Wednesday, September 30, 2020

[Entomology • 2020] Contribution to the Knowledge of Rhaphidophorinae (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Rhaphidophoridae) from Thailand: Three Genera Neorhaphidophora, Eurhaphidophora & Minirhaphidophora

Neorhaphidophora siamensis sp. nov., male (46) and female (47); 
Eurhaphidophora tarasovi doitungensis ssp. nov., male (48); 
Minirhaphidophora (Condylophora) ophioglossa subgen. et. sp. nov., female (51); 
 Eurhaphidophora pawangkhananti sp. nov., male (49) and female (50); 

in Dawwrueng, Gorochov, Tanomtong & Suwannapoom, 2020

A new subgenus, three new species and a new subspecies of the rhaphidophorines are described from Thailand: Minirhaphidophora (Condylophora) ophioglossa subgen. et sp. nov.Neorhaphidophora siamensis sp. nov.Eurhaphidophora pawangkhananti sp. nov., and Eurhaphidophora tarasovi doitungensis ssp. nov. Keys to all known species with regard to the genera Neorhaphidophora and Minirhaphidophora, as well as a key to the Thai species of the genus Eurhaphidophora, are provided.

Keywords: Orthoptera, Rhaphidophoridae, taxonomy, Thailand, new taxa

In-situ: Neorhaphidophora siamensis sp. nov., male (46) and female (47); 
Eurhaphidophora tarasovi doitungensis ssp. nov., male (48).

Genus Neorhaphidophora Gorochov, 1999

Neorhaphidophora siamensis Dawwrueng, Gorochov et Suwannapoom sp. nov. 

Etymology The new species is named after “Siam” (the old name of Thailand). 

Genus Eurhaphidophora Gorochov, 1999 

 Thai species of Eurhaphidophora 
Eurhaphidophora pawangkhananti sp. nov.
Eurhaphidophora bispina Gorochov, 2010 
Eurhaphidophora tarasovi doitungensis ssp. nov. 

Eurhaphidophora tarasovi doitungensis Dawwrueng, Gorochov et Suwannapoom ssp. nov.

Etymology The new species is named after the location from where it was collected, Doi Tung Development Project Area.

Eurhaphidophora pawangkhananti Dawwrueng, Gorochov et Suwannapoom sp. nov. 

Etymology The new species is named after Mr. Parinya Pawangkhanant, a young Thai herpetologist who assisted in collecting specimens during fieldwork. 
 In-situ: Eurhaphidophora pawangkhananti sp. nov., male (49) and female (50); 
Minirhaphidophora (Condylophora) ophioglossa subgen. et. sp. nov., female (51).

Genus Minirhaphidophora Gorochov, 2002

Subgenus Condylophora Dawwrueng, Gorochov et Suwannapoom subgen. nov.

Type species Minirhaphidophora (Condylophoraophioglossa sp. nov. 

Etymology The new subgeneric name originated from the Latinized Greek word “condylus” (tubercle) and the generic name “Rhaphidophora”. This is because the male of this subgenus has a pair of characteristic tubercles on its tenth abdominal tergite. 

Minirhaphidophora (Condylophora) ophioglossa Dawwrueng, Gorochov et Suwannapoom sp. nov.

Etymology The name of the new species originates from the Latinized Greek words “ophis” (snake) and “glossa” (tongue). This is because the apical part of the male epiproct in this species is more or less similar to a snake’s tongue in shape.

Pattarawich Dawwrueng, Andrei V. Gorochov, Alongklod Tanomtong and Chatmongkon Suwannapoom. 2020. Contribution to the Knowledge of Rhaphidophorinae (Orthoptera: Ensifera: Rhaphidophoridae) from Thailand: Three Genera NeorhaphidophoraEurhaphidophora and MinirhaphidophoraZootaxa. 4853(2); 235–253. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4853.2.5

[Ichthyology • 2020] Rasbora marinae • A New Species of Cyprinid Fish (Cypriniformes: Danionidae) from northwestern Borneo

 Rasbora marinae 
Tan & Kottelat, 2020


 Rasbora marinae, new species, is described from Brunei Darussalam and northern Sarawak, Borneo. It shares with R. cephalotaenia the colour pattern of a mid-lateral stripe from tip of snout to end of median caudal-fin rays and rows of black spots on the flank, including two rows along edges of the mid-lateral stripe; it differs from R. cephalotaenia in retaining the mid-lateral stripe in adults, and in the absence of a conspicuous black blotch at the middle of the caudal-fin base. 

Key words. Southeast Asia, biodiversity, taxonomy, Cypriniformes, peat swamps

Fig. 1. Rasbora marinae, ca. 60 mm SL; Sarawak: Tatau; freshly caught specimen; not preserved.

Fig. 2. Rasbora marinae, Brunei.
A, ZRC 51189, holotype, 97.1 mm SL;
B, ZRC 51190, paratype, 36.5 mm SL.

Fig. 3. Rasbora cephalotaenia, colouration of freshly caught specimens.
A, Kahayan basin, clear water stream, ca. 50 mm SL;
B, Sebangau basin, black water stream, ca. 60 mm SL.

Fig. 6. Distribution of Rasbora cephalotaenia (squares) and Rasbora marinae (circles) in Borneo and Belitung Island. Hollow symbols represent type localities.

Rasbora marinae, new species

Diagnosis. Rasbora marinae is differentiated from congeners by the following combination of characters: a mid-lateral black or dark brown stripe from the tip of the snout to the end of the median caudal-fin rays; rows of black spots on the flank, including two rows along the edges of the midlateral stripe; lateral line complete, with 30–31 + 1–2 scales; 12 circumpeduncular scale rows. Rasbora marinae is very similar to R. cephalotaenia from which it differs in retaining the mid-lateral stripe in adults (vs. stripe disappearing with increasing size, leaving only the 2 rows of black spots along its edges), and the absence of a conspicuous black blotch at the middle of the caudal-fin base (vs. presence).

Distribution. Rasbora marinae is currently found in Belait and Tutong Districts, Brunei Darussalam; and in Sarawak, north of Tatau basin including Lambir Hills, to Baram basin (see map in Fig. 6; Zakaria-Ismail, 1984; Parenti & Meisner, 1995; Sulaiman & Shahdan, 2003; Tan & Lim, 2007; unpublished data).

Etymology. This species is named for Marina Wong (Brunei Museum, retired) in appreciation of her contributions to the knowledge of the natural history of Southeast Asia and her generous help in organising fieldwork in Brunei for the first author and team.

Tan Heok Hui and Maurice Kottelat. 2020. Rasbora marinae, A New Species of Cyprinid Fish from northwestern Borneo (Teleostei: Danionidae). RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY. 68: 750–758. DOI: 10.26107/RBZ-2020-0086

[Fungi • 2020] Porpidinia brevispora• A New Species and the Second Representative of the Genus Porpidinia (Lecideaceae, Lecanorales) from the Russian Far East

Porpidinia brevispora  Yakovchenko & Davydov

in Yakovchenko, Davydov, Paukov & Ohmura, 2020. 

Porpidinia brevispora sp. nov. from Shikhote-Alin Range, Primorye Territory, Russian Far East is described and illustrated. The new species resembles Porpidinia tumidula morphologically, but is distinct in its spherical to ellipsoid, significantly smaller ascospores that do not overlap in size with those of P. tumidula, as well as a lower hymenium with paraphyses embedded into hyaline gelatinous envelopes, up to 5 µm wide. Porpidinia brevispora inhabits carbonate rocks at low elevations.

Keywords: new taxa, East Asia, Porpidinia tumidula, calciphilous lichen, Shikhote-Alin Range, squamulose growth form, Lichens

Porpidinia brevispora (holotype):
 (A) holotype specimen (LE-L15308); (B) section of thallus; (C) section of apothecium; (D) asci and paraphyses with caps and thick gelatinose envelopes, in lactophenol cotton blue; (E) ascospores.
 Bars: A=2 mm; B&C=50 µm; D=20 µm; E=10 µm.

Porpidinia brevispora Yakovchenko & Davydov, sp. nov.

Etymology: The name refers to the small size of ascospores, an essential character distinguishing this species from its closest relative, Porpidinia tumidula.

  Lidia Yakovchenko, Evgeny A. Davydov, Alexander Paukov and Yoshihito Ohmura. 2020. Porpidinia brevispora, A New Species and the Second Representative of the Genus Porpidinia (Lecideaceae, Lecanorales) from the Russian Far East.   Phytotaxa. 459(1); 75–80. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.459.1.8

[Chilopoda • 2020] An Overview of the Extant Genera and Subgenera of the Order Scolopendromorpha (Chilopoda): A New Identification Key and Updated Diagnoses

Scolopendropsis duplicata Chagas-Jr, Edgecombe & Minelli, 2008

in Schileyko, Vahtera & Edgecombe, 2020. 
The extant genera and subgenera of the order Scolopendromorpha are critically reviewed and provided with updated diagnoses and a new identification key; the most recent revisions of scolopendromorph genera are concisely summarised. Rhoda Meinert, 1886 and Cryptops (Chromatanops) Verhoeff, 1906 are suggested to be a junior synonyms of Scolopendropsis Brandt, 1841 and Cryptops (Cryptops) Leach, 1814, respectively. The subgeneric status is formally fixed for Cryptops (Paracryptops) Pocock, 1891 and Cormocephalus (Campylostigmus) Ribaut, 1923; the taxonomic status of the former genus Kanparka Waldock & Edgecombe, 2012 is discussed. As a result of synonymies, the number of scolopendromorph genera and subgenera is currently 37. The formal status of the former tribes Scolopendrini Leach, 1814, Asanadini Verhoeff, 1907 and Arrhabdotini Attems, 1930 is briefly discussed; the presence of the sexual dimorphism among the taxa of generic level is overviewed.

Keywords: Myriapoda, genera and subgenera, identification key, updated diagnoses, new statuses, new synonymy, Scolopendromorpha, taxonomic notes

general view dorsally; Scolopendropsis duplicata Chagas-Jr, Edgecombe & Minelli, 2008
 (photo by Dr. Amazonas Chagas-Jr.)

Order Scolopendromorpha

Family Scolopocryptopidae Pocock, 1896

Subfamily Scolopocryptopinae Pocock, 1896
Scolopocryptops Newport, 1844

Subfamily Kethopinae Shelley, 2002
Kethops Chamberlin, 1912
Thalkethops Crabill, 1960

Subfamily Newportiinae Pocock, 1896 
Newportia Gervais, 1847
Newportia (Newportia) Gervais, 1847 stat. nov.
Newportia (Newportides) Chamberlin, 1921
Newportia (Tidops) Chamberlin, 1915

The former subfamily Ectonocryptopinae Shelley & Mercurio, 2005
Newportia (Ectonocryptops) Crabill, 1977
Newportia (Ectonocryptoides) Shelley & Mercurio, 2005

Family Cryptopidae Kohlrausch, 1881

Cryptops (Cryptops) Leach, 1814
Cryptops (Chromatanops) Verhoeff, 1906
Cryptops (Trigonocryptops) Verhoeff, 1906
Cryptops (Haplocryptops) Verhoeff, 1934
Cryptops (Paracryptops) Pocock, 1891 stat. nov.

Family Mimopidae Lewis, 2006
Mimops Kraepelin, 1903

Family Plutoniumidae Bollman, 1893
Plutonium Cavanna, 1881
Theatops Newport, 1844

Family Scolopendridae Leach, 1814
Subfamily Scolopendrinae Leach, 1814

The former tribe Scolopendrini Leach, 1814
Scolopendra L., 1758
The former genus Kanparka Waldock & Edgecombe, 2012 (= Scolopendra)
Arthrorhabdus Pocock, 1891
Tonkinodentus Schileyko, 1992
Cormocephalus (Cormocephalus) Newport, 1844
Cormocephalus (Campylostigmus) Ribaut, 1923 stat. nov.
Hemiscolopendra Kraepelin, 1903
Akymnopellis Shelley, 2008
Psiloscolopendra Kraepelin, 1903
Notiasemus L.E. Koch, 1985
Scolopendropsis Brandt, 1841

The former tribe Asanadini Verhoeff, 1907
Asanada Meinert, 1886
Asanadopsis Würmli

Subfamily Otostigminae Kraepelin, 1903
Tribe Otostigmini Kraepelin, 1903
Otostigmus (Otostigmus) Porat, 1876
Otostigmus (Parotostigmus) Pocock, 1896
Otostigmus (Dactylotergitius) Verhoeff, 1937
Digitipes Attems, 1930
Alipes Imhoff, 1854
Ethmostigmus Pocock, 1898
Rhysida H.C. Wood, 1862
Alluropus Silvestri, 1911
The former tribe Arrhabdotini Attems, 1930
Edentistoma Tömösváry, 1882
Tribe Sterropristini Verhoeff, 1937
Sterropristes Attems, 1934

Arkady A. Schileyko, Varpu Vahtera and Gregory D. Edgecombe. 2020. An Overview of the Extant Genera and Subgenera of the Order Scolopendromorpha (Chilopoda): A New Identification Key and Updated Diagnoses. Zootaxa. 4825(1) ; 1-64. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4825.1.1

[Crustacea • 2020] Abortelphusa namdaphaensis • A New Genus and New Species of Freshwater Crab (Decapoda, Brachyura, Gecarcinucidae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India

Abortelphusa namdaphaensis  
Mitra, 2020

A new genus and species of gecarcinucid crab are described here from the Namdapha Tiger Reserve of Arunachal Pradesh, India; Abortelphusa namdaphaensis gen. et sp. nov. is morphologically distinct from other related genera, like Phricotelphusa Alcock, 1909, Globitelphusa Alcock, 1909, Liotelphusa Alcock, 1909, and in having a discrete suite of characters, i.e., carapace squarish, surface randomly pitted, a wide frontal margin ca. 0.5 times the total carapace width; epigastric cristae rugose, post orbital cristae indiscernible; third maxilliped exopod lacking a flagellum; male pleon narrowly triangular, sixth pleonal somite trapezoidal; terminal segment of male first gonopod subcylindrical, outwardly bent, tip not truncated. The relationship of this new genus and species with other gecarcinucid genera from India is discussed.

Keywords: Taxonomy; Gecarcinucidae; new genus; new species; Namdapha Tiger Reserve; India

Abortelphusa namdaphaensis gen. et sp. nov.

  Santanu Mitra. 2020. Abortelphusa namdaphaensis, A New Genus and New Species of Freshwater Crab (Decapoda, Brachyura, Gecarcinucidae) from Arunachal Pradesh, India. Crustaceana.   93(7); 803–817. DOI: 10.1163/15685403-bja10027

[Botany • 2019] Ipomoea vespertilia (Convolvulaceae) • A New Species endemic to Northeast Brazil; revealed by Pollinator Observation

Ipomoea vespertilia D. Santos, G. C. Delgado-Junior & Buril

in Santos, Delgado Junior, ... et Buril, 2019. 

A new and endangered species, endemic to dry forests of the Caatinga Domain in Northeast Brazil is described and illustrated. Ipomoea vespertilia has been misidentified in herbaria as I. marcellia, to which it appears to be closely related. However, it differs consistently from that species in multiple morphological characters and the timing of anthesis.

Keywords: Anthesis, biodiversity, Brazilian flora, cytotaxonomy, integrative taxonomy

Ipomoea vespertilia D. Santos, G. C. Delgado-Junior & Burila.
A. Habit. B. Representative leaf (adaxial surface). C. Flower bud. D. Flower with tubular corolla. E. Outer sepal. F. Inner sepal. G. Corolla and representative stamens. H. Ovary. I. Pistil. J. Fruit. K. Seed. (Drawn from the holotype.).

Ipomoea vespertilia D. Santos, G. C. Delgado-Junior & Buril.
A. Corolla, lateral view. B. Corolla, interplicae area and inserted stamens. C. Inflorescence.

Ipomoea vespertilia D. Santos, G. C. Delgado-Junior & Buril, sp. nov.

Etymology.—The specific epithet “vespertilia” is a reference to the main floral visitors, bats (Phyllostomidae).

Francisco Diego Sousa Santos, Geadelande Carolino Delgado Junior, Mariana Báez, Andrea Pedrosa-Harand, Joel Araújo Queiroz, Zelma Glebya Maciel Quirino, Isabel Cristina Machado and Maria Teresa Buril. 2019. Ipomoea vespertilia (Convolvulaceae), A New Species revealed by Pollinator Observation. Brittonia. 71, 190–195. DOI: 10.1007/s12228-018-09565-6   

Resumo: É descrita uma nova espécie ameaçada de extinção e endêmica do domínio da Caatinga, Nordeste do Brasil. Ipomoea vespertilia estava incorretamente identificada nos herbários como I. marcellia, com a qual parece ser proximamente relacionada. No entanto, além de diferenças morfológicas consistentes, é reconhecida por um período de antese distinto.

[PaleoEntomology • 2020] Ensign Wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) in Dominican and Mexican Amber

 Hyptia mexicana
 Poinar, 2020

Three new species of ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae), Evaniella setifera sp. nov., Evaniella dominicana sp. nov., and Semaeomyia hispaniola sp. nov. are described from Dominican amber and Hyptia mexicana sp. nov. is described from Mexican amber. Diagnostic characters are presented and a key to the species of Evaniidae from New World Tertiary amber is provided. These descriptions show new and possibly unique morphological features of ensign wasps that existed during the Tertiary. The location of possible hosts of Evaniella setifera is suggested based on three alate termites (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) in the same piece of Dominican amber.

KEYWORDS: Evaniidae, ensign wasp, Dominican amber, Mexican amber, Tertiary

 Left lateral view of Evaniella dominicana sp. nov. in Dominican amber. 
Scale bar = 1.6 mm.

Order: Hymenoptera Linnaeus, 1758 
Suborder: Apocrita Gerstaecker, 1867 

Superfamily: Evanioidea Latreille, 1802 
Family: Evaniidae Latreille, 1892 

Genus: Evaniella Bradley, 1905

Evaniella setifera sp. nov.

Type locality. Amber mine in the northern portion of the Dominican Republic. 

Etymology. The species epithet is from the Latin ‘setosus’ = bristly, in reference to the dense coating of microtrichia on the fore wing membrane. 

Evaniella dominicana sp. nov.

Type locality. La Búcara amber mine in the northern portion of the Dominican Republic.

 Etymology. The species epithet refers to the locality of the fossil. 

 Genus Semaeomyia Bradley, 1908

 Semaeomyia hispaniola sp. nov.

Type locality. La Búcara amber mine in the northern portion of the Dominican Republic. 

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the fossil locality.

 Right lateral view of  Hyptia mexicana sp. nov. in Mexican amber.
 Scale bar = 0.9 mm.

Genus Hyptia Illiger, 1807

Hyptia mexicana sp. nov. 

Type locality. Amber mine in the Simojoval area of Chiapas, Mexico. 

Etymology. The specific epithet is based on the locality of the fossil. 

George Poinar. 2020. Ensign wasps (Hymenoptera: Evaniidae) in Dominican and Mexican Amber. Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology.  DOI: 10.1080/08912963.2020.1818075

Salute the venerable ensign wasp, killing cockroaches for 25 million years

[Crustacea • 2020] Madangella koumacensis • A New Species of Palaemonid Shrimps (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from New Caledonia

Madangella koumacensis 
 Frolová & Ďuriš, 2020

A second species of the recently established genus Madangella Frolová & Ďuriš is described from New Caledonia. Although the single available specimen lacks both second pereiopods, the new species distinctly differs from the only other representative of the genus, M. altirostris Frolová & Ďuriš, 2018 from Papua New Guinea, and can be easily distinguished from the latter by the more elongate and distally tapering rostrum, two subterminal ventral rostral teeth, the carpus of the first pereiopod being subequal to the merus length, and the sixth pleomere being short and stout, distinctly less than 2 times longer than deep. The examined specimen was confirmed as representative of a species separate from M. altirostris also by molecular comparisons of the 16S rRNA and COI mtDNA gene markers. The genus Madangella thus currently consists of two southwestern Pacific species.

Keywords: Caridea, Crustacea, Indo-West Pacific, taxonomy

Pavlína Frolová and Zdeněk Ďuriš. 2020. Madangella koumacensis, A New Species of Palaemonid Shrimps (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from New Caledonia. Zootaxa. 4845(2); 253–263. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4845.2.6

Tuesday, September 29, 2020

[Crustacea • 2020] Taxonomic Notes on Alpheus inopinatus Holthuis & Gottlieb, 1958 and Alpheus cf. lobidens De Haan, 1849 (Malacostraca: Decapoda: Alpheidae) from Kuwait

Alpheus inopinatus Holthuis & Gottlieb, 1958

in Anker, Al-Kandari & Grave, 2020. 
Photograph by A. Anker.

The status of the common intertidal snapping shrimp, Alpheus inopinatus Holthuis & Gottlieb, 1958, is discussed based on newly collected material from Kuwait. Alpheus inopinatus was previously confused with morphologically very similar species in the Alpheus lobidens De Haan, 1849 species complex, formerly identified as A. crassimanus Heller, 1862 and herein tentatively referred to as A. cf. lobidens. The material herein examined strongly supports the validity of A. inopinatus based on several morphological characters, as well as differences in the colour pattern, compared to other members of the A. lobidens complex.

Keywords: Crustacea, Alpheus, Alpheidae, snapping shrimp, Indian Ocean, Arabian-Persian Gulf

Alpheus inopinatus Holthuis & Gottlieb, 1958: male from Kuwait,
 OUMNH.ZC.2020-01-001 [fcn KUW-011] —lateral view.
Photograph by A. Anker.

 Arthur Anker, Manal Al-Kandari and Sammy De Grave. 2020. Taxonomic Notes on Alpheus inopinatus Holthuis & Gottlieb, 1958 and Alpheus cf. lobidens De Haan, 1849 from Kuwait (Malacostraca: Decapoda: Alpheidae). Zootaxa.  4851(1); 189–197. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4851.1.10

[Ichthyology • 2020] Nomorhamphus aenigma • A New “Beakless” Halfbeak of the Genus Nomorhamphus (Teleostei: Zenarchopteridae) from Sulawesi

Nomorhamphus aenigma 
Kobayashi, Masengi & Yamahira, 2020

A new viviparous halfbeak, Nomorhamphus aenigma, new species, from the upper stream of the Cerekang River in central Sulawesi, Indonesia is described. The new species is distinguished from all other zenarchopterids by the complete absence of elongate lower jaws. Although secondary loss of elongate jaws is also known from several hemiramphids, N. aenigma, new species, is clearly different from them by having no elongate jaws throughout ontogeny.

Fig. 2 Photographs of Nomorhamphus aenigma, new species, immediately after fixation.
 (A) MZB 25100, holotype (male, 34.7 mm SL),
(B) MZB 25103, paratype (female, 37.8 mm SL),
(C) NSMT-P 136106, paratype (female, 43.0 mm SL).

Nomorhamphus aenigma, new species
Diagnosis.—Nomorhamphus aenigma is distinguished from all other congeners by the absence of any elongation of the lower jaw throughout ontogeny. Nomorhamphus aenigma is also distinguished from all other congeners by a combination of the short and expanded teeth on gill rakers, 22–23 precaudal and 16–17 caudal vertebrae, 13–14 anal-fin rays, 12 segments in the male first anal-fin ray, and distal tips of the male second and third anal-fin rays having no contact with each other.

Fig. 4 Type locality of Nomorhamphus aenigma, Cerekang River, approximately 600 m downstream from Laroeha Village, Luwu Timur District, Regency of Wasuponda, Sulawesi Selatan. Photo taken 3 September 2019.

Distribution and habitat.—Nomorhamphus aenigma is known from the main stream of Cerekang River in Sulawesi Selatan, Indonesia (Fig. 1). The river belongs to the Malili River basin. The holotype was collected from a locality near Laroeha Village. The type locality (2°27′39.7″S, 121°04′03.0″E) is approximately 10 m in width and 1.5 m in depth, partially shaded by forest canopy, and has mud and gravel as substrates (Fig. 4). Nomorhamphus rex (Fig. 7), Oreochromis niloticus, Oryzias dopingdopingensis, Osteochilus vittatus, Redigobius penango, and Telmatherina sp. co-occurred.

Etymology.—The specific name “aenigma,” from ancient Greek noun for “riddle,” refers to the riddle raised by this species: “why are the mandibles of most halfbeaks long?”

Fig. 7 Photographs of Nomorhamphus rex immediately after fixation.
Upper: NSMT-P 136117 (male, 35.5 mm SL),
lower: NSMT-P 136116 (female, 47.6 mm SL).

Hirozumi Kobayashi, Kawilarang W. A. Masengi and Kazunori Yamahira. 2020. A New “Beakless” Halfbeak of the Genus Nomorhamphus from Sulawesi (Teleostei: Zenarchopteridae).  Copeia 108(3), 522-531. DOI: 10.1643/CI-19-313

[Ichthyology • 2020] Pseudanthias timanoa • A New Fairy Basslet (Serranidae: Anthiadinae) from New Caledonia, South Pacific

Pseudanthias timanoa  
Victor, Teitelbaum & Randall, 2020

A new fairy basslet, Pseudanthias timanoa n. sp., is described from 21 specimens, 50.0-79.1 mm SL, collected recently from New Caledonia, in the southwestern corner of the tropical Pacific Ocean. The new species is typically found on deep coral-reef slopes, at depths of 50-100 m. One of many slender, brightly colored fairy basslets found throughout the Indo-West Pacific Ocean, P. timanoa is part of the Pseudanthias lori species complex. It is distinguished from its congeners by the live color pattern, which is bright reddish pink with a series of 7 red-orange bars along the upper body followed by a deeper-red rectangular saddle on the caudal peduncle. Mature males develop a greatly elongated third dorsal-fin spine, up to about 1.5 times head length and long, trailing caudal-fin filaments. The sequence of the mtDNA barcode marker COI for the new species is 10.3% divergent (p-distance) from the nearest relative in the Barcode of Life Database, P. lori, from the Coral Sea and Philippines. The new species appears in the aquarium trade as the Sunrise Anthias. With this discovery, there are now 16 species of Pseudanthias documented from New Caledonia.

Key words: taxonomy, ichthyology, coral-reef fishes, DNA barcoding, goldies, Sunrise Anthias.

Pseudanthias timanoa, fresh paratype, male, 55.1 mm SL, SIO 20-17, from aquarium trade with caudal filaments eroded, collected from Dukati Reef, New Caledonia.
photo: Benjamin C. Victor

Pseudanthias timanoa, Victor, Teitelbaum & Randall 
Sunrise Anthias 

Pseudanthias timanoa with incorrect authorship “Randall, 2014”, a nomen nudum until the present description, Laboute & Grandperrin 2016: 217, fig. a single photograph (without any description in the text, and based on no description, publication, or collected specimen). 

 Diagnosis. A species of Pseudanthias with dorsal-fin elements X,15 or 16 (most 16), third spine greatly elongated in mature males, up to about 1.5 times head length, 2.2 in SL, up to three times length of next spines; anal-fin elements III,7; pectoral-fin rays 18 or 19 (most 19); caudal fin deeply lunate with filamentous tips in mature males (eroded away in aquarium specimens), maximum caudal concavity 3.1 in SL in intact paratype; body elongate, body depth 3.4 (3.2–4.0) in SL; head and body reddish pink with 7 red-orange bars along upper body followed by a deeper-red, saddle-like rectangle on caudal peduncle.

Pseudanthias timanoa (top) New Caledonia (Richard Bajol); 
Pseudanthias lori (middle) Cenderawasih Bay, W. Papua Province, Indonesia; 
Pseudanthias flavoguttatus (bottom) Tanimbar Islands, E. Banda Sea, Indonesia (both Gerald Allen).

Figure 6. Pseudanthias timanoa, school underwater at 74 m, New Caledonia (Pierre Laboute).

 Figure 7. Pseudanthias timanoa, two males and a female (at upper right), with a P. lori at lower left foreground and a P. flavicauda at lower right, about 90 m, New Caledonia (Patrick Plantard).

Etymology. The new species is named timanoa, a euphonious amalgamation of the second author’s three children’s names: Timothée, Maëlle, and Noa. The specific epithet is treated as a noun in apposition.

Benjamin C. Victor, Antoine Teitelbaum and John E. Randall. 2020. Pseudanthias timanoa, A New Fairy Basslet from New Caledonia, South Pacific (Teleostei: Serranidae: Anthiadinae). Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation. 36, 6-15. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.4050419

Monday, September 28, 2020

[PaleoMammalogy • 2020] Rhaphicetus valenciae • A New Longirostrine Sperm Whale (Cetacea, Physeteroidea) from the lower Miocene of the Pisco Basin (southern coast of Peru)

Rhaphicetus valenciae 
Lambert, Muizon, Urbina & Bianucci, 2020

The modern sperm whales Kogia and Physeter (superfamily Physeteroidea) represent highly disparate, relict members of a group of odontocetes that peaked in diversity during the middle to late Miocene. Based on a highly informative specimen (including the cranium with ear bones, mandibles, teeth and some postcranial elements) from the lower Miocene (early Burdigalian, 19–18 Ma) of the Chilcatay Formation (Pisco Basin, Peru), we describe here a new genus and species of physeteroid, Rhaphicetus valenciae gen. et sp. nov. The latter is one of the geologically oldest physeteroids. This medium-sized species (estimated body length between 4.7 and 5.7 m) differs from all other physeteroids by the following, probably autapomorphic, features: a narrow, cylindrical rostrum comprising nearly 75% of the condylobasal length; the two main dorsal infraorbital foramina located posterior to the antorbital notch; an upper tooth count of at least 36 teeth per quadrant; and anterior-most upper alveoli filled by thick bony pads. Our phylogenetic analysis recovers R. valenciae as one of the earliest branching stem physeteroids. The highly unusual filling of the anterior upper alveoli by bony pads is interpreted as part of a mechanism leading to the loss of apical and subapical upper teeth. By comparison with other odontocetes displaying some degree of anterior reduction of the dentition, this condition may have corresponded to the rostrum being anteriorly longer than the mandible. The elongated rostrum with a circular cross-section, the long temporal fossa, and the high number of slender, pointed upper and lower teeth all suggest that R. valenciae used its dentition to grasp relatively small prey, possibly via rapid movements of the head. On the one hand, this new Peruvian record increases our knowledge of the morphological disparity of sperm whales during the Miocene. On the other hand, it may provide clues to the ancestral morphotype for all physeteroids.
Keywords: Burdigalian, dental reduction, functional morphology, palaeobiology, phylogeny, stem Physeteroidea

Reconstruction of the skull of Rhaphicetus valenciae MUSM 2543 (holotype) in right lateral view. Stippled lines for main reconstructed bony parts; dark grey shading for a hypothetical reconstruction of the soft tissue outline of the head, including an anteriorly short spermaceti organ. The anterior tip of the mandibles being missing, the anterior extent of the lower jaw remains unknown.

Cranium of Rhaphicetus valenciae MUSM 2543 (holotype) in dorsal view and ventral view. 

Cranium of Rhaphicetus valenciae MUSM 2543 (holotype) 
in ventral view and right lateral view.  

Systematic palaeontology
Order Cetacea Brisson, 1762
Pelagiceti Uhen, 2008
Neoceti Fordyce & Muizon, 2001

Suborder Odontoceti Flower, 1867b
Superfamily Physeteroidea Gray, 1821

Genus Rhaphicetus gen. nov.

Type species. Rhaphicetus valenciae sp. nov.

Derivation of name. From the ancient Greek rhaphisneedle, and from the Latin cetuswhale: the whale with a needle-shaped rostrum.

Rhaphicetus valenciae sp. nov. 

Derivation of name. valenciae, honouring Dr Niels Valencia Marciano Chacón, a biologist at the Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos studying plant ecology and the director of the MUSM, for his constant support for the palaeontological activities at that institution, including many fruitful palaeontological expeditions in the Pisco Basin.

Olivier Lambert, Christian de Muizon, Mario Urbina and Giovanni Bianucci. 2020. A New Longirostrine Sperm Whale (Cetacea, Physeteroidea) from the lower Miocene of the Pisco Basin (southern coast of Peru). Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. 18(20); 1707-1742. DOI: 10.1080/14772019.2020.1805520

18 Million Year Old Sperm Whale With 'Needle-Shaped' Snout