Friday, May 31, 2024

[Entomology • 2024] Cuprina inferna, Calicotis obsoleta, Thylacosceloides sanctigemma, Petala shida, Pediformis fushana, ... • Systematics and Evolutionary Dynamics of Insect-Fern Interactions in the specialized Fern-Spore Feeding Cuprininae (Lepidoptera: Stathmopodidae)

  The evolutionary history of Fern-spore-feeding (FSF) in Stathmopodidae.
 Calicotis attiei (Cuprininae)
Stathmopoda fusciumeraris (Stathmopodinae)
Atkinsonia beijingana (Atkinsoniinae)

in Shen, Terada, Landry, Hoare, Kuo, Chou, Hsu et Huang, 2024.

• The most comprehensive Stathmopodidae phylogeny to date, focusing on fern-spore-feeding Cuprininae.
• Systematic revision of Cuprininae enhances understanding of insect-fern interactions, diverging from angiosperm-centric studies.
• Despite fern spores being rare niche for Lepidoptera, no significant differences in Speciation/Extinction/State-transition rates between fern-spore feeders and others.
• State-transition rate differs between specialists and oligophages; faster transition from oligophages to specialists observed.

Fern-spore-feeding (FSF) is rare and found in only four families of Lepidoptera. Stathmopodidae is the most speciose family that contains FSF species, and its subfamily Cuprininae exclusively specializes on FSF. However, three species of Stathmopodinae also specialize on FSF. To better understand the evolutionary history of FSF and, more generally, the significance of specialization on a peculiar host, a phylogenetic and taxonomic revision for this group is necessary. We reconstructed the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny, including one mitochondrial and four nuclear genes, of Stathmopodidae to date, including 137 samples representing 62 species, with a particular focus on the FSF subfamily, Cuprininae, including 33 species (41% of named species) from 6 of the 7 Cuprininae genera. Species from two other subfamilies, Stathmopodinae and Atkinsoniinae, were also included. We found that FSF evolved only once in Stathmopodidae and that the previous hypothesis of multiple origins of FSF was misled by inadequate taxonomy. Moreover, we showed that (1) speciation/extinction rates do not differ significantly between FSF and non-FSF groups and that (2) oligophage is the ancestral character state in Cuprininae. We further revealed that a faster rate of accumulating specialists over time, and thus a higher number of specialists, was achieved by a higher transition rate from oligophagages to specialists compared to the transition rate in the opposite direction. We finish by describing three new generaTrigonoda gen. nov., Petala gen. nov., and Pediformis gen. nov., and revalidating five generaCuprinaCalicotisThylacoscelesActinoscelisThylacosceloides in Cuprininae, and we provide an updated taxonomic key to genera and a revised global checklist of Cuprininae.
Keywords: Ancestral state reconstruction, Fern-spore-feeding (FSF), Gelechioidea, Phylogeny, New Genus, New Species

  The evolutionary history of Fern-spore-feeding (FSF) in Stathmopodidae.
(a) Ancestral state reconstruction of FSF evolution based on ER model. Blue-labeled taxa represent FSF species, and orange-labeled taxa represent non-FSF species. Coloured bars after taxa names correspond to the subfamily that the species belong to: Stathmopodinae, Atkinsoniinae, Cuprininae and outgroups.
(b) The adult resting posture of Calicotis attiei (Cuprininae). (c) The larval shelter of C. attiei on Nephrolepis biserrata.
(d) The adult resting posture of Stathmopoda fusciumeraris (Stathmopodinae). (e) The larva of S. fusciumeraris in Ficus fistulosa.
 (f) The adult resting posture of Atkinsonia beijingana (Atkinsoniinae). (g) The larva of A. beijingana in Castanopsis kawakamii

 The phylogeny of Cuprininae.
Phylogenetic result based on Bayesian inference analysis. Coloured bars after taxa names correspond to genus delimitation based on morphological and phylogenetic results.

Based on morphological data congruent with the molecular results, we propose to divide the Cuprininae into eight genera: Cuprina, Calicotis, Thylacosceles, Actinoscelis, Thylacosceloides, Trigonoda gen. nov., Petala gen. nov. and Pediformis gen. nov. ...
Nine new species are named and described below, including: Calicotis bipunctella sp. nov., Ca. zhanglini sp. nov., Ca. obsoleta sp. nov., Ca. candida sp. nov., Cuprina inferna sp. nov., Thylacosceloides sanctigemma sp. nov., Thylacosceloides chihweii sp. nov., Petala shida sp. nov.. and Pedifomis fushana sp. nov..

Cuprininae Sinev, 2015.

Distribution: Eastern Palearctic, Oriental, Oceanian, Australasian, and Afrotropical; 8 genera and 81 species.

Cuprina Sinev, 1988

Cuprina inferna Shen & Hsu, sp. nov.
Etymology: An adjective of Latin origin, from infernus = of the underground, infernal, referring to the dark appearance reminiscent of clothing worn at a funeral.

Calicotis Meyrick, 1889 

Calicotis bipunctella Shen & Hsu, sp. nov.
Etymology: A noun of Latin origin, from the prefix bi- = two, double, plus punctum = dot, referring to the two small, brown markings on the forewing upperside.

Calicotis zhanglini Shen, Terada & Hsu, sp. nov.
Etymology: The species is dedicated to our collaborator Mr. Zhang-Lin Chen, who helped us collect this species in Taiwan.

Calicotis obsoleta Shen & Hsu, sp. nov.
Etymology: An adjective of Latin origin, from obsoletus = worn out, referring to the nearly invisible markings on the forewing upperside.

Calicotis candida Shen & Hsu, sp. nov.
Etymology: An adjective of Latin origin, from candidus = shining, white, referring the overall silvery white appearance of the moth.

Thylacosceles Meyrick, 1889 

Actinoscelis Meyrick, 1912

Thylacosceloides Sinev, 1988

Thylacosceloides sanctigemma Shen & Hsu, sp. nov.
Etymology: A noun in apposition, derived from the Latin adjective sanctus = holy, plus the Latin noun gemma = jewel, precious stone.

Thylacosceloides chihweii Shen & Hsu, sp. nov.
Etymology: This species is dedicated to our cooperator Mr. Chih-Wei Huang, who helped us to collect this species in Taiwan.

Trigonoda Shen, Terada & Hsu gen. nov.

Etymology: The generic epithet “Trigonoda” derives from the Greek trigonos = triangular, and refers to the triangular-shaped cucullus, which serves as an important diagnostic character for this genus. The ending -da is copied from the related genera Stathmopoda and Pachyrhabda (the latter now synonymised).

Petala Shen, Terada & Hsu gen. nov.  

Etymology: The generic name is from the Greek petalon = leaf, though the stem has later come to be used to mean ‘petal’, in allusion to the costa which is tapered toward the base making the valva petal-like.

Petala shida Shen & Hsu, sp. nov.
Etymology: The specific epithet “shida” is the Mandarin abbreviation for the National Taiwan Normal University, referring to the place where we collected the type material for this species. It is a noun in apposition.

Pediformis Shen & Hsu gen. nov. 

Etymology: The generic name originates from the Latin, and refers to the foot-shaped cucullus which is an important diagnostic character for this genus. Though pediformis in Latin is an adjective, it is to be treated as a feminine noun when used as a genus name.
Pediformis fushana Shen & Hsu, sp. nov.
Etymology: The specific epithet, an adjective, refers to the place where we collected the type material for this species.

  Zong-Yu Shen, Takeshi Terada, Jean-François Landry, Robert J.B. Hoare, Li-Yaung Kuo, Ming-Hsun Chou, Yu-Feng Hsu and Jen-Pan Huang. 2024. Systematics and Evolutionary Dynamics of Insect-Fern Interactions in the specialized Fern-Spore Feeding Cuprininae (Lepidoptera, Stathmopodidae). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 194, 108040. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2024.108040 

[Entomology • 2024] Ravenna nivea ssp. ngiunmoiae • A peculiar Insular Race of Ravenna nivea (Nire, 1920) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) endemic to Yinggeling Mountain of Hainan, suggesting heterogeneous geological history of Mountain Formation of the Island


 Ravenna nivea ssp. ngiunmoiae Lo & Hsu,  
in Hsu​, Lo et Lin. 2024. 

A peculiar population of Ravenna nivea (Nire, 1920) was discovered from the Yinggeling Mountain Mass of central Hainan. Its wing pattern and COI barcode data show considerable distinction from other geographic populations of R. nivea, including that of Bawangling, approximately only 40 km away and also located in Hainan. The p-distance value of the COI barcode between the Yinggeling and Bawangling populations was 1.1%, considerably higher than the value (0.6%) between Bawangling population and populations in eastern China, where the subspecific name howarthi Saigusa, 1993 applies. The population is regarded as a distinct subspecies ngiunmoiae Lo & Hsu, subsp. nov. The distinctness and high degree of COI haplotype diversity of R. nivea found in Hainan and Taiwan suggest continental islands may serve as glacial refugees for the butterfly and other organisms during previous glaciations, and the presence of the relict populations of montane butterflies like R. nivea may provide useful clues towards a better understanding of the geological history of mountain formation within islands.

Adults of Ravenna nivea.
(A) ssp. howarthi Saigusa, male, upperside, Bawangling, Hainan. (B) Undersides. (C) Same, female, upperides. (D) Undersides.
(E) ssp. ngiunmoiae Lo & Hsu, subsp. nov., paratype, male, upperside, Yinggeling, Hainan. (F) Undersides. (G) Same, holotype, female, upperside. (H) Undersides.

Adults of Ravenna nivea ssp. ngiunmoiae Lo & Hsu, subsp. nov., Yinggeling, Hainan. 
paratype, male, (E) upperside, (F) Underside. 
holotype, female,(G) upperside. (H) Underside.

Yu-Feng Hsu​, Yik Fui Philip Lo and Rung-Juen Lin. 2024. Discovery of A peculiar Insular Race of Ravenna nivea (Nire, 1920) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) endemic to Yinggeling Mountain of Hainan, suggesting heterogeneous geological history of Mountain Formation of the Island. PeerJ. 12:e17172 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.17172

[Invertebrate • 2024] Oneirophanta brunneannulata, O. idsseica & O. lucerna • Three New Species and One New Record of Deimatidae (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea: Synallactida) discovered in the South China Sea and the Mariana Fore-arc Area using integrative taxonomic methods


Oneirophanta lucerna  
 Oneirophanta brunneannulata  

Xiao & Zhang, 2024

Deep-sea holothurian specimens were collected during five scientific expeditions (2018–2023) using the submersible vehicle ‘Shenhaiyongshi’. Our examination of specimens of Deimatidae from the South China Sea and the Mariana fore-arc area revealed three new species, which were described as Oneirophanta idsseica sp. nov., Oneirophanta brunneannulata sp. nov., and Oneirophanta lucerna sp. nov. These species were distinguished from each other and from congeners by the arrangement, and number of ventrolateral tube feet and ossicle types. We also reported Oneirophanta mutabilis mutabilis Théel, 1879 for the first time from the Mariana fore-arc area, and we recorded Deima validum validum for the second time from the South China Sea. The taxonomy of these new species and new records is discussed, and a phylogenetic analysis based on a concatenated dataset of 16S and COI genes was conducted. Additionally, the inter- and intraspecific genetic divergences we calculated among deimatid species. The results support the assignment of these new species to the genus Oneirophanta and their separation from congeners. A description of the main morphological characters of Oneirophanta species is also provided. The data were collected from geographically diverse areas and suggest that species of Deimatidae were abundant in the Pacific Ocean and occupied a wide range of depths.

Key words: COI, deep-sea, morphology, Oneirophanta, phylogeny, sea cucumber, SEM, taxonomy

Oneirophanta lucerna sp. nov. (Holotype IDSSE-2023-0208-HS02)
A, B in situ images C dorsal view D ventral view.
 Scale bars: 5 cm.

Yunlu Xiao and Haibin Zhang. 2024. Three New Species and One New Record of Deimatidae (Echinodermata, Holothuroidea, Synallactida) discovered in the South China Sea and the Mariana fore-arc area using integrative taxonomic methods. ZooKeys. 1195: 309-335. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1195.115913

[Botany • 2018] Phylogeny and Taxonomic Synopsis of Poa subgenus Pseudopoa (including Eremopoa and Lindbergella) (Poaceae: Poeae: Poinae)


  Poa subgenus Pseudopoa sect. Pseudopoa

in Gillespie, Soreng, Cabi & Amiri, 2018. 

Eremopoa is a small genus of annual grasses distributed from Egypt to western China. Phylogenetic analyses of plastid and nuclear ribosomal DNA show that Eremopoa species, together with the monotypic genus Lindbergella and a single species of Poa (P. speluncarum), are nested within the genus Poa, in a clade that we accept as Poa subg. Pseudopoa. Here we accept seven species, four subspecies and four varieties in Poa subg. Pseudopoa. Five new combinations are made: Poa attalica, P. diaphora var. alpina, P. diaphora var. songaricaP. nephelochloides and P. persica subsp. multiradiata; P. millii is proposed as a replacement name for E. capillaris; and Poa sections Lindbergella and Speluncarae are proposed. We provide a diagnosis for Poa subg. Pseudopoa, synonymy for and a key to the taxa. Eight lectotypes are designated: Eragrostis barbeyi Post, Eremopoa nephelochloides Roshev., Glyceria taurica Steud., Nephelochloa tripolitana Boiss. & Blanche, Poa cilicensis Hance, Poa paradoxa Kar. & Kir., Poa persica var. alpina Boiss and Poa persica subsp. cypria Sam. Eremopoa medica is re-identified as a species of Puccinellia.

Keywords: Annuals, classification, DNA, Eremopoa, grasses, Lindbergella, phylogeny, Poa, Poaceae, taxonomy

  Poa subgenus Pseudopoa sect. Pseudopoa.
 A P. diaphora subsp. diaphora var. diaphora, Chu, Kyrgyz Republic (Soreng et al. 7537)
B, C Ppersica subsp. persica, Adiyaman, Turkey (Soreng et al. 9215) B habit C closeup of base of plant showing keeled leaf sheaths and caniculate blades
 D, E P. persica subsp. multiradiata, Mardin, Turkey (Soreng et al. 9240) D habit E spikelet showing glabrous lemmas. Photos by R.J. Soreng.

 Lynn J. Gillespie, Robert John Soreng, Evren Cabi and Neda Amiri. 2018. Phylogeny and Taxonomic Synopsis of Poa subgenus Pseudopoa (including Eremopoa and Lindbergella) (Poaceae, Poeae, Poinae). PhytoKeys. 111: 69-101.  DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.111.28081

[Entomology • 2021] Valenciolenda fadaforesta • First Record of A cavernicolous Kinnaridae from the Old World (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Kinnaridae: Adolendini) provides testimony of an Ancient Fauna

Valenciolenda fadaforesta Hoch & Sendra, 

in Hoch, Sendra, Montagud, Teruel et Ferreira, 2021. 

A new obligately cavernicolous species in the planthopper family Kinnaridae is described from Spain. This is the first record of a cavernicolous kinnarid from the Old World, and the first record of a troglobitic fulgoromorphan hemipteran from mainland Spain, and also the 7th cavernicolous kinnarid species worldwide. Epigean Kinnaridae are not known from the present-day fauna of the Iberian Peninsula nor from Western Europe at large. The new species is regarded as a relict from an ancient fauna which is now extinct. The new cavernicolous species could not be assigned to any of the existing genera, thus a new genus is established. Molecular data (COI barcode sequence) for the new species are presented. For the first time, a detailed description of the nymphal morphology of a kinnarid is provided. Information on its ecology, behaviour, distribution and conservation status is given, and biogeographic implications are discussed.

Keywords: Caves, conservation, Iberian Peninsula, morphology, taxonomy, troglobite, troglomorphy

Kinnaridae Muir, 1925: 158
Prosotropinae Fennah, 1945: 449
Adolendini Emeljanov, 1984: 470 (51)

Valenciolenda Hoch & Sendra, gen. nov.
Type species: Valenciolenda fadaforesta sp. nov. 
(type locality: Spain, València, Murciélagos cave).

Diagnosis: Small kinnarid (ca. 3–4 mm body length), strongly troglomorphic: compound eyes and ocelli absent, tegmina reduced in length but surpassing lateral body margins, wings vestigial, body whitish, pigmentation largely reduced (Fig. 1a). Valenciolenda gen. nov. can be distinguished from all other genera of the Kinnaridae by the unique combination of the following characters: narrow and short vertex; short and wide tegmina, in life held nearly horizontally over the body and, in dorsal view, forming a near circle; male genitalia with genital segment in caudal aspect longish ovate, not constricted; anal segment short, ventrocaudally with two arm-like processes, genital styles slender at base, apically strongly enlarged, medially concave; aedeagus tubular stout, distally widening, ventrocaudal margin with a short, acute tip.

Etymology: The genus name is a combination of Valencia, the capital city of the Valencian Community, an autonomous region of Spain in the east of the Iberian Peninsula where the type locality is located, and the tribe of Kinnaridae, Adolendini, to which the type species is assigned. The gender is feminine.

Valenciolenda fadaforesta sp. nov., habitus, dorsal view a adult male, dorsal view b nymph (IV. instar) from ‘Murciélagos’ cave (Vilamarxant, València) (photos by: Sergio Montagud Alario)
c morphological analogy in the troglobitic Solonaima baylissa Hoch & Howarth, 1989 (Cixiidae) from Australia: habitus, adult male, dorsal view. Body length 4.5 mm (photo by H. Reimer, Marburg, used with permission).

Valenciolenda fadaforesta Hoch & Sendra, sp. nov.
Diagnosis: Habitus (Fig. 1a). Strongly troglomorphic species, predominantly whitish colouration, compound eyes and ocelli absent, body dorsoventrally compressed, tegmina short and wide, in repose very shallowly tectiform, almost flat, caudally reaching or slightly surpassing tip of abdomen, laterally surpassing external body margin with about half of their width, together creating a nearly circular shape; with a light blue wax fringe – which in life is quite eye-catching – accompanying costal vein; hind wings vestigial.

Etymology: The species name is a combination of the Valencian word for „fairy“ (fada) and forest, thus meaning „fairy of the forest“. The gender is feminine.

Root habitat in `Raices´cave (Millares, València) a overview main room b roots along cracks in the cave ceiling c roots dangling from the ceiling
Valenciolenda fadaforesta sp. nov., adult, on cave floor in `Murciélagos´cave
(photos a–c by Teresa Molina Jiménez and Ricardo Giménez Mezquita, used with permission of UEE Fotogrup; photo d by Sergio Montagud Alario).

 Hannelore Hoch, Alberto Sendra, Sergio Montagud, Santiago Teruel and Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira. 2021. First Record of A cavernicolous Kinnaridae from the Old World (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoromorpha, Kinnaridae, Adolendini) provides testimony of an Ancient Fauna. Subterranean Biology. 37: 1-26. DOI: 10.3897/subtbiol.37.60483

[Entomology • 2023] Caribbean Pygmy Jumping Leaves (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae: Cladonotinae: Choriphyllini)

Choriphyllum wallaceum Skejo, Kasalo & Yong,  

in Skejo, Yong, Bogić et Kasalo, 2023.
The tribe Choriphyllini Cadena-Castañeda & Silva, 2019 consists of only two genera, Choriphyllum Serville, 1838 and Phyllotettix Hancock, 1902b, combining leaf-like Caribbean wide-nosed pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrigidae, Cladonotinae). The genus Choriphyllum has four species, C. bahamense Perez-Gelabert & Otte, 1999 from the Bahamas (Hummingbird Cay Island), and C. sagrai Serville, 1838, C. saussurei Bolívar, 1887 and C. wallaceum Skejo, Kasalo & Yong, sp. nov. from Cuba. The gender of C. bahamensis is changed to C. bahamense in order to match the grammatical gender of the genus, which is neuter. Silva’s designation of C. sagrai, the type species of Choriphyllum, as nomen dubium in 2019 was incorrect as Serville’s drawing clearly points to this species, endemic to Cuba, so nothing about its identity is doubtful. The genus Phyllotettix is endemic to Jamaica, where four species live: P. rhombeus (Felton, 1765), P. foliatus (Hancock, 1902a), P. compressus (Thunberg, 1815) and P. plagiatus (Walker, 1871), comb. nov. of Choriphyllum plagiatum. Choriphyllum westwoodi Hancock, 1902a, syn. nov. is synonymous with Phyllotettix rhombeus and not with P. compressus. A new subgenus is established, Phyllotettix (Rhombotettix) subgen. nov. for P. (R.) plagiatus comb. nov. and P. (R.) rhombeus. A new species complex, Phyllotettix (compressus) sp. complex nov. is established for two morphologically close species, P. compressus, and P. foliatus; while another new species complex, Choriphyllum (sagrai) sp. complex nov. includes C. sagrai and C. wallaceum sp. nov. An annotated key to genera, subgenera, species groups and species is provided.

Key Words: Alfred Russel Wallace, Bahamas, complex, Choriphyllum, Cuba, iNaturalist, Jamaica, new species, Phyllotettix, revision, species group, subgenus, synonym

Choriphyllum (sagrai) wallaceum Skejo, Kasalo & Yong, sp. nov.
Vernacular name: Wallace’s Cuban Dancing Leaf
Choriphyllum seoanei”, not published “new species” by Bolívar (París 1994: 255). Taxonomic and nomenclatural history.

Etymology: Named after Alfred Russel Wallace, the father of biogeography, modern evolutionary thought and a contributor to many fields of biology. The species name is a neuter gender adjective, second Latin declension, derived from Wallace, i.e. wallaceus, wallacea, wallaceum. The specific epithet celebrates the 200th anniversary of Alfred Russel Wallace birth (8 January 1823).


A new species complexPhyllotettix (compressus) sp. complex nov.
 P. compressus, and P. foliatus

 A new species complexChoriphyllum (sagrai) sp. complex nov. 
C. sagrai and C. wallaceum sp. nov. 

Josip Skejo, Sheyla Yong, Domagoj Bogić and Niko Kasalo. 2023. Caribbean Pygmy Jumping Leaves (Tetrigidae, Cladonotinae, Choriphyllini). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift. 70(1): 129-141. DOI: 10.3897/dez.70.98982

[Herpetology • 2024] Gephyromantis ampondo, G. bemiray, etc. • Four New Species of Forest-dwelling mantellid frogs from Madagascar allied to Gephyromantis moseri (Anura: Mantellidae)

Gephyromantis ampondo
Vences, Köhler, Scherz, Hutter, Rabe Maheritafika, Rafanoharana, Raherinjatovo, Rakotoarison, Andreone, Raselimanana & Glaw, 2024

The Gephyromantis moseri complex, classified in the mantellid subgenus Duboi­mantis, currently contains one species of frog, G. moseri (Glaw & Vences, 2002) from the Andasibe area in the Northern Central East of Madagascar, as well as several genetically divergent populations from the North East that have been provision -ally assigned to the species. We here analyse DNA sequences of one mitochondrial (16S rRNA) and one nuclear-encoded gene (RAG-1), morphology, and advertisement calls of newly collected material of this species complex from various localities in Madagascar. Based on this integrative evidence, in particular concordant nuclear gene differentiation between seven highly divergent (> 4 %) mitochondrial lineages, as well as differences in advertisement call structure, body size and head shape between some of these lineages, we conclude that the G. moseri complex contains several additional species of which four are formally named and described in this study: G. fuscus sp. nov., a rather small-sized species sister to G. moseri, occurring in two sites (Mahasoa and the western part of the Makira Reserve), G. ma­kira sp. nov., a species known from only one available voucher specimen from eastern Makira, G. bemiray sp. nov. from eastern Makira, Masoala, and Ambolokopatrika; and G. ampondo sp. nov. from Marojejy in the North East. Two further lineages for which voucher specimens were not available in the framework of this study are considered unconfirmed candidate species G. sp. Ca19 and G. sp. Ca33,pending the collection of further material. The revision of the G. moseri complex adds to the diversity of Duboimantis and once more demonstrates the existence of secretive or genuinely rare restricted-range species among the Malagasy frogs whose inventory can only be completed by further fieldwork and integrative taxonomic research. 

Gephyromantis ampondo
Gephyromantis bemiray
Gephyromantis fuscus
Gephyromantis makira

Vences M, Köhler J, Scherz MD, Hutter CR, Rabe Maheritafika HM, Rafanoharana JM, Raherinjatovo H, Rakotoarison A, Andreone F, Raselimanana AP, Glaw F. 2024. Four New Species of Forest-dwelling mantellid frogs from Madagascar allied to Gephyromantis moseri (Amphibia, Anura). Spixiana. 46: 297–319. 

[Arachnida • 2024] Microtityus adrikiOn one of the smallest Amazonian scorpions: A New Species of Microtityus Kjellesvig-Waering, 1966 (Scorpiones: Buthidae) from Brazil, with amended Diagnosis and potential Distribution Analysis for the Genus

 Microtityus (Microtityusadriki 
Moreno-González, Bertani & Carvalho, 2024

A new scorpion species, Microtityus adriki n. sp., is described based on adult specimens collected in Cantá, state of Roraima (RR), northern Brazil. Microtityus adriki n. sp. is the second species of Microtityus Kjellesvig-Waering, 1966 known from Brazil and is one of the smallest scorpion species (12.39-19.47 mm) in the Amazonian region. In this study, we propose an amended generic diagnosis and a specific diagnosis, describe the male hemispermatophore of Microtityus, give the sequence of COI barcode, and present a potential distribution analysis for the genus. The morphology of the male hemispermatophore of Microtityus differs from that of other Neotropical buthid genera, except for the number of lobes (three lobes), which is a character state shared with several genera. The potential distribution model generated by MaxEnt suggests high environmental suitability for the genus in the Antilles and northern South America, with scattered high suitability in several regions of Central America. However, the model did not indicate high suitability in areas where Brazilian species occur (i.e., Microtityus adriki n. sp. and Microtityus vanzolinii Lourenço & Eickstedt, 1983), and this could be explained by a sampling bias. Therefore, future studies, including extensive sampling, are required to better understand the biogeographic processes behind the distribution of this genus.

KEYWORDS: scorpion, biogeography, MaxEnt, microbuthids, niche, Roraima, new species

 Microtityus (Microtityusadriki n. sp.:
 A, B, ♂ paratype (MZSP 76548): dorsal (A); ventral (B);
C, D, ♀ holotype (MZSP 76547): dorsal (C); ventral (D).
Scale bars: 5 mm.

 Microtityus (Microtityusadriki n. sp., live habitus:
A, B, females, on leaf litter.
photos: Rogério Bertani.

Jairo A. MORENO-GONZÁLEZ, Rogério BERTANI and Leonardo S. CARVALHO. 2024. On one of the smallest Amazonian scorpions: A New Species of Microtityus Kjellesvig-Waering, 1966 (Scorpiones, Buthidae) from Brazil, with amended Diagnosis and potential Distribution Analysis for the Genus. ZOOSYSTEMA. 46(10); 245-268.  

[PaleoEntomology • 2019] Danatettix hoffeinsorumThe Last batrachideine of Europe: A New Genus and Species of Pygmy Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae) from Eocene Baltic Amber

Danatettix hoffeinsorum
 Thomas, Skejo & Heads, 2019

A new genus and species of pygmy grasshopper (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae) is described from Eocene Baltic amber. Danatettix hoffeinsorum gen. et sp. nov. is assigned to the subfamily Batrachideinae based on antennae with more than 19 antennomeres, sulcate mesofemora, and rectangular paranota. This species is readily distinguished from other batrachideines by a markedly produced vertex, pronotum with divergent internal and external lateral carinae, and highly setiferous female lateral basivalvular sclerite with scabrose integument. The morphology of Danatettix suggests placement within the here defined Tettigidea genus group (comprising Eutettigidea Hancock, 1914, Paurotarsus Hancock, 1900, and Tettigidea Scudder, 1862) and suggests that the latter had diverged from the new Scaria genus group (comprising Eotetrix Gorochov, 2012, Rehnidium Grant, 1956 and Scaria Bolívar, 1887) by the Early Eocene.

Keywords: Orthoptera, Caelifera, Tetrigoidea, pygmy locusts, grouse locusts, groundhoppers, Cenozoic, Paleogene, Baltic amber, fossil insects

 Danatettix hoffeinsorum [holotype 1084-4]
 Dorsal oblique view;  Line drawing.
 (scale bar = 1 mm)


Danatettix hoffeinsorum gen. et sp. nov. 

 Danatettix hoffeinsorum
Fig 3. Ventral view of holotype 1084-4 (scale bar = 1 mm).
Fig 4. Close-up ventral view of ovipositor valvulae and subgenital plate of holotype 1084-4 (scale bar = 0.2 mm)

M. Jared Thomas, Josip Skejo and Sam W. Heads. 2019. The Last batrachideine of Europe: A New Genus and Species of Pygmy Grasshopper (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae) from Eocene Baltic Amber. Zootaxa. 4686(3); 435–445. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4686.3.9

Thursday, May 30, 2024

[Botany • 2024] Psychotria pendens (Rubiaceae: Psychotrieae) • A New ultramafic Species from Central Palawan, Philippines

Psychotria pendens M. Bautista & R. Bustam.,

in Bautista, Chua-Mangussad, Cervancia et Bustamante, 2024.

Psychotria pendens from the lowland ultramafic forest of Mt. Victoria, Palawan Island, Philippines is herein described as a new species of Rubiaceae. The new species is morphologically similar to P. rubiginosa (Gitingensis species group) by having monochotomous inflorescence and oblanceolate to oblong-elliptic leaves but is distinguished by its large, leaf-like, valvate stipules with biattenuate to biacuminate tips, pendent inflorescence, glabrous abaxial leaf surface, narrowly triangular bracts, and glabrous calyx. Molecular analysis revealed that this newly discovered species belongs to the Pacific Psychotria clade, and is allied to the Philippine species P. luzoniensis and Hawaiian species P. mariniana. The species is assessed as Critically Endangered (CR) based on the IUCN Red List categories and criteria.

Psychotria, Malesia, Mt. Victoria, Palawan, Eudicots


Psychotria pendens M. Bautista & R. Bustam., sp. nov.

Mary Ann C. Bautista, Vernaluz Chua-Mangussad, Jehson Cervancia and Rene Alfred Anton Bustamante. 2024. Psychotria pendens (Rubiaceae, Psychotrieae), A New ultramafic Species from Central Palawan, Philippines.  Phytotaxa. 649(3); 252-260. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.649.3.2

Wednesday, May 29, 2024

[Botany • 2024] Zingiber locbacense (Zingiberaceae) • A New Species from Lam Dong Province, Southern Vietnam

Zingiber locbacense D.D. Nguyễn & C.W. Lin, 

in Nguyễn et Lin, 2024.  
Zingiber locbacense D.D. Nguyễn & C.W. Lin sp. nova (Zingiberaceae) is described and illustrated from southern Lam Dong Province, south Vietnam. It is morphologically similar to Z. collinsii in several characters, from which it differs by having inflorescences with pink bracts and a rounded apex, shorter bracteoles, smaller corolla lobes, and the flowering period that occurs from March to early May. All known occurrences of Z. locbacense are in non-protected areas, and there is a hydroelectric power station being developed in a neighbouring area. Hence we assess the conservational status of Z. locbacense as Endangered (EN).

Zingiber locbacense D.D. Nguyễn & C.W. Lin sp. nova

Danh Đức Nguyễn and Che-Wei Lin. 2024. Zingiber locbacense (Zingiberaceae), A New Species from Lam Dong Province, Southern Vietnam.  Annales Botanici Fennici 61(1), 123-130. DOI: 10.5735/085.061.0118