Sunday, March 31, 2019

[Herpetology • 2019] Trachylepis raymondlaurenti • A New Long-tailed Skink (Scincidae: Trachylepis) from Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Trachylepis raymondlaurenti 
Marques, Ceríaco, Bandeira, Pauwels & Bauer, 2019

Laurent’s Long Tailed Skink || DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4568.1.3
Photo by Luis M. P. Ceríaco.

Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo are relatively unknown in terms of their herpetological diversity. Based on specimens collected in the Congolese region of the Katanga and the northeast of Angola during the first decades of the twentieth century, de Witte and Laurent independently suggested, based on morphological and coloration differences, that populations of T. megalura of these regions could belong a new “race”. We compared specimens of T. megalura (including the type specimens of T. megalura and T. massaiana) with Angolan and Katangan museum specimens as well as newly collected specimens from Angola. Coloration pattern and morphological characters, in combination with substantial divergence in the 16S mitochondrial gene, confirm the distinctiveness of the west Central African form, and it is here described as a new species. Data regarding its natural history, ecology and global distribution are presented.

 Keywords: Reptilia, Taxonomy, Trachylepis raymondlaurenti sp. nov., Cangandala National Park, Upemba National Park, Central Africa, type-specimens, nomenclature

FIGURE 3. Live specimen of Trachylepis megalura (EBG 1408) from Lwiro, South Kivu Province, DRC. Note the prominent white flank stripe.
Photo by Eli B. Greenbaum.

Holotype of Trachylepis raymondlaurenti sp. nov. (CAS 258401) from Cangandala National Park, Angola in life.
Photo by Luis M. P. Ceríaco.

Holotype of Trachylepis raymondlaurenti sp. nov. (CAS 258401) from Cangandala National Park, Angola.

Trachylepis raymondlaurenti 
Marques, Ceríaco, Bandeira, Pauwels & Bauer sp. nov. 

 Mabuya megalura (de Witte 1953: 107) 
Mabuya megalura subsp. (Laurent 1964: 74) 
Trachylepis megalura (Broadley & Cotterill 2004: 42 [partim]) 
Trachylepis cf. megalura (Ceríaco et al. 2016b: 71; 2018b: 423; Marques et al. 2018: 264)

Etymology. The species is named after Raymond F. Laurent (1917–2005), Belgian herpetologist who specialized in African amphibians and reptiles and contributed significantly to current knowledge of the Angolan and Congolese herpetofaunas. 
We propose the English name "Laurent’s Long Tailed Skink", the Portuguese name "Lagartixa de Cauda Longa de Laurent", and the French name "Scinque à longue queue de Laurent".

 Mariana P. Marques, Luis M. P. Ceríaco, Suzana Bandeira, Olivier S. G. Pauwels and Aaron M. Bauer. 2019. Description of A New Long-tailed Skink (Scincidae: Trachylepis) from Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Zootaxa. 4568(1); 51–68. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4568.1.3

[Botany • 2018] Memecylon travancorense (Melastomataceae) • A New Species of Memecylon from Western Ghats, India

Memecylon travancorense Sivu, N. S. Pradeep, Pandur. & Ratheesh

in Sivu, Pradeep, Pandurangan & Narayanan, 2018. 

Memecylon travancorense Sivu, N. S. Pradeep, Pandur. & Ratheesh, a new species of Memecylon from Agastyamala Biosphere Reserve of the southern Western Ghats is described herewith illustration and photographs. Its distinctive characters are discussed and comments made on differences between this and its allied taxa. This new species is similar to M. wightii, but clearly distinct by having sub-terete, greyish white branchlets, broadly elliptic to oblong leaves with slightly cordate to rounded leaf base, umbellate inflorescence with quadrangular peduncles and shortly pedicellate flowers. Information on habitat, distribution, and conservation status are provided.

Keyword: India, Kerala, Melastomataceae, Memecylon, New species, Western Ghats

Fig. 2: Memecylon travancorense Sivu et al. sp. nov.;
A. Habit, B. A branch with flowers, C. Flower buds & young fruits, D. Flowers, E. Fruits.

Memecylon travancorense Sivu, N. S. Pradeep, Pandur. & Ratheesh, sp. nov.

Etymology: The specific epithet ‘travancorense’ refers to “Travancore”, the famous Princely Kingdom once ruled the high ranges of southern Western Ghats beyond south of Palaghat Gap, which is now recognized as one of the hotspot areas of the Western Ghats.

Distribution & Habitat: Memecylon travancorense grows in medium altitude evergreen forests at elevations of 700–760 m a.s.l. in Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve. It is known from the Ponmudi Ghats of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala State and Keeripara of Kanyakumari district, Tamil Nadu. The populations in both the areas are small and fragmented.  

Ambikabai Raghavanpillai Sivu, Nediyaparambu Sukumaran Pradeep, Alagramam Govindasamy Pandurangan and Matalayi Kokaramath Ratheesh Narayanan. 2018. A New Species of Memecylon (Melastomataceae) from Western Ghats, India. Taiwania. 63(2); 106-110. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2018.63.106

[Ichthyology • 2019] Sardinella pacifica • A New Species of Sardine (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae) from the Philippines

Sardinella pacifica
 Hata & Motomura, 2019

A new sardine, Sardinella pacifica sp. n., is described on the basis of 21 specimens collected from the Philippines. The new species closely resembles Sardinella fimbriata (Valenciennes, 1847), both species having lateral scales with centrally discontinuous striae, a dark spot on the dorsal-fin origin, more than 70 lower gill rakers on the first gill arch, the pelvic fin with eight rays, and 17 or 18 prepelvic and 12 or 13 postpelvic scutes. However, the new species is distinguished from the latter by lower counts of lateral scales, pseudobranchial filaments, and postpelvic scutes (38–41, 14–19 and 12–13, respectively vs. 44–46, 19–22 and 13–14), and a shorter lower jaw (10.4–11.6% of standard length vs. 11.1–12.2%). Sardinella pacifica sp. n. is known only from the Philippines, whereas S. fimbriata is restricted to the Indian Ocean, although previously considered to be an Indo-West Pacific species, distributed from India to the Philippines.

Keywords: morphology, Sardinella fimbriata, Southeast Asia, taxonomy

Figure 1. Holotype of Sardinella pacifica sp. n., BMNH 1985.4.12.1, 105.1 mm SL, Manila Bay, Luzon Island, Philippines.

Sardinella pacifica sp. n.

Diagnosis: A species of Sardinella with the following combination of characters: caudal fin with black posterior margin; lateral body scales with centrally discontinuous vertical striae, and few perforations and pores posteriorly; 38–41 (modally 38) lateral scales in longitudinal series; body scales deciduous; black spot on dorsal-fin origin; pelvic fin with one unbranched and seven branched rays; gill rakers 40–53 (43) in upper series on 1st gill arch, 71–84 (72) in lower series, 112–137 (118) in total; gill rakers 40–56 (42) in upper series on 2nd gill arch, 70–94 (79) in lower series, 112–148 (115) in total; gill rakers 37–52 (42) in upper series on 3rd gill arch, 57–75 (60) in lower series, 95–127 (99) in total; gill rakers 31–43 (35) in upper series on 4th gill arch, 44–63 (48) in lower, 78–106 (80) in total; gill rakers 30–43 (34) on hind face of 3rd gill arch; 17 or 18 (18) + 12 or 13 (13) = 29–31 (30) scutes on ventral edge of body; anal fin with 18–21 (20) rays; lower jaw rather short, 10.4–11.6% of SL.

Distribution: Currently known only from the Philippines.

Etymology: The specific name pacifica (in reference to the Pacific Ocean) is given to distinguish the species from S. fimbriata, with which it had been confused, and which is now considered to be restricted to the Indian Ocean.

 Harutaka Hata and Hiroyuki Motomura. 2019. A New Species of Sardine, Sardinella pacifica from the Philippines (Teleostei, Clupeiformes, Clupeidae). ZooKeys. 829: 75-83.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.829.30688

[Fungi • 2019] Megaphylogeny Resolves Global Patterns of Mushroom (Agaricomycetes) Evolution

 Phylogenetic relationships and diversification across 5,284 mushroom-forming fungi. 
in Varga, Krizsán, Földi, et al., 2019. 
   DOI: 10.1038/s41559-019-0834-1  

Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) have the greatest morphological diversity and complexity of any group of fungi. They have radiated into most niches and fulfil diverse roles in the ecosystem, including wood decomposers, pathogens or mycorrhizal mutualists. Despite the importance of mushroom-forming fungi, large-scale patterns of their evolutionary history are poorly known, in part due to the lack of a comprehensive and dated molecular phylogeny. Here, using multigene and genome-based data, we assemble a 5,284-species phylogenetic tree and infer ages and broad patterns of speciation/extinction and morphological innovation in mushroom-forming fungi. Agaricomycetes started a rapid class-wide radiation in the Jurassic, coinciding with the spread of (sub)tropical coniferous forests and a warming climate. A possible mass extinction, several clade-specific adaptive radiations and morphological diversification of fruiting bodies followed during the Cretaceous and the Paleogene, convergently giving rise to the classic toadstool morphology, with a cap, stalk and gills (pileate-stipitate morphology). This morphology is associated with increased rates of lineage diversification, suggesting it represents a key innovation in the evolution of mushroom-forming fungi. The increase in mushroom diversity started during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic radiation event, an era of humid climate when terrestrial communities dominated by gymnosperms and reptiles were also expanding.

Fig. 1: Phylogenetic relationships and diversification across 5,284 mushroom-forming fungi.
One of the 245 analysed maximum-likelihood trees was randomly chosen and visualized. Trees were inferred from nrLSU, rpb2, ef1-a sequences with a phylogenomic backbone constraint of deep nodes. Branches are coloured by net diversification (speciation minus extinction) rate inferred in Bayesian Analysis of Macroevolutionary Mixtures (BAMM). Warmer colours denote a higher rate of diversification. Significant shifts in diversification rate are shown by triangles at nodes. Only shifts present on >50% of ten trees, with a Bayesian posterior probability >0.5 and a posterior odds ratio >5 are shown. See Supplementary Data 6 for detailed discussion of shifts. Reconstructed probabilities of ancestral plant hosts for order-level clades are shown as pie charts partitioned by the inferred ancestral probability for gymnosperm (green) and angiosperm host (black). Pie charts are given for the most recent common ancestors of each order plus backbone nodes within the Agaricales—for small orders see Supplementary Data 3. Inner and outer bars around the tree denote extant substrate preference (black, angiosperm; green, gymnosperm; grey, generalist) and the placement of species used for inferring the 650-gene phylogenomic backbone phylogeny. Geological time scale is indicated with grey/white concentric rings.

Torda Varga, Krisztina Krizsán, Csenge Földi, Bálint Dima, Marisol Sánchez-García, Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez, Gergely J. Szöllősi, János G. Szarkándi, Viktor Papp, László Albert, William Andreopoulos, Claudio Angelini, Vladimír Antonín, Kerrie W. Barry, Neale L. Bougher, Peter Buchanan, Bart Buyck, Viktória Bense, Pam Catcheside, Mansi Chovatia, Jerry Cooper, Wolfgang Dämon, Dennis Desjardin, Péter Finy, József Geml, Sajeet Haridas, Karen Hughes, Alfredo Justo, Dariusz Karasiński, Ivona Kautmanova, Brigitta Kiss, Sándor Kocsubé, Heikki Kotiranta, Kurt M. LaButti, Bernardo E. Lechner, Kare Liimatainen, Anna Lipzen, Zoltán Lukács, Sirma Mihaltcheva, Louis N. Morgado, Tuula Niskanen, Machiel E. Noordeloos, Robin A. Ohm, Beatriz Ortiz-Santana, Clark Ovrebo, Nikolett Rácz, Robert Riley, Anton Savchenko, Anton Shiryaev, Karl Soop, Viacheslav Spirin, Csilla Szebenyi, Michal Tomšovský, Rodham E. Tulloss, Jessie Uehling, Igor V. Grigoriev, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Tamás Papp, Francis M. Martin, Otto Miettinen, David S. Hibbett and László G. Nagy. 2019. Megaphylogeny Resolves Global Patterns of Mushroom Evolution. Nature Ecology & Evolution.  DOI: 10.1038/s41559-019-0834-1   

[Botany • 2019] A Synopsis of Lychnophorinae (Asteraceae: Vernonieae)

Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng.

in Loeuille, Semir & Pirani, 2019.

A new classification of the subtribe Lychnophorinae is proposed based on the results of phylogenetic analyses. The subtribes Centratherinae and Sipolisiinae are synonyms of Lychnophorinae and three genera (Albertinia, Blanchetia, Gorceixia) are transferred to the subtribe. As now circumscribed, Lychnophorinae comprises 19 genera and 117 species distributed mostly in the Cerrado domain of the Brazilian Central Plateau. Oiospermum is synonymized under Centratherum, and Irwinia under Blanchetia. Because Lychnophora as currently circumscribed is paraphyletic, the genus is dismantled into three monophyletic genera: Lychnophora s.s., Lychnocephalus and a new genus described herein, Lychnophorella. Seven new species are described (Chronopappus lanatus, Lychnophora grisea, L. haplopappa, Lychnophorella jacobinensis, Piptolepis riparia, Prestelia espeletoidea and Proteopsis hermogenesii), 16 new combinations are proposed (Eremanthus reticulatus, E. syncephalus, Lychnocephalus humillimus, L. mellobarretoi, L. sellowii, Lychnophora hatschbachii, Lychnophorella blanchetii, L. bishopii, L. leucodendron, L. morii, L. regis, L. santosii, L. sericea, L. triflora, Piptolepis pabstii, Prestelia purpurascens) as well as eight new synonyms. We also propose a neotype for Ampherephis pulchella, an epitype for Crantzia ovata and lectotypes for 31 names including six second-step lectotypifications (Albertinia brasiliensis, A. polycephala, Ampherephis intermedia, Centratherum fruticosum, Eremanthus leucodendron, E. purpurascens, Gorceixia decurrens, Lychnophora albertinioides, L. brunioides, L. microphylla, L. pohlii, L. reticulata, L. rosmarinus var. affinis, L. rosmarinus var. normalis, L. sellowii, Piptolepis gardneri, Proteopsis sellowii, Symblomeria baldwiniana, Vanillosmopsis albertinioides, V. glomerata, V. pohlii, V. syncephala, Vernonia burchelliana, V. ericoides, V. imbricata, V. involucrata, V. leptospermoides, V. martiana, V. platycephala, V. pseudomyrtus and V. trichocarpha).

Keywords: Centratherinae, classification, Compositae, Sipolisiinae, taxonomy, Eudicots

Albertinia brasiliensis Spreng.

Benoît Loeuille, João Semir and José R. Pirani. 2019. A Synopsis of Lychnophorinae (Asteraceae: Vernonieae). Phytotaxa.  398(1); 1–139. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.398.1.1

[Entomology • 2019] Undulivena thaiensis • A New Unique Leafhopper Genus of Erythroneurini (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Typhlocybinae) from Thailand

Undulivena thaiensis 
Song & Li, 2019

A new genus of the leafhopper tribe Erythroneurini (Cicadellidae, Typhlocybinae) from Thailand, Undulivena gen. n., and a new species Undulivena thaiensis sp. n., are described and illustrated. The new genus exhibits a unique feature of the forewing venation with CuA vein strongly sinuate.

Keywords: Auchenorrhyncha, Homoptera, morphology, new taxa, taxonomy

Figures 1–11. Undulivena thaiensis sp. n.
(♂): 1 habitus, dorsal view 2 habitus, lateral view 3 head and thorax, dorsal view 4 face.
 (♀): 5 habitus, dorsal view 6 habitus, lateral view 7 head and thorax, dorsal view 8 face 9 abdomen of female 10 forewing 11 hind wing.

Undulivena gen. n.
Type species: Undulivena thaiensis sp. n.

Diagnosis: The new genus is quite different from the other genera of the tribe Erythroneurini in view of the forewing venation, patterns of patches and chaetotaxy of the subgenital plate. The CuA vein of forewing is waved, which is unique among known Erythroneurini.

The new genus is very similar to Salka (from Oriental and Palearctic regions) in body shape and male genitalia, e.g., pygofer with dorsal appendages, long dorsal macrosetae and a group of basolateral macrosetae, and the presence of a median anterior lobe on the connective. It differs from Salka in having the venation of the forewing with CuA strongly sinuate, which is unique among known Typhlocybinae, and the subgenital plate with a few lateral macrosetae in basal half. The color pattern of the forewing is also very unusual with veins margined with yellowish white, contrasting with the dark wings.

Etymology: The new generic name combines the Latin words undula and vena, referring to the undulate vein for the sinuate CuA vein of the forewing. The gender is feminine.

Undulivena thaiensis sp. n.

Diagnosis: The forewing has yellow-whitish stripes along veins. The style apex expanded, with inner margin tooth-like medially, and the aedeagal shaft spindle-shaped in ventral view, with single small subbasal process.

Etymology: The species is named for the type locality, Thailand. The name is adjectival.

 Yuehua Song and Can Li. 2019. A New Unique Leafhopper Genus of Erythroneurini from Thailand, with The Description of One New Species (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Typhlocybinae).  ZooKeys. 829: 23-28.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.829.28718

Saturday, March 30, 2019

[Entomology • 2019] Revision of the Genus Neorthrius Gerstmeier & Eberle, 2011 (Coleoptera, Cleridae, Clerinae)

Neorthrius haemorrhoidalis (Schenkling, 1906)

in Gerstmeier, 2019. 
 DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4569.1.1

The genus Neorthrius Gerstmeier & Eberle, 2011 is taxonomically revised to include sixty-one species. The following thirty-one species are described as new: Neorthrius aduncus n. sp., Neorthrius aurantiacus n. sp., Neorthrius bipunctatus n. sp., Neorthrius bonasus n. sp., Neorthrius brunnorbis n. sp., Neorthrius buteocoloratus n. sp., Neorthrius cechovskyi n. sp., Neorthrius centromaculatus n. sp., Neorthrius chiangmaii n. sp., Neorthrius cornutus n. sp., Neorthrius crassopunctatus n. sp., Neorthrius ebenus n. sp., Neorthrius elegantulus n. sp., Neorthrius fortecruris n. sp., Neorthrius fulvus n. sp., Neorthrius fuscomaculosus n. sp., Neorthrius guttatus n. sp., Neorthrius longulus n. sp., Neorthrius majae n. sp., Neorthrius mariannae n. sp., Neorthrius molestus n. sp., Neorthrius schnitzeli n. sp., Neorthrius serratus n. sp., Neorthrius sexmaculatus n. sp., Neorthrius sigmoideus n. sp., Neorthrius tenuistriatus n. sp., Neorthrius tulipae n. sp., Neorthrius unicolor n. sp., Neorthrius uniformis n. sp., Neorthrius volsella n. sp. and Neorthrius zebrinus n. sp.. The following taxa, described as varietal forms, are raised to the rank of species and transferred from Orthrius Gorham, 1876: Orthrius striatopunctatus var. bimaculatus Schenkling, 1901 and Orthrius striatopunctatus var. brunneus n. syn. = Neorthrius bimaculatus (Schenkling, 1901) n. comb., n. stat.; Orthrius tarsalis var. obscurus Schenkling, 1906 = Neorthrius obscurus (Schenkling, 1906) n. comb., n. stat.; Orthrius posticalis var. nigricollis Corporaal 1926a: 180 = Neorthrius nigricollis (Corporaal, 1926), n. stat., n. comb. The following new synonymies are proposed: Orthrius deboyssyi Pic, 1951 n. syn. is synonymized with Neorthrius crassipes (Chapin, 1928) n. comb. Orthrius nigromaculatus Pic, 1951 n. syn. is synonymized with Neorthrius bimaculatus (Schenkling, 1901) n. comb. Orthrius rufitarsis Pic, 1932 n. syn., n. comb. is synonymized with Neorthrius obscurus (Schenkling, 1906). The following species are transferred to Neorthrius from Orthrius: Neorthrius angusticollis (Schenkling, 1902), n. comb., Neorthrius bengalus (Westwood, 1852) n. comb., Neorthrius bicrucis (Chapin, 1924) n. comb., Neorthrius brachialis (Gorham, 1893) n. comb., Neorthrius carinifrons (Schenkling, 1900) n. comb., Neorthrius crassipes (Chapin, 1928) n. comb., Neorthrius feae (Gorham, 1892) n. comb., Neorthrius grandjeani (Pic, 1932) n. comb.,in Neorthrius haemorrhoidalis (Schenkling, 1906) n. comb., Neorthrius innotatus (Pic, 1925) n. comb., Neorthrius madurensis (Gorham, 1895) n. comb., Neorthrius massiliensis (Pic, 1951) n. comb., Neorthrius octopunctatus (Schenkling, 1906) n. comb., Neorthrius pallidus (Chapin, 1924) n. comb., Neorthrius posticalis (Westwood, 1852) n. comb., Neorthrius pygidialis (Corporaal, 1949) n. comb., Neorthrius sexplagiatus (Schenkling, 1908) ) n. comb., Neorthrius sinensis (Gorham, 1876) n. comb., Neorthrius subfasciatus (Westwood, 1849) n. comb., Neorthrius subscalaris (Pic, 1954) n. comb., Neorthrius subsimilis (White, 1849) n. comb., Neorthrius subunicolor (Pic, 1935) n. comb., Neorthrius sulcatus (Pic, 1926) n. comb., Neorthrius sumatranus (Schenkling, 1899) n. comb., Neorthrius tarsalis (Gorham, 1892) n. comb. A key to species, color photographs of the habitus, the genitalia, the terminal abdominal segments and distribution maps are provided.

Keywords: Coleoptera, Cleridae, Clerinae

Neorthrius haemorrhoidalis (Schenkling, 1906)  

Roland Gerstmeier. 2019. Revision of the Genus Neorthrius Gerstmeier & Eberle, 2011 (Coleoptera, Cleridae, Clerinae). Zootaxa. 4569(1); 1-127.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4569.1.1

[Botany • 2019] Sorbus lushanensis (Rosaceae) • A New Species from China

Sorbus lushanensis Xin Chen & Jing Qiu

in Qiu, Zhao, Qi & Chen, 2019. 

Sorbus lushanensis Xin Chen & Jing Qiu, sp. n. (Rosaceae), a new simple-leaved species belonging to Sorbus subg. Aria sect. Alnifoliae, is described from Anhui and Jiangxi provinces in China. Illustrations, photographs of wild plants and a distribution map are presented. The new species is morphologically similar to S. folgneri, but can be distinguished easily by its abaxially greenish-grey tomentose leaves, scale-like stipules and glabrous styles.

Keywords: Sorbus, new species, taxonomy, China

Figure 1. Holotype of Sorbus lushanensis sp. n.
Scanned by Xiaochen Zhang. 

Figure 3. Sorbus lushanensis sp. n.
A flower branch and leaves B flower C petal D styles E stamens F fruit G seed.
Drawn by Yuxuan Bao.

Sorbus lushanensis Xin Chen & Jing Qiu, sp. n.

Diagnosis: Sorbus lushanensis is morphologically most similar to S. folgneri (C. K. Schneid.) Rehd., but differs by its leaf blade abaxially greenish-grey tomentose, stipules smaller, pedicels longer, petals larger and styles glabrous.

Figure 2. Sorbus lushanensis sp. n.
A habit (A plant at Wulao Peak, Lushan National Park, Jiangxi province) B flowering branch and leaves (from the plant of type specimen) C young inflorescence (from the same plant as habit). 

Etymology: The name “lushanensis” refers to the type locality, Lushan Mountain, Jiangxi Province, China.

Vernacular name: 庐山花楸 (lu shan hua qiu).

 Jing Qiu, Yang Zhao, Qi Qi and Xin Chen. 2019. Sorbus lushanensis, A New Species of Rosaceae from China. PhytoKeys. 119: 97-105. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.119.32148

[Botany • 2018] Asplenium serratifolium (Aspleniaceae) • A New Fern Species from Central Vietnam Based on Morphological and Molecular Evidence

Asplenium serratifolium Li Bing Zhang & K.W. Xu

in Xu, Zhang, Lu & Zhang, 2018. 

Asplenium serratifolium (Aspleniaceae), a new fern species from central Vietnam, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by plants 10–18 cm tall, laminae pinnatipartite, lobe margins entire or with shallow teeth, and veins simple or forked. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on five plastid markers (atpB, rbcL, rps4, rps4-trnS, and trnL-F) indicate that the new species is closely related to A. ensiforme.

Asplenium serratifolium sp. nov. C. Plant. D. Abaxial lamina. E. Sulcatestipe, adaxial view. F. Stipe scales. G. Adaxial lamina showing the sulcate midrib. H. Portion ofabaxial lamina; red arrow shows the obscure, forked veins.

Asplenium serratifolium Li Bing Zhang & K.W. Xu, sp. nov.

Etymology.— Based on the Latin prefix, serrati-, serrate, and the Latin suffix, -folium, leaf, referring to the saw-toothed laminae of the new species.

Asplenium serratifolium sp. nov. A and B. Habit. C. Plant. D. Abaxial lamina. E. Sulcatestipe, adaxial view. F. Stipe scales. G. Adaxial lamina showing the sulcate midrib. H. Portion ofabaxial lamina; red arrow shows the obscure, forked veins.

Asplenium serratifolium sp. nov. A and B. Habit. 

Ke-Wang Xu, Liang Zhang, Ngan Thi Lu, and Li-Bing Zhang. 2018. Asplenium serratifolium (Aspleniaceae), A New Fern Species from Central Vietnam Based on Morphological and Molecular Evidence. American Fern Journal. 108(3); 65-75.  DOI: 10.1640/0002-8444-108.3.65

[Botany • 2019] Echeveria xochipalensis (Crassulaceae) • A New Species from Guerrero, Mexico

 Echeveria xochipalensis Reyes, de la Cruz-López & Vergara-Silva

in Reyes Santiago, de la Cruz-López & Vergara-Silva, 2019. 

Echeveria xochipalensis, from the state of Guerrero, Mexico, is described as a new species to science. It is related to species of ser. Gibbiflorae, particularly to both E. fulgens varieties, from which it is distinguished by its green to lilac-gray spatulate leaves, although they commonly are coppery tinged; the leaves are rigid and with entire margin (not crenate), the margin is yellow-hyaline; bracts oblanceolate with rigid consistency; corolla pink at base and orange at the apex and whitish filaments, ovaries and nectary scales.

Keywords: Echeveria, Gibbiflorae, succulents, white leaf scars, Xochipala

Echeveria xochipalensis
 Reyes, de la Cruz-López & Vergara-Silva, sp. nov.

Jerónimo Reyes Santiago, Luis E. de la Cruz-López and Francisco Vergara-Silva. 2019. Echeveria xochipalensis (Crassulaceae), A New Species from Guerrero, Mexico. Phytotaxa. 399(1); 14–24. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.399.1.2

[Cnidaria • 2019] Benthic Hydroids (Hydrozoa) from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica)

Campanularia hicksoni Totton, 1930

in Àngel & Cantero, 2019.  

Hydrozoans are a conspicuous component of Antarctic benthic communitites. Recent taxonomic effort has led to a substantial increase in knowledge on the diversity of benthic hydroids from some areas of the Southern Ocean, including the Weddell Sea, the largest sea in the Antarctic region. However, the study of many hydrozoan taxa are still pending, and the diversity in this huge region is expected to be higher than currently known. In order to contribute to the knowledge of taxonomy, ecology and distribution of these cnidarians, a study of unpublished material collected by several German Antarctic expeditions aboard the RV Polarstern in the eastern sector of the Weddell Sea has been conducted. A total of 77 species belonging to 22 families and 28 genera of benthic hydroids have been inventoried, constituting the most prolific collection hitherto analyzed. Most species (81%) belong to Leptothecata, but the observed share of Anthoathecata (19%) is higher than in previous Antarctic hydrozoan studies. Symplectoscyphidae was the most speciose family with 16 representatives (22%), followed by Haleciidae with 10 (14%) and Staurothecidae with 8 (11%). The number of species known in the area was increased with 27 new records, including several species rarely documented. As a result, the Weddell Sea becomes the second Antarctic region in terms of hydrozoan diversity, with 89 species known to date. Novel data on the use of substrate, reproductive phenology, and bathymetric range are provided for the inventoried species.

Keywords: Coelenterata, Biodiversity, Checklist, Cnidome, Hydrozoan, New Records, Southern Ocean

Campanularia hicksoni Totton, 1930,
general view of the colony.

Joan J. Soto Àngel and Álvaro L. Peña Cantero. 2019. Benthic Hydroids (Cnidaria, Hydrozoa) from the Weddell Sea (Antarctica). Zootaxa. 4570(1); 1–78. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4570.1.1

Thursday, March 28, 2019

[Entomology • 2019] In Search of the Real Pseudomallada prasinus (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae)

 Pseudomallada prasinus (Burmeister, 1839)

in Duelli & Obrist, 2019. 

Three sympatric morphs of Pseudomallada prasinus (Burmeister, 1839) were hybridized in search of reproductively separated species. In addition, 26 morphological and biological traits were recorded for living and preserved specimens of the three morphotypes.

Cross-breeding experiments showed that the prasinoid morph “marianus” is a different species from either the “greenhead” or “sulfurhead” morphs. All three are morphologically and biologically distinct. “Greenhead” and “sulfurhead” are small to medium sized and deposit eggs singly, without obligatory diapause in the second instar. In most specimens of these two smaller “prasinus” morphs there is a red or brown suture below the antennae, which can fade with age or preservation. P. marianus” is a large species, depositing bundled eggs, with an obligatory diapause in about half of the L2. In none of the collected or reared P. “marianus” was a red or brown suture below the eyes observed. The forewing sizes of the type specimens of Chrysopa prasina Burmeister, 1839, C. coerulea Brauer, 1851, and C. marianus Navás, 1915 differ significantly from those of C. aspersa Wesmael, 1841 and other, later synonymized type specimens such as C. sachalinensis Matsumura, 1911, C. burri Navás, 1914, C. caucasica Navás, 1914, or C. vernalis Navás, 1926. This strongly suggests that the “marianus” morph is the real P. prasinus and the “greenhead” and “sulfurhead” morphs correspond to P. aspersus or one of the later synonymized species with smaller wing size.

Pseudomallada marianus (Navás, 1905) is confirmed as a synonym of P. prasinus, depositing bundled eggs, whereas smaller prasinoid morphs, depositing single eggs, are not P. prasinus—and are morphologically distinct from P. abdominalis (Brauer, 1856). Pseudomallada aspersus (Wesmael, 1841) is a valid species, but at this point it is not possible to assign it to one of the prasinoid morphs because most of the live color traits are not discernible in old type specimens. A diagnostic description of the “real” P. prasinus can separate almost all P. prasinus specimens, even in museum collections, from P. aspersus (likely to be the “greenhead” morph) and the Mediterranean “sulfurhead”.

 Keywords: Neuroptera, species delineation, crossing experiment, reproductive isolation, hybridization, morphotype, lacewings, Chrysopa aspersa, Chrysopa mariana

Pseudomallada prasinus (Burmeister, 1839)

Peter Duelli and Martin K. Obrist. 2019.  In Search of the Real Pseudomallada prasinus (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae).  Zootaxa.  4571(4);  510–530.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4571.4.4

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

[Botany • 2019] Impatiens damingensis (Balsaminaceae) • A New Species from Guangxi, China

Impatiens damingensis S. X. Yu, C. Y. Xia & H. P. Deng

in Xia, Gadagkar, Li, Deng & Yu, 2019. 

Impatiens damingensis S. X. Yu, C. Y. Xia & H. P. Deng, (Balsaminaceae) discovered in Guangxi, China, is described and illustrated here. This species is similar to I. aquatilis Hook.f., but differs from the latter by having blades that are ovate or ovate-lanceolate vs. lanceolate, ovate-lanceolate, or ovate-oblong; apices of bracts acute vs. glandular awned; apices of lateral sepals mucronulate vs. long mucronulate; and spur slender substraight or slightly incurved vs. incurved. Furthermore, molecular data as well as micro-morphological evidence under SEM (of pollens and seeds) also support the establishment of the new species. 

Key words: Balsaminaceae, Impatiens, morphology, new species, phylogeny, SEM 

FIGURE 1. Impatiens damingensis S. X. Yu, C. Y. Xia & H. P. Deng.
A. plant; B. bract; C. lateral sepal; D. vexillum; E. wings; F. labellum; G. filaments and anthers; H. ovary; I. capsule. Drawn by Y. B. Sun from S. X. Yu 3227.

FIGURE 2. A–F: Impatiens damingensis S. X. Yu, C. Y. Xia & H. P. Deng. A. Habitat; B. plants; C. flower, lateral view; D. flower, front view; E. flower and capsule; F. flower branch.
G–I: Impatiens aquatilis Hook. f. G. plants; H: flower, lateral view; I: flower, front view.

Impatiens damingensis S. X. Yu, C. Y. Xia & H. P. Deng, sp. nov. 

Type. China. Guangxi: Wuming, Damingshan; shade and damp places, Alt. 1220m, 2004-09-02, S. X. Yu 3227 (Holotype, PE; Isotype, IBK), same place, 2002-07-09, Y-G Wei 0205 (IBK). 

Diagnosis. Similar to I. aquatilis Hook.f. in having racemose inflorescences, two lateral sepals and ellipsoid seeds, but is different by way of having ovate or ovate-lanceolate blades, acute apices of bracts, mucronulate apices of lateral sepals, and a slender and slightly incurved spur. SEM results also reveal distinct differences in seedcoat and pollen grain micro-morphology when compared to I. aquatilis.

Etymology: The specific epithet ‘damingensis’ refers to the locality of the type specimen, Daming Mountain, Wuming County, Guangxi, China.

Chang-Ying Xia, Sudhindra R. Gadagkar, Jin Li, Hong-Ping Deng and Sheng-Xiang Yu. 2019. Impatiens damingensis (Balsaminaceae), A New Species from Guangxi, China. Phytotaxa.  399(3); 239–247. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.399.3.6