Tuesday, August 31, 2021

[Herpetology • 2021] Limnonectes bagoensis & L. bagoyomaBioacoustics Reveal Hidden Diversity in Frogs: Two New Species of the Genus Limnonectes (Anura, Dicroglossidae) from Myanmar

Limnonectes bagoensis 
 Köhler, Zwitzers, Than et Thammachoti, 
in Köhler, Zwitzers, Than, Gupta, Janke, Pauls et Thammachoti, 2021. 
Striking geographic variation in male advertisement calls was observed in frogs formerly referred to as Limnonectes doriae and L. limborgi, respectively. Subsequent analyses of mtDNA and external morphological data brought supporting evidence for the recognition of these populations as distinct species. We describe two new frog species of the genus Limnonectes (i.e., L. bagoensis sp. nov. and L. bagoyoma sp. nov.) from Myanmar. Limnonectes bagoensis sp. nov. is closely related to L. doriae whereas L. bagoyoma sp. nov. is closely related to L. limborgi. Results of this integrative study provide evidence for the presence of additional undescribed species in these species complexes but due to the lack of bioacoustical data, we consider these additional diverging populations as candidate species that need further study to resolve their respective taxonomic status. Both new species are distributed in Lower Myanmar. Limnonectes doriae is restricted to southern Myanmar along the Malayan Peninsula whereas L. limborgi is known to occur in eastern Myanmar and northwestern Thailand. The remaining populations formerly referred to as either L. doriae or L. limborgi are considered representatives of various candidate species that await further study. We further provide a de novo draft genome of the respective holotypes of L. bagoensis sp. nov. and L. bagoyoma sp. nov. based on short-read sequencing technology to 25-fold coverage.

Keywords: bioacoustics; cryptic species diversity; Dicroglossidae; genome; Limnonectes bagoensis sp. nov.; Limnonectes bagoyoma sp. nov.; Myanmar; new species; Thailand


Figure 11. Holotype of Limnonectes bagoensis n. sp. (SMF 104090) in life, at its calling site after the covering rocks had been removed.

Figure 10. Limnonectes bagoensis n. sp. in life.
(A) Male holotype, SMF 104090; (B) female paratype, SMF 104091; (C–F) male paratype, SMF 106038.
Photos by Gunther Köhler.

Limnonectes bagoensis sp. nov.
Gunther Köhler, Britta Zwitzers, Ni Lar Than and Panupong Thammachoti
 Diagnosis. A species of the genus Limnonectes to which it is assigned because of its inferred phylogenetic position, males with hypertrophied heads, and the presence of odontoids on the lower jaw in adult males. Limnonectes bagoensis sp. nov. is assigned to the subgenus Elachyglossa because of its close phylogenetic position to the type species of this subgenus (i.e., L. gyldenstolpei). Limnonectes bagoensis sp. nov. differs from all congeners by having (1) a medium body size (males 32–49 mm; females 30–47 mm); (2) slightly enlarged toe disks; (3) adult males with small odontoids in the lower jaw; (4) adult males without a knob-like or flap-like structure (caruncle) in the interorbital and parietal region; also lacking swelling in the occipital region; (5) in adult males head not conspicuously enlarged; (6) webbing formula I 1–2 II 1–2.4 III 1.2–3 IV 3.3–2 V to I 1.8–2.2 II 1.5–2.8 III 2.2–3.2 IV 3.5–2 V; (7) a feeble dermal fringe along the outer edge of Toe 5; (8) male advertisement call consists of two portions that are separated by a break of slightly less than 1 s. The first portion of the call is a single note with a duration of 225–291 ms whereas the second portion consists of 4–9 notes with a duration of 1200 (4 notes) to about 2000 ms (9 notes) with about 4.5 notes per second; the dominant frequency is at 861–990 Hz (mean 945 Hz). Limnonectes bagoensis differs from all other species currently assigned to the subgenus Elachyglossa except L. doriae by lacking a knob-like or flap-like structure (caruncle) in the interorbital and parietal region in adult males (versus such structure present in adult males), and also lacking swelling in the occipital region (versus such swelling present in adult males). Limnonectes bagoensis differs from L. doriae in having a male advertisement call that consists of two portions, separated by a break of slightly less than 1s, the second portion with a series of 4–9 notes at about 4.5 notes per second (versus a single series of notes in L. doriae with about 12 notes per second); gular coloration in adult males not dark (versus gular region dark gray in adult males of L. doriae).

Etymology. The species name “bagoensis” refers to the city of Bago where the holotype of this species was collected, and -ensis denoting place.

Natural history notes. At the type locality at night time, adult males were heard calling on the surface hidden under flat rocks. Figure 11 shows the holotype (SMF 104090) that continued calling even after the covering rocks had been removed. Additional individuals were encountered sitting on the forest floor at night without cover.

Figure 14. Limnonectes bagoyoma n. sp. in life.
(A) Female holotype, SMF 106034; (B) Male paratype, SMF 106035.
Photos by Gunther Köhler.

Limnonectes bagoyoma sp. nov.
Gunther Köhler, Britta Zwitzers, Ni Lar Than and Panupong Thammachoti
 Diagnosis. A species of the genus Limnonectes to which it is assigned because of its inferred phylogenetic position (Figure 1), males with hypertrophied heads, and the presence of odontoids on the lower jaw in adult males. Limnonectes bagoyoma sp. nov. is assigned to the subgenus Taylorana because of its close phylogenetic position to the type species of this subgenus (i.e., L. limborgi; Figure 1). Limnonectes bagoyoma sp. nov. differs from all congeners by having (1) a small body size (males 29.3–30.7 mm; females 23.1–26.6 mm); (2) males with slightly enlarged odontoids; (3) inner metatarsal tubercle large, raised, usually >0.5 length of the first toe; (4) webbing formula I 1–2 II 1–2.4 III 1.2–3 IV 3.3–2 V to I 1.8–2.2 II 1.5–2.8 III 2.2–3.2 IV 3.5–2 V; (5) females with clutches of enlarged, non-pigmented eggs; (6) male advertisement call consisting of a single note with a duration of 220–250 ms and a dominant frequency mostly in the 1300–1400 Hz range. Limnonectes bagoyoma differs from the remaining species of the subgenus Taylorana as follows: from L. limborgi by having a male advertisement call consisting of a single note with a duration of 220–250 ms (versus call consisting of a series of 3–5 notes, each note with a duration of usually >260 ms in L. limborgi), and no dark lateral face mask (versus dark face mask present). Limnonectes bagoyoma differs from L. hascheanus by its larger body size, reaching 30 mm SVL in adult males (versus SVL <26 mm in both sexes in L. hascheanus), and by having more toe webbing, usually three phalanges free of webbing on the medial side of Toe 4 (versus more than three phalanges free of webbing on the medial side of Toe 4). Limnonectes bagoyoma differs from L. liui by its smaller body size, SVL not exceeding 31 mm in both sexes (versus SVL 32.0–38.5 mm in males of L. liui, only female in type series measuring 32.7 mm), toe webbing well-developed (versus rudimentary), and inner metatarsal tubercle usually >0.5 length of the first toe (versus “just half” of the first toe in L. liui). Limnonectes bagoyoma differs from L. medogensis by having the nostril positioned closer to the snout than to the eye (versus closer to eye in L. medogensis), vomerine teeth present (versus absent), venter patternless (versus marbled markings present), toe webbing well-developed (versus rudimentary), inner metatarsal tubercle distinctly shorter than the first finger (versus about length of Toe 1), and tarsal fold indistinct but present (versus absent). Limnonectes bagoyoma differs from L. xizangensis by having the toe tips enlarged into small disks (versus toe tips pointed), vomerine teeth present (versus absent), toe webbing well-developed (versus absent), and the presence of tiny tubercles on the dorsal surface of the shank (versus smooth), venter patternless (versus black reticulated markings present), and smooth skin on venter (granular skin on venter). Limnonectes bagoyoma differs from L. alpinus by having the toe webbing well-developed (versus toe webbing absent in L. alpinus), vomerine teeth present (versus absent), and tympanum distinct (versus hidden).

Etymology. The species name “bagoyoma” refers to the type locality Bago Yoma, a large but relatively low mountain range that runs in a north-south direction between the Irrawaddy (=Ayeyarwady) and the Sittaung River in Myanmar. It is likely that Limnonectes bagoyoma is geographically restricted to this mountain range. 

Natural history notes. At the type locality, the specimens were collected during the daytime in leaf litter in the rainforest. The two males we collected were heard calling before we caught them. Each male was sitting in a shallow depression, covered by leaf litter. Other frog species collected at the type locality include Duttaphrynus melanostictus, Fejervarya orissaensis, Ingerana tenasserimensis, Limnonectes bagoensis, and Leptobrachium smithi.

Gunther Köhler, Britta Zwitzers, Ni Lar Than, Deepak Kumar Gupta, Axel Janke, Steffen U. Pauls and Panupong Thammachoti. 2021. Bioacoustics Reveal Hidden Diversity in Frogs: Two New Species of the Genus Limnonectes from Myanmar (Amphibia, Anura, Dicroglossidae). Diversity. 13(9); 399. DOI: 10.3390/d13090399


[Herpetology • 2021] Phrynomantis newtoniCitizen Science meets Specimens in Old Formalin filled Jars: A New Species of Banded Rubber Frog, Genus Phrynomantis (Anura, Phrynomeridae) from Angola

(4) Phrynomantis newtoni sp. nov., (1) P. affinis;
(3) P. microps; (5) P. bifasciatus 

 Ceríaco, Santos, Marques, ... et Tiutenko, 2021

Three species of Phrynomantis Peters, 1867, have been historically recorded for Angola: P. affinis, P. annectens and P. bifasciatus. As noted by all authors who have dealt with specimens of P. bifasciatus from the country, the Angolan population is characterized by an odd coloration pattern for the species, which led Boulenger to consider it a different variety. A revision of the extant specimens of Angolan Phrynomantis available in natural history collections, specimens collected in recent field surveys, as well as recent sightings and photographs allows the recognition of the Angolan population of P. cf. bifasciatus as a new species, endemic to the coastal lowlands of western Angola. The new taxon is described solely based on its coloration pattern and morphology, and it is separated from nominotypic P. bifasciatus by more than one thousand kilometers. The revision of these historical specimens also allowed us to confirm a second record of P. affinis in the country and to contribute to an overall better understanding of the distribution of the species of the genus on the continent.

Figure 11. Species of the genus Phrynomantis Peters, 1867.
 1, P. affinis; 2, P. annectens; 3, P. microps; 4, Phrynomantis newtoni sp. nov.; 5, P. bifasciatus; 6, P. somalicus.
All depicted specimens are males.

Phrynomantis newtoni

  Luis Miguel Pires Ceríaco, Bruna Santos, Mariana Pimentel Marques, ... and Arthur Tiutenko. 2021. Citizen Science meets Specimens in Old Formalin filled Jars: A New Species of Banded Rubber Frog, Genus Phrynomantis (Anura, Phrynomeridae) from Angola. Alytes. 38(1–4); 18-48. 
A coloração peculiar de uma rã colhida em Angola no início do século XX por Francisco Newton levantou suspeitas. O exemplar desta nova espécie foi batizado com o nome do explorador tripeiro.

[Botany • 2021] Raphiocarpus axillaris (Gesneriaceae) • A New Species of Raphiocarpus from northern Vietnam

Raphiocarpus axillaris D.J.Middleton,

in Middleton, Nguyễn, Trần et Leong-Škorničková, 2021.

The new species Raphiocarpus axillaris D.J.Middleton from Tam Đảo National Park in northern Vietnam is described and illustrated.

Keywords: Conservation assessment, Didymocarpoideae, Tam Đảo National Park, Trichosporeae

Raphiocarpus axillaris D.J.Middleton, sp. nov.
A, Habit; B, flowers; C and D, inflorescences on bare stems; E and F, corolla from the front; G, very young fruit; H, undersurface of leaf.
All photographs of the type collection, taken by J. Leong-Škorničková.

Raphiocarpus axillaris D.J.Middleton, sp. nov.

Affinities within the genus uncertain but differs from all other species by the combination of densely pubescent stems and leaves, symmetrical leaf bases, short axillary inflorescences, narrowly elliptic and densely pubescent calyx lobes free to the base, whitish to pale-pink corolla, and glabrous ovary.

Etymology. The epithet axillaris refers to the short axillary inflorescences in this species.

Habitat and ecology. On rocks in montane evergreen broadleaved primary forest, from 1044 to 1101m.

David Middleton, Q. B. Nguyễn, H. Đ. Trần and J. Leong-Škorničková. 2021. A New Species of Raphiocarpus (Gesneriaceae) from Vietnam. EDINBURGH JOURNAL OF BOTANY. 78, 365: 1–4. DOI: 10.24823/EJB.2021.365

[Crustacea • 2021] Arachnothelphusa rimba & A. bako • On Two New Species of Arboreal Crabs (Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae) from Phytotelms in Sarawak, Borneo

Arachnothelphusa rimba  Ng, 2021

Two new species of the gecarcinucid freshwater crab genus Arachnothelphusa are described from the Malaysian state of Sarawak in Borneo; one from Lanjak-Entimau Wildlife Sanctuary and another from Bako National Park. Arachnothelphusa rimba n. sp. is distinctive in possessing very long legs and a male first gonopod which has a cylindrical proximal part of the terminal segment, with the distal part sharply tapering to an acute tip. Arachnothelphusa bako n. sp. is superficially closest to A. kadamaiana from Sabah, but differs markedly by its narrower epistome, and proportionately shorter third maxillipeds and ambulatory legs.

Keywords: Crustacea, Tree crab, taxonomy, Gecarcinucoidea, semiterrestrial freshwater crab, East Malaysia, Southeast Asia, new species

Arachnothelphusa rimba n. sp.

Peter K. L. Ng. 2021. On Two New Species of Arboreal Crabs from Phytotelms in Sarawak, Borneo (Crustacea: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae: Arachnothelphusa). Zootaxa. 5016(3); 407-418. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.5016.3.6

[Entomology • 2020] Review of the Biology and Host Associations of the Wasp Genus Gasteruption (Evanioidea: Gasteruptiidae)

Lateral habitus of Australian species of Gasteruption to comparing general body shape:
 B, Gasteruption cylindricum; C, Gasteruption zebroides; D, Gasteruption primotarsale.

in Parslow, et al., 2020. 

Scale bar = 1.0 mm.

Gasteruption is an easily recognized genus of wasps whose larvae are predator-inquilines in the nests of cavity-nesting solitary bees (Apidae, Colletidae, Halictidae and Megachilidae), with some records for solitary wasps as hosts (Crabronidae, Vespidae and Sphecidae). There is conflicting information about the biology and host associations for the genus because of a lack of information from the majority of biogeographical regions in the world. Here we concatenate all available literature records pertaining to the biology of adults, host associations and larval development. We conclude that bee hosts are more readily used compared to wasp hosts (71 bee, 13 wasp species), with the majority of wasp observations without sufficient data to be confident of the host association. The majority of known records are for hosts nesting in cavity nests (76 species) rather than ground nests (eight species), with most species recorded from a single host association. From available data, the approximate rates of host nests with parasitized broods are low: 4–7%. We also provide suggestions for improving the quality of future observations in the group.

Keywords: bees, Hymenoptera, kleptoparasite, parasites, parasitoids, predator-inquiline

Ben A. Parslow, Michael P. Schwarz and Mark I. Stevens. 2020. Review of the Biology and Host Associations of the Wasp Genus Gasteruption (Evanioidea: Gasteruptiidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 189(4);  1105–1122. DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlaa005

[Entomology • 2021] Molecular Phylogeny, Species Delimitation and Biogeographic History of the Stegana (Steganina) shirozui Species Group (Diptera: Drosophilidae) from East Asia

Habitus of holotypes.
A, B. Stegana (Steganina) alianya;
C, D. Stegana (Steganinadiodonta;
E, F. Stegana (Steganinazebromyia.
Zhang & Chen

in Wang, Lu, Zhang Chen, 2021.

The Stegana (Steganina) shirozui species group is mainly distributed in East Asia. In the present study, the molecular phylogeny of the S. shirozui group was investigated based on mitochondrial (COI and ND2) and nuclear (28S rRNA) markers. The resulting trees support the S. shirozui group as monophyletic and indicate that in this group, species associated with closer affinities show higher structural homogeneity in male genitalia. Molecular species delimitation assess most species limits and recognize four new species in the S. shirozui group from south-west China: S. alianya sp. nov., S. diodonta sp. nov., S. zebromyia sp. nov. and S. zopheria sp. nov. One new synonym was also recognized. Additionally, three typical male genital characters of the S. shirozui group were placed on the molecular phylogenetic framework. The outcome of both divergence-time estimation and ancestral area reconstruction suggests that the S. shirozui group likely originated in south-west China in the Middle Miocene.

KEYWORDS: biodiversity, biogeography, drosophilid, phylogeny, species delimitation, taxonomy 

Stegana shirozui species group 
Stegana shirozui species group: Chen et al., 2009: 1910.

Stegana (Steganina) alianya Zhang & Chen

Etymology: The name alianya mean ‘sky tree’ in the language of the Dai People, referring to the tall rainforest trees that seem to touch the sky in the type locality of this species. It is a noun in apposition.

Stegana (Steganina) diodonta Zhang & Chen 

Etymology: The epithey is composed of the Greek δύο, two, and οδόντι, tooth, referring to the surstylus with two prensisetae.

 Habitus of holotypes. 
A, B. Stegana (Steganina) alianya sp. nov.; C, D. Stegana (Steganinadiodonta sp. nov.
E, F. Stegana (Steganinazebromyia sp. nov.; G, H. Stegana (Steganinazopheria sp. nov.

Stegana (Steganina) zebromyia Zhang & Chen 

Etymology: The name refers to the tachinid genus Zebromyia Malloch, 1929, which is so named for its striped abdomen (from Greek ζέβραzebra, and μυιαmuscles) referring to the mesoscutum with its longitudinal markings.

Stegana (Steganina) zopheria Zhang & Chen 

Etymology: The name is derived from the Greek ζοφεροςgloomy, referring to the dark mesoscutum.

Ya-Lian Wang, Jin-Ming Lu, Yuan Zhang and Hong-Wei Chen. 2021. Molecular Phylogeny, Species Delimitation and Biogeographic History of the Stegana (Steganinashirozui Species Group (Diptera: Drosophilidae) from East Asia. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 192(3); 998–1016. DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlaa118

[Diplopoda • 2021] Sphaerobelum aesculus & Zephronia viridisoma • Integrative Description of New Giant Pill-Millipedes (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Zephroniidae) from southern Thailand

 Sphaerobelum aesculus Zephronia viridisoma
Rosenmejer & Wesener

in Rosenmejer, Enghoff, Moritz & Wesener, 2021.

Two new species of giant pill-millipedes, Zephronia viridisoma Rosenmejer & Wesener sp. nov. and Sphaerobelum aesculus Rosenmejer & Wesener sp. nov., are described based on museum samples from southern Thailand. Zephronia viridisoma sp. nov. comes from Khao Lak, while the type locality of S. aesculus sp. nov. is on Phuket Island. Both species are described integratively, combining light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, multi-layer photography, micro-CT scans and genetic barcoding. Genetic barcoding was successfully conducted for holotypes of both new species, which could be added to a dataset of all published sequences of the family Zephroniidae, including all described species from Thailand, Laos and Cambodia up to 2020. Genetic barcoding of the COI gene revealed another female of S. aesculus sp. nov., 160 km east of the type locality. Both new species are genetically distant from all other Zephroniidae from Thailand and surrounding countries, showing uncorrected p-distances of 16.8–23.1%. A virtual cybertype of a paratype of Z. viridisoma sp. nov. was created and made publically accessible.

Keywords: cybertype, CT Scan, DNA Barcoding, biodiversity, soil fauna

Class Diplopoda de Blainville in Gervais, 1844
Order Sphaerotheriida Brandt, 1833

Family Zephroniidae Gray, 1843
Remarks: See Wesener (2016a) for a catalogue of the family.

Map of Thailand, collection localities and habitus photographs:
Sphaerobelum aesculus sp. nov., ♀ (NHMD 621694);
Zephronia viridisoma sp. nov., paratype, ♀ (ZFMK MYR8787).
Scale bars = 1 cm.

Genus Sphaerobelum Verhoeff, 1924
Type species: Sphaerobelum clavigerum Verhoeff, 1924, from Vietnam.

Other taxa included: 18 species including the one described below
 (Semenyuk et al. 2018, 2020; Wesener 2019; Zhao et al.2020).

Distribution: Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, China.

Sphaerobelum aesculus Rosenmejer & Wesener sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Differs from all other species of the genus Sphaerobelum in the shape of the posterior telopod, where there is a swelling at the tip of the immovable finger, but the swelling does not extend above the margin (Fig. 5B arrow). Such a swelling is currently unknown from any other giant pill-millipede species.

Derivatio nominis: Named after the horse chestnut tree Aesculus hippocastanum L., for the resemblance of the rolled-up female to a horse chestnut. Noun in apposition.

Distribution: If the female from Khao Luang (Fig. 2A) is indeed conspecific with the male holotype, the species appears to have a wide area of distribution stretching from Phuket Island at least 160 km to the east (Fig. 2). Unpublished data from a larger inventory project (see, e.g., Wesener et al. 2021) of giant pill-millipedes in the surroundings of Krabi, half way between Phuket Island and Khao Luang, did not recover this species among the numerous specimens, hinting at a patchy distribution and specific microhabitat requirements of S. aesculus sp. nov.

Genus Zephronia Gray, 1832
Type species: Zephronia ovalis Gray, 1832.

Other taxa included: 44 species, including the one described below 
(Wesener 2016a, 2019; Semenyuk et al. 2018, 2020).

Distribution: NE India, Nepal, Myanmar, with a few species also in SE Asia.

Zephronia viridisoma Rosenmejer & Wesener sp. nov. 

Diagnosis: Posterior telopod typical for the genus, not differing from those of other Zephronia species. Small (25–28 mm long) green species (Fig. 2B), surface appearing glabrous, dull, with a single medium sized locking carina at the anal shield and a strongly projecting pleurite 1 (Fig. 9A). One of the few Zephroniaspecies with just a single apical spine on the legs (Fig. 9B), differing in this character from all other described Thai Zephronia species which have 2–5 apical tarsal spines. Male antennomere 6 swollen (Fig. 7A) but not axe-shaped, with < 50 apical cones. Endotergum with three dense rows of long marginal setae (Fig. 6B). Palpi of gnathochilarium with sensory cones arranged in clusters (Fig. 8C–D). Anterior telopod podomere 3 with an elevated process at posterior side carrying sclerotized teeth. Podomere 4 short and narrow.

Derivatio nominis: Named after the overall green colour of living individuals of the species, noun in apposition.

Trine Rosenmejer, Henrik Enghoff, Leif Moritz and Thomas Wesener. 2021. Integrative Description of New Giant Pill-Millipedes from southern Thailand (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Zephroniidae). European Journal of Taxonomy. 762(1); 108–132. DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2021.762.1457

[Paleontology • 2021] ‘Dinosaur-bird’ Macroevolution, Locomotor Modules and the Origins of Flight

Coelurosaur phylogeny showing the ‘dinosaur-bird’ transition between the Lower Jurassic and the present.
Grey bars represent the period of existence of the different clades, based on its first and last appearance. Coloured symbols show macroevolutionary events related to each lineage (legend at the top right shows the meaning of each symbol).
The dashed line marks the K-Pg boundary. Silhouettes are not to the same scale but try to represent the trend toward miniaturization along the Mesozoic

in Nebreda, Fernández et Marugán-Lobón, 2021. 

The dinosaurian origin of birds is one of the best documented events that palaeontology has contributed to the understanding of deep time evolution. This transition has been studied on multiple fossils using numerous multidisciplinary resources, including systematics, taxonomic, anatomical, morphological, biomechanical and molecular approaches. However, whereas deep time origins and phylogenetic relationships are robust, important nuances of this transition’s dynamics remain controversial. In particular, the fossil record of several maniraptoran groups clearly shows that aerial locomotion was developed before an ‘avialization’ (i.e., before the first divergence towards avialans), thus earlier than presumed. Although aspects as important as miniaturization and the acquisition of several anatomical and morphological modifications are key factors determining such evolutionary transition, understanding this macroevolutionary trend also involves to seize the evolution of developmental systems, which requires assessing the morphological expression of integration and modularity of the locomotor apparatus throughout time. This is so because, as it happened in other flying vertebrate taxa such as pterosaurs and bats, the transformation of the maniraptoran forelimbs into flying locomotor modules must not only have involved a gradual anatomical transformation, but also a complete developmental re-patterning of the integration scheme between them and the hindlimbs. Here, we review the most relevant aspects of limb morphological transformation during the so-called ‘dinosaur-bird’ transition to stress the importance of assessing the role of modularity and morphological integration in such macroevolutionary transition, which ultimately involves the origins of flight in dinosaurs.

Keywords: Aves, Dinosauria, Limbs, Modularity, Morphological integration, Flight

Coelurosaur phylogeny showing the ‘dinosaur-bird’ transition between the Lower Jurassic and the present. Grey bars represent the period of existence of the different clades, based on its first and last appearance. Coloured symbols show macroevolutionary events related to each lineage (legend at the top right shows the meaning of each symbol).
Flight capacity is based on Pei et al. (2020) and Dececchi et al. (2020). 
Evolutionary radiations are based on Benson et al. (2014) and Puttick et al. (2014). 
Forelimb, hindlimb and hand evolutionary dynamics are based on Benson and Choiniere (2013), Dececchi and Larsson (2013) and Nebreda et al. (2020). 
Finally, neurocranial expansion episodes are based on Walsh et al. (2016), Fabbri et al. (2017), Balanoff et al. (2018) and Beyrand et al. (2019). 
The dashed line marks the K-Pg boundary. Silhouettes are not to the same scale but try to represent the trend toward miniaturization along the Mesozoic

Sergio M. Nebreda, Manuel Hernández Fernández and Jesús Marugán-Lobón. 2021. ‘Dinosaur-bird’ Macroevolution, Locomotor Modules and the Origins of Flight. Journal of Iberian Geology. DOI:  10.1007/s41513-021-00170-3
Macroevolución ‘dinosaurio-ave’, módulos locomotores y el origen del vuelo
Resumen: El origen de las aves a partir de los dinosaurios es uno de los eventos mejor documentados por la paleontología y que más ha ayudado a la comprensión de la evolución en el tiempo profundo. Esta transición ha sido estudiada a partir de múltiples fósiles y ha utilizado recursos multidisciplinares, incluyendo sistemática, taxonomía, anatomía, morfología, biomecánica y aproximaciones moleculares. Sin embargo, mientras que sus orígenes y sus relaciones filogenéticas son robustas, hay importantes matices en esta transición aún controvertidos. En particular, el registro fósil de varios grupos de manirraptores muestra claramente que la locomoción aérea se desarrolló antes que la ‘avialización’ (i.e., antes de la primera divergencia hacia las aves). Aspectos tan importantes como la miniaturización y la adquisición de varias modificaciones anatómicas y morfológicas fueron clave en la determinación de dicha transición, pero entender esta tendencia macroevolutiva implica también comprender la evolución de los sistemas de desarrollo. Esto requiere investigar la expresión morfológica de la integración y la modularidad del aparato locomotor a lo largo del tiempo. Como ocurre en otros vertebrados voladores como los pterosaurios o los murciélagos, la transformación de las extremidades anteriores en módulos locomotores voladores no implica solamente una transformación anatómica gradual, sino también una redistribución durante el desarrollo del esquema de integración que comparten con las extremidades posteriores. En este trabajo revisamos los aspectos más relevantes de la transformación morfológica de las extremidades durante la transición ‘dinosaurio-ave’, enfatizando la importancia de investigar el rol de la modularidad y la integración morfológica en dicha transición, la cual implicó finalmente el origen del vuelo en dinosaurios.
Palabras clave: Aves, Dinosauria, Extremidades, Modularidad, Integración Morfológica

[PaleoEntomology • 2021] The Cephalozygoptera, A New, Extinct Suborder of Odonata with New Taxa from the early Eocene Okanagan Highlands, western North America

Okanopteryx fraseri
& wings of Okanagrion threadgillae

in Archibald, Cannings, ... et Mathewes, 2021. 

We describe the Cephalozygoptera, a new, extinct suborder of Odonata, composed of the families Dysagrionidae and Sieblosiidae, previously assigned to the Zygoptera, and possibly the Whetwhetaksidae n. fam. The Cephalozygoptera is close to the Zygoptera, but differs most notably by distinctive head morphology. It includes 59 to 64 species in at least 19 genera and one genus-level parataxon. One species is known from the Early Cretaceous (Congqingia rhora Zhang), possibly three from the Paleocene, and the rest from the early Eocene through late Miocene. We describe new taxa from the Ypresian Okanagan Highlands of British Columbia, Canada and Washington, United States of America: 16 new species of Dysagrionidae of the existing genus Dysagrion (D. pruettae); the new genera Okanagrion (O. threadgillae, O. hobani, O. beardi, O. lochmum, O. angustum, O. dorrellae, O. liquetoalatum, O. worleyae, all new species); Okanopteryx (O. jeppesenorum, O. fraseri, O. macabeensis, all new species); Stenodiafanus (S. westersidei, new species); the new genus-level parataxon Dysagrionites (D. delinei new species, D. sp. A, D. sp. B, both new); and one new genus and species of the new family Whetwhetaksidae (Whetwhetaksa millerae).

 Keywords: Odonata, Ypresian, Republic, McAbee, Driftwood Canyon, Sieblosiidae, Zygoptera

Okanopteryx fraseri 

Wing of Okanagrion hobani, an extinct damselfly-like insect species, from McAbee fossil beds, British Columbia

Wings of the new species Okanagrion threadgillae, from the Republic fossil site in northern Washington, a damselfly-like insect of the new suborder Cephalozygoptera.

S. Bruce Archibald, Robert A. Cannings, Robert J. Erickson, Seth M. Bybee and Rolf W. Mathewes. 2021. The Cephalozygoptera, A New, Extinct Suborder of Odonata with New Taxa from the early Eocene Okanagan Highlands, western North America. Zootaxa. 4934(1); 1–133. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4934.1.1

[Botany • 2021] Curcuma rangjued (Zingiberaceae) รางจืดขมิ้น • A New Species and A New Record of Curcuma from Northern Thailand

Curcuma rangjued Saensouk & Boonma 

in Saensouk, Boonma & Saensouk, 2021. 
รางจืดขมิ้น || smujo.id/biodiv 

Recent fieldwork to study the species diversity of the Zingiberaceae family in Thailand and preparing a revision of the Curcuma genus for the Flora of Thailand, an undescribed species of Curcuma uses as traditional medicinal for more than two decades well known in the Thai vernacular name “Rang-Jued” was found, this vernacular name is also used to call the other two medicinal plants belonging to different families which are Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. (Acanthaceae), and Crotalaria spectabilis Roth (Fabaceae), thus some villagers are named Curcuma rangjued as “Rang-Jued-Khamin” to communicate specifically identify species in order to use correct species for each utilization. While Thunbergia laurifolia was called "Rang-Jued-Thao", which "Thao" means "vine" refers to its habit and Crotalaria spectabilis was called "Rang-Jued-Ton" which "Ton" means "stem" refers to its erect stems. After comparing this undescribed species of Curcuma with its allies species, we found that this species did not match with any existing taxa, thus described with detailed illustrations, photographs, summaries for its distribution, ecology in the name of Curcuma rangjued Saensouk & Boonma and followed by a new record of C. cordata Wall. for Thailand which in the past has been determined as a synonym of C. petiolata Roxb. but now it is back to a recognized name once again. Both species in this study were found distributed in the northern region of Thailand and belong to Curcuma subgenus Curcuma, their description along with ecology, phenology, and a revised key to 28 species of Curcuma subgenus Curcuma in Thailand are also present for facilitating identification.

Curcuma rangjued Saensouk & Boonma sp. nov.
(A) habit, (B) front and side view of anther, (C) side view of terminal inflorescence in the leaf-sheaths, (D) dorsal corolla lobe, (E) lateral corolla lobe,(F) lateral staminode, (G) labellum, (H) epigynous glands with ovary, (I) calyx; J, bracteole; K, side view of flower.
Drawn by Thawatphong Boonma.

Curcuma rangjued Saensouk & Boonma sp. nov.
 (A) flower-top view, (B) inflorescence with  flowers-top view, (C)  anther -side and front view, (D) rhizome, (E) inflorescence with flowers -side view.
Photographed by Thawatphong Boonma. 

Curcuma rangjued Saensouk & Boonma, sp. nov. 
subgenus Curcuma

Curcuma rangjued is belonged to the subgenus Curcuma according to the presence of epigynous glands, inflorescence with coma bracts, flowers closed-form, anther spurs acuteand downward-pointed. The morphological description in having rhizome pale yellow tone internally and producing terminal inflorescence of C. rangjued make it similar to C. amada and C. sichuanensis, but differ in having non-aromatic rhizome whereas C. amada and C. sichuanensis having a smell of green mango and smell of camphor respectively. Moreover, in having leaf-adaxially sparsely hairy along the vein, peduncle long 25–37 cm long, less number of fertile bracts (7–12 per inflorescence), calyx light pale yellow, 1.64–1.75 cm long, floral tube 3.3–3.5 cm long, corolla lobes hairy at distal part and anther spurs 3–4 mm long which distinguishes C. rangjued from C. amada and C. sichuanensis (Table 1).

Etymology: The specific epithet "rangjued" is derived from Thai vernacular name of this species which means“to make the poison fade or decrease”

Surapon Saensouk, Thawatphong Boonma and Piyaporn Saensouk. 2021. A New Species and A New Record of Curcuma subgen. Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) from Northern Thailand. Biodiversitas. 22(9); 3661-3670.