Saturday, July 31, 2021

[Botany • 2021] Rhynchoglossum ausculum (Gesneriaceae) • A New Species from South-Western Thailand

 Rhynchoglossum ausculum Patthar. & Poopath  

in Pattharahirantricin et Poopath, 2021. 
ช่อสายศิลา || DOI: 10.20531/tfb.2021.49.2.01

The new species of Rhynchoglossum ausculum, from South-Western Thailand is described and illustrated. An emended key to the Thai species of Rhynchoglossum is provided.

Keywords: conservation, endemic, personate flower, Rhynchoglossum obliquum

Rhynchoglossum ausculum Patthar. & Poopath: 
A. habit; B. flower; C. calyx outside shown marked of the base of hairs from inside of calyx; D. calyx, inside showing pubescent hairs; E. opened flower; F. stamen; G. pistil; H. capsule with calyx and style persistent; J. opened calyx of capsule; K. capsule with style persistent.
All from Poopath et al. 2588 (BKF). 
Drawn by Mahsarahka Rungkrajang.

Rhynchoglossum ausculum Patthar. & Poopath: 
A. habit; B. flowers; C. opened flower, with ventral part of corolla tube removed; D. ventral part of corolla tube; E. capsule.
Photos by Manop Poopath.

Rhynchoglossum ausculum Patthar. & Poopath, sp. nov.

Similar to Rhynchoglossum obliquum in its personate flower and white to pale purple corolla, but differs by having 4 fertile stamens, the lower lip having 2 bluish purple to dark blue patches, the ventral surface of the corolla tube having a pale yellow stripe from the middle of throat downwards, and in having several tufts of hairs in the tube (vs 2 fertile and 2 sterile stamens, only a white to yellow spot at the centre of the lower lip, and without tufts of hairs inside). It is also similar to Rhynchoglossum mirabilis and R. saccatum in its 4 fertile stamens, but differs by having the mouth of the corolla tube closed, the tube itself dilated and dorsoventrally compressed, and the lower and upper lips nearly equal(vs ringent corolla, tube dilated and not dorsoventrally compressed, lower lip longer than upper lip).


Ecology.— Shaded areas on limestone, mixed deciduous forest, 30–60 m elevation. Flowering and fruiting in October–November.

Etymology.— The specific epithet ‘ausculum’ refers to the appearance of the flower being like that of a human mouth, as the upper and lower lips are subequal.

Nannapat Pattharahirantricin and Manop Poopath. 2021. Rhynchoglossum ausculum (Gesneriaceae), A New Species from South-Western Thailand. Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany). 49(2), 157-162.  DOI: 10.20531/tfb.2021.49.2.01


[Botany • 2021] Begonia lophura & P. villosula (Begoniaceae, section Platycentrum) • Two New Species of Begonia from the Central Highlands of Vietnam

  Begonia lophura T. S. Hoang & C.W. Lin

in Hoang et Lin, 2021.
Two new species of Begonia L., namely Begonia villosula T.S.Hoang & C.W.Lin and B. lophura T.S.Hoang & C.W.Lin, from the Central Highlands of Vietnam, are described and illustrated. They are assigned to Begonia sect. Platycentrum based on several characters including axillary inflorescence, 4-tepaled staminate flower and 5-tepaled pistillate flower with bilocular ovary, each with two placentae. Begonia villosula resembles B. thomsonii, but it is different in its leaf margins crenate to crenulate (vs. irregularly serrulate), stamens 80–120 (vs. 35–70), pistillate flower 4-tepaled (vs. 5-tepaled) and ovary hirsute (vs. villous). Begonia lophura is somewhat similar to B. pavonina, but it is different in having widely ovate (vs. ovate) and abaxially red hirsute (vs. glabrous) leaves, bracts persistent (vs. caducous), tepals hirsute (vs. glabrous) in both of staminate and pistillate flowers, capsule scabrous (vs. glabrous) and abaxial wing strongly swollen (vs. thin, not swollen). The conservation status of the two new species are assessed as Vulnerable according to the IUCN Red List criteria.

Keywords: Eudicots, Asia, biodiversity, endemism, taxonomy, morphology 

Begonia lophura T. S. Hoang & C.W. Lin

Begonia villosula T. S. Hoang & C.W. Lin 

 Thanh Son Hoang and Che-Wei Lin. 2021. Two New Species of Begonia (sect. Platycentrum, Begoniaceae) from the Central Highlands of Vietnam: B. villosula and B. lophura Phytotaxa. 510(3); 263–274. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.510.3.6
𝐵. 𝑣𝑖𝑙𝑙𝑜𝑠𝑢𝑙𝑎 and 𝐵. 𝑙𝑜𝑝ℎ𝑢𝑟𝑎

[Ichthyology • 2021] Characidium kalunga • A New Species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the Chapada dos Veadeiros, Goiás, Brazil

  Characidium kalunga 
Melo, Bouquerel, Masumoto, França & Netto-Ferreira, 2021

A new species of Characidium is described from the tributaries of the rio Tocantinzinho, rio Tocantins basin, located in the southern portion of the Chapada dos Veadeiros, at about 1,200 meters of elevation, Goiás, Brazil. The new species can be diagnosed by an unusual combination of two apomorphic features present in distinct clades of Characidium, the presence of a scaleless isthmus in allied to with a single row of dentary teeth. Additionally, the new species has a unique color pattern of inconspicuous vertical bars disconnected from the dorsal midline, forming seven to nine square blotches along body sides, and the presence of a dark saddle-shaped mark at the dorsal-fin base. Osteologically, it can be diagnosed by having the first and second anal-fin proximal radials fused and contacting the third hemal spine, which is branched. The new species also has a peculiar, unusual variation of fin-ray counts among its congeners.

Keywords: Cerrado, Characidium stigmosum, Endemism, Rio Tocantins basin, Taxonomy.

FIGURE 1: Characidium kalunga in lateral (top), ventral (middle) and dorsal (bottom) views, holotype, MZUSP 125824, 40.5 mm SL, rio Almécegas at Cachoeira de Almécegas, Chapada dos Veadeiros, Alto Paraíso de Goiás, Brazil.

Characidium kalunga, new species

Diagnosis. Characidium kalunga can be distinguished from its cis-Andean congeners, except C. alipioi Travassos, 1955, C. amaila Lujan, Agudelo-Zamora, Taphorn, Booth & López-Fernández,2013, C. boavistae Steindachner, 1915, C. bolivianum Pearson, 1924, C. crandellii Steindachner, 1915, C. duplicatum Ambruster, Lujan & Bloom, 2021, C. cricarense Malanski Sarmento-Soares, Silva-Malanski, Lopes, Ingenito & Buckup, 2019, C. declivirostre Steindachner, 1915, C. fasciatum Reinhardt, 1867, C. gomesi Travassos, 1956, C. grajahuense Travassos, 1944, C. hasemani Steindachner, 1915, C. helmeri Zanata, Sarmento-Soares & Martins-Pinheiro, 2015, C. iaquira Zanata, Ohara, Oyakawa & Dagosta, 2020, C. japuhybensis Travassos, 1949, C. kamakan Zanata & Camelier, 2015, C. lauroi Travassos, 1949, C. macrolepidotum (Peters, 1868), C. oiticicai Travassos, 1967, C. pterostictum Gomes, 1947, C. purpuratum Steindachner, 1882, C. schubarti Travassos, 1955, C. tamata Agudelo-Zamora, Tavera, Murillo & Ortega-Lara, 2020, C. timbuiense Travassos, 1946, C. travassosi Melo, Buckup & Oyakawa, 2016, C. vidali Travassos, 1967, and C. wangyapoik Ambruster, Lujan & Bloom, 2021, by lacking scales on the isthmus (vs. isthmus completely scaled), from C. alipioi, C. amaila, C. boavistae, C. bolivianum, C. crandellii, C. cricarense, C. declivirostre, C. fasciatum, C. gomesi, C. grajahuense, C. hasemani, C. helmeri, C. iaquira, C. japuhybensis, C. kamakan, C. lauroi, C. macrolepidotum, C. oiticicai, C. pterostictum, C. purpuratum, C. schubarti, C. tamata, C. timbuiense, C. travassosi, C. vidali by having a single row of dentary teeth (vs. dentary teeth in two rows, internal row with minute conical teeth), and from C. duplicatum and C. wangyapoik by having the scalelles are extending from isthums to anterior margin of cleithra (vs. scalelles extending on isthmus, area between pectoral fins and part of belly to level of pelvic fins). It can be further distinguished from its congeners, except C. heirmostigmata da Graça & Pavanelli, 2008, C. papachibe Peixoto & Wosiacki, 2013, C. satoi Melo & Oyakawa, 2015, and C. serrano Buckup & Reis, 1997, by having vertical bars on body that are disconnected dorsally, and from those species by having the bars on body as deep as wide, forming blotches two to four scales wide (vs. blotches vertically elongated, and of one scale width in C. heirmostigmata, C. papachibe, and C. serrano, or blotches forming oval dots, V-shaped, W-shaped, or diamond-shaped marks along and ventral to the lateral line in C. satoi), and bars not obliquely oriented (vs. bars oblique in C. heirmostigmata, C. papachibe, and C. serrano), and from all congeners by the presence of a saddle mark at the base of the second to eighth dorsal-fin rays. Osteologically, C. kalunga is diagnosed by having the first and second anal-fin proximal radials fused and contacting the third hemal spine (vs. separated and intercalated with the hemal spines), and by the third hemal spine branched (vs. all hemal spines unbranched).

FIGURE 6: Underwater photography of Characidium kalunga in the rio Preto, at the Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros, Goiás, Brazil (not collected).

Ecological notes. Characidium kalunga is a bottom dweller species, known from localities with elevation of about 1,200 meters. It inhabits rivers with fast flowing, cold, black water with rocky bottom, characterized by the presence of many rapids, canyons, and relatively large waterfalls, alternating with pools with sandy bottom. Those rivers are often impacted by sudden water flow increase caused by precipitation runoff in the watershed. The Cerrado vegetation is restricted to the margins, with no aquatic plants present in the river channel (Fig. 8).

Etymology. The specific name honors the Comunidade Quilombola Kalunga, a resilient community of Afro-Brazilians that lives in the Chapada dos Veadeiros area, helping to protect its natural resources. Kalunga also means a sacred place in the African Bantu language. A noun in apposition.

Marcelo R. S. Melo, Bárbara B. Bouquerel, Flávia T. Masumoto, Rayane S. França and André L. Netto-Ferreira. 2021. A New Species of Characidium (Characiformes: Crenuchidae) from the Chapada dos Veadeiros, Goiás, Brazil.  Neotropical Ichthyology. 19(2) 

[Botany • 2021] Begonia robii (Begoniaceae) • A New Species of Begonia from Lima Puluh Kota, West Sumatra, Indonesia


Begonia robii Ardi & Girm.

in Ardi, Girmansyah & Hughes, 2021.

A new species of Begonia sect. Jackia (Begoniaceae), Begonia robii Ardi & Girm., is described from West Sumatra and is a limestone karst endemic in the Tanah Datar dan Lima Puluh Kota Regency. Its provisional IUCN threatened category is considered to be Endangered.

Keywords: Endemic, limestone, Jackia

Begonia robii Ardi & Girm.
A. Plant habit. B. Stipules. C. Bracts. D. Inflorescence. E. Male flower, front view. F. Male flower, side view. G. Female flower, front view. H. Female flower, side view. I. Fruit. J. Ovary, cross section of middle part.
From Wisnu Ardi WI 761. Photos by W.H. Ardi. 

Begonia robii Ardi & Girm. sp. nov. 
§ Jackia.
A limestone adapted species closely related to Begonia droopiae Ardi (Ardi & Hughes, 2010), in terms of its habit and variegated leaves, however it can be easily distinguished by its rounded leaf apex which have pale green blotches between the veins (not acuminate at the apex and green on the veins only), outer male flower tepals which are elliptic to obovate with an acute to rounded apex (vs. elliptic to suborbicular with a rounded apex), female flowers with two or three tepals, outer tepals 4‒12 × 7‒8.5 mm, elliptic (vs. female flower with three tepals, outer tepals 5.5‒6 × 4.5‒ 6 mm, orbicular to suborbicular), ovary ca. 8 × 5‒ 6 mm, ovoid to ellipsoid, wings equal to subequal with a truncate to cuneate base, and a cuneate apex (vs. globose to broadly ellipsoid ovary, 6‒7 × 10‒13 mm, wings equal with rounded base and apex).

Distribution. Sumatra, endemic to West Sumatra, Lima Puluh Kota and Tanah Datar Regencies (Harau valley, Lintau Buo and Halaban). Fig. 1. 

Etymology. The epithet is after the collector, Robi Satria.

  Wisnu Handoyo Ardi, Deden Girmansyah and Mark Hughes. 2021. Begonia robii, A New Species of Begonia from Lima Puluh Kota, West Sumatra. Reinwardtia. 20(1); 37-41. DOI: 10.14203/reinwardtia.v20i1.4141


ABSTRAK ARDI, W. H., GIRMANSYAH, D. & HUGHES, M. 2021. Begonia robii, jenis baru Begonia dari Lima Puluh Kota, Sumatra Barat. Reinwardtia 20(1): 37–41.
 — Jenis baru Begonia seksi Jackia (Begoniaceae) dipertelakan dari Sumatra Barat, dan merupakan jenis endemik bebatuan kapur di Kabupaten Tanah Datar dan Lima Pulu Kota. Evaluasi status konservasi berdasarkan IUCN untuk Begonia robii adalah terancam. 
Kata kunci: Endemik, batu kapur, Jackia.

[Botany • 2021] Impatiens bullatisepala (Balsaminaceae) • A New Species from Guizhou, China

Impatiens bullatisepala G.W. Hu, Y.Y. Cong & Q.F. Wang

 in Peng, Cong, Tian, ... et Wang, 2021.
泡萼凤仙花 || DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.500.3.5

Impatiens bullatisepala (Balsaminaceae), a new species supported by morphological and phylogenetic evidence from Fanjing Mountain, Guizhou province in China, is described here. It is morphologically similar to I. davidii but can be distinguished by its dorsally ridged lateral sepals with sunk reticulate veins and bullate projections on abaxial surface, 2–2.5 cm deep saccate lower sepal with ca. 0.8 cm long narrowly triangular tip at the mouth, and broadly ovate dorsal petal. Phylogenetic analyses of a combined dataset of nuclear ITS and plastid atpB-rbcL intergenic spacer DNA sequences furtherly confirmed its novelty.

Keywords: Impatiens davidii, new taxon, taxonomy, Balsaminaceae, Eudicots

Figure 1: Impatiens bullatisepala G.W. Hu, Y.Y. Cong & Q.F. Wang
 A. Plant in nature habit; B. Flower bud; C. Flower lateral view; D. Flower front view; e. Different parts of a flower; F. Fruit. Scale bars: B-F = 1 cm. Photographed by Shuai Peng.

Figure 2.  Impatiens bullatisepala G.W. Hu, Y.Y. Cong & Q.F. Wang A-D:
A. Flower bud; B. Flower lateral view; C. Flower front view; D. Different parts of a flower.
Impatiens davidii E-K: E & I. Flower bud; F & J. Flower lateral view; G. Flower front view; H & K. Different parts of a flower.

Scale bars: A-K = 1 cm. A-D & I-K: photographed by Shuai Peng, E-H: photographed by Guang-Wan Hu 
(A-D from S. Peng PS-0052 in HIB, E-H from G.-W. Hu & S. Peng HGW-001138 in HIB, I-K from S. Peng PS-0051 in HIB).

Impatiens bullatisepala G.W. Hu, Y.Y. Cong & Q.F. Wang sp. nov.

Etymology:— The specific epithet “bullatisepala” refers to the lateral sepals with bullate projections netted in sunk reticulate veins on abaxial surface. The Chinese name is “泡萼凤仙花”.

 Shuai Peng, Yi-Yan Cong, Jing Tian, Cai-Fei Zhang, Guang-Wan Hu and Qing-Feng Wang. 2021. Impatiens bullatisepala (Balsaminaceae), A New Species from Guizhou, China. Phytotaxa. 500(3); 217–224. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.500.3.5 

[Mollusca • 2021] Snails Riding Mantis Shrimps: Ectoparasites evolved from Ancestors Living as Commensals on the Host’s Burrow Wall

Caledoniellid snails and their hosts.
 Close-up of the female Caledoniella sp. 1and egg capsules.; Monogamous pair and their egg capsules of Caledoniella sp. 1 (AORI_YK#2959) on the abdomen of the host mantis shrimp Gonodactylellus sp. 1 from Edateku Island, Amami-Oshima, Japan.
 Apical and ventral views of “Sigaretornus” sp. from the burrow of the mantis shrimp Bigelowina phalangium, Nakatsu, Oita, Japan.; “Sigaretornus” sp. attached to the burrow wall of B. phalangium at Nakatsu, with the commensal bivalve Divariscintilla toyohiwakensis Yamashita, Haga & Lützen, 2011.

in Goto, Takano, ... et Kano, 2021.
 Photos: R. Goto.

• Snails of the genus Caledoniella are highly adapted ectoparasites on mantis shrimps.
• They originated from commensal ancestors that lived on the host burrow wall.
• Contrary to previous classifications, Caledoniella is placed within Truncatelloidea.
• Five families, including Caledoniellidae, are redefined in Truncatelloidea.
• Symbiotic mode of life has evolved multiple times in this superfamily.

The molluscan class Gastropoda includes over 5,000 parasitic species whose evolutionary origins remain poorly understood. Marine snails of the genus Caledoniella (Caledoniellidae) are obligate parasites that live on the abdominal surface of the gonodactylid mantis shrimps. They have highly modified morphological characteristics specialized to the ectoparasitic lifestyle that make it difficult to infer their close relatives, thereby posing a question about their current systematic position in the superfamily Vanikoroidea. In the present study, we performed molecular phylogenetic analyses using three nuclear and three mitochondrial gene sequences to unveil the phylogenetic position of these enigmatic snails. The resulting trees recovered Caledoniella in the superfamily Truncatelloidea and within a subclade of commensal species that live on the burrow wall of marine benthic invertebrates. More specifically, Caledoniella formed the sister clade to a commensal snail species living in mantis-shrimp burrows and they collectively were sister to Sigaretornus planus (formerly in the family Tornidae or Vitrinellidae), a commensal living in echiuran burrows. This topology suggests that the species of Caledoniella achieved their ectoparasitic mode of life through the following evolutionary pathway: (1) invasion into the burrows of benthic invertebrates, (2) specialization to mantis shrimps, and (3) colonization of the host body surface from the host burrow wall with the evolution of the parasitic nature. The final step is likely to have been accompanied by the acquisition of a sucker on the metapodium, the loss of the radula and operculum, and the formation of monogamous pair bonds. The present molecular phylogeny also suggested parallel evolution of planispiral shells in a subclade of Truncatelloidea and enabled us to newly redefine the families Caledoniellidae, Elachisinidae, Teinostomatidae, Tornidae and Vitrinellidae.
Keywords: Adaptation, Caledoniella, Parasitism, Symbiosis, Stomatopoda, Truncatelloidea

Caledoniellid snails and their hosts.
 Close-up of the female Caledoniella sp. 1and egg capsules.; Monogamous pair and their egg capsules of Caledoniella sp. 1 (AORI_YK#2959) on the abdomen of the host mantis shrimp Gonodactylellus sp. 1 from Edateku Island, Amami-Oshima, Japan.
 Apical and ventral views of “Sigaretornus” sp. from the burrow of the mantis shrimp Bigelowina phalangium, Nakatsu, Oita, Japan.; “Sigaretornus” sp. attached to the burrow wall of B. phalangium at Nakatsu, with the commensal bivalve Divariscintilla toyohiwakensis Yamashita, Haga & Lützen, 2011.
 Photos: R. Goto.


 Ryutaro Goto, Tsuyoshi Takano, Douglas J. Eernisse, Makoto Kato and Yasunori Kano. 2021. Snails Riding Mantis Shrimps: Ectoparasites evolved from Ancestors Living as Commensals on the Host’s Burrow Wall. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 163, 107122. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107122 

[Botany • 2018] Peperomia ekakesara (Piperaceae) • A New Species from Mathikettan Shola National Park, Kerala, India

 Peperomia ekakesara Syam & S. Nampy

in Sasi & Nampy, 2018.

Peperomia ekakesara (Piperaceae) is described and illustrated as a new species from Mathikettan shola National Park in southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India. Information is given on the distribution, ecology, phenology, and conservation status of this new species. A key for the identification of south Indian species is provided.

Keywords: Magnoliids, Peperomia, Piperaceae, southern Western Ghats, Kerala

FIGURE 1.  Peperomia ekakesara Syam & S. Nampy 
A. Habit; B. & C. Leaves; D. Spike: Portion enlarged; E. Bract: see the clawed nature; F. Androecium & Gynoecium; G. Stamen; H. Fruit
(A-H from S. Syam Radh & Santhosh Nampy 151707).

FIGURE 2. Peperomia ekakesara Syam & S. Nampy 
A. Habit; B. Flowering twig; C. Leaves: Adaxial view; D. Leaves: Abaxial view; E. Young spike enlarged; F. Mature spikes; G. Flower; H. Bract; I. Androecium & Gynoecium; J. Stamen: Dorsal view; K. Stamen: Ventral view; L. Ovary; M. Fruits: see fruiting axis showing fruits and pits of fallen fruits; N. Mature fruits
 (A-N from S. Syam Radh & Santhosh Nampy 151707).

Peperomia ekakesara Syam & S. Nampy sp. nov.

Etymology:—The epithet ‘ekakesara’ is derived from Sanskrit, ‘eka’ means one and ‘kesara’ refers to stamen, the whole referring to the monandrous condition.  

Syam Radh Sasi and Santhosh Nampy. 2018. Peperomia ekakesara: A New Species of Piperaceae from Mathikettan Shola National Park, Kerala, India. Phytotaxa. 364(3); 283-288. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.364.3.8

[Botany • 2021] Paepalanthus mellosilvae (Eriocaulaceae) • A New Species from the Mantiqueira Range in Minas Gerais, Brazil

  Paepalanthus mellosilvae Trovó 

in Trovó, 2021.

Paepalanthus mellosilvae is here described and illustrated as a new species of Eriocaulaceae from the Atlantic Forest domain in Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The new species is known from a single locality in the Mantiqueira Range, growing along trails through cloud forests. According to the IUCN criteria, it is suggested here as critically endangered. Paepalanthus mellosilvae is compared to P. harmsii, a morphologically similar species also growing in the Mantiqueira Range, being mainly distinguished by the presence of a rhizome, narrower leaves, more numerous scapes, narrower capitula, sparsely pilose involucral bracts, and obdeltate floral bracts. Additional comments on the taxonomy, morphology, and distribution of the species, along with illustrations are provided. The specific epithet is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Renato de Mello-Silva.

Keywords: Atlantic Forest, Endemism, Poales, Taxonomy, Tribute, Monocots

Figure 1. Paepalanthus mellosilvae Trovó.
A. Habit detail. B. Capitulum detail. C. Outer involucral bract, abaxial surface. D. Floral bract, abaxial surface. E. Staminate flower. F. Staminate flower with opened corolla and sepals removed. G. Pistillate flower. H. Pistillate flower with sepals removed, evidencing the gynoecium. (line drawing: Klei Sousa).

Paepalanthus mellosilvae Trovó, sp. nov.

Etymology:— The epithet “mellosilvae” is a tribute to Prof. Dr. Renato de Mello-Silva, who collected a very complete set of specimens of this new species, which was selected as the type collection. Renato was a tenacious botanist, an inspiring professor, and a good friend.

Marcelo Trovó. 2021. Paepalanthus mellosilvae (Eriocaulaceae), A New Species from the Mantiqueira Range in Minas Gerais, Brazil. Phytotaxa. 500(3); 248–252. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.500.3.9 

[Fungi • 2021] New Findings of Neonothopanus (Basidiomycota: Marasmiaceae) from Ghana

Neonothopanus sp. 

in Hu, Li, ... et Zhang, 2021.

Specimens of Neonothopanus were collected from Ghana and examined morphologically, and molecularly using the nuclear internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) and nuclear large subunit ribosomal (nrLSU) regions. Three species were recognized viz., Neonothopanus cystidiosus, a new species, Neonothopanus cystidiosus, a new record for Ghana, and Neonothopanus hygrophanus, a species already known from Ghana. Neonothopanus cystidiosus is characterized by brown spots visible on the surface of pileus when mature and the presence of clavate to cylindrical pleurocystidia. Phylogenetic trees constructed using Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood analyses confirmed the results of the morphological study. Descriptions of all three species are presented with molecular work, along with a key to the known species of Neonothopanus. The addition of a new species provides a new perspective on the heterogeneity of Neonothopanus and contributes to increasing knowledge of the fungal diversity of Ghana.

Keywords: Fungi, new species, phylogeny, taxonomy, wood-inhabiting fungi

Jia-Jun Hu, Yu Li, Xiao Li, Sossah Leo Frederick and Bo Zhang. 2021. New Findings of Neonothopanus (Marasmiaceae, Basidiomycota) from Ghana. Phytotaxa. 512(1); 57–67. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.512.1.4

[Botany • 2021] Ardisia recurvisepala (Primulaceae: Myrsinoideae) • A New Species from Peninsular Malaysia

Ardisia recurvisepala Julius & Utteridge

in Julius et Utteridge, 2021. 

Ardisia recurvisepala Julius & Utteridge sp. nov. (Primulaceae-Myrsinoideae), a member of Ardisia subgenus Crispardisia on account of the vascularized leaf marginal glands, is herein described and illustrated as new species. The new species can be easily recognized by the elliptic-oblong calyx lobes recurving at the apex, and is also characterized by the narrowly elliptic to narrowly oblong-elliptic leaf laminas with an attenuate-decurrent base and acuminate-caudate apex. Ardisia recurvisepala is known so far from a single locality in Perak and its conservation status is assessed as Vulnerable (VU). An updated key to Ardisia subgenus Crispardisia in Peninsular Malaysia is provided.

Keywords: conservation status, endemic, Malesia, Perak, South-East Asia, subgenus Crispardisia, taxonomic key, Ericales, Eudicots

Ardisia recurvisepala Julius & Utteridge.
A Habit, flowering. B Habit, fruiting. C Flower, bud. D Flower, mature. E Calyx-lobes, showing the adaxial and abaxial surface. F Corolla-lobe, dissected. G Flower dissected to show the stamen arrangement. H Stamens, showing abaxial surface. I Anther. J Ovary and pistil. K Ovary dissected to show the ovules. L Simple, short and segmented hairs on ovary. M Fruit. N Fruit dissected to show the seed. O Vascularized glands at leaf margin: i opened abaxial glands showing hairs inside, ii elongated shape of vascularized glands on adaxial surface.
 Illustration by Mohamad Aidil Nordin.
Ardisia recurvisepala Julius & Utteridge sp. nov.

Etymology:— The species epithet is derived from the calyx shape.

Avelinah Julius and Timothy M. A. Utteridge. 2021. Ardisia recurvisepala (Primulaceae-Myrsinoideae), A New Species from Peninsular Malaysia. Phytotaxa. 480(1); 79–84. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.480.1.7

Friday, July 30, 2021

[Herpetology • 2021] Conraua sagyimase • A New Critically Endangered Slippery Frog (Conrauidae, Conraua) from the Atewa Range, central Ghana

Conraua sagyimase
Neira-Salamea, Ofori-Boateng, Kouamé, Blackburn, Segniagbeto, Hillers, Barej, Leaché and Rödel, 2021

 Atewa Slippery Frog | kwaeɛ mu nsutene apɔnkyerɛne || DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4995.1.4 
Forty-nine years after the last description of a slippery frog, we describe a seventh species of the genus Conraua. The new Conraua is endemic to the Atewa Range Forest Reserve, central Ghana, and is described based on genetic, bioacoustics, and morphological evidence. Recent molecular phylogenetic and species delimitation analyses support this population as distinct from nominotypical C. derooi in eastern Ghana and adjacent Togo. The new species is sister to C. derooi, from which it differs ~4% in the DNA sequence for mitochondrial ribosomal 16S. Genetic divergences in 16S to other species of Conraua range from 4–12%. The new species is distinguished morphologically from its congeners, including C. derooi, by the combination of the following characters: medium body size, robust limbs, lateral dermal fringing along edges of fingers, cream ventral color with brown mottling, the presence of a lateral line system, indistinct tympanum, the presence of inner, outer, and middle palmar tubercles, and two subarticular tubercles on fingers III and IV. We compare the advertisement calls of the new species with the calls from C. derooi and find that they differ by duration, frequency modulation, and dominant frequency. We discuss two potential drivers of speciation between C. derooi and the new species, including river barriers and fragmentation of previously more widespread forests in West Africa. Finally, we highlight the importance of the Atewa Range Forest Reserve as a critical conservation area within the Upper Guinean biodiversity hotspot.
Keywords: Amphibia, Anura, biodiversity hotspot, conservation, integrative taxonomy, Upper Guinean Forest, West Africa.

FIGURE 6. Four individuals of Conraua sagyimase sp. nov. from the Atewa Range Forest Reserve, southern Ghana ; specimens not collected.
(a: photo by Piotr Naskrecki)

FIGURE 7. Conraua sagyimase sp. nov. from the Atewa Range Forest Reserve, southern Ghana; specimen not collected.
(photos by Alan Channing)

Conraua sagyimase sp. nov.

Diagnosis. The new species generally resembles other members of the genus Conraua Nieden, 1908. Conraua sagyimase sp. nov. is the smallest species of its genus and a mid-sized (SVL of adults: 53–89 mm) aquatic frog, relative to other frog species (see Womack & Bell 2020). It has smooth dorsal skin, covered with scattered small, rounded warts; skin on belly smooth; large and protruding eyes, positioned latero-dorsally; three odontoid projections on lower jaw, one on the symphysis and one on each side of the central one on the dentary; fully webbed feet, i.e., webbing extends to the end of the last phalange of toe, disc remaining free of web.

Etymology. The name of the new species has been chosen in order to honor the people of the Sagyimase community. This small community has supported the research of COB and the anti-mining campaigns during the early 2006–2007. We hope that the naming of this endemic species will further encourage this community in their fight for an intact Atewa Range. The species epithet is used as an invariable noun in apposition to the generic name. As English common name, we suggest Atewa Slippery Frog, and as Akan common name we suggest kwaeɛ mu nsutene apɔnkyerɛne, meaning the frog of the forest streams.

FIGURE 9. Habitat from Conraua sagyimase sp. nov. in the Atewa Range Forest Reserve (a-b), southern Ghana (photos: courtesy of Piotr Naskrecki);
and type locality of Conraua derooi, Misahöhe, Togo (c-d).

FIGURE 10. Habitat from Conraua sagyimase sp. nov. in the Atewa Range Forest Reserve, southern Ghana.  

FIGURE 8. Inset shows a map of West Africa showing the location of the Atewa Range in Ghana (upper left), known localities of Conraua sagyimase sp. nov.  are shown in red and know localities of Conraua derooi in yellow. Stars indicate type localities. Altitudinal range is indicated with shading from lowlands (light) to high elevation (dark). Sources: OpenStreetMap (2020), U.S. Geological Survey (2020).

Karla Neira-Salamea, Caleb Ofori-Boateng, N'goran G. Kouamé, David C. Blackburn, Gabriel H. Segniagbeto, Annika Hillers, Michael F. Barej, Adam D. Leaché, Mark-Oliver Rödel. 2021. A New Critically Endangered Slippery Frog (Amphibia, Conrauidae, Conraua) from the Atewa Range, central Ghana. Zootaxa. 4995(1); 71-95. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4995.1.4 

Tuesday, July 27, 2021

[Herpetology • 2021] Micryletta hekouensis • A New Species of Micryletta Dubois, 1987 (Anura, Microhylidae) from Yunnan Province, China

Micryletta hekouensis 
Liu, Hou, Mo & Rao, 2021

A new species of the genus Micryletta Dubois, 1987 is described from Yunnan Province, China, based on morphological and molecular analyses. The most obvious differences between the new species and other species of this genus are small body size, unique coloration, and relatively longer hind limbs. In 16S rRNA gene sequences, the new species is diverged from all other congeners by 3.1%–8.0%.

Key Words: 16S rRNA, Hekou County, Honghe Prefecture, Paddy Frog, taxonomy

Figure 5. Micryletta hekouensis sp. nov. in life. 
The holotype (KIZ20210510) and the paratype (KIZ20210511): 
 A. dorsal view; B. lateral view; C. ventral view of the holotype;
D. dorsal view; E. lateral view; F. ventral view of the paratype.

Micryletta hekouensis sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Micryletta hekouensis sp. nov. can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: small-sized within genus (SVL 20.5–20.8 mm); areas above canthus rostralis, upper eyelids, areas posterior to eyelids, and dorsum of upper arms golden, other parts of dorsum almost solid black or yellowish grey with brownish black stripes; lateral sides of head and body black or yellowish grey, a white stripe from lower front of eye along upper lip back to anterior forelimb insertion; ventral side of body and limbs pink brown, chin region in adult males brownish black, small and irregular white marbling patterns on chest and lateral belly; supratympanic fold indistinct; outer metatarsal tubercle absent; webbing between toes absent; tibiotarsal articulation adpressed limb reaching level of front of eye.

Etymology: The specific epithet hekouensis refers to Hekou County, the type locality of the new species. We propose “Hekou Paddy Frog” for the common English name and “河口小姬蛙” (Hé Kǒu Xiǎo Jī Wā) for the common Chinese name of the new species.

Figure 6. Habitat of Micryletta hekouensis sp. nov. at the type locality in Nanxi Town, Hekou County, Yunnan Province, China.
A. The collection site; B. The surroundings of the collection site.

Natural history: Specimens of the new species were found in the grass on the ground at night. Once startled, they jumped away quickly. The collection site is surrounded by primary broad-leaved forest and bamboo. There are karst rocks nearby, no water body within a few hundred meters, and no courtship calls were heard. The collection site is in the nature reserve and the environment is not destroyed; this species is not threatened at present (Figure 6).

Distribution: This species is currently known only from the type locality, Nanxi Town, Hekou County, Honghe Prefecture, Yunnan Province, China. It is expected to be found in neighboring Northern Vietnam.

 Shuo Liu, Mian Hou, Mingzhong Mo and Dingqi Rao. 2021. A New Species of Micryletta Dubois, 1987 (Anura, Microhylidae) from Yunnan Province, China. Herpetozoa. 34: 131-140. DOI:  10.3897/herpetozoa.32.e69755