Friday, January 31, 2020

[Entomology • 2020] Review of the Green Lacewing Genus Apochrysa Schneider (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

Apochrysa lutea (Walker 1853)

in Winterton & Gupta, 2020.

Delicate green lacewings in the genus Apochrysa Schneider (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae: Apochrysinae) are reviewed with each species diagnosed and figured; a key to species is included.

Keywords: Neuroptera, Apochrysinae, Neuropterida, lacewing

Shaun L. Winterton and Ankita Gupta. 2020. Review of the Green Lacewing Genus Apochrysa Schneider (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Zootaxa. 4729(3); 329–346. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4729.3.2

[Botany • 2020] Blumea htamanthii (Asteraceae) • A New Species from northwestern Myanmar

Blumea htamanthii Y.L. Peng, C.X. Yang & Y. Luo

in Peng, Yang & Luo, 2020. 

A new species, Blumea htamanthii Y.L. Peng, C.X. Yang & Y. Luo from Myanmar is described. The new species is distinguished from B. bifoliata by its leaves with short petioles, abaxially purple, leaf blade with papillary hair and sparse multicellular villous, capitula with 1–4 heads, glabrous florets and usually unbranched stems. A key to Blumea species in Myanmar is provided.

Keywords: Asteraceae, Blumea htamanthii, Myanmar, new species

Figure 1. Blumea htamanthii Y.L.Peng, C.X.Yang & Y.Luo, sp. nov.
A habit B the inner phyllary C the outer phyllary D bisexual floret E female floret F style of bisexual floret G magnified part of upper surface of the leaf.
 Drawings: Jian Gu based on the holotype.

Figure 2. Blumea htamanthii Y.L.Peng, C.X.Yang & Y.Luo, sp. nov.
 in the field and magnified leaves and receptacle A the whole plant B inflorescences C the abaxial surface of the leaf D receptacle E the upper surface of the leaf F magnified part of upper surface of the leaf G basal leaves.
Photos: Y.L. Peng.

Blumea htamanthii Y.L.Peng, C.X.Yang & Y.Luo, sp. nov.

Diagnosis: This new species is the most similar to Blumea bifolia (Linn.) DC. in its obovate-oblong leaves, reflexed linear phyllaries, flat, alveolate, glabrous receptacles. However, it is distinguished by its leaf blades with papillary hairs and sparse multicellular villous, abaxial purple, 1–4 capitula at the ends of the peduncles and its unribbed achenes.

Etymology: The new specific epithet “htamanthii” refers to the name of the town along the Chindwin River, Hkamti District of Sagaing, Myanmar, where the novel species was discovered.

Distribution and habitat: Myanmar. Sagaing, Htamanthi; Blumea htamanthii is only known from the type collection along the branch river of Chindwin River, growing on the steep rocks near the forest from 66–366 m altitude above mean sea level, ... in the Htamanthii Nature Reserve.

Yulan Peng, Chenxuan Yang and Yan Luo. 2020. Blumea htamanthii (Asteraceae), A New Species from Myanmar. In: Jin X-H, Xia N-H, Tan Y-H (Eds) Plant Diversity of Southeast Asia-II. PhytoKeys. 138;  225-232. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.138.38815


[Phycology • 2020] Eisenia nipponica • A Multigene Molecular Phylogeny of Eisenia (Laminariales) reveals Evidence for A New Species from Japan

Eisenia nipponica H.Kawai, S.Akita, K.Hashimoto & T.Hanyuda

in Kawai, Akita, Hashimoto & Hanyuda, 2020.

Recently, synonymizing Eisenia with Ecklonia was suggested based on a molecular phylogeny using the rbcL gene and ITS1–5.8S rDNA sequences. However, in a multigene molecular phylogeny based on mitochondrial cox1, cox3 genes and the atp8–16S rDNA region, as well as the plastid atpB, psaA, psbA and rbcL genes, Ecklonia spp. formed a monophyletic clade supported by high statistical values, and Eisenia spp. showed monophyly depending on analytical methods. The Japanese Eisenia species that used to be identified as Eisenia arborea (E. arborea sensu Arasaki) was shown to be genetically distant from E. arborea from the NE Pacific and E. bicyclis from Japan. Eisenia spp. were morphologically distinct in having a split meristematic zone in the mature thallus forming a dorsi-ventral blade with false branches. Therefore, we propose reinstatement of Eisenia as an independent genus and describe a new species, Eisenia nipponica (= E. arborea sensu Arasaki) from Japan. E. nipponica is distributed on the Pacific Coast of central Honshu, having a separate geographic range from E. bicyclis, which is distributed on the Pacific coast of eastern Honshu and the Sea of Japan coast of north-western Honshu and northern Kyushu.

KEYWORDS: Ecklonia, Eisenia nipponica sp. nov., Laminariales, multigene molecular phylogeny, new species, taxonomy

Eisenia nipponica H.Kawai, S.Akita, K.Hashimoto & T.Hanyuda sp. nov.  

Etymology: The specific epithet refers to the distributional range of the species.

Hiroshi Kawai, Shingo Akita, Kazuki Hashimoto and Takeaki Hanyuda. 2020. A Multigene Molecular Phylogeny of Eisenia reveals Evidence for A New Species, Eisenia nipponica (Laminariales), from Japan. European Journal of Phycology. DOI: 10.1080/09670262.2019.1692911 

[Entomology • 2020] Kaikaia gaga • An Unusual New Genus and Species of Centrotine Treehopper (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Centrotinae) from Nicaragua

Kaikaia gaga
Morris & Dietrich, 2020

A new genus and species of treehopper (Membracidae: Centrotinae) from Nicaragua, Kaikaia gaga, is described and illustrated. Kaikaia is particularly notable in having an assemblage of features more characteristic of the Old World centrotine tribe Beaufortianini than currently recognized New World centrotine tribes. Kaikaia lacks cucullate setae of the mesothoracic femora, which are present in the Boocerini and to some extent, the Platycentrini. The new genus also has an additional m-cu crossvein in the forewing, as well as a frontoclypeal shape and overall appearance similar to Platycentrus Stål. Nevertheless, Kaikaia differs from Platycentrus in its narrow, straight shape of the second valvulae, which bear several prominently raised dorsal teeth and an acute projection along the dorsal margin that resemble those of some members of Nessorhinini.

Keywords: Hemiptera, Central America, Membracoidea, membracidos, Taxonomy, Morphology

Kaikaia gaga

Brendan O. Morris and Christopher H. Dietrich. 2020. An Unusual New Genus and Species of Centrotine Treehopper (Hemiptera: Membracidae: Centrotinae) from Nicaragua. Zootaxa. 4729(2); 286–292. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4729.2.9  

[Herpetology • 2020] Gonatodes chucuri • A New Species of the Genus Gonatodes (Squamata: Sauria: Sphaerodactylidae) from the western flank of the Cordillera Oriental in Colombia

Gonatodes chucuri 
Meneses-Pelayo & Ramírez, 2020
photo: Jose Vieira

We describe a new sphaerodactylid lizard of the genus Gonatodes from the western flank of the Cordillera Oriental, Santander Department, Colombia based on morphological and molecular data. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by having a medium body size, by the absence of both a supraciliary spine and of clusters of distinctly enlarged conical scales on the sides and by having a subcaudal scale pattern (1’1”) and a cryptic dorsal color pattern in both sexes. Additionally, we describe for the first time the hemipenial morphology for a species of the genus. The new species increases the number of Gonatodes known from Colombia to eight and is the only known species of the country, as well as the second known mainland species of the genus not exhibiting sexual dichromatism.

Keywords: Reptilia, Molecular phylogenetics, morphology, hemipenial, taxonomy, sexual dichromatism

Gonatodes chucuri

 Elson Meneses-Pelayo and Juan P. Ramírez. 2020. A New Species of the Genus Gonatodes (Squamata: Sauria: Sphaerodactylidae) from the western flank of the Cordillera Oriental in Colombia, with Description of Its Hemipenial Morphology. Zootaxa. 4729(2); 207–227. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4729.2.4  

[Arachnida • 2019] A Taxonomic Review of the Crab Spider Genus Sidymella (Araneae, Thomisidae) in the Neotropics

Sidymella lucida (Keyserling, 1880)

in Machado, Guzati, Viecelli, et al., 2019. 
Photo: Diego Galarraga Sugoniaev

Four Neotropical species of Sidymella Strand, 1942, S. furcillata Keyserling, 1880, S. longispina (Mello-Leitão, 1943), S. lucida (Keyserling, 1880), and S. kolpogaster (Lise, 1973) are redescribed from both sexes. The holotype of S. nigripes (Mello-Leitão, 1947) is lost and this taxon is considered a species inquierenda. Sidymella obscura (Mello-Leitão, 1929), S. parallela (Mello-Leitão, 1929), and S. spinifera (Mello-Leitão, 1929) are all nomina dubia. Two new species are described: Sidymella excavata sp. nov. (males and females) and S. marmorata sp. nov. (female).

Key Words: crab spiders, morphology, new records, Stephanopinae, Stephanopis

Figure 1. a–d Diagnostic sexual features of Sidymella a Detail of the nodose RTA surface on male palp b Tibial trichobothria on male palp (indicated by an arrow) c Glandular head on spermatheca d Walnut-shaped spermatheca
e, f Photos of live specimens of Sidymella lucida. Photo credits: e Diego Galarraga Sugoniaev; f Damián Hagopián.

Sidymella lucida (Keyserling, 1880)

 Miguel Machado, Catherine Guzati, Rafaela Viecelli, Diana Molina-Gómez and Renato Augusto Teixeira. 2019. A Taxonomic Review of the Crab Spider Genus Sidymella (Araneae, Thomisidae) in the Neotropics. Zoosystematics and Evolution. 95(2): 319-344. DOI: 10.3897/zse.95.34958

Thursday, January 30, 2020

[Mammalogy • 2020] Colombian Hippo Population: Ecosystem Effects of the World’s Largest Invasive Animal

 the Colombian hippo population.
Four individuals were present at the time of Pablo Escobar’s death in 1993, and the population is presently estimated to number between 65 and 80.
in Shurin, Riaño, Negro, et al., 2020. 
 DOI: 10.1002/ecy.2991 

The keystone roles of mega‐fauna in many terrestrial ecosystems have been lost to defaunation. Large predators and herbivores often play keystone roles in their native ranges, and some have established invasive populations in new biogeographic regions. However, few empirical examples are available to guide expectations about how mega‐fauna affect ecosystems in novel environmental and evolutionary contexts. We examined the impacts on aquatic ecosystems of an emerging population of hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibus) that has been growing in Colombia over the last 25 years. Hippos in Africa fertilize lakes and rivers by grazing on land and excreting wastes in the water. Stable isotopes indicate that terrestrial sources contribute more carbon in Colombian lakes containing hippo populations, and daily dissolved oxygen cycles suggest that their presence stimulates ecosystem metabolism. Phytoplankton communities were more dominated by cyanobacteria in lakes with hippos, while bacteria, zooplankton and benthic invertebrate communities were similar regardless of hippo presence. Our results suggest that hippos recapitulate their role as ecosystem engineers in Colombia, importing terrestrial organic matter and nutrients with detectable impacts on ecosystem metabolism and community structure in the early stages of invasion. Ongoing range expansion may pose a threat to water resources.

 Keywords: hippopotamus, lakes, productivity, water resources, exotic species, eutrophication

Jonathan B. Shurin, Nelson Aranguren Riaño, Daniel Duque Negro, David Echeverri Lopez, Natalie T. Jones, Oscar Laverde‐R, Alexander Neu and Adriana Pedroza Ramos. 2020. Ecosystem Effects of the World’s Largest Invasive Animal. Ecology.  DOI: 10.1002/ecy.2991

UC San Diego scientists and their colleagues have published the first scientific assessment of the impact that an invasive hippo population, imported by infamous drug lord Pablo Escobar, is having on Colombian aquatic ecosystems. The study revealed that the hippos are changing the area's water quality by importing large amounts of nutrients and organic material from the surrounding landscape.

A Drug Lord and the World’s Largest Invasive Animal

[Paleontology • 2020] Pterosaurs ate Soft-bodied Cephalopods (Coleoidea)

Reconstruction of the hunting behaviour of Rhamphorhynchus muensteri, flying close to the water surface to grab soft-bodied cephalopods such as Plesioteuthis subovata that lived in the uppermost part of the water column. 

in Hoffmann, Bestwick, Berndt, et al., 2020. 
 Artwork by C. Klug and B. Scheffold.

Direct evidence of successful or failed predation is rare in the fossil record but essential for reconstructing extinct food webs. Here, we report the first evidence of a failed predation attempt by a pterosaur on a soft-bodied coleoid cephalopod. A perfectly preserved, fully grown soft-tissue specimen of the octobrachian coleoid Plesioteuthis subovata is associated with a tooth of the pterosaur Rhamphorhynchus muensteri from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen Archipelago. Examination under ultraviolet light reveals the pterosaur tooth is embedded in the now phosphatised cephalopod soft tissue, which makes a chance association highly improbable. According to its morphology, the tooth likely originates from the anterior to middle region of the upper or lower jaw of a large, osteologically mature individual. We propose the tooth became associated with the coleoid when the pterosaur attacked Plesioteuthis at or near the water surface. Thus, Rhamphorhynchus apparently fed on aquatic animals by grabbing prey whilst flying directly above, or floating upon (less likely), the water surface. It remains unclear whether the Plesioteuthis died from the pterosaur attack or survived for some time with the broken tooth lodged in its mantle. Sinking into oxygen depleted waters explains the exceptional soft tissue preservation.

Figure 1: Plesioteuthis subovata from the Late Jurassic Solnhofen Archipelago. An adult specimen, 28 cm long, preserved with ink sac and duct, arm-head complex, well-preserved mantle musculatures (transverse striation) and a pterosaur tooth. (B) Close-up of the 19 mm long, slightly curved Rhamphorhynchus muensteri tooth crown under normal light. (C) Ultraviolet (UV) light reveals that the tooth apex is partially covered with now phosphatized mantle tissue. (D) Posterior part of the specimen with faint imprints probably representing a terminal fin, but UV light provides no evidence of fin musculature (E). The posterior mantle margin is incomplete and a straight structure with a double keel typical for P. subovata provides evidence of the gladius.
All photographs by J. Härer.

Figure 2: Cephalopod gladius and pterosaur skull reconstructions.
 (A) Plesioteuthis prisca with an unipartite median keel. (B) Plesioteuthis subovata with a bipartite median keel. (C) Rhamphorhynchus skull with upper and lower jaw dentition (black arrows indicate potential position of the broken off tooth that became stuck in the Plesioteuthis mantle tissue).
Skull drawing after Bennett, 1995.

Figure 3: Reconstruction of the hunting behaviour of Rhamphorhynchus muensteri, flying close to the water surface to grab soft-bodied cephalopods such as Plesioteuthis subovata that lived in the uppermost part of the water column. Artwork and background photograph by C. Klug and B. Scheffold using a model produced by B. Scheffold (Zürich).

We describe an adult specimen of the extremely rare octobrachian coleoid cephalopod Plesioteuthis subovata preserved with a tooth of the pterosaur Rhamphorhynchus muensteri in its mantle tissue. We present this association as the first direct evidence of a predator-prey interaction between pterosaurs and cephalopods. This interaction took place at or near the water surface. A scavenging feeding mode for Rhamphorhynchus is doubtful because the pterosaur is unlikely to have dived to the highly dangerous anoxic sediment floor to access carrion. It is also unlikely that tooth breakage would occur while consuming the soft decaying mantle of a coleoid carcass. Most likely, the tooth broke off in the Plesioteuthis mantle when the pterosaur attacked and the cephalopod tried to escape. High mechanical stress was exerted to the base of the teeth that were in direct contact with the cephalopod. This fractured at least one tooth, which remained stuck in the mantle. It is impossible to assess whether the Plesioteuthis died as a result of the pterosaur attack or survived with the broken tooth in its mantle. In addition to revealing cephalopods as a likely part of the Rhamphorhynchus diet, this fossil provides evidence that Plesioteuthis commonly lived in the upper part of the water column where it was accessible to pterosaurs.

R. Hoffmann, J. Bestwick, G. Berndt, R. Berndt, D. Fuchs and C. Klug. 2020. Pterosaurs ate Soft-bodied Cephalopods (Coleoidea). Scientific Reports. 10, 1230. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-57731-2


[Botany • 2020] Genlisea hawkingii (Lentibulariaceae) • A New Species from Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil

Genlisea hawkingii S.R.Silva, B.J.Płachno & V.Miranda

in Silva, Płachno, Carvalho & Miranda, 2020.

Genlisea hawkingii, which is a new species of Genlisea subgen. Tayloria (Lentibulariaceae) from cerrado in southwest Brazil, is described and illustrated. This species has been found in only one locality thus far, in the Serra da Canastra, which is located in the Delfinópolis municipality in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species is morphologically similar to Genlisea violacea and G. flexuosa, but differs from them in having a corolla with a conical and curved spur along with sepals with an acute apex and reproductive organs that only have glandular hairs. Moreover, it is similar to G. uncinata’s curved spur. G. hawkingii is nested within the subgen. Tayloria clade as a sister group to all the other species of this subgenus. Therefore, both morphological and phylogenetic results strongly support G. hawkingii as a new species in the subgen. Tayloria.

Fig 1. Genlisea hawkingii S.R.Silva, B.J.Płachno & V.Miranda.
A. Habit. B. Rhizophyll. C. Glabrous leaf. D. Glandular capitate hairs. E. Open corolla, lateral view. F. Corolla, front view. G. Calyx. H. Capsule. 

Fig 2. Genlisea hawkingii S.R.Silva, B.J.Płachno & V.Miranda
A. Habitat. B. Habit of the plant in Delfinópolis, Minas Gerais (Brazil). C. Corolla, front view. D. Corolla, lateral view. E. Dry infructescence. The pedicel twist upward. F. Immature fruit. G. Mature fruit. Pedicels bent upward. H. A rosette with two scapes. I. A rosette with photosynthetic leaves (above) and rhizophylls (below).

Genlisea hawkingii S.R.Silva, B.J.Płachno & V.Miranda, sp. nov. 

Diagnosis: Similar to Genlisea violacea A.St.-Hil. and G. flexuosa Rivadavia, A.Fleischm. & Gonella, but it is distinct for the dark green leaves having a glabrous lamina and the flower that has a long conical spur with a curved apex, acute sepals apex and reproductive organs that are exclusively covered with glandular hairs.

Etymology: The species epithet ‘hawkingii’ was attributed as homage to the great English theoretical physicist and cosmologist, Stephen William Hawking, who died on March 14, 2018. We were impressed with his life’s trajectory and his outstanding discoveries in cosmology. He became a signpost not only for other scientists but for all people.

Saura Rodrigues Silva, Bartosz Jan Płachno, Samanta Gabriela Medeiros Carvalho and Vitor Fernandes Oliveira Miranda. 2020. Genlisea hawkingii (Lentibulariaceae), A New Species from Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil. PLoS ONE. 15(1): e0226337. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0226337

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

[Arachnida • 2020] Tliltocatl gen. nov. • Systematic Revision of Mexican Threatened Tarantulas Brachypelma (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae), with A Description of A New Genus, and Implications on the Conservation

A, B, C: Brachypelma boehmei 
D: Tliltocatl kahlenbergi
F: Tliltocatl schroeder

in Mendoza & Francke, 2020. 
 Photos: J. Mendoza & E. Goyer.

The tarantula genus Brachypelma includes colourful species that are highly sought after in the commercial pet trade. They are all included in CITES appendix II. We present phylogenetic analyses using molecular and morphological characters to revise Brachypelma, in which we include all currently known species. Our results agree with a previous study that shows the non-monophyly of Brachypelma. Both phylogenies strongly favour the division of Brachypelma into two smaller genera. The first clade (Brachypelma s.s.) is formed by B.albiceps, B. auratum, B. baumgarteni, B. boehmei, B. emilia, B. hamorii, B. klaasi and B. smithi. The species included in the second clade are transferred to the new genus Tliltocatl and is formed by T. albopilosum comb. nov., T. epicureanum comb. nov., T. kahlenbergi comb. nov., T. sabulosum comb. nov., T. schroederi comb. nov., T. vagans comb. nov. and T. verdezi comb. nov. Both genera can be differentiated by their coloration and the shape of the genitalia. We transfer to Tliltocatl: T. alvarezi, T. andrewi and T. aureoceps, but should be considered as nomina dubia. In addition, we transfer B. fossorium to Stichoplastoris. We discuss the implications of these taxonomical changes for CITES and for the Mexican Laws for wildlife protection.

Keywords: distribution, geography, genus revision, mitochondrial DNA, new genera, phylogenetic nomenclature, phylogenetics

Distribution map of formerly known Brachypelma redleg (s.s.) and red rump (s.l.) species complex with more accurate distribution areas based on museum specimens. Biogeographic regions of distribution for Mexican species is indicated. Circles = red leg complex; squares = red rump complex; diamond = Brachypelma fossorium, which actually does not belong to any of the mentioned groups.

Figure 22. A–C, Brachypelma boehmei, habitus; D, habitat. A, male; B, female with black around ocular area; C, female with black lateral areas on ocular regions;
D, deciduous forest and shrubland in the habitat of B. boehmei.
Photos: A, B, D, J. Mendoza; C, E. Goyer.

Figure 42. A–F, Tliltocatl spp, habitus.
 A–B, Tliltocatl epicureanum: A, male from type locality (Yucatán); B, female from type locality (Yucatán).
C–D, Tliltocatl kahlenbergi: C, female (Veracruz); D, male (Oaxaca);
E–F, Tliltocatl schroeder: E, female (Oaxaca); F, male (Oaxaca). Photos: J. Mendoza.

Tliltocatl Mendoza & Francke, gen. nov.

Etymology: The genus gender is masculine. The name is a noun in apposition comprising the Nahuatl words Tlil, which means ‘black’, and tocatl, which means ‘spider’, referring to the black coloration of species in the genus.

Jorge Mendoza and Oscar Francke. 2020. Systematic Revision of Mexican Threatened Tarantulas Brachypelma (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae), with A Description of A New Genus, and Implications on the Conservation. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 188(1); 82–147. DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz046 


[Entomology • 2020] Vates phoenix • A New Species and First Record of Vates Burmeister, 1838 (Mantodea: Mantidae: Vatinae) from the Atlantic Rainforest

Vates phoenix 
 Rivera, Herculano, Lanna, Cavalcante & Teixeira, 2020

A new species of praying mantis, Vates phoenix sp. nov. (Mantidae, Vatinae), is described from localities within Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states, Brazil. This is the first record of Vates from the Atlantic Rainforest biome. The new species is unique among its congeners in having, among other features, strongly reduced cuticular projections above the lateral ocelli, structures otherwise well developed and produced in all other species of Vates. Remarks on the natural history and biogeography of Vates, in relation to this new finding, are further discussed.

Keywords: Atlantic Rainforest; new species; Mantodea; Vatinae; natural history

Class Insecta Linnaeus, 1758 
Order Mantodea Burmeister, 1838 

Family Mantidae Latreille, 1802 
Subfamily Vatinae Stål, 1877 
Tribe Vatini Stål, 1877 

Genus Vates Burmeister, 1838 

Fig. 2. Adults of Vates phoenix sp. nov. 
A–B. Live specimens photographed in a studio. A. Paratype, ♂, from Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçu (MNRJ-ENT6-28446). B. Allotype, ♀, from Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ-ENT6-28442). 
C–D. Pinned adults. C. Holotype, ♂, from Fazenda Recanto (MNRJ-ENT6-28441). D. Allotype, ♀ (MNRJ-ENT6-28442). Scale bars: C–D = 10 mm.

Vates phoenix sp. nov. 

 Diagnosis: The new species can be easily recognized by the following combination of characters: i) cuticular projections above lateral ocelli strongly reduced (almost entirely missing in some specimens); ii) antennomeres of males asymmetrical (s-shaped); iii) hindwing of females with large, yellowish white and partially opaque area that spreads over most or part of the membrane; iv) anterodorsal lobe of hind tibiae at least 50% the length of tibial length (i.e., not narrowly restricted to its middle section). 

Etymology: The specific epithet refers to the Phoenix, a mythical, immortal creature that is born again from its own ashes after being consumed by fire. The new species is a homage to the Museu Nacional of Rio de Janeiro, which was destroyed during a massive fire on September 2, 2018. The entire entomological collection, representing more than 5 million specimens, was destroyed, including all praying mantis specimens. Only a few specimens of Vates borrowed in the context of this study, including our new species, survived the event. Vates phoenix sp. nov. thus symbolically attempts to link the past and the future of the Museu Nacional, as it represents the rebirth of the Mantodea collection and our hopes for the revival of an even stronger institution in the not too distant future.
Fig. 8. Habitus of Vates phoenix sp. nov. Adult female is portrayed upside-down with raptorial legs stretched forward, perching on Licania tomentosa (Benth.) Fritsch. (‘oiti’), an arboreal species distinct from the Atlantic Rainforest and abundant within the general area where the female allotype was found. A male specimen is depicted flying, as they often are on the wings through adulthood. Scientific illustration executed by Paulo Ormindo, based on observations of wild specimens.

Julio Rivera, João Felipe Herculano, Leonardo Moutinho Lanna, Sávio Cavalcante and Maria Lúcia França Teixeira. 2020. A New Species and First Record of Vates Burmeister, 1838 from the Atlantic Rainforest (Mantodea: Vatinae). European Journal of Taxonomy. 598; 1–25. DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2020.598

Pesquisadores batizam nova espécie de louva-a-deus da Mata Atlântica em homenagem ao Museu Nacional via @natgeobrasil

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

[Botany • 2020] Impatiens gongchengensis (Balsaminaceae) • A New Species from Guangxi, Southern China

Impatiens gongchengensis Z.C. Lu, B. Pan & Yan Liu

in Lu, Pan, Huang & Liu, 2020.

Impatiens gongchengensis Z.C. Lu, B. Pan & Yan Liu is described and illustrated as a new species in northeastern Guangxi, China. This new species is similar to Impatiens platychlaena Hook.f., Impatiens soulieana Hook.f. and Impatiens faberi Hook.f., but differs in having stipitate glands at leaves base, 4–5 pairs of lateral veins, pale purple or purple-red flowers and the shape of the flower.

Keyword: Balsaminaceae, China, Impatiens faberi, Impatiens platychlaena, Impatiens soulieana, morphology, taxonomy

Fig. 1. Impatiens gongchengensis Z.C. Lu, B. Pan & Yan Liu
A. Flowering twig, B. Leaf base dorsal view with stipitate glands, C. Flower lateral view, D. Lateral sepals, E. Upper petal dorsal view, F. and H. Lateral united petals, G. Lip side view, I. Stamens and pistils, J. Capsule.

Fig. 2. Impatiens gongchengensis Z.C. Lu, B. Pan & Yan Liu
A. Habitat, B. Habit, C. Flower face view, D. Flower side view, E. Flower dorsal view, F. Dissected floral parts, G. Lateral united petal, H. Seed, I. Capsule.

Impatiens gongchengensis Z.C. Lu, B. Pan & Yan Liu, sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Impatiens gongchengensis is similar to Impatiens platychlaena Hook.f. (1908), Impatiens soulieana Hook.f. (1908) and Impatiens faberi Hook.f. (1910), but it is distinct from the three latter species in its having stipitate glands at leaves base, 4–5 pairs of lateral veins; pale purple or purple-red flowers, upper petal oblate, abaxial midvein thickened, narrowly carinate, beak-like, purple-red, 2-lobed lateral united petals, with a filamentous long hair at apex of base lobes and distal lobes. 

Etymology: The specific epithet gongchengensis refers to the type locality of this species. 

Notes: Impatiens gongchengensis is easily distinguished from the other species of Impatiens by having stipitate glands at leaves base; 4–5 pairs of lateral veins; pale purple or purple-red flowers; 2-lobed lateral united petals, lobes with a filamentous long hair at apex; basal lobes ovate, purple spotted; distal lobes dolabriform, purple striate, apex obtuse. 
More detailed morphological dissimilarities between I. gongchengensis and its related species are presented in Table 1.

Zhao-Cen Lu, Bo Pan, Fu-Zhao Huang and Yan Liu. 2020. Impatiens gongchengensis (Balsaminaceae), A New Species from Guangxi, Southern China. Taiwania. 65(1); 1-4.  DOI:  10.6165/tai.2020.65.1