Thursday, October 31, 2019

[Botany • 2013] Liparis pingxiangensis (Orchidaceae) • A Remarkable New Species of Liparis from China and Its Phylogenetic Implications

 Liparis pingxiangensis L. Li & H. F. Yan

in Li & Yan, 2013.

In the present study, we formally describe Liparis pingxiangensis as a new species from Guangxi, China on the basis of morphological and molecular phylogenetic analyses. It is easily distinguished from closely related species by strongly curved column without column wings, and broadly rhombic-elliptic lip with 2 uncinate calli at the base. In particular, it differs most markedly from its congeners in possessing two pollinia attached by long and prominent caudicles (not stipes), to a distinct sticky disc. This type of pollinarium, as far as we know, is not found in any other species of Liparis, and is also unique among the orchids with waxy pollinia. We then proceeded to a phylogenetic analysis to ascertain the systematic position of this enigmatic species. Molecular study based on nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid matK DNA sequence data supports L. pingxiangensis as a distinct species, which forms an independent lineage sister to L. nervosa and its allies (93% BS, 1.00 BPP). In the light of previous work, the findings have important implications for a better understanding of the well-supported pattern mainly based on vegetative features in Malaxideae.

Figure 3. Morphology of Liparis pingxiangensis (A–D, G) and allied species L. nervosa (E–F).
A. inflorescence, B. flower, front view, C. flower, lateral view, D. gynostemium including anther, clinandrium and viscidium attached to apex of rostellum, lateral view, E. two pairs of close pollinia, F. two pairs of separate pollinia, G. pollinarium including pollinia, caudicles and viscidium.

Scale bars, 3(B–C); 1 mm (D); 0.3 mm (E–G).

Figure 2. Liparis pingxiangensis.
A. habit, B. flower, frontal view, C. flower, lateral view, D. bract, E. dorsal sepal, F. petal, G. lateral sepal, H. lip, I. column, lateral view, J. column without anther cap, ventral view, K. anther cap, L. pollinarium.
Drawn by Yun-Xiao Liu. Figure 

Liparis pingxiangensis L. Li & H. F. Yan, sp. nov. 

Type: — CHINA. Guangxi: Pingxiang, mixed deciduous forests, terrestrial in moist and shady grassy slopes, rare, collected 23 June 2011, flowered and pressed from plant cultivated in an experimental greenhouse of SCBG, 2 Apr 2012, L. Li 151 (HOLOTYPE: IBSC).

Species affinis L. nervosae (Thunb.) Lindl., a qua labiis late rhombico-ellipticus, callis uncinnatis praeditis, columnis arcuatis sine alis, polliniis duobus caudiculis longis affixis cum viscidio magno recedit.

Distribution, habitat and ecology: Liparis pingxiangensis is terrestrial, forming more or less scattered colonies on shady and damp areas with small ravines, in wet to most soils and humus, on the steeper slopes, at elevations of around 800 m in the mixed deciduous forest of southwest China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Flowering occurs in early spring, from early until late April. Up to now, it has not been observed in fruits.

Etymology: The species is named after the site of its first discovery, Pingxiang, Guangxi province, China.

 Lin Li and Haifei Yan. 2013. A Remarkable New Species of Liparis (Orchidaceae) from China and Its Phylogenetic Implications.  PLoS ONE. 8(11): e78112. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078112

[Botany • 2019] Ottelia fengshanensis (Hydrocharitaceae) • A New Bisexual Species of Ottelia from southwestern China

Ottelia fengshanensis Z.Z.Li, S.Wu & Q.F.Wang

in Li, Wu, Zhou, et al. 2019.

Ottelia fengshanensis, a new species (Hydrocharitaceae) from southwest China is here described and illustrated. Comparing its morphological features to putative close relatives O. guanyangensis, it has 3–4 flowers (vs. 2–5) each spathe, hexagonal-cylindric fruit, white styles (vs. yellow), green leaves (vs. dark green) and fruit tiny winged (vs. winged obviously). Molecular phylogenetic investigation of four DNA sequences (ITS, rbcL, trnK5’ intron and trnS-trnG) and the Poisson Tree Processes model for species delimitation (PTP) analysis, further resolves O. fengshanensis as a new species that is close to O. guanyangensis with distinct support.

Keywords: karst, bisexual flowers, molecular phylogeny

Figure 2. Ottelia fengshanensis Z.Z.Li, S.Wu & Q.F.Wang.
 A Habitat B flowering plant C bisexual flower with red-green sepals D individual and leaf: triplinerved with conspicuous cross veins E fruit: Hexagonal-cylindric with tiny wings F the character of pollens by SEM G spathe H seeds.

Figure 3. Illustration of Ottelia fengshanensis Z.Z.Li, S.Wu & Q.F.Wang.
Drawn by Shuai-Jie Li. 

Ottelia fengshanensis Z.Z.Li, S.Wu & Q.F.Wang, sp. nov.

Description: The new species is similar to Ottelia guanyangensis in having bisexual flowers, three stamens, but differs through having (3)-4 flowers in each spathe (vs. 2–5), white styles (vs. yellow), green leaves (vs. dark green) and by fruits which are tiny winged (vs. obviously winged).

Figure 4. Phylogenetic tree and PTP analysis of Ottelia fengshanensis sp. nov. and Blyxa japonica as an outgroup. Posterior probabilities (PP > 0.70) and bootstrap values (BS > 70) based on Bayesian Inference and maximum likelihood (ML) analysis are shown above the branches.

Distribution and habitat: Ottelia fengshanensis is known from a single population in Fengshan County, Guangxi Province, China. The species inhabits a karst river less than 1.5 m in depth. Due to the complex underground river system in the karst region, it is probable that the species occurs in nearby areas as well.
Etymology: The epithet is derived from the name of Fengshan County, which is the only known locality of occurrence.

 Zhi-Zhong Li, Shuang Wu, Chun-Yu Zhou, Yan Liu, Guang-Wan Hu, Samuli Lehtonen, Qing-Feng Wang and Jin-Ming Chen. 2019. Ottelia fengshanensis, A New Bisexual Species of Ottelia (Hydrocharitaceae) from southwestern China. PhytoKeys. 135: 1-10.  DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.135.38531

[Entomology • 2019] Taxonomic Review and Distribution of the Genus Vespula Thomson, 1869 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Vespinae) from Vietnam

Vespula orbata (Buysson, 1902)

in Nguyen, Vu, et al., 2019.

A taxonomic review of the genus Vespula Thomson in Vietnam is reported. Three species are recorded: V. flaviceps (Smith, 1870), V. koreensis (Radoszkowski, 1887), and V. orbata (Buysson, 1902). Of these, V. flaviceps is newly recorded from Vietnam. Distribution records of all three species and an identification key to species based on morphological characters are presented. Vespula koreensis is distributed from high (Cao Bang, Vinh Phuc, Quang Tri) to lower areas (Thai Nguyen, Tuyen Quang, Lang Son, Bac Giang), while the other two species are distributed in high mountainous areas of the northern and central regions of Vietnam such as in Cao Bang, Lao Cai, Son La, Phu Tho, Vinh Phuc, Quang Tri and Quang Nam provinces.

Keywords: Hymenoptera, Social Wasps, Yellow Jackets, Vespula, Taxonomy, Vietnam

Vespula orbata (Buysson, 1902) 

Lien Thi Phuong Nguyen, Thuong Thi Vu, Anthony Daglio and Bogdan Wiśniowski. 2019. Taxonomic Review and Distribution of the Genus Vespula Thomson, 1869 (Hymenoptera: Vespidae: Vespinae) from Vietnam. Zootaxa. 4691(3); 279–285. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4691.3.8

[Mammalogy • 2019] Rhinolophus andamanensis • Integrated Approaches to Identifying Cryptic Bat Species in Areas of High Endemism

Rhinolophus andamanensis Dobson, 1872

in Srinivasulu, Srinivasulu, Srinivasulu & Jones, 2019. 

The diversity of bats worldwide includes large numbers of cryptic species, partly because divergence in acoustic traits such as echolocation calls are under stronger selection than differences in visual appearance in these nocturnal mammals. Island faunas often contain disproportionate numbers of endemic species, and hence we might expect cryptic, endemic species to be discovered relatively frequently in bats inhabiting islands. Species are best defined when multiple lines of evidence supports their diagnosis. Here we use morphometric, acoustic, and molecular phylogenetic data to show that a horseshoe bat in the Andaman Islands is distinct in all three aspects, supporting its status as a distinct species. We recommend investigation into possible new and endemic bat species on islands by using integrated approaches that provide independent lines of evidence for taxonomic distinctiveness. We provide a formal redescription of the taxon newly raised to species level, Rhinolophus andamanensis Dobson, 1872.

Fig 4. Live images (A-C) and holotype (ZSI Reg. No. 15561) (D) of Rhinolophus andamanensis Dobson, 1872.
Ear pinna and antitragus (A), frontal view of the noseleaf and three mental grooves (B), and lateral view of the noseleaf showing shape of the sella (C) and the holotype (D).

Rhinolophus andamanensis Dobson, 1872
 Homfray’s Horseshoe Bat.

Holotype: Rhinolophus andamanensis ZSI Reg. No. 15561, male, collected from South Andaman Island, Andaman Islands, India, 1872, by J. Homfray; specimen, and skull (damaged).

Diagnosis: A medium-sized bat with a forearm length ranging between 46.7–56.6mm. Ears tall and broad, with well-developed antitragus, tragus absent (Fig 4A). Horseshoe is broad and covers the whole of the muzzle, supplementary leaflet distinct; three mental grooves are observed on the lower lip (Fig 4B). When viewed frontally, sella is narrow above and wider below (Fig 4B). Superior connecting process bluntly rounded off, inferior surface slightly bent, inferior extremity curved downward (Fig 4C). Sella roughly half the length of the lancet. Lancet narrow, triangular and tapered to a point; has three distinct cells (Fig 4B). Skull robust with a condylocanine length of 21.97±0.53mm. The maxillary toothrow (cm3) measures 9.85±0.30mm. pm2 is small but in the toothrow. pm2 is in the toothrow, and is half the height of pm4 and one third the height of the canine. Baculum narrow and long, base distinctly trilobed, the shaft curving gently when viewed laterally.

Ecology: Little is known about the ecology of this species. Large colonies were found in limestone caves, forest caves, and sometimes in holes and hollows of large trees. It cohabits with Rhinolophus cognatus, Hipposideros diadema masoni, H. gentilis, H. grandis, and Myotis horsfieldii.

Distribution: Rhinolophus andamanensis is endemic to the Andaman Islands. It is distributed throughout the Andaman Archipelago—from North Andaman to Little Andaman.

Chelmala Srinivasulu, Aditya Srinivasulu, Bhargavi Srinivasulu and Gareth Jones. 2019. Integrated Approaches to Identifying Cryptic Bat Species in Areas of High Endemism: The Case of Rhinolophus andamanensis in the Andaman Islands.  PLoS ONE. 14(10): e0213562. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0213562

Wednesday, October 30, 2019

[Botany • 2019] Molecular Phylogeny of the Large South American Genus Eriosyce (Notocacteae, Cactaceae): Generic Delimitation and Proposed Changes in Infrageneric and Species Ranks

A, Eriosyce aurata; B, Emarksiana var. lissocarpa; C, E. curvispina
E, E. subgibbosa; F, E. senilis subsp. elquiensis; G, Ecrispa; H, E. odieri subsp. malleolata (=E. malleolata). 

in Guerrero, Walter, Arroyo, et al., 2019. 
— Photos by P.C. Guerrero.

Eriosyce is one of most species‐rich genera within Notocacteae (Cactaceae) harboring a variety of stem and flower morphologies, and fruits with basal abscission. The lack of a well‐sampled molecular phylogeny contributes to the current taxonomic instability of the genus, where its circumscription and infrageneric classification has been questioned. Specimens of Eriosyce (63 taxa) plus 19 outgroups were analyzed through sequencing three plastid noncoding introns (rpl32‐trnL, trnL‐trnF, trnH‐psbA), one plastid gene (ycf1), and one nuclear gene (PHYC). Individual markers and concatenated matrices were analyzed using maximum likelihood and Bayesian approaches. Phylogenetic analyses strongly support the monophyly of Eriosyce s.l. Furthermore, seven clades within Eriosyce s.l. were defined based on supported branches, although one of them was weakly supported. Our results suggest that some past taxonomic proposals have low phylogenetic support and should no longer be used, e.g., based on their scattered positions in the phylogenetic reconstruction, several infraspecific taxa appear unrelated to the typical form of the species in which they had been placed. We present a phylogeny‐informed infrageneric classification of the genus Eriosyce, and new combinations are proposed to update the nomenclature of species and sections.

Fig. 1. Diversity and morphology of some of the Eriosyce species included in the molecular analyses. 
A, Eriosyce aurata; B, E. marksiana var. lissocarpa; C, E. curvispina; D, E. krausii; E, E. subgibbosa; F, E. senilis subsp. elquiensis; G, E. crispa; H, E. odieri subsp. malleolata (=E. malleolata); I, E. napina subsp. duripulpa (= E. duripulpa). 
— Photos A–H by P.C. Guerrero; I by H. Villalobos.

Fig. 2. Taxonomic richness distribution of Eriosyce s.l. at the species and infraspecific ranks.

Pablo C. Guerrero, Helmut E. Walter, Mary T.K. Arroyo, Carol M. Peña, Italo Tamburrino, Marta De Benidictis and Isabel Larridon. 2019. Molecular Phylogeny of the Large South American Genus Eriosyce (Notocacteae, Cactaceae): Generic Delimitation and Proposed Changes in Infrageneric and Species Ranks. Taxon.  DOI: 10.1002/tax.12066  

[Herpetology • 2019] Integrative Taxonomy of the Asian Skinks Sphenomorphus stellatus and S. praesignis with the Resurrection of S. annamiticus and the Description of A New Species, S. preylangensis, from Cambodia

[A] Sphenomorphus stellatus (Boulenger, 1900)
 from the Bukit Larut, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. 

[C] Sphenomorphus preylangensis 
Grismer, Wood, Quah, Anuar, Poyarkov, Thy, Orlov, Thammachoti & Seiha. 2019
from Phnom Chi, Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary, Cambodia. 
Photographs by L. L. Grismer & Neang Thy.

Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the sister species Sphenomorphus stellatus and S. praesignis based on the mitochondrial genes 12S and 16S rRNA recover the former as paraphyletic with respect to the latter in that a specimen of S. stellatus from the type locality in Peninsular Malaysia is more closely related to S. praesignis than to Indochinese populations of S. stellatus. Furthermore, the phylogeny indicates that the Indochinese populations represent two species, thus resulting in four major lineages within this clade. These relationships are consistent with multivariate and univariate analyses of morphological and discrete color pattern data which statistically define and diagnose the four lineages and together with the molecular data, provide the foundation for robust, testable, species-level hypotheses. As such, S. stellatus is herein restricted to Peninsular Malaysia; S. annamiticus is resurrected for the circum-continental populations ranging through southeastern Thailand, southern Cambodia, and southern Vietnam; a new species— Sphenomorphus preylangensis sp. nov. —is described from an isolated mountain, Phnom Chi, from the Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary in central Cambodia; and the taxonomy of S. praesignis remains unchanged. The description of S. preylangensis sp. nov. underscores the necessity to conserve this remnant of lowland evergreen rainforest in the Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary.

Keywords: Reptilia, Phylogenetic systematics, Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Cambodia, Vietnam, Scincidae, Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary

FIGURE 3. Maximum likelihood consensus tree. Black circles represent nodes supported by BI and UFB support values of 1.00 and 100, respectively. Numbers in parentheses correspond to the localities in Figure 1.

FIGURE 4. Sphenomorphus annamiticus
A. LSUDPC 10975 from Khao Soi Dao Wildlife Sanctuary, Chantaburi Province, Thailand. Photograph by Ian Dugdale.
 B. CBC 02530 from Bokor National Park, Kampot Province, Cambodia. Photograph by Hun Seiha.
 C. LSUDPC 4853 from Kon Tum, Kon Tum Province, Vietnam. Photograph by Nikolai Orlov.
D. ZISP 19804 from Buon Luoi Village, An Khe District, Gia Lai Province, Vietnam. Photograph by Nikolai Orlov.

FIGURE 7. A. Sphenomorphus stellatus (LSUHC 13483) from the Bukit Larut, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. Photograph by L. L. Grismer. B. Sphenomorphus annamiticus (ZISP 30194) from Mang Canh Village, Kon Tum Province, Vietnam. Photograph by Nikolai Orlov.
C. Sphenomorphus preylangensis sp. nov. (CBC 02404) from Phnom Chi, Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary, Cambodia. Photograph by Neang Thy. D. Sphenomorphus praesignis (LSUDPC 9558) from Fraser's Hill, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Photograph by L. L. Grismer.

FIGURE 11. Human-made resin collecting depression cut into the side of tree (C) forming the microhabitat of a Sphenomorphus preylangensis sp. nov. (A and B; CBC 2403) from Phnom Chi, Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary, Cambodia. B. The skink is actually submerged in the resin. Photographs by Neang Thy.

Sphenomorphus preylangensis sp. nov. 
Suggested Common Name: Prey Lang Forest Skink

Etymology. The specific epithet preylangensis is a Latinized toponymic adjective named after the Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary.

Sphenomorphus annamiticus (Boettger, 1901) 
Based on this study, it appears Sphenomorphus annamiticus has a disjunct circum-continental distribution along the southern and eastern hilly margins of the Indochinese Peninsula from at least Khao Soi Dao, Thailand through the Cardamom Mountains of southern Cambodia to the Bokor Plateau at the western margin of the Mekong Delta. Its distribution begins again in the lowland areas of Ma Da and Cat Tien, Dong Nai Province on the eastern margin of the Mekong Delta in Vietnam and continues northward to at least the type locality of Phuoc Son in Quang Nam Province (Fig. 1). 

Sphenomorphus stellatus (Boulenger, 1900)
 Sphenomorphus stellatus is endemic to Peninsular Malaysia although it very likely ranges farther north up the Thai-Malay Peninsula to at least the Isthmus of Kra.

L. Lee Grismer, Perry L. Jr. Wood, Evan S. H. Quah, Shahrul Anuar, Nikolay A. Poyarkov, Neang Thy, Nikolai L. Orlov, Panupong Thammachoti and Hun Seiha. 2019. Integrative Taxonomy of the Asian Skinks Sphenomorphus stellatus (Boulenger, 1900) and S. praesignis (Boulenger, 1900) with the Resurrection of S. annamiticus (Boettger, 1901) and the Description of A New Species from Cambodia. Zootaxa. 4683(3); 381–411. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4683.3.4 


[Crustacea • 2019] Phimochirus formani & P. tunnelli • Two New Species of the Phimochirus holthuisi complex (Anomura: Paguridae) from the Gulf of Mexico, supported by Morphology, Color, and Genetics

Phimochirus formani P. tunnelli 
 Felder, Lemaitre & Craig, 2019

Coloration, gene-sequence data (H3, 12s, 16s), and subtle features in morphology support the description of two new species, both formerly regarded to represent accepted variants of Phimochirus holthuisi s.l. While color in life consistently separates these species from P. holthuisi s.s. and from each other, morphological distinctions are subtle and less than absolute in small specimens, being based on ventral spine counts of walking leg dactyls and relative development of the superior crest on the major chela. Molecular phylogenetic analyses clearly support the separation of sister clades, representing two new species, from P. holthuisi s.s. as well as other congeners available for analysis. Both of the new species are presently known to occur widely throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico, though one occurs more commonly in the northeastern and southeastern Gulf, and may range as far south as Suriname. The other has been taken primarily in the northwestern Gulf, and is not known from outside Gulf waters. While both of the new species appear restricted to relatively deep subtidal waters of the continental shelf, Phimochirus holthuisi s.s. is instead more commonly found in shallow nearshore tropical waters on or near coral reefs. Previous literature reports of P. holthuisi usually represent, at least in part, one or both of these two new species.

Keywords: Crustacea, Paguroidea, Paguridae, Phimochirus, new species, Gulf of Mexico

FIGURE 2. Phimochirus holthuisi (Provenzano, 1961) s.s.: A, male, sl 3.3 mm (USNM 1542650 = ULLZ 3564), Belize; B, male, sl 2.9 mm (USNM 1558313 = ULLZ 16588), Belize.
Phimochirus formani nov. sp.: C, male paratype, sl 3.1 mm (USNM 1547566 = ULLZ 14352), northeastern Gulf of Mexico; D, male paratype, sl 2.8 mm (USNM 1543170 = ULLZ 7711), northeastern Gulf of Mexico.
Phimochirus tunnelli nov. sp.: E, male paratype, sl 4.1 mm (USNM 1545269 = ULLZ 10611), northwestern Gulf of Mexico; F, ov female paratype, sl 3.9 mm (USNM 1541146 = ULLZ 5789), northwestern Gulf of Mexico.

 Family Paguridae 

Phimochirus holthuisi (Provenzano, 1961) s.s.

Diagnosis. Carapace shield approximately as long as broad; rostrum broadly subtriangular, rounded. Antennular and antennal peduncles at most reaching to distal margin of corneas; antennal flagella with short setae 1 or less flagellar article in length. Right chela with dorsal surface of fixed finger with small, low nearly obsolete tubercles; palm with dorsal surface smooth, lateral and mesial margins sharply defined by weakly crenulate ridge, mesial margin expanded distally and terminating in strong, blunt spiniform angle. Carpus with dorsomesial margin weakly defined by low ridge armed with 1 proximal spine and 2 or 3 small, blunt spines distally. Dactyls of second and third pereopods approximately 1.7 times longer than propodi; dorsomesial margins each with usually 5 corneous spinules, ventromesial margins each with row of usually 5 or 6 corneous spinules. Anterior lobe of sternite between third pereopods subsemiovate, with simple setae; sternite between fourth and fifth pereopods with simple setae.
 GenBank sequence accession numbers for Belize specimen (USNM 1558313 = ULLZ 16588): (H3) MK830047; (12s) MK848210; (16s) 848227. 

Habitat. Occupying variety of medium sized gastropod shells, including faciolariids, turbinids, and muricids; coral reefs, on coralline sand and rubble substrates of spur and groove reef front to backreef lagoon rubble, sands, and seagrass beds; reef crests and shallow adjacent subtidal waters; inner continental shelf; most commonly 2–18 m, to 91 m off North Carolina, perhaps to 291 m off Georgia. 

Distribution. Western Atlantic: East coast of the United States, off North Carolina and Georgia; Caribbean, including Quintana Roo (Cozumel), Belize, Virgin Islands, Jamaica, Guadeloupe, and Colombia; questionably northeastern coast of South America, Suriname to Brazil.

Phimochirus formani nov. sp.

Diagnosis. Carapace shield approximately 1.1 times longer than broad; rostrum acutely triangular, reaching distally beyond lateral projections, terminating in strong spine. Antennular peduncles exceeding distal margins of cornea when fully extended by approximately one-fourth length of ultimate segment. Antennal peduncles reaching to about distal margin of corneas when fully extended, flagellum with alternating long (2 flagellar articles in length) and short setae (less than 1 flagellar article in length). Right chela with dorsal surface of fixed finger with few wellspaced low tubercles; palm smooth dorsally or with few well-spaced low tubercles distally near base of fixed finger, dorsomesial margin sinuous sharply defined as tuberculate or bluntly spinose ridge flaring distally and terminating in spine-like distal angle; carpus with dorsomesial margin sharply defined by spinose ridge including strong, mesially projecting spine. Dactyls of second and third pereopods with ventromesial row of 7–9 corneous spinules (or 4 corneous spinules in very small individuals sl < 2.0 mm). Anterior lobe of sternite between third pereopods semisubovate, distal margin with simple setae; sternites between fourth and fifth pereopods with simple setae.
GenBank sequence accession numbers for paratype (USNM 1547566 = ULLZ 14352): (H3) MK830053; (12s) MK828404; (16s) MK848222.

Etymology. The specific name was selected to honor W. Wayne Forman, a New Orleans based environmental scientist whose talents include an unusually broad grasp of marine biota, and who has over many years brokered access to research sites, acquisition of research specimens, and the securing of financial support for marine scientists working throughout the northern Gulf of Mexico. 

Habitat. Occupying variety of small to medium sized gastropod shells, especially faciolariids, turbinids, and muricids; offshore calcareous banks and deep platforms around coral reefs, especially where richly covered by macroalgae and epifauna, including among rhodoliths; inner to middle continental shelf; 27–62 m. 

Distribution. Western Atlantic: northeastern, northwestern, and southeastern Gulf of Mexico; Suriname.

Phimochirus tunnelli nov. sp.

Diagnosis. Carapace shield approximately 1.1 times longer than broad; rostrum acutely triangular, reaching distally beyond lateral projections, terminating in strong spine. Antennular peduncles reaching to distal margins of corneas when fully extended. Antennal peduncles reaching to approximately midlevel of corneas when fully extended; flagellum with short setae 1 to < 1 flagellar articles in length. Right chela with dorsal surface of fixed finger covered with well-spaced low tubercles; palm with numerous well-spaced tubercles or blunt spines on distal half, dorsomesial margin sharply defined as straight (in mesial view) crenulate or bluntly spinulose ridge terminating in rounded or spine-like angle; carpus with dorsomesial margin sharply defined by ridge with 3 or 4 sharp proximal spines and 2 or 3 smaller blunt distal spines. Dactyls of second and third pereopods with 3 rows of corneous spinules, one dorsomesial with 10 or 11, one ventromesial with 5–10, and one ventral with 9–11. Anterior lobe of sternite between third pereopods semisubovate, distal margin with simple and often capsulate setae; sternites between fourth and fifth pereopods with simple setae and often short capsulate setae.
 GenBank sequence accession numbers for holotype (USNM 1547302 = ULLZ 13837): (12s) MK848209; (16s) MK848226.

Etymology. The specific name is assigned in recognition of the late John W. (Wes) Tunnell, formerly of Texas A&M University–Corpus Christi, whose deep appreciation for, and professional understanding of, coastal and marine biodiversity in the Gulf of Mexico region is reflected in many books and other publications that he authored or orchestrated over his long and productive career. 

Habitat. Occupying varied medium sized gastropod shells, especially faciolariids, turbinids, and muricids; offshore rhodolith and other calcareous banks, especially where richly covered by macroalgae and epifaunal communities; inner to middle continental shelf; 38–72 m.

 Distribution. Western Atlantic: northeastern, northwestern, and southeastern Gulf of Mexico. 

Darryl L. Felder, Rafael Lemaitre and Catherine Craig. 2019. Two New Species of the Phimochirus holthuisi complex from the Gulf of Mexico, supported by Morphology, Color, and Genetics (Crustacea: Anomura: Paguridae). Zootaxa. 4683(4); 531–551. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4683.4.4

[Ichthyology • 2019] Redescription and Recognition of Etheostoma cyanorum from Blue River, Oklahoma, USA

Etheostoma cyanorum (Moore and Rigney, 1952)

in Matthews & Turner, 2019. 

Etheostoma cyanorum, endemic to the Blue River drainage of southern Oklahoma, is redescribed and recognized as a distinct species within the Etheostoma whippleiEtheostoma radiosum complex, separating it from E. radiosum. Originally described as Poecilichthys radiosus cyanorum, it was one of three putative subspecies of E. radiosum (with E. r. radiosum and E. r. paludosum) considered valid until now, defined in part by drainage-specific allopatry. Two separate mtDNA gene trees show that E. cyanorum forms a distinct and strongly supported lineage. Ten meristic and 16 morphometric traits are reexamined and new information included, confirming traits separating E. cyanorum from E. radiosum, and clarifying ambiguities about “bluntness of the snout” as diagnostic for P. r. cyanorum. Etheostoma cyanorum differs from E. radiosum by lower counts of unpored lateral line scales, higher counts of pored lateral line scales, and greater interorbital width. Large adult E. cyanorum have a deep body and blunt snout per earlier studies, but those traits are not diagnostic due to allometry. Head depth and head width can separate E. cyanorum from most populations of E. radiosum, but they overlap with some populations of E. radiosum in southwest Arkansas. All evidence supports recognition of E. cyanorum as a valid species. A broad geographic, molecular assessment to supplement existing morphological information is needed to assess validity of the two remaining subspecies of E. radiosum.

Fig. 3 (A) Male Etheostoma cyanorum, 63 mm SL, in nuptial color, from mainstem Blue River, 1.7 km west-northwest of Connerville, OK, 30 March 2018 (WJM 3645; OMNH 86859); (B) female E. cyanorum, 41 mm SL, same collection (OMNH 86860). Location: 34°27.067′ N, 96°39.327′ W. Photographs by N. Lang. (C) Detail of distal color band in nuptial male from same collection, same date (OMNH 86861). Photograph by WJM.

Etheostoma cyanorum (Moore and Rigney, 1952), elevated to species
Blue River Orangebelly Darter

Holotype.— UMMZ 161366, holotype of Poecilichthys whipplii cyanorum, adult breeding male, 68 mm SL, designated by Moore and Rigney (1952), collected by Moore in 1949 in Blue River at State Hwy 99 north of Connerville, Johnston County, Oklahoma (Fig. 2).

Paratypes.— Paratypes include 329 individuals collected by Moore or students from the Blue River drainage (museum acronyms and catalog numbers, Moore and Rigney, 1952: p. 10).

Diagnosis.— Etheostoma cyanorum differs from E. radiosum by their allopatric distribution, with E. cyanorum known only from Blue River and tributaries, versus E. radiosum occupying tributaries of Washita River west of Blue River and all drainages eastward from the Clear Boggy to the upper Ouachita and Little Missouri in southwest Arkansas. Etheostoma cyanorum differs from E. radiosum in having all assayed mtDNA haplotypes not shared with E. radiosum, lower counts of unpored lateral line scales, higher counts of pored lateral line scales, and a wider interorbital distance. Etheostoma cyanorum can be distinguished by a deeper and wider head from E. radiosum in all Oklahoma drainages, and in most but not all drainages in Arkansas. Nuptial males of Etheostoma cyanorum differ from nuptial E. radiosum in the geographically closest drainages (Washita, Clear Boggy, Muddy Boggy, and Kiamichi) by a solid blue distal band in the spinous dorsal (Fig. 3C), compared to the distal blue band in those populations of E. radiosum (=E. r. paludosum of Moore and Rigney) having an appearance of blue “dots” or “spots” bordered in white, between clear or orange tips of the fin spines.

Distribution.— Etheostoma cyanorum is known only from the Blue River drainage in southcentral Oklahoma, a tributary of Red River. It is most abundant in the upper, spring-fed, rocky portions of the drainage, and in some small tributary creeks, but is scarce or absent in lower, muddy portions of the drainage closer to Red River.

Etymology.— The specific name “cyanorum” (=“of the Blues” referring to Blue River) was suggested for the subspecies, on advice from R. M. Bailey (Moore and Rigney, 1952), to reflect restriction of this form to Blue River and its tributaries. Linder (1955) and Echelle et al. (2015) referred to it as the “Blue River Orangebelly Darter,” but Near et al. (2011) called it “Blue Darter.” We follow Linder (1955) and Echelle et al. (2015) and recommend the common name “Blue River Orangebelly Darter,” because E. cyanorum is not predominantly blue in coloration. This common name aligns with the practice of referring to other fishes in Oklahoma in a drainage-specific manner, including Red River Pupfish (Cyprinodon rubrofluviatilis), Red River Shiner (Notropis bairdi), and Arkansas River Shiner (Notropis girardi).

William J. Matthews and Thomas F. Turner. 2019. Redescription and Recognition of Etheostoma cyanorum from Blue River, Oklahoma. Copeia. 107(2); 208-218. DOI: 10.1643/CI-18-054

Sunday, October 27, 2019

[Botany • 2019] Prosopanche demogorgoni (Aristolochiaceae: Hydnoroideae) • A New Species of Prosopanche from southern Brazil

Prosopanche demogorgoni Funez

in Funez, Ribeiro-Nardes, Kossmann, et al., 2019. 

Here we describe a new species of Prosopanche from southern Brazil. This is the first report of Prosopanche in Santa Catarina state and for the Atlantic Forest region. We present field photographs, illustrations, ecologic and conservation comments on the new species. We contrast the morphology of the new species with the other Prosopanche species that occur in Brazil, P. bonacinai and P. caatinguicola. The new species is morphologically similar to P. bonacinai, which has anthers composed by 20–30 thecae, synandrium 15–25 × 6–8 mm and tepals 35–55 × 9–20 mm vs. anthers composed by 3–4 thecae, synandrium 5–6 × 3–4 mm and tepals 15–20 × 5–8 mm in P. demogorgoni.

Keywords: Hydnoraceae, Neotropics, Piperales, root parasite plant, threatened species, General, Magnoliids

FIGURE 1. Field photographs of Prosopanche demogorgoni.
 A. Flower in frontal view. B. Flower in lateral view. C. Flower bud. D. Flower showing the long perigonial tube. E. Immature fruit. F. Trigonous rhizomes.

FIGURE 2. Line drawings of Prosopanche demogorgoni.
A–C. Synandrium. D. Longitudinal section of a flower. E. Stigma. F. Staminode. G. Floral bud. H. Flower at anthesis. I. Immature fruit and rhizome.

Prosopanche demogorgoni Funez sp. nov. 

Etymology:— Demogorgon is a fictional monster whose mouth resembles the P. demogorgoni flower.

Luis Adriano Funez, Weslley Ribeiro-Nardes, Thiago Kossmann, Nivaldo Peroni and Elisandro Ricardo Drechsler dos Santos. 2019. Prosopanche demogorgoni: A New Species of Prosopanche (Aristolochiaceae: Hydnoroideae) from southern Brazil. Phytotaxa. 422(1); 93–100. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.422.1.6

Saturday, October 26, 2019

[Invertebrate • 2019] Placobdelloides sirikanchanae • A New Species of Glossiphoniid Leech (Hirudinea, Rhynchobdellida) and A Parasite of Turtles from lower southern Thailand

Placobdelloides sirikanchanae (arrows) 
on the Asian leaf turtle (Cyclemys dentata (Gray, 1831)) (left) and the dark-bellied leaf turtle (Cenigmatica Fritz et al., 2008) (right).
 Trivalairat, Chiangkul & Purivirojkul, 2019
ปลิงอาจารย์ประไพสิริ  ||  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.882.35229

 A new species of glossiphoniid leech, Placobdelloides sirikanchanae sp. nov., is reported in the Asian leaf turtle (Cyclemys dentata) and the dark-bellied leaf turtle (C. enigmatica) from Songkhla Province, southern Thailand. The examination of morphological characters revealed that this new species is similar to P. siamensis (Oka, 1917), a common turtle leech species found in Thailand. Placobdelloides sirikanchanae sp. nov. demonstrates distinct morphological characters, with an elongated, narrow body, 13–17 well-developed knob papillae on each annulus, dark brown to greenish dorsal color with a crimson median line, the absence of a scarlet dot, different male and female gonopore distributions, a rough posterior sucker with a random pit distribution, and 104–115 eggs per clutch. The phylogenetic relationships of COI-ND1 genes were clarified and shown to be distinct from those of P. siamensis. Additionally, habitat preferences tended toward low oxygen conditions such as puddles or water patches on rubber plantations.

Keywords: Clitellata, Cyclemys, Glossiphoniidae, Hirudinea, leaf turtle, Songkhla

Placobdelloides Sawyer, 1986
Type species: Placobdelloides multistriata (Johansson, 1909) by original designation.

Genus diagnosis: eyes one pair, esophageal organ, crop caeca seven pairs, mouth pore terminal (Oosthuizen 1979).

Genus distribution: Placobdelloides species can be found in Africa (P. fimbriata (Johansson, 1909); P. jaegerskioeldi (Johansson, 1909); P. multistriata (Johansson, 1909)), Australia and United States, eastward to India (P. fulva (Harding, 1924); P. emydae (Harding, 1920); P. undulata (Harding, 1924); P. horai (Baugh, 1960); P. indica (Baugh, 1960)), Southeast Asia (P. siamensis in China and Thailand; P. okadai (Oka, 1925) in China; P. okai (Soós, 1969); P. stellapapillosa Govedich et al., 2002 in Malaysia and Singapore), and throughout Australia and New Zealand (P. octostriata (Grube, 1866); P. maorica (Benham, 1907); P. bancrofti (Best, 1931); P. bdellae (Ingram, 1957)).

Figure 2. Dorsal surface (upper) and ventral surface (lower) of the live holotype of Placobdelloides sirikanchanae sp. nov.

Placobdelloides sirikanchanae sp. nov.

Material examined: Holotype (ZMKU-ANN-0006), puddle on rubber plantation, Sadao District, Songkhla Province, Thailand , 21 October 2018. Paratypes (nine individuals, ZMKU-ANN-0007 to 0015), same locality data as the holotype. All collected specimens were kept in 70% alcohol and deposited at the Zoological Museum of Kasetsart University (ZMKU), Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University on 23 November 2018.

Diagnosis: This species can be recognized from its elongated, narrow body, crimson median dorsal line, rich dark green pigmentation, 13–17 well-developed knob papillae on each annulus, symmetrical dorsal papillae between the left and right body sides, male gonopore on XIa1/a2, female gonopore on XIa3/XIIa1, amorphous salivary glands, smooth surface with random pits inside the anterior sucker, and rugged surface with randomly distributed pits inside the posterior sucker.

Etymology: The species is named in honor of Associate Professor Prapaisiri Sirikanchana, the pioneer aquatic parasitologist of Thailand. The following common names, Sirikanchana’s leech (English), Pling Arjan Prapaisiri (Thai: ปลิงอาจารย์ประไพสิริ), and Sirikanchanas Plattegel (German) are suggested.

Figure 1. Live Placobdelloides sirikanchanae sp. nov. (arrows) on the Asian leaf turtle (Cyclemys dentata (Gray, 1831)) (left) and the dark-bellied leaf turtle (C. enigmatica Fritz et al., 2008) (right): carapace (lower), plastron (upper).

Type host: Dark-bellied leaf turtles (Cyclemys enigmatica).

Additional host: Asian leaf turtles (C. dentata).

Habitat: Placobdelloides sirikanchanae sp. nov. can be found attached on the shell surface, both the carapace and plastron, of C. dentata and C. enigmatica, which inhabit the bottom of enclosed shallow muddy puddles on rubber plantations. In the rainy season, several puddles will be connected due to an increase in the water level. Numerous small vertebrates are present in these puddles, such as small fishes or tadpoles. In the dry season, the puddles will be disconnected as the shallower waters disappear from evaporation. These aquatic ecosystems usually have low oxygen due to decomposition of leaf litter and nonflowing water.

 Poramad Trivalairat, Krittiya Chiangkul and Watchariya Purivirojkul. 2019. Placobdelloides sirikanchanae sp. nov., A New Species of Glossiphoniid Leech and A Parasite of Turtles from lower southern Thailand (Hirudinea, Rhynchobdellida). ZooKeys. 882: 1-24. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.882.35229