Sunday, June 30, 2019

[Ichthyology • 2019] Leptonotus vincentae • A New Pipefish Species (Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae) from the south‐west Atlantic Ocean near northern Patagonia

Leptonotus vincentae
Luzzatto & Estalles, 2019

Patagonian Pipefish || DOI: 10.1111/jfb.14056 

A new species of pipefish Leptonotus vincentae sp. nov. (Syngnathidae) is described on the basis of 12 specimens found in shallow waters (<2 m depth) of San Antonio Bay, Patagonia, Argentina, in the south‐west Atlantic Ocean. The species is distinguished from congeners by the combination of: dorsal‐fin rays 30–33, pectoral‐fin rays 12–13, trunk rings 18–19, tail rings 43–46, subdorsal rings (2–4) + (5.5–8) = (8.5–10), head length 13–14% standard length, snout length 35–55% head length and snout depth 21–30% in snout length. Although this species has often been mistaken for Leptonotus blainvilleanus, most diagnostic characters of the two species differ. Both species are clearly distinguished by their snout length. L. blainvilleanus has a relatively longer snout than L. vincentae sp. nov. The new species is similar to a south‐west Pacific species, Leptonotus elevatus. However, L. vincentae sp. nov. differs from this species in that it exhibits a lower number of dorsal‐fin rays and a relatively longer head.

Keywords: Atlantic Ocean, Leptonotus blainvilleanus, new species, San Antonio Bay, sexual dimorphism, Syngnathiformes

Leptonotus vincentae sp. nov. 

Etymology: The species is named after Amanda Vincent, whose work on conservation of syngnathids has increased our chances of having healthy populations of these fishes in the threatened seas of the world.
English: Patagonian Pipefish; 
Spanish (Argentina): pez aguja patagónico; 
Spanish (Spain): pez pipa patagónico.

Diego C. Luzzatto and María L. Estalles. 2019. Leptonotus vincentae, A New Pipefish Species (Syngnathidae: Syngnathinae) from the south‐west Atlantic Ocean near northern Patagonia. Journal of Fish Biology. DOI: 10.1111/jfb.14056  

[Herpetology • 2019] Pseudocalotes austeniana (Annandale, 1908) • Range Extension of the Rare Agamid (Sauria, Draconinae) in the East Himalaya, with Comments on Its Ontogenetic Shift

Pseudocalotes austeniana (Annandale, 1908)

in Wang, Ci, Jiang, et al., 2019.
 Abhor Hills Agama  || DOI: 10.15560/15.3.425

Despite its recognition since the early 1900s, the agamid lizard Pseudocalotes austeniana remains known based on 3 vouchered specimens only from the East Himalaya, and little is known about its general biology. During herpetological surveys of Tibet, China, we collected 3 specimens of P. austeniana from Medog County, southeastern Tibet, including the first juvenile specimen ever vouchered. We provide a detailed description based on new material of this enigmatic species, report on a range extension of 400 km northeastward from its type locality, its ontogenetic shift, and clutch size.

Keywords: Agamidae, Himalaya, Mictopholis, Salea, synonym

Figure 2. Adult female Pseudocalotes austeniana (KIZ 013873) in life.
A. Dorsolateral view of body. B. Ventral view of body. C. Lateral, close-up view of head. D. Dorsal, close-up view of body. Photographs by Kai Wang.

Figure 3. Photographed individuals of Pseudocalotes austeniana (not vouchered) in Medog County, Nyinchi Prefecture, Tibet, China. 
A. Dorsal view of an adult female from 62K, Medog. B. Lateral view of the same adult female from 62K, Medog. C. Juvenile from Hanmi, Medog. 
Photographs by Chao Wu and Zheng Shi.

Figure 5. Eggs of Pseudocalotes austeniana (produced by the vouchered female TMNH 20170001). 
Photograph by Shiyang Weng.


 Pseudocalotes austeniana (Annandale, 1908)
 Salea austeniana 

Identification. The recently collected adult and juvenile specimens from Tibet resemble closely the pholidosis characteristics of the vouchered holotype and topotypic specimen of Pseudocalotes austeniana (Table 1). In summary, these specimens are identified as P. austeniana based on the following morphological characters (following Mahony 2010): (1) tympanum exposed; (2) sub-ocular scale row singular, or multiple but one distinctively enlarged; (3) head robust, HW/HL > 59.7%, HD/HW > 72%, HD/HL > 43%; (4) distinct, strongly-developed cranial ridges present on dorsal and lateral surfaces of occipital region of head, forming rectangular, convex areas on temporal region of head and triangular concave area on posterior lateral region of head; (6) postorbital and postoccipital spines absent; (7) nuchal crest in triangular shape or short lanceolate shape, not strongly differentiated from dorsal crests; (8) mid-dorsal scale count less than 39; (9) longitudinal gular fold present, highly developed in dewlap, with a distinct, pointy tip toward posterior end; (10) transverse gular fold absent; (11) dorsal scales heterogeneous in size and shape, flat, feebly keeled or smooth, arranged irregularly in most parts, some enlarged ones in approximate transverse rows; (12) enlarged scales of dorsum not arranged into clear dorsolateral or V-shaped rows; (13) ventral body scales smooth or feebly keeled, larger than background dorsal scales, distinctively heterogeneous in size and shape, irregularly arranged; (14) antehumeral fold present; and (15) axillary fold present.

Figure 3. Photographed individuals of Pseudocalotes austeniana (not vouchered) in Medog County, Nyinchi Prefecture, Tibet, China.
A. Dorsal view of an adult female from 62K, Medog. B. Lateral view of the same adult female from 62K, Medog. C. Juvenile from Hanmi, Medog. Photographs by Chao Wu and Zheng Shi.

Distribution range. Prior to our observations of Pseudocalotes austeniana in the field, the species was thought to be a rare endemic to the southern parts of Southern Tibet (Mahony 2010, Venugopal 2010, 2013), and the species was not officially listed as a member of the Chinese herpetofauna (Zhao and Jiang 1977, Zhao and Adler 1993, Zhao et al. 1999, Cai et al. 2015). However, the newly discovered populations represent a range expansion of about 400 km northeastward from the species’ previous range limits in the East Himalaya. Given the recognized habitat connectivity and similar environment spanning this region, it is likely that P. austeniana is currently, or once was, distributed continuously across this area. Future survey efforts for this species should focus on habitat to the west in Bhutan. Additional studies of this enigmatic and secretive lizard are needed to better understand its ecology, population densities, and full geographic distribution.

 Kai Wang, Ping Ci, Ke Jiang, Shiyang Weng, Cameron D. Siler and Jing Che. 2019. Range Extension of the Rare Agamid, Pseudocalotes austeniana (Annandale, 1908) (Reptilia, Sauria, Draconinae) in the East Himalaya, with Comments on Its Ontogenetic Shift. Check List. 15(3); 425-433.  DOI: 10.15560/15.3.425

[Mollusca • 2019] Olea hensoni Eggs Sunny-side Up: A New Species of Olea, An Unusual Oophagous Sea Slug (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Sacoglossa), from the western Atlantic

Olea hensoni  
Filho,  Paulay & Krug, 2019


Nearly all of the recognized species of sea slugs in clade Sacoglossa (about 300 taxa) are herbivorous, using a uniseriate radula in suctorial feeding. The only exceptions are a pair of monotypic genera in the ceratiform family Limapontiidae: Olea Agersborg, 1923 from the northeastern Pacific, and Calliopaea d’Orbigny, 1837 from the northeastern Atlantic coast of Europe and the Mediterranean. Both genera feed on the eggs of other heterobranchs, notably cephalaspideans, and lack cerata on the anterior dorsum. Major differences are that C. bellula d’Orbigny, 1837 has more cerata than O. hansineensis Agersborg, 1923, a more typical radula with ascending and descending rows of fully-formed teeth, and a much longer penial stylet. Here, we describe a new egg-eating sacoglossan species from the subtropical Gulf of Mexico coast of Florida, U.S.A. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from analyses of a four-gene dataset including 219 sacoglossan species indicated the new taxon (Olea hensoni n. sp.) belongs to Olea. The generic placement of the new species is also supported by its highly reduced radula and comparatively short penial stylet. A full description of the reproductive, digestive, and nervous systems is also provided. Finding a new Olea species in the warm waters of the western Atlantic was surprising, given the genus was previously known only from the cold northern Pacific, and suggests further diversity in oophagous sacoglossans may await discovery.

Keywords: Gastropoda, biogeography, integrative taxonomy, oophagy, radula, species discovery, systematics

Olea hensoni feeds on the eggs of other slugs and snails. Researchers are unsure if the slug's diet of eggs is an advantage over plant-eating slugs or if it may ultimately limit the evolution of its lineage, becoming a dietary dead-end.

An Olea hensoni slug, left, feeds on the eggs inside a gelatinous mass laid by an unknown marine invertebrate. The jelly-like mass is generally an effective protection against predators -- but not this slug.
 photo by Gustav Paulay

Hilton Galvão Filho, Gustav Paulay, Patrick J. Krug. 2019. Eggs Sunny-side Up: A New Species of Olea, An Unusual Oophagous Sea Slug (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Sacoglossa), from the western Atlantic. Zootaxa. 4614(3); 541–565. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4614.3.7

Egg-sucking sea slug from Florida’s Cedar Key named after Muppets creator Jim Henson
Egg-sucking sea slug from Florida's Cedar Key named after Muppets creator Jim Henson via @physorg_com

[Botany • 2019] Gymnosporia sekhukhuniensis (Celastraceae) • A New Species from South Africa

Gymnosporia sekhukhuniensis Jordaan & A.E.van Wyk

in Jordaan & van Wyk, 2019. 

Gymnosporia sekhukhuniensis, a new species from north-eastern South Africa, is described, illustrated, mapped, and compared with closely related species. It belongs to Gymnosporia sect. Buxifoliae, more specifically Group 1, the members of which are characterized by the capsules being (2)3(4)-valved, rugose or verrucose, and the seeds partially covered by the aril. The new species has a restricted distribution range and is near-endemic to the Sekhukhuneland Centre of Endemism. This biogeographical region rich in restricted-range plants is more or less congruent with surface outcrops of mafic and ultramafic igneous rocks belonging to the Rustenburg Layered Suite of the eastern Bushveld Complex. The range of the new species shows marginal intrusion into the far northern part of the nearby Wolkberg Centre of Endemism, where it is associated with dolomites of the Malmani Subgroup. Gymnosporia sekhukhuniensis is a suffrutex mainly associated with rocky outcrops in open savannah. Diagnostic characters include its dwarf habit (up to 1.6 m tall), capsules that are relatively small (5–8 mm long), woody, scaly-rugose, with hard pointed apices, and leaves that are very laxly arranged on the stems, with some often present on the thorns. Also included is a key to the 10 currently accepted species in G. sect. Buxifoliae Group 1. The taxonomic significance of capsule and seed characters for demarcating sections and species in the genus Gymnosporia is emphasized.

Keywords: endemism, Gymnosporia sect. Buxifoliae, morphology, sections, Sekhukhuneland, taxonomy, ultramafic soils, Wolkberg, Eudicots

FIGURE 1. Gymnosporia sekhukhuniensis, on the farm Hoogland 38JT, between Lydenburg (Mashishing) and Roossenekal in Mpumalanga province, South Africa.
 A. Plant with fruit; in natural habitat, amongst rocks of norite. B. Almost mature fruit.
Photographs: W. McCleland.

FIGURE 2. Gymnosporia sekhukhuniensis.
A. Leafy branchlet with fruit. B. Twig with male flowers. C. Female flower. D. Male flower. E. Dehisced capsule with seed. F. Seed, with basal aril. Scale bar = 10 mm (A & B), 1 mm (C, D & F) and 2 mm (E). A from Winter 2585, B from Winter 2932, C from Schmidt 845, D from Stalmans 695, E & F from McMurtry 12408. Artist: Daleen Roodt.

Gymnosporia sekhukhuniensis Jordaan & A.E.van Wyk, sp. nov. 

Closely related to Gymnosporia heterophylla (Ecklon & Zeyher 1834–1835: 120) Loesener (1892: 207), with which it shares being a suffrutex with the stems angular-ribbed and in having capsules with a rugose surface, but from which it differs in the leaves being laxly arranged on the stems (vs. very densely and compactly), usually longer than 35 mm (vs. usually shorter than 20 mm), and capsules with apices apiculate (vs. rounded). Also related to the widespread G. buxifolia (Linnaeus 1753: 197) Szyszylowicz (1888: 34), from which it differs in being a suffrutex up to 1.6 m tall (vs. usually a shrub or tree more than 2 m tall), with stems angularribbed (vs. terete) and capsules 5–8 mm long (vs. usually less than 5 mm long), with apices apiculate (vs. not apiculate).

Etymology:— The specific epithet is derived from Sekhukhuneland, the region to which the species is largely confined. 

Distribution:— Occurs along the north-eastern Great (Drakensberg) Escarpment of the Limpopo and Mpumalanga Provinces of South Africa and is considered near-endemic to the Sekhukhuneland Centre of Endemism, with marginal intrusion into the far northern adjoining part of the Wolkberg Centre of Endemism (Van Wyk & Smith 2001) (Fig. 3).

Common names:— The proposed common names for this plant are Sekhukhune spikethorn, sekhukhunependoring (Afrikaans).

Marie Jordaan and Abraham van Wyk. 2019. Gymnosporia sekhukhuniensis (Celastraceae), A New Species from South Africa. Phytotaxa. 408(1); 69–76.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.408.1.5

Friday, June 28, 2019

[Paleontology • 2019] Repeated Evolution of Herbivorous Crocodyliforms during the Age of Dinosaurs

Notosuchus sp., Chimaerasuchus paradoxus,
Armadillosuchus arrudai  Pakasuchus kapilimai 

in Melstrom & Irmis, 2019. 
Illustration: Jorge Gonzalez 

• Some extinct crocodyliforms, relatives of living crocodylians, possess complex teeth
• Quantitative analyses suggest some species with complex teeth were likely herbivores
• Herbivorous crocodyliforms evolved at least three times independently
• Some dentitions rival the complexities of living mammal herbivores

Extinct crocodyliforms from the age of dinosaurs (Mesozoic Era) display an impressive range of skeletal morphologies, suggesting a diversity of ecological roles not found in living representatives. In particular, unusual dental morphologies develop repeatedly through the evolutionary history of this group. Recent descriptions of fossil crocodyliforms and their unusual teeth provide the inferential basis for a wide range of feeding ecologies. However, tests of these hypotheses are hindered by the lack of directly comparable dental morphologies in living reptiles and mammals, thereby preventing an accurate ecosystem reconstruction. Here, we demonstrate, using a combination of the orientation patch count rotated method and discrete morphological features, that Mesozoic crocodyliforms exploited a much greater range of feeding ecologies than their extant relatives, including likely omnivores and herbivores. These results also indicate that crocodyliforms independently developed high-complexity dentitions a minimum of three times. Some taxa possess teeth that surpass the complexities of living herbivorous lizards and rival those of omnivorous and herbivorous mammals. This study indicates that herbivorous crocodyliforms were more common than previously thought and were present throughout the Mesozoic and on most continents. The occurrence of multiple origins of complex dentitions throughout Crocodyliformes indicates that herbivory was a beneficial dietary strategy and not a unique occurrence. Many of these crocodyliforms lived alongside omnivorous or herbivorous synapsids, illustrating an ecological partition that is not observed today.

Keywords: diet, dental complexity, mesozoic, paleoecology

Figure 3. Time-Calibrated Phylogeny Displaying Reconstructed Diets of Extinct Crocodyliforms The geographic location of each taxon is indicated by modern land-mass silhouettes for Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, Madagascar, North America, and South America. Gold stars represent the inferred evolutionary originations of herbivory, whereas the teal star indicates potential single origin of herbivory in Notosuchia. Inferred carnivores possess teeth that were not sampled for this study but have dentitions that resemble those of measured taxa, primarily conical or labiolingually compressed morphologies.

Thalattosuchia is not included because the phylogenetic position of this clade is still disputed [27]. Phylogeny modified from [28]. EJ, Early Jurassic; EK, Early Cretaceous; Eo, Eocene; LJ, Late Jurassic; LK, Late Cretaceous; LT, Late Triassic; Mi, Miocene; MJ, Middle Jurassic; Ol, Oligocene; Pa, Paleocene; Pe, Pleistocene; Pl, Pliocene.

Life reconstructions of extinct crocodyliforms. Differences in tooth shape are related to differences in diets.
Illustration: Jorge Gonzalez

 Keegan M. Melstrom and Randall B. Irmis. 2019. Repeated Evolution of Herbivorous Crocodyliforms during the Age of Dinosaurs. Current Biology. DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.05.076  

Some extinct crocs were vegetarians via @physorg_com

[Entomology • 2019] Taxonomic Study of the Genus Eretmocera Zeller, 1852 (Lepidoptera: Scythrididae) from China, with Descriptions of Three New Species

Eretmocera sp.

in Lou, Yu, You & Li, 2019. 

Four species of the genus Eretmocera Zeller, 1852 from China are reviewed. Three species are described as newEretmocera yingjiangensis Li, sp. nov.E. octopunctata Li, sp. nov. and E. artemisiae Li, sp. nov. Eretmocera impactella (Walker, 1864) is redescribed based on specimens founded on Yunnan, China. Photographs of adults and genitalia are provided, and a key to the Eretmocra species that occur in China is given.

Keywords: Lepidoptera, Gelechioidea, flower moth, key, redescription

 Kang Lou, Dian Yu, Wanxue You and Houhun Li. 2019. Taxonomic Study of the Genus Eretmocera Zeller, 1852 (Lepidoptera: Scythrididae) from China, with Descriptions of Three New Species.  Zootaxa. 4624(2); 205–218. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4624.2.4

[Herpetology • 2019] Lost and Found: Taxonomic Revision of the Speckled Skink (Oligosoma infrapunctatum; Reptilia; Scincidae) Species Complex from New Zealand reveals A Potential Cryptic Extinction, Resurrection of Two Species, and Description of Three New Species

Oligosoma newmani, 
O. robinsoni 

albornenseO. auroraensis O. salmo

Melzer, Hitchmough, Bell, Chapple & Patterson, 2019

New Zealand has a diverse skink fauna, comprising 45 described native species, and at least 15 undescribed taxa, within the single genus Oligosoma Girard, 1857. One of the earliest described, and best known, species is the speckled skink, Oligosoma infrapunctatum (Boulenger 1887). Despite a relatively stable taxonomic history for nearly 114 years, recent molecular work has indicated that O. infrapunctatum represents a species complex, comprising numerous genetically divergent, range restricted taxa. We completed the first stage of a taxonomic revision of O. infrapunctatum, conducting a morphological re-evaluation of existing voucher material, and newly collected specimens, and generated a molecular phylogeny for the species complex. This allowed us to distinguish six species: O. infrapunctatum, two species resurrected from synonymy (O. newmani, O. robinsoni), and three new species (O. salmo sp. nov., O. albornense sp. nov. O. auroraensis sp. nov.). The name bearing type population of O. infrapunctatum has not been located again for at least 130 years: it remains to be rediscovered and may already be extinct. Two of the six species here are considered ‘Nationally Critical’ (O. albornense sp. nov., O. salmo sp. nov.) under the New Zealand Threat Classification System, the others are Nationally Vulnerable (O. auroraensis sp. nov.) and At Risk—Relict (O. newmani, O. robinsoni). Further taxonomic work will be required to determine the taxonomy of other speckled skink genetic lineages in the South Island, particularly O. aff. infrapunctatum “cobble”, O. “Hokitika”, O. “Southern North Island” and O. “Westport”.

Keywords: Reptilia, cryptic species, morphology, taxonomy, speckled skink, Oligosoma infrapunctatumnewmanisalmo sp. nov., auroraensis sp. nov., albornense sp. nov., robinsoni, Chesterfield skink

Sabine Melzer, Rod A. Hitchmough, Trent Bell, David G. Chapple and Geoff B. Patterson. 2019. Lost and Found: Taxonomic Revision of the Speckled Skink (Oligosoma infrapunctatum; Reptilia; Scincidae) Species Complex from New Zealand reveals A Potential Cryptic Extinction, Resurrection of Two Species, and Description of Three New Species. Zootaxa. 4623(3); 441–484. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4623.3.2  

Thursday, June 27, 2019

[Botany • 2019] The Callerya Group Redefined and Tribe Wisterieae (Fabaceae) Emended based on Morphology and Data from Nuclear and Chloroplast DNA Sequences

A, E. Afgekia mahidoliae, Thailand, Kanchanaburi. 
B, C Afgekia sericea Thailand. 

 D, F Sarcodum scandens Vietnam, Quang Binh Prov.
 G Sarcodum scandens Laos, Bolikhamxai Prov. 

in Compton, Schrire, Könyves, et al., 2019.

The Tribe Wisterieae (Zhu 1994), founded on the single genus Wisteria, is emended and recircumscribed based on morphology and data from nuclear ITS and ndhJ-trnFmatK and rbcL chloroplast DNA sequences. This newly enlarged tribe comprises 36 species and 9 infraspecific taxa within 13 described genera. Six genera are newtwo are reinstated and five were previously placed in Tribe Millettieae. The genus Adinobotrys is also reinstated comprising two species including the new combination A. vastus. Other reinstated genera include Whitfordiodendron, with four species, and Padbruggea, with three species, including the reinstatement of P. filipes and the new combination P. filipes var. tomentosa. The existing genera AfgekiaCalleryaEndosamara (with the new combination E. racemosa var. pallida), Sarcodum and Wisteria, with the new combinations W. frutescens subsp. macrostachya are evaluated. The new genera comprise three Australasian species in AustrocalleryaA. australis, A. megasperma and A. pilipesWisteriopsis with five species from east Asia has six new combinations: W. japonica, W. kiangsiensis, W. championii, W. eurybotrya, W. reticulata and W. reticulata var. stenophylla. Two species comprise the new Thai genus KanburiaK. tenasserimensis and K. chloranthaNanhaia comprises the two species: N. fordii and N. speciosa and the monotypic genera Sigmoidala and Serawaia are based respectively on the species S. kityana and S. strobilifera. Lectotypes are designated for the names Adinobotrys filipesA. myrianthusMillettia bonatiana, Millettia bracteosa, Millettia championii, Millettia cinerea, Millettia dielsiana, Millettia kityana, M. maingayi, Millettia nitida, Millettia oocarpa, Millettiapurpurea, M. reticulata, M. reticulata var. stenophylla, Padbruggea dasyphylla, Pterocarpus australis, Robinia racemosa, Whitfordiodendron scandens, W. sumatranum and Wisteria pallida. A neotype is designated for the name Millettia leiogyna.

Keywords: Tribe Wisterieae emended, Leguminosae, new genera, AustrocalleryaKanburiaNanhaiaSerawaiaSigmoidalaWisteriopsis, molecular phylogeny, morphological key

Figure 2. Distinctive morphological characters in Tribe Wisterieae.
 A Endosamara racemosa standard petal inner surface B Padbruggea dasyphylla standard petal inner surface C Padbruggea dasyphylla pod D Padbruggea dasyphylla seed lateral view E Austrocallerya australis standard petal inner surface F Austrocallerya pilipes pod G Austrocallerya pilipes seed lateral view H Padbruggea filipes standard petal I Afgekia sericea standard petal inner surface J Afgekia sericea seed lateral view K Afgekia sericea seed angled lateral view L Callerya nitida pod M Callerya nitida seed ventral view N Callerya nitida seed polar view O Callerya cinerea pod P Whitfordiodendron nieuwenhuisii pod Q Whitfordiodendron erianthum seed R Wisteriopsis eurybotrya gibbosity S Wisteriopsis championii gibbosity
A from Luang Vanpruk 188 B from Scortechini 429 C, D from Lamb 395/91 E from L.J.Brass 32129 F, G from B.Gray 04319 H from Maung Po Khant 15326 I from C. Chermsirivathana 996 J, K from Mrs Collins 104/9 L–N from Theophilus Sampson O from G.Forrest 19279 P from J.P.Mogea 4182 Q from photo Y.Sirichamorn s.n.. R from J. & M.S.Clemens 3637 S from Shiu Ying Hu 10476. See Appendix 1 for voucher details.
 Drawn by Margaret Tebbs.

Plate 1. EndosamaraSigmoidala and Kanburia.
A, B Endosamara racemosa, Thailand, Sakon Nakhon Prov., S.Mattapha s.n..
C, D Sigmoidala kityana Thailand, Nan Prov. S.Mattapha 1117
Kanburia chlorantha Thailand, Kanchanaburi Prov. Y.Sirichamorn Y2014-15-1 F Kanburia tenasserimensis Thailand, Ratchaburi, Khao Chon waterfall Y.Sirichamorn YS2015-8.

Figure 3. Sigmoidala kityana (Craib) J.Compton & Schrire.
A Habit B young leaf C lower surface of leaf D leaflet detail of hairs E inflorescence F flower bud with bracteole and pedicel G calyx external surface H standard petal inner surface I wing petal J keel petal K staminal column lateral view L staminal column ventral view M stamen dorsal and ventral views N ovary lateral view O style and stigma P pod Q pod detail of surface R seed ventral view S seed lateral view (all from Clark 245). Drawn by Margaret Tebbs.

Plate 2. Afgekia, Sarcodum and Padbruggea.
 A Afgekia mahidoliae, Thailand, Sai Yok distr. Kanchanaburi, Y.Sirichamorn s.n.. B, C Afgekia sericea Thailand S.Mattapha 1158 E Afgekia mahidiliae Thailand, Sai Yok distr. Kanchanaburi Y.Sirichamorn s.n..
Sarcodum scandens Vietnam, Quang Binh Prov. Lôc & Quang P11554 F Sarcodum scandens Vietnam, Quang Binh Prov. Lôc & Quang P11554 G Sarcodum scandens Laos, Sop Teuang, Bolikhamxai Prov. S.Lanorsavanh 1299
H, I Padbruggea filipes Thailand, Chiang Mai, Y.Sirichamorn & S.Mattapha YSM2017-1.

James A. Compton, Brian D. Schrire, Kálmán Könyves, Félix Forest, Panagiota Malakasi, Sawai Mattapha and Yotsawate Sirichamorn. 2019. The Callerya Group Redefined and Tribe Wisterieae (Fabaceae) Emended based on Morphology and Data from Nuclear and Chloroplast DNA Sequences. PhytoKeys. 125: 1-112. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.125.34877

สกุล Adinobotrys Dunn ทั่วโลกพบได้ 2 ชนิด ในไทยพบเพียงชนิดเดียวคือ แซะ Adinobotrys atropurpureus (Wall.) Dunn [Callerya atropurpurea (Wall.) Schot]

สกุล Afgekia Craib เป็นสกุลเฉพาะถิ่นของไทย มี 2 ชนิด คือ กันภัยหรือถั่วแปบช้าง (A. sericea Craib) และ
กันภัยมหิดล (A. mahidoliae Burtt et Chermsir.) 

สกุล Padbruggea Miq. ยกฐานะขึ้นมาจากชื่อพ้องของ Callerya ประกอบด้วยสมาชิกเพียง 3 ชนิด พบในไทย 2 ชนิด คือ
เครือเลือดหรือกันภัยพายัพ P. filipes (Dunn) Craib และ
ทองหวาน หรือ P. dasyphylla Miq.

สกุล Kanburia J.Compton, Mattapha, Sirich. & Schrire สกุลนี้ประกอบด้วยพืชเพียงสองชนิดเท่านั้น คือเครือข้าวเม่า หรือเครือข้าวเขียว K. chlorantha (Mattapha & Sirich.) J.Compton, Mattapha, Sirich. & Schrire และเครือแซะตะนาวศรี K. tenasserimensis (Mattapha & Sirich.) J.Compton, Mattapha, Sirich. & Schrire

สกุล Sigmoidala J.Compton & Schrire สกุลใหม่ของโลกอีกสกุลที่แยกตัวออกจาก Callerya เดิม เป็นสกุลที่เป็น monotypic genus คือมีแค่เพียงชนิดเดียวเท่านั้น คือเครือข้าวเย็น หรือ S. kityana (Craib) J.Compton & Schrire

สกุล Whitfordiodendron Elmer เถูกคืนสถานะภาพจากชื่อพ้องของ Callerya และยกขึ้นมาเป็นสกุลอีกครั้งหนึ่ง ทั่วโลกมีราว 4 ชนิด และพบเจอในไทยเพียงชนิดเดียว คือ ทองเค็ม W. erianthum (Benth.) Dunn  

สกุล Wisteriopsis J.Compton & Schrire สกุลใหม่ของโลกสกุลสุดท้ายที่แยกตัวจาก Callerya ชื่อสกุลแปลตรงตัวว่าคล้าย Wisteria มีราว 5 ชนิดทั่วโลก ในไทยพบ 2 ชนิด
รางอรุณ (หนังขะอุย) W. eurybotrya (Drake) J.Compton & Schrire และ
 รางรัตติ W. reticulata (Benth.) J.Compton & Schrire 

[Herpetology • 2019] Platypelis ando • A New Yellow-toed Platypelis Species (Microhylidae, Cophylinae) from the Maroantsetra Region, northeastern Madagascar

Platypelis ando
Scherz, Köhler, Vences & Glaw, 2019

We describe a new species of arboreal narrow-mouthed frog, genus Platypelis, from Ambodivoangy near Maroantsetra in northeastern Madagascar. The new species, Platypelis ando sp. nov., is characterised by small body size (under 19 mm), a generally rather slender body, yellowish finger and toe tips, and a dark brown dorsal chevron. Its advertisement call is a single, moderately long, high-pitched whistle repeated at regular intervals. It is the sister species of P. ravus from Marojejy National Park, but differs from that species by considerable pairwise genetic distances (7.9%) in a fragment of the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene, and also in bioacoustic and morphological features, especially the absence of yellow on the posterior abdomen. It is also surprisingly similar in external appearance to Cophyla occultans and C. maharipeo, to which it is not, however, closely related; these species are most easily discerned based on their calls. Platypelis ando sp. nov. joins the ranks of several species recently described from Ambodivoangy with close affiliations to species in the nearby Marojejy National Park, that are still divergent at species level. The species qualifies as Critically Endangered according to the IUCN Red List criteria, in line with other species recently assessed from this area, but we urge that more research be conducted in the nearby forests to extend the range of this and other species known only from Ambodivoangy.

Key Words: Amphibia, bioacoustics, systematics, taxonomy, morphology, molecular genetics

 Platypelis ando sp. nov.
 (a–b) Holotype (ZSM 293/2010)
 in (a) dorsolateral and (b) ventral view;
(c–d) paratype (ZSM 292/2010) in (c) lateral and (d) ventral view.

Platypelis ando sp. nov. 

Diagnosis: The new species is assigned to the genus Platypelis based on molecular phylogenetic relationships (Fig. 1). Platypelis ando sp. nov. is characterised by the following combination of characters: (1) Small size, with adult male SVL 16.9–18.7 mm; (2) manus with second finger shorter than fourth, pes with fifth toe shorter than third; (3) discs of fingers and toes yellowish to orangish in life; (4) presence of a dark dorsal chevron; (5) presence of dorsal tubercles; (6) short supratympanic dark brown marking; (7) males with prepollical tubercle but lacking a finger-like prepollex as typical for Anodonthyla Müller, 1892.

The new species is distinguished from Platypelis cowanii, P. mavomavo, P. grandis, P. tsaratananaensis, P. pollicaris, P. alticola, P. olgae, P. tuberifera, P. barbouri and P. milloti by considerably smaller size (16.9–18.7 vs >25 mm). Among Platypelis species of similar size, it can be distinguished from P. tetra by its smaller dorsal tubercles, absence of large white spots on the dorsum (vs presence), and presence of a brown chevron-shaped marking on the dorsum (vs absence); and from P. karenae by its brown colouration and dorsal patterning (vs yellow colouration and lack of dorsal patterning), short supratympanic dark brown marking (vs extended along the flank), and less pointed snout. Morphologically and genetically, P. ando sp. nov. most closely resembles P. ravus. It differs from that species in the lack of yellowish colour on its venter (vs present), yellowish to orangish dorsal finger and toe tip colouration (vs brownish), and by a chevron-shaped brown marking on dorsum (vs W-shaped).

Figure 2. Platypelis specimens in life. (e–f) holotype (ZSM 349/2005) of P. ravus in (e) dorsolateral and (f) ventral view.

Natural history: As is typical for Platypelis species, calling activity was only heard after dusk. ZSM 291/2010 was found calling 1.8 m above the ground. Nothing further is known about the habits of this species, but based on the reproductive ecology of congeners, it is likely to reproduce in phytotelms and have endotrophic nidicolous tadpoles.

Available names: Only two available synonyms of any Cophyla or Platypelis refer to small-sized species that could possibly refer to our new species. Cophyla tuberculata Ahl, 1929 ‘1928’ is currently a synonym of P. grandis. The two syntypes are juveniles according to Blommers-Schlösser and Blanc (1991), but have an SVL of 26 mm, and are therefore larger than the new species. Paracophyla tuberculata Millot & Guibé, 1951 is currently considered a synonym of P. barbouri. The holotype of that species, MNHN-RA-1957.715, differs from our new species in having a more rugose dorsum, broader finger discs, and a darker venter. Additionally, it is from Périnet (=Analamazaotra) in the Central East of Madagascar, more than 400 km south of Ambodivoangy. Blommers-Schlösser and Blanc (1991) concluded that it is conspecific with P. barbouri, and we agree that it is a member of that species complex, which is in need of revision.

Etymology: We dedicate this species to our friend and colleague, Dr. Andolalao Rakotoarison, in recognition of her valuable contributions to the systematics and taxonomy of the Malagasy microhylid fauna. The name is to be treated as an invariable noun in the nominative singular.

Distribution: The new species is reliably known only from the type locality Ambodivoangy, but the species is likely to be more widespread in low altitude forest of the adjacent Makira Natural Park. Glaw and Vences (1992) found a small Platypelis species (assigned to and figured as P. occultans) near Voloina (15.5775S, 49.6042S; voucher specimens ZFMK 52777–52779), ca. 30 km south of the type locality with similar calls and morphology, which is possibly conspecific with Platypelis ando, but further studies are necessary to confirm its identity.

 Mark D. Scherz, Jörn Köhler, Miguel Vences and Frank Glaw. 2019. A New Yellow-toed Platypelis Species (Anura, Microhylidae, Cophylinae) from the Maroantsetra Region, northeastern Madagascar. Evolutionary Systematics. 3(1): 75-83. DOI: 10.3897/evolsyst..33417