Tuesday, December 31, 2019

[Crustacea • 2019] Aegla nebeccana • A New Species of Freshwater Anomuran (Decapoda: Anomura: Aeglidae) from Ivaí Basin, Paraná, Brazil

Aegla nebeccana 
Trombetta, Páez, Santos & Teixeira, 2019

A new species of freshwater anomuran, Aegla nebeccana n. sp. (Decapoda: Aeglidae), is described from the Ivaí River sub-basin, a tributary of the Paraná River Basin, in Paraná state, southern Brazil. The species is illustrated in detail with drawings and photographs. It can be distinguished from its congeners based on both morphological and molecular evidence. Morphologically, the new species resembles Aegla meloi Bond-Buckup & Santos, 2015 by the general shape of the carapace and chelipeds, but differs by having a developed protograstic lobe and by the cheliped ischium ornamentation. Aegla nebeccana n. sp. has pronounced protogastric lobes, similar to Aegla castro Schmitt, 1942 and Aegla schimitti Bond-Buckup & Buckup, 1994 but differs clearly from these in relation to the morphology of the cheliped palmar crest. Based on molecular analysis, A. nebeccana is sister species of Aegla parva Bond-Buckup & Buckup 1994.

Keywords: Crustacea, Anomuran crab, COI, Upper Paraná Ecoregion

Aegla nebeccana n. sp., male holotype, CLE 17.6 mm.

Aegla nebeccana n. sp.  

Etymology. Named in reference to the NEBECC (Crustacean Biology, Ecology and Culture Study Group) in honor of its coordinators Dr. Adilson Fransozo and Dr. Maria Lucia Negreiros Fransozo. 

 Alana De Souza Trombetta, Fernanda Polli Páez, Sandro Santos and Gustavo Monteiro Teixeira. 2019. Aegla nebeccana n. sp. (Crustacea, Aeglidae) from Ivaí Basin, Paraná, Brazil. Zootaxa. 4712(1); 138–150. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4712.1.10

[Entomology • 2019] Hesperolyra guajavifoliae • A New Leafmining Pest of Guava, with Comments on the Diagnostics of the Endemic Neotropical Genus Hesperolyra van Nieukerken (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae)

Hesperolyra guajavifoliae Stonis & Vargas

in Stonis, Remeikis, Diškus, et al., 2019. 

We describe a new pest of guava (Psidium guajava L.), Hesperolyra guajavifoliae Stonis & Vargas, sp. nov., that was recently discovered in western Colombia. Hesperolyra van Nieukerken is a small, Neotropical genus of pygmy moths (Nepticulidae). We re-examine and document the complex morphology of the male genitalia of the generic type species, H. diskusi (Puplesis & Robinson). We discuss the diagnostics and composition of the genus and provide a simple pictorial differentiation scheme for all currently known representatives of the genus. The new species is illustrated with photographs of the adults, some of the immature stages, male and female genitalia, and leaf mines. A link to the COI barcodes of H. guajavifoliae sp. nov. is provided and the relationship of Hesperolyra to other genera is discussed.

Keywords: New species, pygmy moths, guayaba, Psidium guajava, leaf mines, taxonomy, Colombia

Figures 13–27. Hesperolyra guajavifoliae Stonis & Vargas sp. nov. 
13–16 cocoons 17–20 pupae (found dead in cocoons at different stages of development and with various levels of dehydration) 21 male holotype (MPUJ) 22 female paratype 23 frontal tuft, female paratype 24 ventral view, female paratype 25–27 An Egg on a leaf underside of the host plant Psidium guajava.

Hesperolyra guajavifoliae Stonis & Vargas, sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Externally, adults of the new species are distinguishable from all other Neotropical Nepticulidae, including congeneric Hesperolyra, by a dark, oblique fascia and two small, dark, basal and apical spots on the forewing. However, in some specimens, including worn ones, the spots may be inconspicuous or absent. In the male genitalia, a large apical process of the valva, two large, horn-like processes fused with the transtilla and weakly developed cornuti in the phallus distinguish H. guajavifoliae sp. nov. from all other Hesperolyra species. In the female genitalia, the unique, large vaginal sclerite and distally wide vesicles of ductus spermathecae are hypothesized to be unique to this species, but this character may not remain valid for species differentiation because females of many nepticulid species are unknown and remain to be discovered. Hesperolyra guajavifoliae sp. nov. is distinguishable from another guava feeder, Ozadelpha guajavae Puplesis & Robinson, by a dark, oblique fascia and two small spots on the forewing of the adults, and by blotch-like leaf mines (leaf mines of O. guajavae are slender and sinuous, see Remeikis et al. 2015: figs 1, 7).

Distribution: (Figs 1–6). So far, this species is known to occur at altitudes from 450 to 850 m on the western slopes of the Andes (Valle del Cauca, western Colombia), bordering with the lowland Choco province. The latter is possibly the most humid area on Earth, where annual rainfall reaches 11,770 mm (Wettest places on Earth 2019) and is equally distributed except for only slight dry season(s) (Figs 2–6).

Etymology: The species name derives from the Latin name of the host plant guajava, in combination with the Latin folium (a leaf), in reference to the feeding habit of the new species; although the ending -ae here is not correct Latin (van Nieukerken, personal comm.), we preferred to name the species as guajavifoliae and not otherwise.

Figures 7–12. Leaf mines of Hesperolyra guajavifoliae Stonis & Vargas sp. nov. on Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae), Colombia, Valle del Cauca, Cisneros, .., 450 m. 

 Jonas R. Stonis, Andrius Remeikis, Arūnas Diškus, Svetlana Orlovskytė, Sergio A. Vargas and Maria Alma Solis. 2019. A New Leafmining Pest of Guava: Hesperolyra guajavifoliae sp. nov., with Comments on the Diagnostics of the Endemic Neotropical Genus Hesperolyra van Nieukerken (Lepidoptera, Nepticulidae).  ZooKeys. 900: 87-110. DOI: /10.3897/zookeys.900.46332

[Fungi • 2019] Hygrocybe aurantiomagnifica (Hygrophoraceae, Basidiomycota) • A New Species of Subgenus Pseudohygrocybe Section Firmae from Brazil

Hygrocybe aurantiomagnifica Silva-Filho & Wartchow

in Silva-Filho, Meiras-Ottoni & Wartchow, 2019.  
Photo: F. Wartchow. facebook.com/KewBulletin

Hygrocybe aurantiomagnifica (Agaricales), which we describe here as a new species, is characterised by gregarious basidiomata, yellow to orange pileus with an almost plane, smooth surface and undulate or lobed margin; distant, whitish lamellae becoming pinkish-violet at the edge; absence of cheilocystidia and an enterocutis pileipellis. Morphological along with molecular phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer (nrITS) and the nuclear large subunit (nrLSU), confirm H. aurantiomagnifica as a new species of subgenus Pseudohygrocybe section Firmae. A comprehensive morphological description, illustrations, comparisons with related species and a key including similar Brazilian species are provided.

Keywords: Agaricomycetes, brejo de altitude, fungi, phylogeny, taxonomy, wax caps

Hygrocybe aurantiomagnifica (FW 129/2012 holotype). Basidiomes in situ.

Scale bar = 20 mm. Photo: F. Wartchow.

Hygrocybe aurantiomagnifica Silva-Filho & Wartchow, sp. nov. 

Etymology. Latin, ‘aurantio’ = orange; and ‘magnifica’ = large, meaning large yellow-orange Hygrocybe.

Alexandre G. S. Silva-Filho, Angelina Meiras-Ottoni and Felipe Wartchow. 2019. Hygrocybe aurantiomagnifica: A New Species of Section Firmae (Hygrophoraceae, Basidiomycota) from Brazil. Kew Bulletin. 74: 63. DOI: 10.1007/s12225-019-9848-8 

[Botany • 2019] Checklist to the Elatostema (Urticaceae) of Vietnam including 19 New Records, Ten New Combinations, Two New Names and Four New Synonyms

representative Elatostema species in Vietnam:
(A) E. crassiusculum(C) E. hookerianum(G), E. obtusum; (H) E. ramosum; (J) E. fengshanense; (K) E. austrosinense.

in Fu, Monro, Do, et al., 2019. 

Elatostema (Urticaceae) comprises several hundred herbaceous species distributed in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia, Australia and Oceania. The greatest species richness occurs on limestone karst in Southeast Asia. Taxonomic revisions of Elatostema are largely out of date and contradict each other with respect to the delimitation of Elatostema and Pellionia. Most herbaria in SE Asia and worldwide contain significant amounts of unidentified material. As part of a broader revision of Elatostema in SE Asia, we present an updated checklist for Vietnam based on field visits, a review of specimens in herbaria worldwide, a review of type material and nomenclature. We recognize 77 taxa (75 species and two infraspecific taxa) of Elatostema in Vietnam, 23 of which were previously ascribed to Pellionia. Nineteen of these are new records for the country, i.e., E. attenuatoides, E. austrosinense, E. backeri, E. brunneinerve, E. crassiusculum, E. crenatum, E. fengshanense, E. glochidioides, E. malacotrichum, E. nanchuanense, E. oblongifolium, E. obtusum, E. oppositum, E. pergameneum, E. prunifolium, E. pseudolongipes, E. pycnodontum, E. salvinioides and E. xichouense. We place E. baviensis in synonymy of E. platyphyllum, E. colaniae in synonymy of E. myrtillus, P. macroceras in synonymy of E. hookerianum, and P. tetramera in synonymy of E. dissectum for the first time. Fourteen taxa (18% of all the recognized taxa) are endemic to Vietnam, which makes Elatostema one of the richest genera for endemic species in this country; this level of endemism is comparable to levels observed in Orchidaceae. Our checklist suggests that the highest diversity and endemism of Elatostema occurs in northern Vietnam, and that there is the greatest floristic similarity of northern Vietnam to SW China. The relationship among floristic regions is also investigated. We could find no records of Elatostema for 33 out of 63 provincial units of Vietnam, including all the southernmost provinces. We propose that further studies on the diversity of Elatostema in central and southern Vietnam are severely needed.

Figure 3: Plate I of representative Elatostema species in Vietnam:
(A) E. crassiusculum; (B) E. glochidioides; (C) E. hookerianum; (D) E. prunifolium; (E), E. arcuatobracteatum; (F), E. retrohirtum; (G), E. obtusum; (H) E. ramosum; (I) E. integrifolium; (J) E. fengshanense; (K) E. austrosinense; (L) E. malacotrichum.

This study combines taxonomic and field expertise from China, Russia, the United Kingdom and Vietnam. It has strongly benefited from the availability of type images online which has accelerated the process of identification and the evaluation of taxon names. Ongoing research to document the floras of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam provides a huge opportunity for the taxonomy of Elatostema. Once combined with the completed Flora of China and Flora Malesiana accounts our updated checklist for Vietnam will fill a significant knowledge gap for this species-rich genus and lay the foundations for a global checklist. This fourth checklist for Vietnam not only doubles estimates of the diversity of the genus, it also identifies major knowledge gaps for the country, i.e., central Vietnam and, most notably, southern Vietnam. We propose that greater sampling effort of the flora of central Vietnam and southern Vietnam will result in a number of new additions to the flora of the country.

Long-Fei Fu, Alex Monro, Truong Van Do, Maxim S. Nuraliev, Leonid V. Averyanov, Fang Wen, Zi-Bing Xin, Tatiana V. Maisak, Andrey N. Kuznetsov, Svetlana P. Kuznetsova, Khang Sinh Nguyen and Yi-Gang Wei​. 2019. Checklist to the Elatostema (Urticaceae) of Vietnam including 19 New Records, Ten New Combinations, Two New Names and Four New Synonyms.  PeerJ. 7:e6188. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.6188

Thursday, December 26, 2019

[Entomology • 2019] Protosticta binhi • A New Species of Damselfly (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platystictidae) from the Central Highlands of Vietnam

Protosticta binhi 
 Phan, To, Trinh & Dinh, 2019

Protosticta binhi sp. n. is described from the Central Highlands of Vietnam (holotype male: Vietnam, Gia Lai Province, K’Bang District, Dak Roong Commune, Dak Hro village, ..., 1130 m asl, 22 May 2018, T.odo. 22051810, Zoological Collection of Duy Tan University). The new species can be easily distinguished from all other Protosticta species by the combination of huge body size, bird-head shape of cerci and paraprocts broad and apically armed with several sharp subapical projections in the male, and the anterior pronotal lobe of the prothorax well developed in the female.

Keywords: dragonfly; damselfly; new species; Protostictinae

Family Platystictidae Kennedy, 1920 

Subfamily Protostictinae Dijkstra, Kalkman, Dow, Stokvis & van Tol, 2013 

Genus Protosticta Selys, 1855 

Figures 1, 2. Habitus of (1) holotype ♂ and (2) paratype ♀ of Protosticta binhi sp. n.

Figures 3–6. Head of holotype ♂ and paratype ♀ of Protosticta binhi sp. n. (3, 5) in frontal view; (4, 6) in dorsal view.

Protosticta binhi sp. n. Phan, To, Trinh & Dinh 

Etymology: The first author chose the specific name “binhi” after the last name of his father, Mr. Phan Dinh Binh (born in 1952) to whom he is grateful for his love and support. A noun in genitive case.

Diagnosis: The bird-head shape of the cerci, the paraprocts longer than the cerci, broad and armed with several sharp subapical projections of the male are unique amongst Protosticta species; anterior pronotal lobe of prothorax of the female extends up and backward much further than in the known Protosticta females.

Habitat and ecology: The new species was found in a shaded shallow narrow (about 1–3 m width) forest mountain stream with slow running water, with a sandy bottom with many large rocks in Dak Hro village (1130 m asl).

Quoc Toan Phan, Van Quang To, Dang Mau Trinh and Van Khuong Dinh. 2019. Description of Protosticta binhi sp. n. from the Central Highlands of Vietnam (Odonata: Zygoptera: Platystictidae), International Journal of Odonatology. 22(3-4); 199-206, DOI: 10.1080/13887890.2019.1696238

[Mollusca • 2019] Eulimacrostoma gen. nov. • A New Genus of Eulimidae (Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda) with Description of A New Species and Reevaluation of other western Atlantic Species

Eulimacrostoma microsculpturata
 Souza & Pimenta, 2019

A new genus and a new species of Eulimidae are described based on the shell morphology and on the host-parasite relationship of the type species. Eulimacrostoma microsculpturata Souza & Pimenta gen. nov. and sp. nov. parasitizes a starfish of the genus Luidia and has an elongated, conical, straight, or slightly curved shell, a protoconch with a brownish spiral band and convex whorls, a peculiar large and broad aperture with a strongly protruding outer lip, and microsculpture of axial lines on the teleoconch. Four other species are included in the genus, all from the western Atlantic: Eulimacrostoma chascanon (Watson, 1883), comb. nov., Eulimacrostoma fusus (Dall, 1889), comb. nov., Eulimacrostoma lutescens (Simone, 2002), comb. nov., and Eulimacrostoma patula (Dall & Simpson, 1901), comb. nov. Newly available material of Eulimacrostoma patula expands the known geographic distribution of this species in the Caribbean to the north coast of Brazil. Eulimacrostoma chascanon and Eulimacrostoma fusus and Eulimacrostoma lutescens are known only by the type series which was re-examined. A redescription is provided for Eulimacrostoma chascanon and Eulimacrostoma fusus. Species within Eulimacrostoma differ mainly by teleoconch sculpture, the presence or absence of an umbilical fissure, and shell dimensions. Lectotypes are designated for Eulimacrostoma chascanon, Eulimacrostoma fusus, and Eulimacrostoma patula.

Key Words: biodiversity, micromolluscs, parasitic snails shell morphology, taxonomy, Vanikoroidea

Figure 1. Eulimacrostoma microsculpturata gen. nov. and sp. nov. A. Holotype (USNM 429762); B, C. Paratype (USNM 433081); D–G. Paratype (FLMNH uncatalogued.)
A, B, D. Shell in frontal view; C, E. Shell in lateral view; F. Detail of apical whorls in frontal view; G. Specimen attached to the host Luidia ludwigi scotti Bell, 1917 (Echinoderm collection, FLMNH 5042), red ellipse indicates the eulimid.
Scale bars: 1 mm (A–E); 100 µm (F).

Family Eulimidae Philippi, 1853

Genus Eulimacrostoma Souza & Pimenta, gen. nov.

Type species: Eulimacrostoma microsculpturata Souza & Pimenta, sp. nov. Recent, northwestern Atlantic and Caribbean.

Diagnosis: Eulimids parasitic on asteroids. Shell elongated, conical, straight or slightly curved. Protoconch subcylindrical, smooth. Teleoconch with slightly convex whorls, several incremental scars and microsculpture of axial lines, wide brownish spiral bands, a large and spread aperture, occupying between 60–70% of the body whorl length, and an orthocline outer lip, strongly protruding.

Etymology: Eulima, due to the systematic affinity and for being one of the most common names of the family, in combination with Macros, Gr. = long; and Stomatos, Gr. = mouth; in reference to the broad shape of the shell aperture.

Eulimacrostoma microsculpturata Souza & Pimenta, sp. nov. 
Melanella patula auct. non. 
(Dall & Simpson, 1901): Dall (1927, in part.: 67).

Etymology: The epithet alludes to the microsculpture characteristic of the present species.

Type locality: Puerto Rico: off San Juan, Johnson–Smithsonian Deep-sea expedition stn. 10 (..., 219–293 m), coll. Yacht Caroline, 02/ii/1933.

Diagnosis: Eulimid parasitic on starfish, with an elongated shell, presenting microsculpture of axial lines, dome-shaped apex, a narrow brownish spiral band close to the suture in the protoconch and a wide brownish spiral band along the teleoconch, a high, wide and spread aperture. Umbilicus absent.

Dall (1927: 67) cited 20 specimens of “Melanella patula” from “off Georgia”. The USNM houses two lots (USNM 108031, USNM 108380, respectively from Fernandina, Florida, USFC stn. 2668, and from Georgia, USFC stn. 2415), that can be attributed to the material studied by Dall (1927) due to the labels. USNM 108031 contains a single shell with a broken protoconch and an eroded surface. Although the shell is not in perfect condition, it is possible to affirm that it is actually Eulimacrostoma microsculpturata sp. nov. by the general shape and teleoconch sculpture. USNM 108380 contains seven shells, most of them immature, which can neither be identified with certainty as Eulimacrostoma patula (Dall & Simpson, 1901), comb. nov. nor as Eulimacrostoma microsculpturata.

Most specimens of Eu. microsculpturata have a straight spire (Figs 1A, 2A), but individuals of the lot USNM 433081 (Fig. 1B) have a slightly curved spire. The curvature is a growth phenomenon related with the position of the incremental scars and usually helps to distinguish species (Bouchet and Warén 1986: 312). However, in the case of Eu. microsculpturata the protoconch, color pattern, shape of the aperture, and dimensions are very similar in all individuals and we consider all of them belonging to the same taxon. The holotype USNM 429762 and paratype FLMNH are young individuals and shows a more rhomboid aperture and angulated body whorl, which is a common feature at this stage of growth (Bouchet and Warén 1986: 310; Souza et al. 2018: 926).

 Leonardo Santos de Souza and Alexandre Dias Pimenta. 2019. Eulimacrostoma gen. nov., A New Genus of Eulimidae (Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda) with Description of A New Species and Reevaluation of other western Atlantic Species.  Zoosystematics and Evolution. 95(2): 403-415. DOI: 10.3897/zse.95.33880

Wednesday, December 25, 2019

[Ichthyology • 2019] Tyttobrycon shibattai • On A Remarkable Sexual Dimorphic Trait in the Characiformes related to the Olfactory Organ and Description of A New Miniature Species of Tyttobrycon Géry (Characiformes: Characidae)

Tyttobrycon shibattai
Abrahão, Pastana & Marinho, 2019

Among the order Characiformes, secondary sexual dimorphism is commonly associated to the occurrence of bony hooks on fins, shape and length of the dorsal and anal fins, and sexual dichromatism. The analysis of a new miniature Characidae species of the genus Tyttobrycon, described herein, yielded to the discovery of a sexually dimorphic trait related to nostril aperture and number of olfactory lamellae. In this type of dimorphism, mature males present larger nostril aperture and higher number of olfactory lamella than females. A dimorphic olfactory organ is for the first time recorded and described for a member of the Characiformes. Gross morphology and development of brain and peripheral olfactory organ of Tyttobrycon sp. n. are described and compared to other species of Characidae. It is hypothesized that such dimorphic trait is related to male-male detection during cohort competition in small characids. The new species of Tyttobrycon is diagnosed from its congeners by the number of branched anal-fin rays (19–21) and the absence of a caudal-peduncle blotch. It occurs in a small tributary of Rio Madeira basin, near to the limit between Brazil and Bolivia, Acre State, Brazil.

Fig 1. Tyttobrycon shibattai. (A) MZUSP 125268, holotype, male, 17.1 mm SL, Brazil, Acre, Xapuri, Seringal Cachoeira road, Rio Iná, tributary of Rio Abunã, Rio Madeira drainage, Rio Amazonas basin; (B) MZUSP 125269, paratype, female, 17.7 mm SL, collected with the holotype.

Tyttobrycon shibattai, sp. nov.   

Diagnosis: Tyttobrycon shibattai can be distinguished from all congeners, except T. spinosus, by having 19–21 branched anal-fin rays (vs. up to 17). It can be diagnosed from T. spinosus by lacking a caudal-peduncle blotch (vs. blotch present). Additionally, it is further distinguished from all species, except T. dorsimaculatus, by the presence of both tricuspid and conical teeth on premaxilla and dentary (vs. teeth exclusively conical). It is distinguished from T. dorsimaculatus by having hyaline dorsal-fin, with few scattered melanophores (vs. dorsal fin with a conspicuous dark blotch) and by the presence of a parallel line of subjacent melanophores dorsal to anal-fin base (vs. melanophore line absent).

Fig 8. Type locality of Tyttobrycon shibattai. Rio Iná, tributary of Rio Abunã, Rio Madeira drainage. Photograph taken in October 2010.

Geographical distribution: Tyttobrycon shibattai is only known from its type locality at Rio Iná, a tributary of Rio Abunã, near to the limit between Brazil and Bolivia, Rio Madeira drainage, Rio Amazonas basin, Acre State, Brazil (Fig 7).

Ecological notes: 
Specimens of Tyttobrycon shibattai were collected in lentic habitats in the Rio Iná (Fig 8). The type locality was relatively shallow, with its deepest portion reaching 60 cm, and exhibiting a muddy-brown water. The river bottom was composed of clay and sand. Water physicochemical parameters during samples was 30.5°C, 6.3 mg/L of O2 dissolved, pH 6.31, and 62.1 conductivity microSiemens (uS)/cm. The only syntopic species collected with Tyttobrycon shibattai was Tridentopsis sp., which was abundant in the area.

Stomach contents of two adults containing mostly sediments, plant and algae debris, and some autochthonous invertebrates with predominance of ostracods. The stomach content of one juvenile specimen presented mostly plant and algae debris.

Etymology: The specific name honors O. A. Shibatta, a renowned icththyologist from Universidade Estadual de Londrina-MZUEL, for his great contributions to the systematic of fishes and support to new generations of ichthyologists. This honor is also dedicated to the vast influence and importance on the early ichthyological formation of the leading author of this paper (VPA). Shibatta was responsible for encouraging his studies with nervous system of Neotropical fishes.

Vitor Pimenta Abrahão, Murilo Pastana and Manoela Marinho. 2019. On A Remarkable Sexual Dimorphic Trait in the Characiformes related to the Olfactory Organ and Description of A New Miniature Species of Tyttobrycon Géry (Characiformes: Characidae). PLoS ONE. 14(12): e0226130. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0226130

[Botany • 2019] Ericaceae of Sulawesi: A New Species of Diplycosia, A New Variety of Vaccinium paludicolum and One Rediscovery

Diplycosia jiewhoei Mustaqim

in Mustaqim & Ardi, 2019.

Diplycosia jiewhoei Mustaqim and Vaccinium paludicolum var. hirsutulum Mustaqim are described as new taxaDiplycosia retusa has been rediscovered after a lapse of 116 years and is here illustrated with photographs, and the first description of the fruits of this species is presented. 

Keywords: Diplycosia, Ericaceae, new species, taxonomy, Vaccinium, Wallacea 

Fig. 1. Diplycosia jiewhoei Mustaqim: A. habit. B. twig. C. close up of leaves. D. inflorescence. E–F. Flower.

Scale: A–B = 5 mm; C = 0.5 mm; D–F = 2 mm. 
All from Ardi 258. Photos: Wisnu H. Ardi.

Diplycosia jiewhoei Mustaqim, sp. nov. 

Diagnosis: Similar to Diplycosia elliptica Ridl. (northern Sumatra, Peninsular Malaya and Borneo) but differing in having leaves with a protruding apical gland (vs minute), longer pedicels (c. 4 mm vs 1(–2) mm long), an urceolate-subglobose corolla (vs short-cylindric or subcampanulate), oblong anthers (vs sagittate) and shorter tubules (0.3 mm vs 1 mm long).

 Type: INDONESIA: Central Sulawesi: Poso Regency: Tentena-Bada road divide, 1 Aug 2018, WH Ardi 258 (holotype: BO!; isotypes: CEB!, SING!). 

Etymology: Named after Tan Jiew Hoe, the Singaporean philantropist and plant enthusiast who supports many botanical explorations including the one on which this species was collected.

Fig. 4. Diplycosia retusa. A. Habit. B. Flower. C. Fruit, lateral view. D. Fruit seen from above.
Scale: A = 5 cm; B = 5 mm; C–D = 5 mm. 
All from Ardi 272. Photos: Wisnu H. Ardi.

The rediscovery of Diplycosia retusa 
Diplycosia retusa Sleumer, Bot. Jahrb. 71: 156 (1940).

Distribution: Endemic to Central Sulawesi. 

Habitat and ecology: Terrestrial in upper montane vegetation on quartzite soil, 1300 to 1700 m.

Wendy A. Mustaqim and Wisnu H. Ardi. 2019. Ericaceae of Sulawesi: A New Species of Diplycosia, A New Variety of Vaccinium paludicolum and One Rediscovery. Telopea: Journal of Plant Systematics. 22; 193-204. DOI: 10.7751/telopea13168

Abstrak: (Bahasa Indonesia) Diplycosia jiewhoei Mustaqim and Vaccinium paludicolum var. hirsutulum Mustaqim dipertelakan sebagai takson-takson baru. Diplycosia retusa telah ditemukan kembali setelah jeda 116 tahun dan foto beserta pertelaan pertama lengkap dengan buah untuk jenis ini disajikan. 
Kata kunci: Diplycosia, Ericaceae, jenis baru, taksonomi, Vaccinium, Wallacea

[Botany • 2019] Revision of the Afro-Madagascan Genus Costularia (Cyperaceae: Schoeneae): Infrageneric Relationships and Species Delimitation

Costularia cadetii Larridon

in Larridon​, Rabarivola, Xanthos & Muasya, 2019. 

A recent molecular phylogenetic study revealed four distinct evolutionary lineages in the genus Costularia s.l. (Schoeneae, Cyperaceae, Poales). Two lineages are part of the Oreobolus clade of tribe Schoeneae: the first being a much-reduced genus Costularia s.s., and the second a lineage endemic to New Caledonia for which a new genus Chamaedendron was erected. The other two lineages were shown to be part of the Tricostularia clade of tribe Schoeneae. Based on morphological and molecular data, the genus Costularia is here redelimited to represent a monophyletic entity including 15 species, which is restricted in distribution to southeastern Africa (Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Zimbabwe), Madagascar, the Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius), and the Seychelles (Mahé). Molecular phylogenetic data based on two nuclear markers (ETS, ITS) and a chloroplast marker (trnL-F) resolve the studied taxa as monophyletic where multiple accessions could be included (except for Costularia laxa and Costularia purpurea, which are now considered conspecific), and indicate that the genus dispersed once to Africa, twice to the Mascarenes, and once to the Seychelles. Two endemic species from Madagascar are here described and illustrated as new to science, as is one additional species endemic to La Réunion. Two taxa previously accepted as varieties of Costularia pantopoda are here recognised at species level (Costularia baronii and Costularia robusta). We provide a taxonomic revision including an identification key, species descriptions and illustrations, distribution maps and assessments of conservation status for all species.

Figure 9: Habitat and morphology of Costularia cadetii. (A) Habitat; (B) habit; (C) inflorescence; (D) base of plant. Photos taken by Jeremy Bruhl (A, C, D) in La Réunion at Nez Coupé de Sainte-Rose on 4 January 2011 and by Modesto Luceño (B) in La Réunion at Piton de la Fournaise-Pas de Bellocombe on 1 January 2009.

The genus Costularia is redelimited to represent a monophyletic entity including 15 species. Although the species diversity is largely found in Madagascar, our results indicate that the genus dispersed once to Africa (Malawi, Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Zimbabwe), twice to the Mascarenes (La Réunion, Mauritius), and once to the Seychelles (Mahé). Three-quarters of the species are threatened with extinction, because of restricted distribution ranges and human impact. A full taxonomic treatment is provided, including an identification key to all species, formal descriptions of two new species from Madagascar (Costularia andringitrensis and Costularia itremoensis) and one new species from La Réunion (Costularia cadetii), and two taxa previously recognised as varieties of Costularia pantopoda are here recognised at species level (Costularia baronii and Costularia robusta).

 Isabel Larridon​, Linah Rabarivola, Martin Xanthos and A. Muthama Muasya. 2019. Revision of the Afro-Madagascan Genus Costularia (Schoeneae, Cyperaceae): Infrageneric Relationships and Species Delimitation.  PeerJ. 7:e6528. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.6528

Top 10 species discovered in 2019
Our scientists have once again been busy identifying and describing new plant and fungal species.

[Ichthyology • 2020] Psephurus gladius • Extinction of One of the World's Largest Freshwater Fishes: Lessons for Conserving the Endangered Yangtze Fauna

Psephurus gladius (von Martens, 1862)

in Zhang, Jarić, Roberts, ... et Wei, 2020. 

• The giant Chinese paddlefish (up to 7 m in length) was found to be extinct.
• The timing of extinction was estimated to be by 2005–2010.
• The paddlefish became functionally extinct by 1993, prior to extinction
• Conservation efforts on endangered Yangtze fishes are urgently needed.

The mega river ecosystem of the Yangtze River was once home to diverse aquatic megafauna but is increasingly affected by various anthropogenic stressors that have resulted in continuous loss of biodiversity, such as the probable extinction of Yangtze River Dolphin. The Chinese paddlefish, Psephurus gladius, was one of only two extant members of a relict lineage that was most diverse and widespread 34–75 million years ago. It is also one of the largest freshwater fish species, reaching up to 7 m in length. The Chinese paddlefish was once common in the Yangtze River, with c.25 t being harvested per annum during the 1970s. Populations have, however, declined drastically since the late 1970s as a result of overfishing and habitat fragmentation. Here, a basin-wide capture survey during 2017–2018 found 332 fish species, but did not find a single live specimen of Chinese paddlefish. Furthermore, 140 historically reported fish species have not been found and most of them are considered highly endangered. Based on 210 sightings of Chinese paddlefish during the period 1981–2003, we estimated the timing of extinction to be by 2005, and no later than by 2010. In addition, the paddlefish probably became functionally extinct (i.e. it was unable to reproduce) by 1993, before it went extinct. It is likely that the lack of reproduction was among the major causes of extinction. As no live specimens exist in captivity, and no living tissues are conserved for potential resurrection, the fish should be considered extinct according to the IUCN Red List criteria. The delayed extinction of Chinese paddlefish resulted from multiple threats, suggesting that optimizing conservation efforts on endangered Yangtze fauna is urgently needed.

Keywords: Chinese paddlefish, Endangered fish, Sighting record, Functional extinction, Extinction debt, Yangtze River

 Hui Zhang, Ivan Jarić, David L. Roberts, Yongfeng He, Hao Du, Jinming Wu, Chengyou Wang and Qiwei Wei. 2020. Extinction of One of the World's Largest Freshwater Fishes: Lessons for Conserving the Endangered Yangtze Fauna. Science of The Total Environment. In Press. DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.136242  

Tuesday, December 24, 2019

[Botany • 2019] Hoya amicabilis (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) • A New Species from Java discovered on Facebook

Hoya amicabilis S.Rahayu & Rodda

in Rahayu & Rodda, 2019. 

A new species from Java, Hoya amicabilis S.Rahayu & Rodda is described and illustrated. It was first identified as a new species from pictures posted on social media in 2017. Hoya amicabilis is part of a small group of species that have an unusual shrubby habit, but it is the only one in that group with bright yellow campanulate flowers. Furthermore, Hoya amicabilis is a rather unusual species of Hoya since its staminal corona lobes are oblong, erect, while most species of Hoya have well‐developed generally spreading corona lobes, and its style head is umbonate, brightly coloured and extending above the anther appendages, while most species have a conical style head covered by anther appendages.

Keywords: Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae, Marsdenieae

Hoya amicabilis sp. nov. (a) fertile branch with just opened greenish-yellow flowers, (b) mature, side view, the corolla tube has turned green flushed orange and the corolla lobes turned orange, (c) corolla, top view, showing the stiff white hairs lining the tube.
 Photos: (a) S. Somadee, (b, c) M. Rodda. Based on M. Rodda & S. Somadee MR1820.

Hoya amicabilis S.Rahayu & Rodda sp. nov.

Etymology: Hoya amicabilis is named after social media (Latin amicabiliter interventus) that are a growing aid to scientists in discovering new species.

Sri Rahayu and Michele Rodda. 2019. Hoya amicabilis sp. nov. (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae), from Java discovered on Facebook. Nordic Journal of Botany. 37(12)  DOI: 10.1111/njb.02563

[PaleoIchthyology • 2020] Hiascoactinus boryeongensis • The First Record of Redfieldiiform Fish (Actinopterygii) from the Upper Triassic of Korea: Implications for Paleobiology and Paleobiogeography of Redfieldiiformes

Hiascoactinus boryeongensis
Kim, Lee, Park, et al., 2020

• The first report of redfieldiiform fish from Asia.
• Hiascoactinus boryeongensis gen. & sp. nov. was proposed.
• A definite paleontological evidence that Pangea was a continuous land from Gondwana to the easternmost end of East Asia during the Late Triassic through terrestrial water systems.

A new genus and species of redfieldiiform fish, Hiascoactinus boryeongensis gen. et sp. nov., is described based on a nearly complete specimen from the Upper Triassic Amisan Formation of South Korea. Hiascoactinus is distinguished from other redfieldiiforms by having a barely ornamented dermal skull surface except for the snout region, two heteromorphic suborbitals arranged vertically behind the postorbital, a pistol-shaped suprascapular, and dorsal and anal fins with divided fin membranes between rays. The morphological features of the snout region and dorsal and anal fins of Hiascoactinus provide important clues to understand its feeding and swimming behavior. All previously proposed Asian redfieldiiform fossils are inaccurately classified, and consequently, Hiascoactinus is regarded as the only valid redfieldiiform taxon in Asia. Hiascoactinus is assigned to the basal group of redfieldiiforms primarily based on the presence of an antopercle. The basal phylogenetic position of Hiascoactinus indicates that basal redfieldiiforms dispersed from the southern Gondwanaland to the easternmost Laurasia through the terrestrial water system, and these two landmasses were connected during the Late Triassic.

 Su-Hwan Kim, Yuong-Nam Lee, Jin-Young Park, Sungjin Lee and Hang-Jae Lee. 2020. The First Record of Redfieldiiform Fish (Actinopterygii) from the Upper Triassic of Korea: Implications for Paleobiology and Paleobiogeography of Redfieldiiformes. Gondwana Research. In Press. DOI: 10.1016/j.gr.2019.11.008