Tuesday, May 31, 2022

[Botany • 2022] Begonia erythrofolia (Begoniaceae, sect. Platycentrum) • A New Species from southeastern Yunnan, China

Begonia erythrofolia Lei Cai, D.M.He & W.G.Wang,

in Cai, He, Huang, Dao & Wang, 2022.
红背秋海棠  ||  taiwania.NTU.edu.tw

Begonia erythrofolia, a new species of Begonia sect. Platycentrum (Begoniaceae) from Yunnan, China is described and illustrated. Morphologically, it is most similar to B. dielsiana and B. edulis, but differs in having broadly ovate leaves which are undivided or shallowly triangular lobed, crimson on the abaxial leaf surface, and more veins in the lamina. The new species also resembles B. subhowii in its similar leaf shape and in having erect stems when flowering, but differs in its larger leaf size, and smaller bracts and flowers.

Keyword: Begonia daweishanensis, B. dielsiana, B. edulis, B. siamensis, B. subhowii, Flora of Yunnan, new taxon, taxonomy

Habitat and morphology of Begonia erythrofolia Lei Cai, D.M.He & W.G.Wang, sp. nov.
 A. Habitat; B, C. Habit; D. Rhizome; E. Leaf shape and size; F. Leaf shape and deep red color on abaxial surface; G. Stipules; H. Bracts; I. Blooming mature individual; J. Inflorescences; K. Front view of the staminate flower; L. Pistillate flowers, showing different colors; M, N. Fruits; O. Cross section of an immature capsule showing placenta.


Begonia erythrofolia Lei Cai, D.M.He & W.G.Wang, sp. nov. 

Diagnosis: The new species is mostly similar to Begonia dielsiana, B. edulis and B. subhowii in having similar leaf shape and with erect stems when flowering, but differs from B. dielsiana in having leaves undivided or with 3 very shallow lobes (vs. 5–10 lobes shallowly divided), smaller pistillate flowers (21–28 mm vs. 40–50 mm in diameter), the number of pistillate tepals (5 vs. 6, rarely 5) and the color of the lower surface of leaf blade (dark red vs. green); differs from B. edulis in being a shorter plant (16–60 cm vs. 30–150 cm) with smaller leaves (12–30 × 8–25 cm vs. 12.8–43 × 14.5–40), blade undivided or with 3 very shallow lobes (vs. 5–13 shallowly lobed, divided to ca. 1/3 of leaf length); differs from B. subhowii in being a larger plant (16–60 cm vs. 13–28 cm) with leaf blades 12–30 × 8–25 cm (vs. 4.5–9 × 10–11 cm), and smaller bracts (18–26.7 mm vs. ca. 50 mm), and the color of leaf blade (upper surface dark green, abaxially red vs. green on both sides).


Etymology: The epithet “erythrofolia” is derived from two Latin words “erythro” meaning “red colored” and “folia” meaning “leaves” referring to its leaves which are dark red on the abaxial surface. 

Distribution and ecology: Begonia erythrofolia is endemic to China, currently known only from the type locality in karst region of Yunnan Province, Wenshan City, Xinjie Town, Caoguoshan Village, Qiqiutian. The species grows in humid rocky crevices under limestone forest. 

Lei Cai, De-Ming He, Tai-Wen Huang, Zhi-Ling Dao and Wen-Guang Wang. 2022. Begonia erythrofolia, A New Species of Begoniaceae from southeastern Yunnan, China. Taiwania. 67(1); 110-114. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2022.67.110 

[Ichthyology • 2022] Ancistrus luzia • A New Species of Ancistrus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Tapajós and Xingu Basins, Brazil

Ancistrus luzia
Neuhaus, Britto, Birindelli & Sousa, 2022

A new Ancistrus species is described from Tapajós and Xingu river basins. It is distinguished from its congeners by the singular body color pattern, consisting of dark vermiculated stripes almost all over the body, and also by combination of features as a narrow head, large internostril distance, and absence of rows of enlarged odontodes on the lateral plates. In addition, the new species is distinguished from congeners that inhabit the rio Tapajós basin by the presence of a fully-developed adipose fin (vs. adipose fin absent in Ancistrus parecis and A. tombador, and vestigial adipose fin or absent in A. krenakarore). It differs from A. ranunculus, also from the rio Xingu, by the color pattern, smaller body size, smaller gill opening, and narrower cleithral width. The new taxon adds a new record to the list of species shared among the Xingu and Tapajós basins.

Keywords: Amazon; Brazilian Shield; Bristlenose pleco; Hypostominae; Taxonomy

Lateral view of Ancistrus luzia, MNRJ 35505, 71.6 mm SL, rio Curuá, Xingu basin.
A. Preserved specimen. B. Specimen in life.

Ancistrus luzia, new species

Ancistrus L 159. ―Stawikowski, 1994:145 [DATZ magazine, new imports from Brazil, figs. 6 and 7].
Ancistrus sp. “lineolatus”. ―Ohara et al., 2017:259 [identification guidebook from Teles Pires].

Diagnosis. Ancistrus luzia is distinguished from its congeners, except A. claro Knaack, 1999 and A. centrolepis Regan, 1913, by the singular body color pattern, consisted of dark-vermiculated stripes on head, dorsal and lateral plates of trunk (vs. body uniformly colored or with light or dark spots or blotches over head or dorsal and lateral plates of trunk). Ancistrus luzia is distinguished from A. claro by its narrower head (head width 30.8–35.1% vs. 35.2–38.2% HL) and greater internostril distance (18.7–23.7% vs. 14.9–17.0% HL), and from A. centrolepis by the absence of rows of greatly enlarged odontodes on the lateral plates (vs. presence of one to three rows of enlarged odontodes on the lateral plates). Juveniles of A. leucostictus (Günther, 1864) might show lines similar to A. luzia, but color changes to light, large spots as specimens grow. In addition, the new species is distinguished from its congeners that inhabit the Tapajós basin by the presence of adipose fin fully developed (vs. adipose fin absent in A. parecis Fisch-Muller, Cardoso, da Silva & Bertaco, 2005, A. tombador Fisch-Muller, Cardoso, da Silva & Bertaco, 2005, and vestigial adipose fin or absent in A. krenakarore de Oliveira, Rapp Py-Daniel & Zuanon, 2016). Ancistrus luzia differs from A. ranunculus Muller, Rapp Py-Daniel & Zuanon, 1994, the only described species from the rio Xingu, by the smaller body size in adults, smaller gill opening (HL/interbranchial distance equals to 1.7 to 2.0 vs. 2.3 to 3.9) and narrower cleithral width (SL/cleithral width equals to 2.8–3.2 vs. 2.1–2.9).

Color pattern of juvenile specimens of Ancistrus luzia.
A, B. MZUSP 99877, 33.2 mm SL, from rio Teles Pires basin.
C, D. MNRJ 35504, 37.5 mm SL, from the rio Curuá, rio Xingu basin. 

Etymology. Named after “Luzia” (Lapa Vermelha IV Hominid 1), a female Homo sapiens skeleton and one of the oldest human remains found in the Americas (11,000–11,500 years before present), in 1974 and 1975 during excavations coordinated by the French archaeologist Annette Lamin-Emperaire (1917–1977) from the site of Lapa Vermelha IV, Lagoa Santa region, municipality of Pedro Leopoldo, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil (Neves et al., 1999). The skeleton is deposited at Museu Nacional Biological Anthropology collection (catalogue number 01959), Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, and was recovered again after the fire that hit the institution on September 2, 2018 by Museu Nacional Rescue team, becoming a symbol of institutional hope and resilience. A noun in apposition.

Emanuel B. Neuhaus, Marcelo R. Britto, José Luís O. Birindelli and Leandro M. Sousa. 2022. A New Species of Ancistrus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from Tapajós and Xingu Basins, Brazil.  Neotrop. ichthyol. 20(1) • DOI: 10.1590/1982-0224-2021-0129 

Resumo: Uma nova espécie de Ancistrus é descrita das bacias dos rios Tapajós e Xingu. Distingue-se de suas congêneres pelo padrão de colorido único, que consiste em listras vermiculadas escuras em quase todo o corpo, e também pela combinação de características como cabeça estreita, maior distância entre as narinas e ausência de séries de grandes odontódeos nas placas laterais. Adicionalmente, a nova espécie pode ser diferenciada de suas congêneres da bacia do rio Tapajós pela presença de uma nadadeira adiposa totalmente desenvolvida (vs. nadadeira adiposa ausente em Ancistrus parecis e A. tombador, nadadeira adiposa vestigial ou ausente em A. krenakarore). Ela difere de A. ranunculus, a única outra espécie do rio Xingu, pelo padrão de colorido, menor tamanho corporal, menor abertura branquial e menor largura entre os cleitros. O novo táxon adiciona um novo registro à lista de espécies compartilhadas entre as bacias do Xingu e Tapajós.
Palavras-chave: Amazônia; Cascudo; Escudo Brasileiro; Hypostominae; Taxonomia

[Fungi • 2022] Multi-locus Phylogeny unmasks Hidden Species within the Specialised Spider-parasitic Fungus, Gibellula (Ascomycota: Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) in Thailand

Gibellula sp. 

  Kuephadungphan, Petcharad, Tasanathai, Thanakitpipattana, ... et Luangsa-ard, 2022. 
Over 80 species of hypocrealean fungi are reported as pathogens of spiders and harvestmen. Among these fungi, the genus Gibellula is highly regarded as a specialised spider-killer that has never been reported to infect other arthropods. While more than 20 species of Gibellula are known, few attempts to identify the infected spiders have been made despite the fact that the host specificity can help identify the fungal species. Here, we morphologically describe and illustrate eight new species of Gibellula and three new records from Thailand of known species along with the multi-gene phylogeny that clearly showed the segregation among the proposed species. Examination of the Gibellula-infected spider hosts identified Oxyopidae, Uloboridae and, for the first time, the ant-mimicking genus Myrmarachne.

Keywords: Gibellula; araneogenous fungus; new taxa; spider predator

  Kuephadungphan, W.; Petcharad, B.; Tasanathai, K.; Thanakitpipattana, D.; Kobmoo, N.; Khonsanit, A.; Samson, R.A. and Luangsa-ard, J.J. 2022. Multi-locus Phylogeny unmasks Hidden Species within the Specialised Spider-parasitic Fungus, Gibellula (Hypocreales, Cordycipitaceae) in Thailand.   Studies in Mycology. DOI: 10.3114/sim.2022.101.04

[Mammalogy • 2022] Macaca selai • A Distinct Phylogenetic Species (Primates: Cercopithecidae) that evolved from the Arunachal Macaque following Allopatric Speciation

Macaca selai
 Ghosh, Thakur, Singh, Dutta, Sharma, Chandra & Banerjee, 2022
 Sela Macaque  ||  DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2022.107513

• Arunachal macaque showed ample genetic polymorphism, and evolved into two phylogenetic species.
• Allopatric speciation driven by the sela mountain pass.
• A new species, Macaca selai described based on phylogenetic species concept.
• Novel findings imperative for conservation planning and management of Arunachal macaque.

Arunachal macaque (M. munzala) is an endangered and recently discovered cercopithecine primate from Western Arunachal Pradesh, India. On genetic analyses of Arunachal macaques, we observed spatially distributed substantial inter-species genetic divergence among the samples collected from Arunachal Pradesh. The results suggested that Arunachal macaque evolved into two phylogenetic species about 1.96 mya following allopatric speciation by means of Sela mountain pass in Arunachal Pradesh, India. We describe - Sela macaque (Macaca selai) as a new macaque species that interestingly exhibited high intra-specific genetic variation and also harbors at least two conservation units. Further, we report the past demographic trajectories and quantify genetic variation required for taxonomic clarification. The present study also identifies gap areas for undertaking surveys to document the relic and unknown trans-boundary populations of macaques through multinational, multi-lateral cross border collaboration.
Keywords: Arunachal macaque, Sela macaque, Eastern Himalayas, Sela mountain pass, Allopatric speciation, Taxonomic revision

Order Primates Linnaeus, 1758

Superfamily Cercopithecoidea Gray, 1821
Family Cercopithecidae Gray, 1821

Genus Macaca Lacépèpde, 1799

Macaca selai species novum

Etymology: The proposed specific name for the taxon is derived from a local tribal woman ‘Sela’. The ‘Sela pass’ named after her who supported Indian soldier during the attack and invasion by Chinese army in Tawang, Arunachal Pradesh. For giving respect to the brave local girl-Sela, we chose her name to the newly defined macaque species which also a phylogenetic divergent of Arunachal macaque.

Population demography and phylogenetic position of Arunachal macaque and Sela macaque.
 (a) Bayesian skyline plots showing the trend of effective population size (Ne) of Arunachal macaque and Sela macaque. T is generation time. M. munzala and West Kameng population of M. selai showed declining trend of effective population size since last 2000 years while Upper Subansiri pop of M. selai showed expansion in last 8000 years followed by very recent decline. Scale in years.
(b) Bayesian phylogenetic tree of ‘sinica’ group of macaques using mitochondrial d-loop sequences. Rhesus macaque (M. mulatta) was considered as an outgroup. Three groups, i.e., M. munzala from Tawang, Upper Subansiri and West Kameng populations of M. selai showed significant divergence in term of their origin. Node time given in million years.

Avijit Ghosh, Mukesh Thakur, Sujeet K. Singh, Ritam Dutta,Lalit K. Sharma, Kailash Chandra and Dhriti Banerjee. 2022. The Sela Macaque (Macaca selai) is A Distinct Phylogenetic Species that evolved from the Arunachal Macaque following Allopatric Speciation. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. In Press, 107513. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2022.107513

 [Botany • 2022] Fordiophyton tereticaule (Melastomataceae: Sonerileae) • A New Species from Yunnan, China

Fordiophyton tereticaule S.Jin Zeng & N.H.Xia, 
in Zeng, Tong & Xia, 2022. 
圆茎异药花  ||  DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.197.82670

A new species, Fordiophyton tereticaule, from China, is described and illustrated here based on morphological and molecular evidence. It is morphologically similar to F. faberi in having erect stems, slightly oblique and membranous leaf blades, broadly ovate to suborbicular bracts, and oblong petals, but differs by the terete stems, densely puberulous petioles, and elliptic leaf blades. Our phylogenetic analyses based on plastid genome and nrITS data indicate that this new species is clustered with four Fordiophyton species of Yunnan but placed far apart from F. faberi. An updated key to the genus is also provided.

Keywords: phylogeny, Sonerileae, taxonomy, Yunnan

Fordiophyton tereticaule S.Jin Zeng & N.H.Xia
 A flowering plants B part of stem with a pair of petioles C a pair of leaves
D cymose inflorescence with flower buds E cymose inflorescence, oblique view F an opening flower, front view
G an opening flower, side view H infructescence, side view I young fruits, top view.

Fordiophyton tereticaule S.Jin Zeng & N.H.Xia 
A fruiting branch B part of stem with one petiole C part of leaf blade, adaxial view D cymose inflorescence with opening flowers E calyx lobe F petal G longer stamen, front view (left) and side view (right) H shorter stamen, front view (left) and back view (right).
Drawn by Ding-Han Cui.

 Fordiophyton tereticaule S.Jin Zeng & N.H.Xia, sp. nov.
 Verbatim name: 圆茎异药花

Diagnosis: Similar to F. faberi in having erect stems, membranous leaf blades, and oblong petals, but differs by the terete (vs. quadrangular) stems, densely puberulous (vs. green and glabrous or shortly setose near leaf blade base) petioles, and elliptic (vs. broadly lanceolate, oblong, ovate, or rarely lanceolate) leaf blades.

Distribution and habitat: Fordiophyton tereticaule is only known from Malipo County, Yunnan, China. It grows in broad-leaved evergreen forests at elevations of 1260–1540 m.

Etymology: The specific epithet refers to the terete stem.

Si-Jin Zeng, Yi-Hua Tong and Nian-He Xia. 2022. Fordiophyton tereticaule (Melastomataceae), A New Species from China. PhytoKeys. 197: 59-69.  DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.197.82670

[Botany • 2022] Isotrema putalengense (Aristolochiaceae) • A New Species from northern Vietnam and Two New Combinations in Isotrema

Isotrema putalengense Luu, Q.B.Nguyen & H.C.Nguyen, 
in Nguyen, Nguyen, ... & Luu. 2022. 
Phòng kỷ Pu Ta Leng  ||  DOI:  10.3897/phytokeys.197.73596

Isotrema putalengense Luu, Q.B.Nguyen & H.C.Nguyen is described as a new species from northern Vietnam. It looks most morphologically like I. wardianum but is distinguishable by a combination of different leafy and floral characters. Morphological comparison between the new plant and closest species is provided. In addition, combinations of two recently described Aristolochia species are made, namely Isotrema vuquangense (T.V.Do) Luu, Q.B.Nguyen & H.C.Nguyen and Isotrema yachangense (B.G.Huang, Yan Liu & Y.S.Huang) Luu, Q.B.Nguyen & H.C.Nguyen.

Keywords: Aristolochia, Isotrema vuquangense, Isotrema yachangense, Pu Ta Leng Mountain, Siphisia

Isotrema putalengense Luu, Q.B.Nguyen & H.C.Nguyen 
A habit B leaf C leaf lamina, adaxial surface D leaf lamina, abaxial surface E flower, side view F flower, front view G bracteole H perianth, longitudinal dissection I utricle, inside J ovary, cross section K gynostemium, side view L stigma, view from above M stem, cross section.
 Photographs by Hieu Cuong Nguyen from SH992 at the type locality.

Isotrema putalengense Luu, Q.B.Nguyen & H.C.Nguyen, sp. nov.
Diagnosis: The new species is most morphologically similar to I. wardianum in the shape of leaves and flowers but differs in having densely brown villous (vs. abaxially light brown villous) bracteoles, flowers on old woody stems (vs. in axils of leafy shoots), basally truncate perianth limb that is ovoid in front view and with purple apex (vs. basally obtuse, oblong in front view and with yellow apex), indistinct (vs. distinct) utricle from lower tube, U-shaped (vs. V-shaped) tube notch and internally black purple (vs. purple) tube.

Etymology: The specific epithet refers to the type locality, Pu Ta Leng Mountain which is part of the Hoang Lien Son Mountain Range and located about 30 km northwest of Vietnam’s highest Mt. Fan Si Pan.

Common and vernacular names: Putaleng’s pipevine 
(Vietnamese name: Phòng kỷ Pu Ta Leng).

New combinations for some species of Isotrema
As a result of their study, Zhu et al. (2019a) has already transferred almost all species of Aristolochia subgenus Siphisia to Isotrema. Another four combinations were made for later described species (Wang et al. 2020a). Following this generic concept, here we propose new combinations for the other taxa of the subgenus that were described recently.

 Isotrema vuquangense (T.V.Do) Luu, Q.B.Nguyen & H.C.Nguyen, comb. nov.
 ≡ Aristolochia vuquangensis T.V.Do. Phytotaxa 500 (1): 41. 2021.

 Isotrema yachangense (B.G.Huang, Yan Liu & Y.S.Huang) Luu, Q.B.Nguyen & H.C.Nguyen, comb. nov. 
Aristolochia yachangensis B.G.Huang, Yan Liu & Y.S.Huang. PhytoKeys 153: 51. 2020.

 Quoc Binh Nguyen, Hieu Cuong Nguyen, Duc Binh Tran, Phuong Hanh Nguyen and Hong Truong Luu. 2022. Isotrema putalengense, A New Species of Aristolochiaceae from northern Vietnam and Two New Combinations in IsotremaPhytoKeys. 197: 71-79. DOI:  10.3897/phytokeys.197.73596

Monday, May 30, 2022

[Botany • 2022] Microlicia piauiensis (Melastomataceae: Microlicieae) • A New Species endemic to Serra das Confusões expands the Range of the Genus to Piauí, Brazil

Microlicia piauiensis R.Pacifico & Almeda, 

in Pacifico & Almeda, 2022. 

Microlicia piauiensis is described as a new species from Serra das Confusões, a mountainous region located in a transition zone between the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) and the Caatinga (deciduous bushland in semi-arid areas) domains. Microlicia piauiensis can be recognized by its branchlets, leaves and hypanthia that are glandular-punctate and covered with gland-tipped trichomes, leaves on short petioles, revolute leaf margins, oblong calyx lobes, magenta petals that are yellow at the base, and isomorphic stamens with small but discernible appendages at the ventral base of the pedoconnectives. Microlicia piauiensis has a distribution that is more than 400 kms distant from all areas of endemism previously identified for the tribe Lavoisiereae. It is the first species of Melastomataceae reported as endemic to Piauí. Photos of living and dried specimens are provided, as well as a distribution map, and morphological comparisons with putative relatives. A conservation status of Endangered is suggested for M. piauiensis.
Keywords: Caatinga, campo rupestre, Cerrado, endemism, Lavoisiereae, Eudicots 

  Microlicia piauiensis, images of dried specimens.
 A. Habit. B. Apical branch. C. Basal branch with corky bark peeling away. D. Leaf abaxial surface. E. Leaf adaxial surface. F. Floral bud. G. Petal. H. Stamen (profile view). I. Capsule. J. Seed.
 Photos taken from the holotype. 
Scale bars: A: 2 cm; B-C: 4 mm; D-J: 2 mm.

Microlicia piauiensis, photos of living specimens and type locality.
A. Habit of a fruiting specimen. B. Close-up of a 3-locular capsule. C. Close-up of a 4-locular capsule. D. Flowering branch. E. Frieseomelitta varia (Apidae) pollinating a flower. F. Landscape with rocky sandstone outcrops at the Serra das Confusões.
Photos A-E by José Alves Siqueira Filho, F by Antonio Nogueira. 
Voucher specimens: A-C, J.A. Siqueira Filho 2632 et al. (HVASF); D-E, J.A. Siqueira Filho 3027 et al. (HVASF).

Microlicia piauiensis R.Pacifico & Almeda, sp. nov.

Diagnosis:—Microlicia piauiensis can be recognized by its branchlets, leaves and hypanthia that are glandular-punctate and covered with gland-tipped trichomes 0.2–0.4 mm long, leaves on short petioles 0.1–0.3 mm long, revolute leaf margins, oblong calyx lobes 2–2.5 mm long, magenta petals that are yellow at the base, and isomorphic stamens with small ventral appendages at the base of the pedoconnectives. 

Ricardo Pacifico and Frank Almeda. 2022. A New Species of Microlicia (Melastomataceae) endemic to Serra das Confusões expands the Range of the Genus to Piauí, Brazil. Phytotaxa. 548(1); 73-81. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.548.1.6  

Sunday, May 29, 2022

[Ichthyology • 2022] Evolutionary Relationships of Anglerfishes (Lophiiformes) reconstructed using Ultraconserved Elements

Evolutionary Relationships of Anglerfishes (Lophiiformes) 

in Hart, Arnold, Alda, Kenaley, ... et Chakrabarty, 2022. 

• The evolutionary history of anglerfishes is unclear.
• We constructed molecular phylogenies of Lophiiformes using UCE loci.
• We recovered novel topologies for the Ceratioidei deep-sea anglerfishes.
• Three new frogfish families were proposed and Antennariidae was re-evaluated.
• We resolved relationships among frogfishes but deep-sea anglers remain uncertain.

The macroevolutionary consequences of evolving in the deep-sea remain poorly understood and are compounded by the fact that convergent adaptations for living in this environment makes elucidating phylogenetic relationships difficult. Lophiiform anglerfishes exhibit extreme habitat and predatory specializations, including the use of a fin-spine system as a luring device and unique reproductive strategies where parasitic males attach and fuse to females. Despite their notoriety for these odd characteristics, evolutionary relationships among these fishes remain unclear. We sought to clarify the evolutionary history of Lophiiformes using data from 1000 ultraconserved elements and phylogenomic inference methods with particular interest paid to the Ceratioidei (deep-sea anglerfishes) and Antennarioidei (frogfishes and handfishes). At the suborder level, we recovered similar topologies in separate phylogenomic analyses: The Lophioidei (monkfishes) are the sister group to the rest of the Lophiiformes, Ogcocephaloidei (batfishes) and Antennarioidei (frogfishes) form a sister group, and Chaunacioidei (coffinfishes) and Ceratioidei (deep-sea anglerfishes) form a clade. The relationships we recover within the ceratioids disagree with most previous phylogenetic investigations, which used legacy phylogenetic markers or morphology. We recovered non-monophyletic relationships in the Antennarioidei and proposed three new families based on molecular and morphological evidence: Histiophrynidae, Rhycheridae, and Tathicarpidae. Antennariidae was re-evaluated to include what was known as Antennariinae, but not Histiophryninae. Non-bifurcating signal in splits network analysis indicated reticulations among and within suborders, supporting the complicated history of the Lophiiformes previously found with morphological data. Although we resolve relationships within Antennarioidei, Ceratioidei relationships remain somewhat unclear without better taxonomic sampling.
Keywords: Phylogenomics, UCEs, Target capture, Next-generation sequencing, Deep sea

Pamela B. Hart, Rachel J. Arnold, Fernando Alda, Christopher P. Kenaley, Theodore W. Pietsch, Destinee Hutchinson and Prosanta Chakrabarty. 2022. Evolutionary Relationships of Anglerfishes (Lophiiformes) reconstructed using Ultraconserved Elements. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 171; 107459. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2022.107459  

[Botany • 2022] Pachygenium laurense (Orchidaceae: Spiranthinae) • A New Orchid Species from Argentina—Morphological Evidence and Phylogenetic Reconstruction

Pachygenium laurense C.M. Martín & Szlach.,  

in Martin, Morales, Dudek & Szlachetko, 2022. 
photos by Claudia M. Martín

Background: Pachygenium embraces a group of terrestrial species formerly placed in Pelexia sensu lato. The genus currently comprises some 60 species, most of which are known from the southern parts of Brazil and Paraguay, with few species distributed in the Andean countries—only four species have been recorded from Argentina so far. In Jujuy Province, Argentina a new species of Pachygenium was found during our fieldwork. The aim of this article was to provide morphological and molecular evidence for its membership in this genus.

Methods: Materials from specimens were collected in the field and examined by classical taxonomic and molecular biological techniques, e.g., PCR and sequencing DNA. Phylogenetic reconstruction was performed by maximum-likelihood and Bayesian inference.

Results: Pachygenium laurense from Argentina is described and illustrated based on morphological evidence and its taxonomic position was confirmed by phylogenetic analyses. A new combination for Pachygenium gutturosa is also proposed. A key for identification is provided for the Pachygenium species occurring in Argentina.

Conclusion: Pachygenium laurense is the fifth species of the genus recorded from Argentina.

Pachygenium laurense C.M. Martín & Szlach., in situ.
(A) Habitat. (B) Leaves. (C) Inflorescence buds (photos by Claudia M. Martín).

Floral structures of Pachygenium laurense C.M. Martín & Szlach.
(A) (E) Inflorescence, lateral view (B) Inflorescence, top view. (C) Flower, front view. (D) Flower, lateral view
(photos by Claudia M. Martín).

Drawing of Pachygenium laurense C.M. Martín & Szlach. 
 (A) Habit. (B) Flower, lateral view. (C) Dorsal sepal. (D) Lateral sepals. (E) Petal. (F) Lip. (G) Pollinarium. (H) Gynostemium, front and back view
(drawn by Adriana M. Morales).

Pachygenium laurense C.M. Martín & Szlach. sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Species leafless at anthesis, with very characteristic arrangements of the flowers in inflorescence, ecallose, undivided lip, and narrow, slender gynostemium.

Etymology: The name of the species refers to the place where it was collected for the first time (Estancia Las Lauras).

Pachygenium gutturosa (Rchb.f.) Szlach., Dudek & C.M. Martín, comb. nov. 

 Claudia M. Martin, Adriana Marisel Morales, Magdalena Dudek and Dariusz L. Szlachetko. 2022. Pachygenium laurense (Orchidaceae, Spiranthinae), A New Orchid Species from Argentina—Morphological Evidence and Phylogenetic Reconstruction. PeerJ. 10:e13433 . DOI: 10.7717/peerj.13433


Saturday, May 28, 2022

[PaleoMammalogy • 2022] Sivatupaia ramnagarensis • A New Genus of Treeshrew and Other Micromammals from the middle Miocene Hominoid Locality of Ramnagar, Udhampur District, Jammu and Kashmir, India

Sivatupaia ramnagarensis
Sehgal, Singh, Gilbert, Patel, Campisano, ... & Singh, 2022

The fossil record of treeshrews, hedgehogs, and other micromammals from the Lower Siwaliks of India is sparse. Here, we report on a new genus and species of fossil treeshrew, specimens of the hedgehog Galerix, and other micromammals from the middle Miocene (Lower Siwalik) deposits surrounding Ramnagar (Udhampur District, Jammu and Kashmir), at a fossil locality known as Dehari. The treeshrew from Dehari (Sivatupaia ramnagarensis n. gen. n. sp.) currently represents the oldest record of fossil tupaiids in the Siwaliks, extending their time range by ca. 2.5–4.0 Myr in the region. Dietary analyses suggest that the new tupaiid was likely adapted for a less mechanically challenging or more frugivorous diet compared to other extant and fossil tupaiids. The occurrence of Galerix has only been recently documented from the Indian Siwaliks and the Dehari specimens help establish the likely presence of a relatively large Siwalik Galerix species in the Ramnagar region. In addition to the new treeshrew and hedgehogs, new specimens of the rodents Kanisamys indicus, Sayimys sivalensis, and Murinae indet. from Dehari help confirm that age estimates for the Ramnagar region are equivalent to the Chinji Formation in Pakistan, most likely corresponding to the middle to upper part of the Chinji Formation.

Sivatupaia ramnagarensis n. gen. n. sp.

Ramesh Kumar Sehgal, Abhishek Pratap Singh, Christopher C. Gilbert, Biren A. Patel, Christopher J. Campisano, Keegan R. Selig, Rajeev Patnaik and Ningthoujam Premjit Singh. 2022. A New Genus of Treeshrew and Other Micromammals from the middle Miocene Hominoid Locality of Ramnagar, Udhampur District, Jammu and Kashmir, India. Journal of Paleontology.  First View. DOI: 10.1017/jpa.2022.41

[Herpetology • 2022] Gephyromantis fiharimpe, G. matsilo, etc. • An Integrative Taxonomic Revision and Redefinition of Gephyromantis (Laurentomantis) malagasius (Anura: Mantellidae) based on Archival DNA Analysis reveals Four New mantellid Frog Species from Madagascar


Gephyromantis fiharimpeG. matsilo,
 G. oelkrugi & G. portonae 
 Vences, Köhler, Crottini, Hofreiter, Hutter, du Preez, Preick, Rakotoarison, Rancilhac, Raselimanana, Rosa, Scherz & Glaw, 2022

The subgenus Laurentomantis in the genus Gephyromantis contains some of the least known amphibian species of Madagascar. The six currently valid nominal species are rainforest frogs known from few individuals, hampering a full understanding of the species diversity of the clade. We assembled data on specimens collected during field surveys over the past 30 years and integrated analysis of mitochondrial and nuclear-encoded genes of 88 individuals, a comprehensive bioacoustic analysis, and morphological comparisons to delimit a minimum of nine species-level lineages in the subgenus. To clarify the identity of the species Gephyromantis malagasius, we applied a target-enrichment approach to a sample of the 110 year-old holotype of Microphryne malagasia Methuen and Hewitt, 1913 to assign this specimen to a lineage based on a mitochondrial DNA barcode. The holotype clustered unambiguously with specimens previously named G. ventrimaculatus. Consequently we propose to consider Trachymantis malagasia ventrimaculatus Angel, 1935 as a junior synonym of Gephyromantis malagasius. Due to this redefinition of G. malagasius, no scientific name is available for any of the four deep lineages of frogs previously subsumed under this name, all characterized by red color ventrally on the hindlimbs. These are here formally named as Gephyromantis fiharimpe sp. nov., G. matsilo sp. nov., G. oelkrugi sp. nov., and G. portonae sp. nov. The new species are distinguishable from each other by genetic divergences of >4% uncorrected pairwise distance in a fragment of the 16S rRNA marker and a combination of morphological and bioacoustic characters. Gephyromantis fiharimpe and G. matsilo occur, respectively, at mid-elevations and lower elevations along a wide stretch of Madagascar’s eastern rainforest band, while G. oelkrugi and G. portonae appear to be more range-restricted in parts of Madagascar’s North East and Northern Central East regions. Open taxonomic questions surround G. horridus, to which we here assign specimens from Montagne d’Ambre and the type locality Nosy Be; and G. ranjomavo, which contains genetically divergent populations from Marojejy, Tsaratanana, and Ampotsidy.

Keywords: Amphibia, Anura, archival DNA, Mantellidae, new species, phylogeography

Gephyromantis horridus (Boettger, 1880)

Gephyromantis ranjomavo Glaw and Vences, 2011

Gephyromantis striatus (Vences, Glaw, Andreone, Jesu and Schimmenti, 2002)

Gephyromantis marokoroko Hutter, Andriampenomanana, Andrianasolo, Cobb, Razafindraibe, Abraham and Lambert, 2022

Gephyromantis malagasius (Methuen and Hewitt, 1913)

 Gephyromantis matsilo sp. nov. (lineage A) in life in dorsolateral view.
 Specimen from Ambodiriana probably corresponding to tissue sample PSG 1015.  

Gephyromantis matsilo sp. nov. (lineage A)

Etymology: The species epithet is derived from the Malagasy adjective matsilo (spiny) and refers to the spiny tubercles on the dorsum of this frog. The name is used as a noun in apposition.

  Gephyromantis fiharimpe sp. nov. (lineage B) in life
 Adult male from Ranomafana, photographed 2003. 

Gephyromantis fiharimpe sp. nov. (lineage B)

Etymology: The species epithet is derived from the Malagasy words fihary (gland) and fe (leg) which written together become fiharim-pe according to Malagasy grammar. The name makes reference to the tibial gland of the species, and is used as a noun in apposition.

 Gephyromantis oelkrugi sp. nov. (lineage C) from the type locality, Ambodivoangy, in life.
 Adult male holotype (ZSM 314/2010, field number FGZC 4220)  

Gephyromantis oelkrugi sp. nov. (lineage C)

Etymology: The specific epithet is a patronym for Christopher Roland Oelkrug in recognition of his support for biodiversity research and nature conservation through the BIOPAT initiative.

  Gephyromantis portonae sp. nov. (lineage D) in life 
Specimen ACZCV 1358 from Betampona. 

Gephyromantis portonae sp. nov. (lineage D)

Etymology: The specific epithet is a matronym for Ingrid Porton, our dear friend and colleague. Ingrid is a primatologist and Vice-Chair of Madagascar Fauna and Flora Group, and this honor is a recognition of her continuous support to the study of the unique biodiversity of Betampona Strict Natural Reserve, and her overall commitment to the conservation of Malagasy ecosystems.

 Miguel Vences, Jörn Köhler, Angelica Crottini, Michael Hofreiter, Carl R. Hutter, Louis du Preez, Michaela Preick, Andolalao Rakotoarison, Loïs Rancilhac, Achille P. Raselimanana, Gonçalo M. Rosa, Mark D. D. Scherz and Frank Glaw. 2022. An Integrative Taxonomic Revision and Redefinition of Gephyromantis (Laurentomantismalagasius based on Archival DNA Analysis reveals Four New mantellid Frog Species from Madagascar. Vertebrate Zoology. 72: 271-309. DOI: 10.3897/vz.72.e78830