natural History Museum London, the Bristol City Museum and the Sedgwick Museum in Cambridge provide anatomical material that allows detailed description of this taxon, for which we have had, until now, a surprisingly poor understanding.

Axial skeleton: The axial skeleton of Scelidosaurus comprises eight cervical, 16 dorsal, four sacral and > 40 caudal vertebrae. During ontogeny, the posterior centrum articular surface of the 16th dorsal vertebra develops a firm, ligament-bonded junction with the succeeding sacral centrum. Apart from the atlas rib, which is single headed, double-headed ribs are present throughout the presacral vertebral series, and none shows any indication of fusion to its associated vertebra. However, those ribs attached to cervical vertebrae 2–4 were evidently bound firmly by connective tissue to rugose diapophyses. The last two (presacral) dorsal ribs show merger of the capitulum and tuberculum, meaning that they are separated by only a step. The angulation and arching of the dorsal ribs suggest that these animals had a broad (barrel-like) torso. Intercostal uncinate plates were present, attached to the posterior margins of some of the largest dorsal ribs. Their attachment sites are clearly marked, and these plates might have been composed of calcified cartilage in larger individuals. The sacral vertebrae fuse progressively during ontogeny, in an anterior-to-posterior sequence. The sacral ribs are long and robust, and tilt the iliac blade outward dorsally. A sacricostal ‘yoke’ (created by the fusion of the distal ends of adjacent sacral ribs) never forms. The base of the tail has a unique ball-and-socket-style joint between the centra of caudal vertebrae 1 and 2 in only one skeleton. This might have permitted powerful, but controlled, movements of the tail as a defensive weapon (or increased flexibility at the base of the tail, which might have been necessary for reproduction). Caudal ribs are initially long, blade-shaped projections that gradually decrease in size and become stub-like remnants that persist as far back as the midtail (approximately caudal vertebra 25). Haemal arches (chevrons) disappear nearer to the distal end of the tail (approximately caudal vertebra 35). Ossified tendons are preserved as epaxial bundles that are clustered in the ‘axillary’ trough (between the neural spine and transverse processes on either side of the midline). Ossified tendons are restricted to the dorsal and sacral region. Flattened ossified tendons are fused to the sides of sacral neural spines. In life, the ossified tendons might have formed a low-angled trellis-like arrangement.

Appendicular skeleton: The pectoral girdle comprises a long scapula, with a distally expanded blade. The proximal portion is expanded and supports an oblique promontory, forming an acromial process anteriorly and a thick, collar-like structure posteriorly above the glenoid. Between these two features is a shallow basin, bordered ventrally by a sutural edge for the coracoid. The scapula–coracoid suture remains unfused in large (5-m-long) individuals. The coracoid bears a discrete foramen and forms a subcircular dished plate, with the shallowest of embayments along its posterior edge. Clavicles are present as small fusiform bones attached to the acromial process of the scapulae and leading edge of each coracoid. A sternum was reported as ‘some partially ossified element of the endoskeleton’ Owen (1863: 13), but subsequent preparation of the skeleton has removed all trace of this material. The humerus is relatively long and has a prominent rectangular and proximally positioned deltopectoral crest. The ulna is robust and tapers distally, but there is no evidence of an olecranon process. The radius is more rod-like and terminates distally in an enlarged, subcircular and convex articular surface for the carpus. The carpus is represented by an array of five discoid carpals. The manus is pentadactyl and asymmetrical, with short, divergent metacarpals and digits that terminate in small, arched and pointed unguals on digits 1–3 (only). The phalangeal formula of the manus is 2-3-4-3-2. The pelvis is dominated by a long ilium; the preacetabular process is arched, transversely broad, and curves laterally. In juveniles, this process is short and horizontal, but during ontogeny it increases considerably in length and becomes arched. The iliac blade is tilted laterally, meaning that its dorsal blade partly overhangs the femur. The acetabulum forms a partial cupola, and there is a curtain-like medial wall that reduces the acetabular fenestra to a comparatively low, triangular opening between the pubis and ischium. The postacetabular portion of the ilium is long and supports a brevis shelf. The ischium has a long, laterally compressed shaft that hangs almost vertically beneath the ilium, and there is no obturator process. The pubis has a long, narrow shaft and a relatively short, deep, laterally compressed prepubic process that twists laterally (its distal end lies almost perpendicular to the long axis of the ilium). The articular pad on the pubis for the femoral head faces posteriorly. The obturator foramen is not fully enclosed within the pubis, but its foramen is closed off posteriorly by the pubic peduncle of the ischium. The femur is stout and has a slightly medially offset femoral head, and the greater trochanter forms a sloping shoulder continuous with, and lateral to, the femoral head. The anterior (lesser) trochanter is prominent and forms a thick, thumb-shaped projection on the anterolateral corner of the femoral shaft. The fourth trochanter is pendent and positioned at midshaft. In larger individuals, it appears to become thickened and reinforced by becoming coated with metaplastic bone derived from the tendons attached to its surface. The distal end of the femoral shaft is slightly curved and expands to form condyles. There is a deep and broad posterior intercondylar groove, but the anterior intercondylar groove is barely discernible in juveniles and not much better developed in subadults. The tibia and fibula are shorter than the femur. The tibia is structurally dominant, and the shorter fibula is comparatively slender and bowed. The proximal tarsals are firmly bound by connective tissue to the distal ends of the tibia and fibula. The distal end of the tibia is stepped, which aids the firm interlock between the crus and proximal tarsals. There appear to be two roughly discoid tarsals (distal tarsals 3 and 4), and a rudiment of distal tarsal 5 appears to be sutured to the lateral margin of distal tarsal 4. Five metatarsals are preserved, but the fifth is a splint of bone attached to the proximal end of metatarsal 4. Metatarsals 2–4 are dominant, long and are syndesmotically interlocked proximally, but their shafts splay apart distally. Metatarsal 1 is much shorter than the other three, but it retains two functional phalanges (including a short, pointed ungual). The foot is anatomically tetradactyl but functionally tridactyl. The pedal digit formula is 2-3-4-5-0. The digits diverge, but each appears to curve medially along its length, creating the impression of asymmetry. This asymmetry is emphasized, because the three principal unguals are also twisted medially. The ungual of digit 2 is the largest and most robust of the three, whereas that of digit 4 is the smallest and least robust.

The general girth of the torso and the displacement of the abdomen posteriorly (a consequence of the opisthopubic pelvic construction in this dinosaur) constrained the excursion of the hindlimb during the protraction phase of the locomotor cycle. The anterolateral displacement of the hindlimb during protraction is in accord with the freedom of motion that is evident at the acetabulum, the susceptibility of the hindlimb to torsion between and within its component parts, and the asymmetry of the foot. It is probable that thyreophorans (notably, ankylosaurs) used a similar oblique-parasagittal hindlimb excursion to accommodate their equally large and wide abdomens. This surmise accords with the structure of the pelves and hindlimbs of ankylosaurs. Derived stegosaurs might have obviated this ‘problem’, in part, because their hindlimbs were longer and their torsos and abdomens narrower and capable of being ‘stretched’ vertically to a greater extent. Nevertheless, the structure of their acetabula and hindlimbs indicates that the oblique-parasagittal style of hindlimb excursion remained a possibility and might be an evolutionary remnant of the locomotor style of basal, shorter-limbed stegosaurs.

A reconstruction of the endoskeleton of Scelidosaurus is presented on the basis of this updated description. Although quadrupedal, this animal was only facultatively so, judged by its forelimb-to-hindlimb proportions and structure; it therefore betrays bipedality in its ancestry.

Keywords: Dinosauria, Ornithoscelida, Ornithischia, Thyreophora, osteology, vertebral column, girdles, limbs


Dinosauria Owen, 1842 (sensu Gauthier, 1986)
Ornithoscelida Huxley, 1870 (sensu Baron et al., 2017b)
Ornithischia Seeley, 1887
Thyreophora Nopcsa, 1915 (sensu Norman, 1984)

Scelidosaurus Owen, 1859.

  Scelidosaurus harrisonii Owen, 1861. 
Early Jurassic, Dorset, UK.

Etymology: from Greek skelos (σκέλος) = limb or leg and sauros (σαυρος) = lizard/reptile. The epithet harrisonii refers to belonging to James Harrison, the collector. The generic name was probably chosen to distinguish this taxon from the paddle-limbed reptiles that predominate in the Liassic beds of the Charmouth/ Lyme Regis area.

David B. Norman. 2020. Scelidosaurus harrisonii from the Early Jurassic of Dorset, England: Postcranial Skeleton. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 189(1); 47–157. DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz078 

[Botany • 2020] Viola umphangensis (Violaceae) • A New Species from Thailand

Viola umphangensis S. Nansai, Srisanga & Suwanph.

in Nansai, Srisanga, Hodkinson & Suwanphakdee, 2020. 
 วาสุกรีอุ้มผาง  || DOI: 10.1111/njb.02668 

Viola umphangensis S. Nansai, Srisanga & Suwanph., a new species from Thailand, is described and illustrated. Morphological, anatomical and palynological characters of V. umphangensis are compared with a similar species, V. betonicifolia Sm. An amended key to the Viola species in the Flora of Thailand account is provided.

Keywords: anatomical characters, new species, palynological characters, taxonomy, Umphang wildlife sanctuary

Viola umphangensis S. Nansai, Srisanga & Suwanph.

Etymology: The specific epithet refers to Umphang district, Tak province, the type locality of the new species.

Sulisa Nansai, Prachaya Srisanga, Trevor R. Hodkinson and Chalermpol Suwanphakdee. 2020. Viola umphangensis (Violaceae), A New Species from Thailand. Nordic Journal of Botany. 38(4)  DOI: 10.1111/njb.02668  

[Botany • 2020] Salacia megacarpa (Celastraceae: Salacioideae) • A Remarkable New Species of Salacia from the Western Ghats, India

Salacia megacarpa N.V.Page & Nandikar

in Page & Nandikar, 2020. 

A new species of Salacia is described from Karnataka and Kerala states of the Western Ghats, India. It is unique within the genus on account of its obliquely dehiscing anthers and 7–10 cm long, prolate to broadly ellipsoid or ovoid, keeled, greenish‐yellow 5‐ to 8‐seeded fruit with thin epicarp and dry mesocarp. Salacia megacarpa sp. nov. can be grouped with S. fruticosa Heyne ex M.A.Lawson and S. oblonga Wight & Arn. which are the only other species from the sub‐continent which exhibit axillary, ramiflorous, dichotomously branched cymes.

Keywords: branched cymes, dry mesocarp, ellipsoid fruits, endemic, prolate, Salacia


Figure 1:  Salacia megacarpa sp. nov. (A) flowering twig, (B) inflorescence, (C) flower, (D) sepal, (E) petal, (F) stamen, (G) fruit, (H) seed. Illustration: Mayur Nandikar.

Figure 2:  Salacia megacarpa sp. nov.  (A) habit, (B) inflorescence, (C) flower, (D) fruit and seeds.
Photographs by Navendu Page and Mayur Nandikar.

Salacia megacarpa N.V.Page & Nandikar sp. nov.  

Diagnostic characters: A species recognised by its axillary and ramiflorous, branched, 3‐ to 6‐flowered cymes, elliptic‐oblong petals, obliquely dehiscing anthers, large 7–10 cm long, prolate to broadly ellipsoid, or ovoid, distinctly keeled, greenish‐yellow, 5‐ to 8‐seeded fruit with dry mesocarp, thin epicarp and triangular to ovoid or ellipsoid, truncate, ochreous seeds covered with faint reticular meshes.

Etymology: The specific epithet refers to the large fruits; the largest among Indian Salacia .

Navendu V. Page and Mayur D. Nandikar. 2020. A Remarkable New Species of Salacia (Celastraceae: Salacioideae) from the Western Ghats, India. Nordic Journal of Botany. 38(4). DOI: 10.1111/njb.02647

Saturday, May 30, 2020

[Ichthyology • 2020] Trigonostigma truncata • A New Species of Harlequin Rasbora (Teleostei: Danionidae) from Malay Peninsula

 [upper & A] Trigonostigma truncata ปลาซิวข้างขวานใหญ่
[B] T. heteromorpha ปลาซิวข้างขวาน 
Tan, 2020

 Trigonostigma truncata, new species, is described from the coastal swamp forests along the east coast of the Malay Peninsula. It differs from all congeners, in having a gently sloping lateral head and nape shape, the characteristic black triangular marking, newly termed here as the axine, which is large with its caudal apex not reaching caudal-fin base, presence of orange-red colour on the anal fin, a bluish-lilac coloured sheen on body in life, and a shallower body depth as compared to its most similar congener, T. heteromorpha. A key to the genus Trigonostigma and a brief redescription of T. heteromorpha is also included. 

Key words. new species, biodiversity, Southeast Asia, acid waters, Cypriniformes

Fig. 3.  Trigonostigma truncata, new species, live specimen of ca. 30 mm SL (trade material, not preserved).

Fig. 4. A, Trigonostigma truncata, new species, ZRC 54736, 33.7 mm SL, trade material; B, T. heteromorpha, ZRC 61239, 28.4 mm SL, trade material; C, T. espei, ZRC uncat, 28.2 mm SL, trade material (obese individual); D, T. hengeli, ZRC uncat, 23.3 mm SL, Sumatra: Jambi; E, T. somphongsi, not preserved, ca. 15 mm SL (right-side reversed; photograph by N. Panitvong).

Trigonostigma truncata, new species, live specimen of ca. 30 mm SL (trade material, not preserved).
A, Trigonostigma truncata, new species, ZRC 54736, 33.7 mm SL, trade material; 
B, T. heteromorpha, ZRC 61239, 28.4 mm SL, trade material; 

C, T. espei, ZRC uncat, 28.2 mm SL, trade material (obese individual); 
D, T. hengeli, ZRC uncat, 23.3 mm SL, Sumatra: Jambi; 
E, T. somphongsi, not preserved, ca. 15 mm SL (right-side reversed; photograph by N. Panitvong).

Trigonostigma truncata, new species
Rasbora heteromorpha (non-Duncker) – Mohsin & Ambak, 1983: 50 (part); Kottelat et al., 1992: 9, table 1; Kottelat et al., 1993: 63, pl. 18 (part). 
Rasbora cf. heteromorpha – Collins et al., 2012: 10, table 3, supplementary data table S1: 16 (part?). 
Trigonostigma heteromorpha (non-Duncker) – Kottelat & Witte, 1999: 54 (part), fig. 10; Kottelat, 2013: 170 (part); Panitvong, 2020: 142. 
Trigonostigma aff. heteromorpha – Ng et al., 2019: 527 (part). 

Diagnosis. Trigonostigma truncata, new species, is most similar to T. heteromorpha, in having a large black axine starting from approximately mid-body with dorsal apex near dorsal-fin origin, ventral apex near pelvic-fin origin, and caudal apex near caudal-fin base; this axine being the largest amongst all congeners. Trigonostigma truncata differs from T. heteromorpha in the following characters: a gently sloping lateral head profile to pre-dorsal region (vs. a steep convex lateral profile from posterior of head to predorsal region); sub-superior mouth (vs. terminal mouth); caudal apex of axine not reaching caudal-fin base (vs. reaching and extending to hypural plate); dorsal and ventral apices of axine originate posterior to both dorsal-fin and pelvic-fin origins by up to three scale-widths (vs. dorsal apex starting one scale-width posterior to dorsal-fin origin and ventral apex starting at pelvic-fin origin; see Figs. 4, 5); faint or indistinct brown humeral streak just posterior to opercular opening (vs. a distinct black humeral streak); base of dorsal fin hyaline and its middle reddish-orange in life (vs. anterior two-thirds of fin orange-red); presence of distinct orange-red colour on anal fin in life (vs. faint or absence); having a bluish-lilac sheen on the body in life (vs. reddish or purplish sheen); and having a shallower body (depth at dorsal-fin origin 28.3–34.6% SL [mean 32.4], vs. 32.6–38.2% [mean 35.8]).

Distribution. Trigonostigma truncata, new species, is currently known from the east coast of the Malay Peninsula, from south of the Isthmus of Kra in Narathiwat province of southern Thailand to the Malaysian State of Terengganu (Fig. 6). The map in Fig. 6 also shows the distribution of all five species for comparison.

 Field notes. This species is found in lowland freshwater acid swamp-forest stream habitats, usually flowing into riverine habitats. Syntopic species collected from Mae Nam Tod Deng swamp forest in South Thailand include the following: Notopterus notopterus (Notopteridae), Boraras urophthalmoides, Trigonopoma gracile (Danionidae), Kryptopterus minor (Siluridae), Clarias meladerma (Clariidae), Monopterus javanensis (Synbranchidae), Chaudhuria sp. (Chaudhuriidae), Oryzias minutulatus (Adrianichthyidae), Indostomus crocodilus (Indostomidae), Betta imbellis, B. pi, Parosphromenus paludicola, Trichopodus trichopterus, Trichopsis vittata (Osphronemidae), Channa limbata, and C. lucius (Channidae).

Syntopic species collected from Kuala Brang in Terengganu include the following: Osteochilus vittatus (Cyprinidae), Rasbora bankanensis, R. dusonensis, Trigonopoma gracile (Danionidae), Acanthopsoides sp., Lepidocephalichthys furcatus, Pangio cuneovirgata, P. piperata, P. semicincta, P. muraeniformis (Cobitidae), Homalopteroides nebulosus (Balitoridae), Nemacheilus selangoricus (Nemacheilidae), Barbucca diabolica (Barbuccidae), Hemibagrus capitulum, Nanobagrus fuscus, Pseudomystus stenomus (Bagridae), Silurichthys hasseltii (Siluridae), Parakysis verrucosus (Akysidae), Clarias leiacanthus (Clariidae), Neostethus smithi (Phallostethidae), Bihunichthys sp. (Chaudhuriidae), Hemirhamphodon pogonognathus (Zenarchopteridae), Xenentodon canciloides (Belonidae), Doryichthys martensii (Syngnathidae), Brachygobius xanthomelas (Gobiidae), Pristolepis grooti (Pristolepididae), Luciocephalus pulcher, and Parosphomenus paludicola (Osphronemidae).

Syntopic species collected from Dungun swamp in Terengganu include the following: Barbodes cf. binotatus, Desmopuntius hexazona, Osteochilus vittatus, O. waandersii (Cyprinidae), Boraras maculatus, Rasbora einthovenii, R. cephalotaenia, R. paucisqualis, Trigonopoma gracile, T. pauciperforatum (Danionidae), Lepidocephalichthys furcatus, Pangio semicincta (Cobitidae), Homalopteroides nebulosus (Balitoridae), Nemacheilus selangoricus (Nemacheilidae), Neostethus smithi (Phallostethidae), Hemirhamphodon pogonognathus (Zenarchopteridae), Nandus nebulosus (Nandidae), Betta stigmosa, Luciocephalus pulcher, and Parosphromenus paludicola (Osphronemidae). 

Etymology. From the Latin ‘truncus’, meaning cut off, in allusion to the caudal apex of the axine not reaching the base of the caudal-fin. Used as a noun in apposition. 


Trigonostigma heteromorpha (Duncker, 1904) 
Rasbora heteromorpha Duncker, 1904

Distribution. Trigonostigma heteromorpha is the most widely distributed species of the genus, occurring in Malay Peninsula (Perak, Selangor, Negri Sembilan, Johor, Pahang), Singapore, Sumatra (North Sumatra and Riau provinces), Riau archipelago islands of Batam, Bintan, and Lingga, Bangka island and Belitung island (see Fig. 5). In Sumatra, T. heteromorpha is found only in North Sumatra and Riau provinces and is replaced by T. hengeli in Jambi and South Sumatra provinces (Kottelat & Witte, 1999; Tan & Kottelat, 2009).

Tan Heok Hui. 2020. Trigonostigma truncata, A New Species of Harlequin Rasbora from Malay Peninsula (Teleostei: Danionidae). RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY. 68; 421–433.