Monday, January 31, 2022

[Herpetology • 2021] Cyrtodactylus stellatus • A New Insular Species of the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus Group (Reptilia, Gekkonidae) from Tarutao Island, southern Thailand revealed by Morphological and Genetic Evidence

Cyrtodactylus stellatus
Termprayoon, Rujirawan, Ampai, Wood & Aowphol, 2021

ตุ๊กกายเกาะตะรุเตา | Stellar Bent-toed Gecko ||  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1070.73659 

The bent-toed geckos of the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus group are widely distributed along the Thai-Malay Peninsula. Although taxonomic and phylogenetic studies of this species group have been continuously conducted, only some populations from Thailand have been included, resulting in hidden diversity within this group. In this study, we used morphological and molecular data to clarify the taxonomic status and describe a new population from Tarutao Island, Satun Province, southern Thailand. Cyrtodactylus stellatus sp. nov. can be distinguished from its congeners by the combination of the following morphological characters: body size; tuberculation; number of dark body bands, ventral scales, and femoroprecloacal pores in males; presence of precloacal pores in females; and scattered pattern on dorsum. Phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial ND2 gene recovered the new species as the sister species to C. astrum, with an uncorrected pairwise divergence of 9.78–12.37%. Cyrtodactylus stellatus sp. nov. is currently only known from Tarutao Island, Thailand. The discovery of this species suggests that the diversity within the C. pulchellus group remains underestimated and future exploration of unsurveyed areas are needed to further the understanding of this group and its geographic range.

Keywords: Cyrtodactylus astrum, Cyrtodactylus stellatus sp. nov., karst, morphology, phylogeny, taxonomy

Map showing the type locality of Cyrtodactylus stellatus sp. nov. from Tarutao Island, Mueang Satun District, Satun Province, Thailand and the type localities of closely related species, C. astrum, C. dayangbuntingensis, C. langkawiensis, and C. lekaguli.

Adult male holotype of Cyrtodactylus stellatus sp. nov. (ZMKU R 00905) from Tarutao Island, Satun Province.
A specimen in life and immediately before preservative: B dorsal and C ventral views.



 Variation of Cyrtodactylus stellatus sp. nov. 
 A adult female ZMKU R 00899 having 11 dark caudal bands on the original tail and white caudal bands infused with dark pigmentation B immature female ZMKU R 00902 (field number AA 05272) having 12 dark caudal bands on the original tail with immaculate white caudal bands, and C juvenile ZMKU R 00917 having light-yellow color on the body and bearing white tail tip.

Cyrtodactylus stellatus sp. nov.
Stellar Bent-toed Gecko

Diagnosis: Cyrtodactylus stellatus sp. nov. can be distinguished from all other species of the C. pulchellus group by the combination of the following characters: (1) SVL 86.3–95.9 mm in adult males, 86.6–96.1 mm in adult females; (2) 12–15 supralabial and 10–13 infralabial scales; (3) weak tuberculation on body; (4) no tubercles on ventral surfaces of forelimbs, gular region, or in ventrolateral body folds; (5) 32–47 paravertebral tubercles; (6) 19–23 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; (7) 32–40 rows of ventral scales; (8) 20–23 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; (9) 24–29 femoroprecloacal pores in adult males; (10) precloacal pores present in adult females; (11) deep precloacal groove in males; (12) dorsum bearing a scattered pattern of white tubercles; (13) four dark dorsal body bands; (14) 10–12 dark caudal bands on original tail; (15) white caudal bands in adults heavily infused with dark pigmentation; and (16) posterior portion of tail in hatchlings and juveniles white.

Figure 12. Habitat of Cyrtodactylus stellatus sp. nov. at the type locality, Tarutao Island, Satun Province, Thailand.
A Pha Toe Boo karst formation B karst microhabitat structure and C vegetation (vine) used by a juvenile in karst habitat.

Distribution: Cyrtodactylus stellatus sp. nov. is currently known only from Tarutao Island, Satun Province, Thailand (Figs 1, 12A).

Natural history: 
All specimens of C. stellatus sp. nov. were collected from a karst forest at night (1950–2100 h) with temperatures between 27.1–32.2 °C and relative humidity between 71.4–93.0%. The specimens were found on karst walls, within karst crevices and on nearby karst boulders. Some specimens occurred on tree trunks or vines near the karst formations (Fig. 12). The holotype was found on a karst wall approximately 1 m above the ground within karst forest. Eight specimens (ZMKU R 00900, ZMKU R 00906, ZMKU R 00908, ZMKU R 00911–00912, ZMKU R 00913, and ZMKU R 00915–00916) were found on karst walls from 0.5–3.0 m above the ground. ZMKU R 00907, ZMKU R 00910, and ZMKU R 00914 were found in karst crevices. Three specimens (ZMKU R 00901, ZMKU R 00903, and ZMKU R 00909) were found on karst boulders. Four specimens (ZMKU R 00899, ZMKU R 00902, ZMKU R 00904, and ZMKU R 00917) were perched on vegetation near karst walls or karst boulders.

Two gravid females (ZMKU R 00899–00900) were collected in November 2017 and contained two eggs (externally visible). The juvenile was found on a vine in May 2019. Cyrtodactylus stellatus sp. nov. appears to be nocturnal and sympatric with two other gekkonids, Gehyra mutilata Wiegmann, 1834 and the diurnal species Cnemaspis tarutaoensis Ampai et al., 2019.

Etymology: The specific epithet stellatus is Latin word, meaning starry or starred, and refers to scattered pattern of light-colored tubercles on dorsum and limbs. The name corresponds with the sister taxon C. astrum that shared similar diagnostic character (scattered light-colored tubercles pattern on dorsum).

Korkhwan Termprayoon, Attapol Rujirawan, Natee Ampai, Perry L. Wood Jr and Anchalee Aowphol. 2022. A New Insular Species of the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus Group (Reptilia, Gekkonidae) from Tarutao Island, southern Thailand revealed by Morphological and Genetic Evidence. ZooKeys. 1070: 101-134. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1070.73659 

Natee Ampai, Attapol Rujirawan, Perry L. Wood Jr, Bryan L. Stuart and Anchalee Aowphol. 2019. Morphological and Molecular Analyses reveal Two New Insular Species of Cnemaspis Strauch, 1887 (Squamata, Gekkonidae) from Satun Province, southern Thailand. ZooKeys. 858: 127-161. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.858.34297

 L. L. Grismer, Perry L. Wood, Jr., Evan S. H. Quah, Shahrul Anuar, MohD. A. Muin, Montri Sumontha, Norhayati Ahmad, Aaron M. Bauer, Sansareeya Wangkulangkul, Jesse L. Grismer and Olivier S. G. Pauwels. 2012. A Phylogeny and Taxonomy of the Thai-Malay Peninsula Bent-toed Geckos of the Cyrtodactylus pulchellus complex (Squamata: Gekkonidae): combined morphological and molecular analyses with Descriptions of Seven New Species. Zootaxa. 3520: 1-55. 

[Herpetology • 2021] Vietnamophryne cuongi • A New Species of Vietnamophryne (Anura: Microhylidae) from northern Vietnam, with an Extended Description of Vietnamophryne orlovi

Vietnamophryne cuongi
Nguyen, Hoang, Jianping, Orlov, Ninh, Nguyen, Nguyen & Ziegler, 2021

We describe Vietnamophryne cuongi sp. nov., a new species of microhylid frog from northern Vietnam, based on morphological and molecular differences. Although superficially similar to remaining Vietnamophryne members, the new species differs by a number of diagnostic morphological characters, such as body size, habitus, head dimensions, finger and toe morphology, skin texture, as well as colour pattern. Phylogenetic analyses based on a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S gene place the new species to be sister to V. orlovi, from which it differed by 2.4% genetic divergence. We also describe the first female known of V. orlovi, collected in the forest of Phia Oac-Phia Den National Park, Cao Bang Province. The latter species, for which we provide an extended description herein, was recently described based on the single male type specimen only from the same site in northern Vietnam. Vietnamophryne cuongi sp. nov. is only known from three specimens, two adult females and a juvenile, from the evergreen tropical forest of Ba Vi National Park, Hanoi. As such, it is likely to be at high risk of habitat loss. Considering its high ecological specialization and the small known distribution range of the new species, we propose Endangered as IUCN Red List status.

Keywords: Vietnamophryne; morphology; taxonomy; new species; Hanoi

Vietnamophryne cuongi

Thanh Vinh Nguyen, Chung Van Hoang, Jiang Jianping, Nikolai L. Orlov, Hoa Thi Ninh, Huy Quoc Nguyen, Tao Thien Nguyen and Thomas Ziegler. 2021. A New Species of Vietnamophryne with an Extended Description of Vietnamophryne orlovi. Russian Journal of Herpetology. 28(6); 355-368.

[Ichthyology • 2021] Squatina mapama • A New Cryptic Species of Angel Shark (Elasmobranchii: Squatiniformes: Squatinidae) from the southwestern Caribbean Sea

Squatina mapama
 Long, Ebert, Tavera, Acero P. & Robertson, 2021

Small-crested Angelshark | angelote de cresta pequeña || DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.5806693 

Integrating both morphological and genetic data, we describe Squatina mapama, a new species of the angel shark genus Squatina, found on the upper continental slope off the Caribbean coast of Panamá. Distinguishing characters of S. mapama include a wider pectoral and pelvic span; a shorter head length; a narrower mouth; short fringed nasal flaps and barbels; a few large denticles on top of the head; a single dorsal midline row of slightly enlarged denticles from the level of the posterior insertion of the pelvic fin to the first dorsal fin and continuing past the first dorsal fin to the second dorsal-fin origin; and the presence of smaller scattered spots in males, which, in combination, allow separation of this new species from the closely related and sympatric species Squatina david. The new species can be distinguished from all other currently recognized Squatina species by meristic and morphometric measures, as well as by sequence differences in the mtDNA COI marker. Phylogenetic analysis shows Squatina mapama n. sp. to be a basal member of a small clade of western Atlantic Squatina species that includes Squatina occulta, Squatina guggenheim, and S. david, which likely evolved in the late Oligocene or Miocene period. We also report a western range extension of S. david from Colombia to the western Caribbean coast of Panamá.

Key words: taxonomy, ichthyology, fishes, Atlantic Ocean, Panama, phylogenetics, clades, DNA barcodes

Squatina mapama, fresh holotype, USNM 400784, 400 mm TL male, Caribbean Panama
(D.R. Robertson).

Squatina mapama, fresh holotype, ventral view, USNM 400784, Caribbean Panama
 (D.R. Robertson).

Squatina mapama, fresh holotype detail of nasal flaps, USNM 400784, Caribbean Panama
(D.R. Robertson).

Squatina mapama, n. sp. 
Small-crested Angelshark; angelote de cresta pequeña

Diagnosis. A Squatina species with a combination of: a single row of slightly enlarged dermal denticles along dorsal midline extending between level just anterior of posterior insertion of pelvic fins and anterior base of first dorsal fin and continuing rearwards along dorsal ridge of tail between first and second dorsal fins; a few large denticles on top of head; nasal flap squared with a fine fringe on ventral edge; two short lateral barbels bluntly rounded also with a fine fringed margin; males with a dorsal color pattern of small, scattered, dark spots distributed over a uniform light-brown background; pectoral-fin span 52.0–58.1% TL; pelvic-fin span 30.7–31.0 % TL; pre-pectoral-fin length 19.4–19.8% TL; trunk width 18.1–19.5% TL; head length 16.5–17.5% TL; spiracle length 2.2–2.3% TL; eye-to-spiracle length 2.2–5.0 % TL; mouth width 10.5–12.1% TL; nostril width 1.6–2.3% TL; snout-to-pectoral distance 19.4–19.8%; spiracle width 2.2–2.3% TL; pectoral-fin inner margins 17.5–18.3%.

Etymology. The specific epithet mapama refers to the acronym MAPAMA, the Ministerio de Agricultura y Pesca, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, which is the Spanish governmental organization that operates the R/V Miguel Oliver. This name recognizes the support of MAPAMA for the research cruises to Central and South America that facilitated the capture of this angelshark, and other new species of deepwater fishes on both sides of the Central American isthmus (Vázquez et al. 2015, Concha et al. 2016, Robertson et al. 2017). 
Suggested common name of Small-crested Angelshark or angelote de cresta pequeña is in reference to the short and narrow median line of small dermal denticles

 Douglas J. Long, David A. Ebert, Jose Tavera, Arturo Acero P. and Ross Robertson. 2021. Squatina mapama n. sp., A New Cryptic Species of Angel Shark (Elasmobranchii: Squatinidae) from the southwestern Caribbean Sea Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation, 38, 113-130. DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.5806693

[Botany • 2021] Espeletia ocetana (Asteraceae: Millerieae) • A New Tall Caulirosula from Colombia

Espeletia ocetana  

in Becerra & Mavárez, 2021.

A new species, Espeletia ocetana (Asteraceae), from about 3500 m a. s. l. in Páramo de Ocetá, Mongua, Boyacá department, Colombia, is described and illustrated. The new species exhibits a caulescent rosette habit (0.7–1.8 m tall), sessile leaves, elliptic leaf laminae with greyish indumentum, robust bracteate thyrsoid capitulescences spreading laterally from rosette, each holding 16–37(–69) capitula, external phyllaries 14.2–31.1 mm long, and ray florets 13.9–21.3 mm long arranged in 2.0–2.9 series. It is markedly different from the majority of other members of the genus, and only slightly similar to E. jaramilloi, from which it can be easily distinguished by its taller stems, wider leaves with a smaller length/width ratio, and longer sheaths. Furthermore, E. ocetana has capitula with ray florets arranged in fewer series, and with longer phyllaries, ray corollas, ray corolla limbs, ray styles, ray style branches, disc florets, and disc styles. In addition, E. ocetana is distributed allopatrically in regard to E. jaramilloi, and differs as well in its ecological preference for humid to very humid shrubby páramos. Espeletia ocetana is rather abundant in its type locality, which is a relatively well-conserved páramo located within the limits of Parque Natural Regional Siscunsí-Ocetá. However, it is absent from road margins, abandoned agriculture fields, and other areas impacted by human activities. Further studies will be necessary to know appropriately the extent of the geographic distribution of E. ocetana, its ecological requirements and its phylogenetic affinities with other species.



María Teresa Becerra and Jesús Mavárez. 2021. Espeletia ocetana (Millerieae, Asteraceae), A New Tall Caulirosula from Colombia. Systematic Botany. 46(4); 1095-1106. DOI: 10.1600/036364421X16370109698678 

Colombia cierra el 2021 con nueva especie de frailejón

[Botany • 2018] Fritillaria tunievii (Liliaceae) • A New Species from Armenia and North-East Anatolia

Fritillaria tunievii Gabrielian, 

in Gabrielian, 2018. 

The new peculiar species Fritillaria tunievii Gabrielian with twin flowers is described from Urts mountain range in Yerevan floristic region of Armenia. Revision of herbarium collections of related species revealed this species to grow also in Aragats, Aparan and Darelegis floristic regions of Armenia, and even in North-East Anatolia. Description, holotype image, distinguishing features from F. hajastanica (Gabrielian) Gabrielian, F. caucasica Adams and F. assyriaca Baker, the map of distribution of the species and photos of plants are enclosed.

Key words: Fritillaria tunievii, Armenia, North-East Anatolia, new species, distinguishing features, distribution

Fritillaria tunievii Gabrielian,
 Urts mountain range; a — habit, b — flowers.
 (photos by B. S. Tuniev)

Holotype of Fritillaria tunievii Gabrielian (ERE0005792).

Fritillaria tunievii Gabrielian, sp. nova 
(sect. Fritillaria).

Affinity. Boris S. Tuniev noted that on Urts mountain range F. tunievii grows together with F. hajastanica (Fig. 3), which occurs from 1000 to 1800 m and more often than the former, which grows solitary or in small groups, mainly on the northern slopes of the mountain ridge at 1750–1850 m. As only these two related species occur on Urts mountain range, the following Table focuses on the distinctive characters of these two.

 Habitat. Grassy stony slopes, mountain steppes, juniper woodland, subalpine meadows, N or NE slopes, rarely S or SW slopes, at 1400–2500 m.

E. Tz. Gabrielian. 2018. Fritillaria tunievii (Liliaceae), A New Species from Armenia and North-East Anatolia. Novitates Systematicae Plantarum Vascularium [Novitates Syst. Pl. Vasc.]. 49; 19–23. DOI: 10.31111/novitates/2018.49.19 

[Botany • 2016] Swertia subuniflora (Gentianaceae) • A New Species from Fujian, China

Swertia subuniflora B.H.Chen & S.L.Chen, 

in Chen, Wang & Chen, 2016. 

Swertia subuniflora is described from Fujian Province, China. Morphological and molecular evidences indicate its close relationship with S. franchetiana, S. mussotii and S. punicea, three species from Swertia series Japonica (further grouped in section Swertopsis, subgenus Ophelia). The new species can be recognized by its solitary flowers and ovate-cordate stem leaves.

Keywords: cpDNA, morphology, new taxon, taxonomy, Eudicots

Swertia subuniflora B.H.Chen & S.L.Chen, 
 A. Plant with flower (bud). B. Flower. C. Petals imbricate in bud. D. Stamens. E. Corolla and stamens. F. Petal. G. Pistil and calyx. H. Pistil and stigma. I. Longitudinal section of ovary.

Swertia subuniflora B.H.Chen & S.L.Chen, 
A-C. Plants and habitat. D-E. Complete plant. F. calyx. G. A collora lobe. H. Filament position. I-J. Stamens. K. Pistil. L. Longitudinal section of ovary. M. Stigma.

Swertia subuniflora B.H.Chen & S.L.Chen, sp. nov.

Etymology:—The specific epithet refers to the flower which is almost solitary on each flowering stem.

Bing-Hua Chen, Jiu-Li Wang and Shi-Long Chen. 2016. Swertia subuniflora (Gentianaceae), A New Species from Fujian, China. Phytotaxa. 280(1); DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.280.1.3  

[Herpetology • 2022] Pristimantis blasi • A New Species of Red-eyed Frog of the Genus Pristimantis (Anura: Strabomantidae) from the Western Slope of the Cordillera Occidental, Risaralda, Colombia

 Pristimantis blasi 
Duarte-Marín, Montoya-Marín & Rivera-Gómez, 2022

We describe a new species of red-eyed frog of the genus Pristimantis from the tropical forest at elevations of 1000–1350 m on western slope of the Cordillera Occidental, department of Risaralda, Colombia. The new species differs from congeners by having dorsum skin shagreened with low tubercles; vocal sac single, median and subgular in males, iris red wine in females copper red in males, and by presenting black groin coloration with yellow light blotches. In addition, the new species has concave frontoparietals, an unusual character described in Brachycephaloidea frog species.

Keywords: Amphibia, Andes, frontoparietals, Terrarana, taxonomy, new species
Illustration of the morphological characteristics the head (lateral and dorsal view), palmar and foot surface of holotype (ARUQ1291)  Pristimantis blasi sp. nov.  
Scale bar = 5.0 mm.
 Illustration by S. Duarte-Marín and M. Montoya-Marín.

Holotype (ARUQ1291; SVL = 40.0 mm) of  Pristimantis blasi sp. nov. in life.

Illustration of dorsal patterns of  Pristimantis blasi sp. nov. 
(A) ARUQ1030, (B) ARUQ1026, (C) ARUQ1291, (D) ARUQ1028 and (E) ARUQ1027.
 Illustration by M. Montoya-Marín.

(A) The cloud forest of type locality of Pristimantis blasi sp. nov. (B) Landscape showing the mountains of the ESMA Alto Amurrupá, Santa Cecilia, Municipality of Pueblo Rico.
(C) Illustration of Blas A. Cárdenas holding P. blasi sp. nov.
 Photographs by Mario A. Santana-Tobar and S. Duarte-Marín 
and Illustration by M. Montoya-Marín.

Sebastián Duarte-Marín, Manuela Montoya-Marín and Jackeline Rivera-Gómez. 2022. A New Species of Red-eyed Frog of the Genus Pristimantis (Anura: Strabomantidae) from the Western Slope of the Cordillera Occidental, Risaralda, Colombia. Zootaxa. 5093(2); 218-232. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.5093.2.5

[Mammalogy • 2022] Chodsigoa dabieshanensis • A New Species of Asiatic Shrew of the Genus Chodsigoa (Eulipotyphla: Soricidae) from the Dabie Mountains, Anhui Province, eastern China

Chodsigoa dabieshanensis 
Chen, Hu, Pei, Yang, Yong, Xu, Qu, Onditi & Zhang, 2022

and Chodsigoa hypsibia de Winton, 1899 (skull lower right) 

Dabieshan long-tailed shrew | 大别山缺齿鼩  ||  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1083.78233

Asiatic shrews of the genus Chodsigoa (Soricidae, Eulipotyphla) currently comprise nine species, mostly occurring in southwest China. From May 2017 to August 2020, 11 specimens of Chodsigoa were collected from the Dabie Mountains in Anhui Province, eastern China. Their morphology was compared with other species within the genus and one mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and two nuclear (apolipoprotein B and breast cancer 1) genes were sequenced to estimate the phylogenetic relationships of these specimens. Based on morphological and molecular evidence, these specimens are recognized as a distinct speciesChodsigoa dabieshanensis sp. nov., which is formally described here. Morphologically, the new species is most similar to Chodsigoa hypsibia, but it is distinguishable from all known congeners by the combination of dark brownish pelage, small size, and relatively short tail. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that C. dabieshanensis sp. nov. forms a phylogenetic lineage sister to the clade containing C. parva + C. hypsibia. The-Kimura 2-parameter genetic distances of the cytochrome b (CYT B) gene between the new species and other nominal Chodsigoa species ranged between 8.6 and 17.6%. The new species is distributed at elevations from 750 to 1250 m in the Dabie Mountains and is geographically distant from other species in the genus.

Keywords: Chodsigoa dabieshanensis, molecular analysis, morphology, new species, taxonomy

Dorsal, ventral, and lateral views of the skull and lateral views of the mandible of the holotype of Chodsigoa dabieshanensis sp. nov. (AHU2008FZL004; left) and Chodsigoa hypsibia (KIZ 016077; right).
Scale bar: 10 mm.

Dorsal and ventral view of Chodsigoa dabieshanensis sp. nov. 

 Chodsigoa dabieshanensis sp. nov.
Suggested common name: Dabieshan long-tailed shrew; 
大别山缺齿鼩 (Dabieshan Quechiqu)

Diagnosis: The new species is assigned to the genus Chodsigoa for having three upper unicuspid teeth, with the tips of the teeth lightly pigmented (Fig. 4). Chodsigoa dabieshanensis sp. nov. can be distinguished from the other known species of Chodsigoa by the following combination of characters: small to medium in size (HB = 67.22 mm; CIL = 19.08 mm), dark brownish pelage; tail shorter than the HB, nearly similar ventral and dorsal pelage color, a small tuft of longer hairs at the tip of the tail (Fig. 5); markedly flattened braincase; and the foramen magnum is relatively wider than C. hypsibia. Phylogenetic analyses show that the new species is monotypic, sister to C. hypsibia and C. parva (Fig. 3).
Etymology: The specific name dabieshanensis is derived from the Dabie Mountains, the type locality of the new species: -shan means mountain in Chinese, and the Latin adjectival suffix -ensis means “belonging to".

Distribution and habits: Chodsigoa dabieshanensis sp. nov. is currently known from Yaoleping National Nature Reserve, Bancang Natural Reserve, and Foziling Natural Reserve, all located in the Dabie Mountains, Anhui province, eastern China. Most specimens were collected from deciduous broad-leaf forests at 750–1250 m a.s.l.

 Zhongzheng Chen, Tingli Hu, Xiaoxin Pei, Guangdao Yang, Fan Yong, Zhen Xu, Weiying Qu, Kenneth O. Onditi and Baowei Zhang. 2022. A New Species of Asiatic Shrew of the Genus Chodsigoa (Soricidae, Eulipotyphla, Mammalia) from the Dabie Mountains, Anhui Province, eastern China. ZooKeys. 1083: 129-146. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1083.78233

[Botany • 2021] Didymocarpus laoticus, D. trilobus, Paraboea planiflora, et al. • Six New Species and Eight New Records of Gesneriaceae from Laos

Didymocarpus trilobus Souvann. & Phonep.,   D. laoticus Souvann. & Lanors., 
 D. angustiflorus Souvann. & Lanors.,   D. bolavenensis Souvann., Soulad. & Phonep., 

in Souvannakhoummane, Lanorsavanh, Tagane, ... et Lamxay, 2021. 
Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore. 73(2)

Six new species of Gesneriaceae from Laos, namely Didymocarpus angustiflorus Souvann. & Lanors., D. bolavenensis Souvann., Soulad. & Phonep., D. laoticus Souvann. & Lanors., D. trilobus Souvann. & Phonep., Hemiboea olivifolia Souvann. & Tagane and Paraboea planiflora Souvann. & Lanors., are described and illustrated. Additionally, Aeschynanthus bracteatus Wall. ex A.DC., A. micranthus C.B.Clarke, Epithema ceylanicum Gardner, Lysionotus serratus D.Don, Microchirita luteola C.Puglisi, Paraboea swinhoei (Hance) B.L.Burtt, Petrocosmea kerrii Craib and Pseudochirita guangxiensis (S.Z.Huang) W.T.Wang, are newly recorded for the flora of Laos.

Keywords. Didymocarpus, flora of Laos, Hemiboea, new distribution, new taxon, Paraboea, taxonomy

Didymocarpus angustiflorus Souvann. & Lanors., sp. nov. 

Morphologically similar to Didymocarpus payapensis Nangngam & J.F.Maxwell from Thailand, in habit, elliptic lamina, and glabrous and salverform corolla, but differs in having lamina abaxially puberulent (vs glabrous), calyx 5-parted to base, green, with glands outside (vs calyx lobes divided c. 2/3 to the base, maroon, sparsely covered with multicellular glandular hairs and scattered pigment glands), corolla 1.5– 2.2 cm long, dark blue with white patch in mouth (vs c. 2.5 cm long, dark purple), filaments sparsely multicellular glandular puberulent (vs glabrous), and style glabrous (vs sparsely covered with multicellular glandular hairs).

Distribution. Central Laos (known only from the type locality in Phou Khao Khouay National Protected Area). 

Habitat and phenology. Didymocarpus angustiflorus grows on moist rocks in evergreen forest, along with Globba sp., Monolophus sp. (Zingiberaceae), Sonerila sp. (Melastomataceae), Begonia hymenophylla Gagnep. (Begoniaceae) and some ferns. Flowering from July to August and fruiting from September to October (observed from cultivation). 

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to its narrow cylindrical corolla tube
Vernacular name. ດອກແກຫຼອດມ່ວງ (Dok Kea Loth Mouang).

Didymocarpus bolavenensis Souvann., Soulad. & Phonep., sp. nov. 

Morphologically similar to Didymocarpus inflatus J.F.Maxwell & Nangngam from Thailand, in habit, ovate lamina, campanulate glabrous calyx, and cylindric ovary, but differs in the salverform to narrowly funnelform corolla which is 3–3.5 cm long, lobes purple with white lines in the mouth (vs funnelform, 4 cm long, lobes violet with dark violet-reddish lines in mouth), and broadly reniform corolla lobes (vs lobes suborbicular).

Distribution. Southern Laos (so far known only from the Bolaven Plateau). 

Habitat and phenology. Didymocarpus bolavenensis grows on a wet and shaded table rock located near a stream in lower montane evergreen forest. The surface of the rock is covered with humus formed from mosses and ferns. Flowering from August to September and fruiting from September to November. 

Etymology. The specific epithet of this taxon refers to the type locality. 
Vernacular name. ດອກແກມ່ວງບໍລະເວນ (Dok Kea Mouang Bolaven). 


Didymocarpus laoticus Souvann. & Lanors., sp. nov. 

The new species is morphologically similar to Didymocarpus sinoindicus N.S.Prasanna, Lei Cai & V.Gowda in habit, ovate lamina and ovary shape, but differs in having calyx 10–13 mm long, white, glabrous (vs 4–6 mm long, cream-white to greenish yellow, covered with peltate pigment glands outside), corolla 30–32 mm long, white with dark blue in the mouth (vs corolla 8.5–12 cm long, cream-white to greenish yellow with purple striations in the mouth), and ovary glabrous (vs ovary covered with peltate pigment glands). 

Distribution. Central Laos (Phou Khao Khouay National Protected Area in Bolikhamxai Province). 

Habitat and phenology. It was found growing on wet rocks near a small stream in mixed deciduous forest where Dendrocalamus membranaceus Munro (Poaceae) is dominant. Flowering from late July to August. 

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to where the type material was collected. 
Vernacular name. ດອກແກຂາວໃຈຟ້າ (Dok Kea Khao Jai Fa).

Didymocarpus trilobus Souvann. & Phonep., sp. nov. 

The new species is morphologically similar to Didymocarpus albiflorus Souvann. & Phonep., in having corolla funnelform, but differs in often lacking larger basal leaves (vs with larger basal leaves in D. albiflorus), calyx campanulate and 3-lobed (vs funnelform and 5-lobed), corolla dark purple (vs white), and ovary glabrous (vs sparsely glandular puberulent).

Distribution. Central Laos (so far known from two small populations in Phou Khao Khouay National Protected Area, in Vientiane and Bolikhamxai). 

Habitat and phenology. It is common in seasonal deciduous forest mixed with bamboo at an altitude of 300 m and grows on wet rocks with mosses and Adiantum sp. (Adiantaceae). Flowering from July to August and fruiting from August to October. The above-ground part of the plants dries up completely in January (recorded from cultivated living collection). 

Etymology. The species epithet of this taxon refers to the three lobes of the calyx due to the upper lobes fusing into a single lobe.
Vernacular name. ດອກແກມ່ວງໃຫຍ່ (Dok Kea Mouang Yai).

Hemiboea olivifolia Souvann. & Tagane, sp. nov. 

Morphologically similar to Hemiboea cavaleriei H.Lév., but differs in having lamina succulent and dark waxy olive-green adaxially, and corolla white and glabrous outside (vs lamina herbaceous in H. cavaleriei var. cavaleriei, lamina papery to thinly papery in H. cavaleriei var. paucinervis W.T.Wang & Z.Y.Li and both varieties non-waxy olive-green on adaxial surface; corolla outside pale yellow and sparsely glandular puberulent).

Distribution. Northern Laos (Pha Nam Yard Forest Reserve Area, Louangphabang Province). 

Habitat and phenology. It grows on a limestone hill in deciduous forest, c. 300 m from the banks of the Mekong River, where the stable humidity, essential for the survival of this species, comes from the river. It occurs with Amorphophallus yunnanensis Engl. (Araceae), Impatiens parishii Hook.f. (Balsaminaceae), Dracaena sp. (Asparagaceae) and Asplenium sp. (Aspleniaceae). Flowering from October to November and fruiting in December. 

Etymology. The specific epithet of this taxon refers to the olive-green upper leaf surface. 
Vernacular name. ດອກລະຄັງເງິນ (La Khang Ngeurn).

Paraboea planiflora Souvann. & Lanors., sp. nov. 

Morphologically similar to Paraboea khaoyaica Kaitongsuk et al. in habit and in having an almost flat-faced corolla (Kaitongsuk et al., 2021), but differs in bracts broadly oblanceolate to oblong, calyx with a scattered glandular indumentum, and corolla minutely pubescent outside (vs bracts linear or lanceolate, calyx glabrous, and corolla glabrous in P. khaoyaica).

Distribution. Central Laos (Phou Khao Khouay National Protected Area, in Bolikhamxai and Saysomboun Province). 

Habitat and phenology. Paraboea planiflora grows on open to semi-shaded rocks in mixed deciduous forest with bamboo, and is often common near streams. Flowering from July to August and fruiting from August to September. 

Etymology. The specific epithet of this taxon refers to the flat-faced corolla
Vernacular name. ຊາລຶສີ (Sa Leu Si).

Keooudone Souvannakhoummane, Soulivanh Lanorsavanh, Shuichiro Tagane, Phetlasy Souladeth, Phongphayboun Phonepaseuth, Wittaya Pongamornkul and Vichith Lamxay. 2021. Six New Species and Eight New Records of Gesneriaceae from Laos. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore. 73(2); 427 - 456.