Wednesday, May 31, 2023

[Herpetology • 2023] Cyrtodactylus denticulatus • A New Species of the Cyrtodactylus brevipalmatus group (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Tak Province, northwestern Thailand

Cyrtodactylus denticulatus 
Chomdej, Suwannapoom, Pradit, Phupanbai & Grismer, 2023

Spiny-tailed Bent-toed Gecko | ตุ๊กกายฟันเลื่อย  ||   DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1164.101263

An integrative taxonomic analysis was used to delimit and diagnose a new species of the Cyrtodactylus brevipalmatus group from Tak Province in western Thailand. Although Bayesian phylogenetic analyses place Cyrtodactylus denticulatus sp. nov. within the brevipalmatus group, the new species is neither nested within nor is it the sister species of any other species in the brevipalmatus group. Furthermore, based on the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene (ND2) and adjacent tRNAs, it bears an uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence of 7.87–21.94% from all other species in the brevipalmatus group. Cyrtodactylus denticulatus sp. nov. is differetiated from all other species in the brevipalmatus group by having a number of unique charateristics such as denticulate ventrolateral body folds and ventrolateral subcaudal ridges, characters not seen in any other species of the group (n = 51 individuals). Additionally, based on a multiple factor anlaysis, C. denticulatus sp. nov. does not overlap with any other species in multivariate space. The discovery of C. denticulatus sp. nov. underscores the unrealized diversity of upland ecosystems across Thailand and the urgent need for increased exploration and conservation of these unique imperiled montane refugia, especially in this era of climate change.

Keywords: Bent-toed gecko, conservation, Indochina, integrative taxonomy, Southeast Asia, systematics

Photograph of the living holotype of Cyrtodactylus denticulatus sp. nov. AUP-00680 from the Chao Doi waterfall, Mae Meoi, Tha Song Yang District, Tak Province, Thailand.

Head of the holotype of Cyrtodactylus denticulatus sp. nov. AUP-00680 from the Chao Doi waterfall, Mae Meoi, Tha Song Yang District, Tak Province, Thailand
A ventral view B dorsal view C right lateral view.

 Cyrtodactylus denticulatus sp. nov.
  Suggested common name: Spiny-tailed Bent-toed Gecko 
Suggested Thai common name: ตุ๊กกายฟันเลื่อย Tuk Kay Fun Leuy

Cyrtodactylus sp. 10: Chomdej et al. 2021: 11; Grismer et al. 2021: 725, 2022a: 247, 2022b: 111; 2023: 95.

Diagnosis: Cyrtodactylus denticulatus sp. nov. is tentatively separated (see below) from all other species of the brevipalmatus group by the combination of having nine supralabials, nine infralabials, 20 paravertebral tubercles, 19 rows of longitudinally arranged tubercles, 42 transverse rows of ventrals, 158 longitudinal rows of ventrals, nine expanded subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger, 11 unexpanded subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe, 19 total subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; nine expanded subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger, ten unexpanded subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger, 19 total subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 16 total number of enlarged femoral scales, 20 total number of femoral pores in the male specimen; 13 precloacal pores in the male specimen; 16 enlarged precloacals; enlarged femorals and enlarged precloacals not continuous; proximal femorals smaller than distal femorals; tubercles on forelimbs and flanks nearly same size as those on body; ventrolateral body fold weakly denticulate; spinose paravertebral rows; row of large dorsolateral caudal tubercles; wide ventrolateral caudal fringes; ventrolateral caudal fringes composed scales of different size; small longitudinal ventrolateral subcaudal ridges; tail square in cross-section; no slightly enlarged unpaired medial subcaudals; subcaudals not posteromedially furrowed; SVL 69.5 mm; three dark transverse body bands (Tables 2–4).

Distribution: Cyrtodactylus denticulatus sp. nov. represents the northwestern-most species of the brevipalmatus group. At present, it is known only from the type locality at Chao Doi waterfall, Tha Song Yang District, Tak Province, western Thailand (Fig. 1).

Etymology: The specific epithet denticulatus is given as a noun in apposition, meaning “denticulate” or with small teeth, a reference to bearing small tooth-like dorsolateral and ventrolateral caudal tubercles and denticulate ventrolateral body folds.

 Siriwadee Chomdej, Chatmongkon Suwannapoom, Waranee Pradit, Apichaya Phupanbai and L. Lee Grismer. 2023. A New Species of the Cyrtodactylus brevipalmatus group (Squamata, Gekkonidae) from Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. ZooKeys. 1164: 63-88. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1164.101263

[Crustacea • 2023] Caridina panhai • A New Species of Land-locked Freshwater Shrimp Genus Caridina (Decapoda: Atyidae) from Middle Mekong Basin, Thailand

 Caridina panhai
Macharoenboon, Sutcharit, Siriwut et Jeratthitikul, 2023

Tropical Natural History. Supplement 7

A newly discovered freshwater shrimp in the genus Caridina H. Milne-Edwards, 1837 from Thailand is described here as Caridina panhai sp. nov. The distinctiveness of the new species was supported by both morphological investigation and molecular analysis based on a concatenated dataset of two mitochondrial genes (16S rRNA and COI). Diagnostic characters of the new species include the strongly convex rostrum, very slender carpus of second pereopod (8.11–10.04 times as long as wide), and the reduced epipod on second and third pereopods. Intriguingly, females of C. panhai sp. nov. possess a small number of very large eggs (22–36 eggs per individual), which is characteristic of land-locked species. The new species is the first land-locked Caridina species discovered in Thailand, and its range is restricted to the Middle Mekong Basin in the northeast part of the country. By including historical records, there are 15 species of Caridina found in Thailand.

Keywords: crustacean, freshwater fauna, molecular phylogeny, taxonomy, Southeast Asia

Living female of Caridina panhai sp. nov.
Photos was taken from A. MUMNH-CAR507_P1 and B.MUMNH-CAR507_P2.

Caridina panhai sp. nov. 

Kongkit Macharoenboon, Chirasak Sutcharit, Warut Siriwut and Ekgachai Jeratthitikul. 2023. A New Species of Land-locked Freshwater Shrimp Genus Caridina (Decapoda: Atyidae) from Middle Mekong Basin, Thailand. Tropical Natural History. Supplement 7;229-241. 

[Entomology • 2023] Microphotina cristalino • A New Species of Microphotina Beier, 1935 (Mantodea: Photinaidae) from the southernmost region of Amazonia

 Microphotina cristalino 
 Lanna, Fiat, Herculano, Rivera & Peloso, 2023

A new species of Microphotina Beier, 1935 (Mantodea: Photinaidae: Microphotinini), Microphotina cristalino sp. nov., is described from Mato Grosso, Brazil based on two male specimens. The new species extended the distribution of Microphotina to the southern limits of the Amazon rainforest, in the Cerrado-Amazônia ecotone. A synthesis of the taxonomy, systematics, natural history, and geographic distribution of Microphotina spp. is provided, along with an updated dichotomous key to species. The hypothesis that Microphotina represents a canopy-dwelling lineage is formulated. The role of praying mantises as flagship species for insect and Amazon conservation is briefly discussed.

Keywords: conservation, Microphotinini, natural history, praying mantis, species discovery

 Microphotina cristalino sp. nov., ♂, holotype (MPEG 05050654).
A. Live specimen photographed in studio. B-C. Pinned specimen.
B. Dorsal view. C. Ventral view.
Scale bars = 5mm.


 Microphotina cristalino sp. nov., ♂, holotype (MPEG 05050654), cryptic behavior.
A. Lateral view showing head almost in prognathous position.
B. Dorso-lateral view, with forelegs laterally coupled to pronotum. Photographed in studio.

Microphotina cristalino sp. nov.

Etymology: The specific epithet derives from RPPN Cristalino where the new species was discovered, a private reserve that plays an important role in protecting the biodiversity of one of the most threatened areas in the Amazon biome. ‘Cristalino’ is the main river in the region and also happens to mean ‘translucid’ in Portuguese, which alludes to the translucent quality of the body and crystal-clear wings of our new species. Because the name refers to the reserve, the river, and the Portuguese word, we choose to use it as a noun in apposition to name the new species.

Reserva Particular do Patrimônio Natural (RPPN) 
Private Natural Heritage Reserve

Leonardo Moutinho Lanna, Lucas Linhares Fiat, João Felipe Herculano, Julio Rivera and Pedro Peloso. 2023. A New Species of Microphotina Beier, 1935 from the southernmost region of Amazonia (Mantodea: Photinaidae). European Journal of Taxonomy. 870(1); 87–106. DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2023.870.2121


[Botany • 2023] Cattleya porphyrascens (Orchidaceae: Laeliinae) • A New Species from Minas Gerais State, Brazil

Cattleya porphyrascens  E.L.F.Menezes,

in Menezes, 2023. 

A new species of Orchidaceae of the genus Cattleya is described, illustrated, and compared to similar species in morphological and ecological aspects. The new taxon was encountered in the municipality of Diamantina, in the Sempre Vivas National Park, Minas Gerais State (Espinhaço Meridional Complex), Brazil. Cattleya porphyrascens is classified in the Parviflorae series, which comprises more than 50 species. The new species is a saxicolous and cespitose herb evidencing considerable size plasticity (from 6 to 12 cm tall), with flowers varying from 1.5 to 3 cm in diameter. The flowers are almost entirely purple-violet, except for the white fauce of the labellum, which is strongly trilobed, with the middle lobe semi-curved downwards and backwards. It is similar to Cattleya haroldoi and Cattleya vandenbergii, but differs in relevant aspects, as described in the diagnosis.

Keywords: Monocots, morphology, orchid, rock outcrops, rupicolous, taxonomy

Euler Da Luz Fernandes Menezes,. 2023. Cattleya porphyrascens, A New Species (Laeliinae) of the Genus Cattleya is described for Minas Gerais State, Brazil.  Phytotaxa. 579(1); 61-66. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.579.1.7 

[Arachnida • 2023] Telema coreana • The First Record of Telemidae (Araneae) from Korea, with A Description of New Species of the Genus Telema Simon, 1882

Telema coreana
Oh, Choi & Lee, 2023

• The family Telemidae Fage, 1913 (Arachnida: Araneae) is reported for the first time from Korea.
• New species, Telema coreana sp. nov. are described with microscopic images, diagnostic characters, and a key to Telema species.
• The new species brings a total number of 45 families of the Korean spider fauna, and the first report of an eyeless spider among the Korean species.

In this study, we report the first record of the family Telemidae Fage, 1913 from Korea, with the description of a new species of the genus Telema Simon, 1882: Telema coreana sp. nov. The individuals of the new species were found in a Baeti-shale cave (Hapcheon-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea). Also, we provide microscopic photographs of the new species and a key to differentiating the Telema species.
Keywords: New record, Korean peninsula, Caves, Subterranean, Eyeless, Morphology, Taxonomy

  Telema coreana sp. nov.  living specimen
 male holotype;  female paratype.
Telema coreana Oh, Choi & Lee sp. nov.

(Korean name: Han-guk-gu-seul-geo-mi 한국구슬거미).

Etymology. The specific name coreana comes from the country of the type locality, Corea (Korea).

Jong-Hwa Oh, Yong-Gun Choi and Seunghwan Lee. 2023. The First Record of Telemidae (Arachnida, Araneae) from Korea, with A Description of New Species of the Genus Telema Simon, 1882. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology.  26(2); 102088. DOI: 10.1016/j.aspen.2023.102088

[Crustacea • 2023] Athanas exilis • A New Species of the alpheid Shrimp Genus Athanas Leach, 1814 (Decapoda: Caridea) from the Sea of Japan

 Athanas exilis 
Komai & Henmi, 2023

A new species of the alpheid shrimp genus Athanas Leach, 1814 is described based on a holotype from Wakasa Bay, Sea of Japan side of Honshu, Japan, at a depth of 90 m. Athanas exilis n. sp. appears close to A. sydnyensis Anker & Ahyong, 2007, but is distinguished from the latter by some morphological features, including the different shape of the telson, the shorter antennular stylocerite, more strongly produced distal lamella of the antennal scaphocerite, and less developed armature of the merus of the major cheliped. Preliminary genetic analysis using the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene was performed to compare interspecific genetic divergence within the genus.

Keywords: Crustacea, Athanas exilis, genetic analysis, Wakasa Bay, 16S rRNA

Athanas exilis n. sp.

Tomoyuki Komai and Yumi Henmi. 2023. A New Species of the alpheid Shrimp Genus Athanas Leach, 1814 (Decapoda: Caridea) from the Sea of Japan. Zootaxa. 5277(2); 363-373.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.5277.2.6

[Arachnida • 2023] Notes on the Trapdoor Spider Genus Tigidia Simon 1892 (Araneae: Barychelidae: Barychelinae) with the Description of Three New Species from India

Tigidia jalgaonensis, T. tangerina T. fasciata  
Mirza, 2023

Three new species of brush-footed spiders of the genus Tigidia are described: T. jalgaonensis sp. nov. (♀, northern Maharashtra), T. tangerina sp. nov. (♀, eastern Karnataka), and T. fasciata sp. nov. (♀, southern Kerala). The present descriptions constitute the first record of the genus outside the Western Ghats, indicating its wider distribution in peninsular India. The discovery of the new species raises doubts about the validity of the genus Tigidia as the newly discovered species fills a large gap in the allopatric distribution of the genus Tigidia and Diplothele and further shows that most of the diagnostic characters overlap.

KEYWORDS: biodiversity, India, mygalomorphae, taxonomy

Zeeshan A. Mirza. 2023. Notes on the Trapdoor Spider Genus Tigidia Simon 1892 (Araneae: Barychelidae: Barychelinae) with the Description of Three New Species from India. Journal of Natural History. 57(1-4); 159-174. DOI: 10.1080/00222933.2023.2172470 

    [Ichthyology • 2023] Rhadinoloricaria papillosa • A New Species of Mailed Catfish of Genus Rhadinoloricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae: Loricariinae) from Rio Negro Basin, Brazil

    Rhadinoloricaria papillosa
     Crispim-Rodrigues, Bernt, Waltz, Silva, Benine, Oliveira, Covain & Roxo, 2023

      DOI: 10.1111/jfb.15402  

    During a recent collection expedition to the Rio Negro, in the state of Amazonas, Brazil, eight individuals of an unknown species were collected, with a combination of characteristics that placed the species in the genus Rhadinoloricaria. Furthermore, the presence of two autapomorphic characteristics, including numerous elongated papillae on the lower lip and unbranched barbelets on the margin of lower lip, suggests that it is a new species. From morphological and phylogenetic analyses, including the sequencing of specific genes to calculate the maximum likelihood analyses, coupled with osteological computed tomography (CT) scan analyses, the authors corroborated that the specimens represent a new species of Rhadinoloricaria, described in the present study.

    Keywords: Cascudos, freshwater, fishes, Pseudohemiodon group, South America

    Rhadinoloricaria papillosa

    Jefferson L. Crispim-Rodrigues, Maxwell J. Bernt, Brandon T. Waltz, Gabriel S. C. Silva, Ricardo C. Benine, Claudio Oliveira, Raphaël Covain and Fábio F. Roxo. 2023. A New Species of Mailed Catfish of Genus Rhadinoloricaria (Siluriformes: Loricariidae: Loricariinae) from Rio Negro Basin, Brazil. Journal of Fish Biology. DOI: 10.1111/jfb.15402


    [Ichthyology • 2023] Melanostomias dio • A New Species of the Dragonfish Genus Melanostomias (Stomiiformes: Stomiidae: Melanostomiinae) from the Western Tropical Atlantic

    Melanostomias dio
    Villarins, Fischer, Prokofiev & Mincarone, 2023

    A new species of the scaleless black dragonfish genus Melanostomias is described based on a single specimen (180 mm SL) collected off the northern Fernando de Noronha Archipelago (Brazil), western Tropical Atlantic. It differs from its congeners in having a unique barbel morphology, which ends in a bulb with two opposite slender terminal appendages. In addition, the occurrences of Melanostomias melanops and M. valdiviae are confirmed in Brazilian waters based on examination of new material. An overview analysis of the distribution and meristic variation of the species within the genus is also provided.

    Melanostomias dio, holotype, NPM 4606, 180 mm SL,
    off northern Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil.
    Scale bar = 10 mm.

    Melanostomias dio, new species 
    Horns-up Dragonfish 

    Etymology.—The specific name honors the late Ronald James Padavona, professionally known as Ronnie James Dio, one of the greatest and most influential heavy metal vocalists of all time. Among his many contributions to the metal culture, Dio popularized the hand gesture commonly referred to as horns up, which resembles the shape of the terminal bulb on the chin barbel of the new species.

    Bárbara Teixeira Villarins, Luciano Gomes Fischer, Artem Mikhailovich Prokofiev and Michael Maia Mincarone. 2023. A New Species of the Dragonfish Genus Melanostomias (Stomiidae: Melanostomiinae) from the Western Tropical Atlantic. Ichthyology & Herpetology. 111(2); 254-263.  DOI: 10.1643/i2022082

    [Ichthyology • 2023] Ituglanis crispimFilling in A Biogeographic Gap: the First Trichomycteridae (Siluriformes) from the Parnaíba River Basin

    Ituglanis crispim
    Donin, de Pinna, Severi & Ramos, 2023

    Trichomycterid catfishes have long been considered as absent in the Parnaíba River basin, Northeastern Brazil, in what constitutes their most conspicuous gap in geographic distribution. Herein we report on the first occurrence of the family in that basin. The new species is described from the riacho da Volta, right tributary to the upper rio Parnaíba, Piauí State. It is distinguished from its congeners by the combination of two or three pairs of ribs; 36–38 post Weberian vertebrae; a color pattern composed of round, similar-sized, non-coalescent spots; I,5 pectoral-fin rays; the first haemal arch on the 5th or 6th vertebrae; and the first completely fused (to the tip) haemal spine on the 15th vertebra. A putative autapomorphy is the partial (minimally 50% of their length) or total fusion between the anterior arms of the basipterygium. Preliminary evidence suggests that the new species can be related to northern South American forms, a pattern that fits the general Amazonian relationships of the fishes in the Parnaíba River drainage. Although the new species fills in an important qualitative gap in trichomycterid continental distribution, the taxon is apparently rare and extremely restricted in distribution, with the type series being its only record so far. The paucity of trichomycterids in the Parnaíba remains a puzzling biogeographical phenomenon.

    Keywords: Ituglanis; New species; Taxonomy; Trichomycterinae

    Ituglanis crispim, MZUSP 126762, holotype, 28.8 mm SL,
    riacho da Volta, right tributary to Parnaíba River, Parnaíba River basin.
    Left lateral, dorsal, and ventral views.

    Ituglanis crispim, new species 

    Ituglanis sp. —Ramos et al., 2014:04 
    [listed to Parnaíba River basin].
    Diagnosis. Ituglanis crispim is distinguished from all congeners by the combination of the following characters: two or three pairs of ribs; 36–38 post Weberian vertebrae; a color pattern composed of round, uniformly-sized, evenly-spaced, non-coalescent spots; I,5 pectoral-fin rays; the first haemal arch on the 5th or 6th vertebra; the first completely fused (to the tip) haemal spine on 15° vertebrae. The presence of two or three pairs of ribs (vs. four pairs or more) distinguish the species from all congeners with the exception of I. amazonicus (Steindachner, 1882), I. apteryx Datovo, 2014, I. compactus Castro & Wosiacki, 2017, I. eichhorniarum (Miranda Ribeiro, 1912), I. gracilior (Eigenmann, 1912), I. herberti (Miranda Ribeiro, 1940), I. ina Wosiacki, Dutra & Mendonça, 2012, I. inusitatus Ferrer & Donin, 2017, I. macunaimaDatovo & Landim, 2005, I. metae(Eigenmann, 1917), I. nebulosusde Pinna & Keith, 2003, and I. parkoi(Miranda Ribeiro, 1944). The count of 36–38 post Weberian vertebrae distinguish I. crispim from I. amazonicus, I. apteryx, I. gracilior, I. herberti, I. inusitatus, I. metae, and I. parkoi, all with 39 or more vertebrae. The pigmentation pattern composed by round, similar-sized, non-coalescent dark spots, slightly larger than eye (vs. color patterns either uniform, or mottled with irregular-sized spots or partly coalescent markings, or blotched, sometimes forming longitudinal strips) separates I. crispim from congeners, except for I. amazonicus, I. gracilior, I. guayaberensis, I. macunaima, and I. metae. The presence of I,5 pectoral-fin rays distinguishes I. crispim from I. agreste Lima, Neves & Campos-Paiva, 2013, I. apteryx, I. bambui Bichuette & Trajano, 2004, I. boticario Rizzato & Bichuette, 2015, I. cahyensis Sarmento-Soares, Martins-Pinheiro, Aranda & Chamon, 2006, I. goya, I. epikarsticus Bichuette & Trajano, 2004, I. guayaberensis (Dahl, 1960), I. herberti, I. inusitatus, I. laticeps (Kner, 1863), I. gracilior, I. macunaima, I. mambai Bichuette & Trajano, 2008, I. paraguassuensis Campos-Paiva & Costa, 2007, I. parahybae (Eigenmann, 1918), I. parkoi, I. passensis Fernández & Bichuette, 2002, I. payaya (Sarmento-Soares, Zanata & Martins-Pinheiro 2011), I. proops (Miranda Ribeiro, 1908), and I. ramiroi Bichuette & Trajano, 2004, all with I,4; I,6 or more. The first haemal arch on 5th or 6th vertebrae distinguishes I. crispim from I. bambui (10th,12th), I. boticario (8th), I. compactus (4th), I. epikarsticus (7th, 9th), I. goya (9–10th), I. nebulosus (4th), and I. ramiroi (7th, 8th, 10th); the first complete haemal spine on 15th vertebra distinguishes I. crispim from I. amazonicus (17th), I. australis Datovo & de Pinna, 2014 (12–13th), I. eichhorniarum (16th, 18th), I. epikarsticus (13–14th), I. goya, (16th, 18th), I. gracilior (16th, 17th, 20th), I. nebulosus (16th), I. payaya (14th), I. paraguassuensis (12th), I. passensis (14th), I. proops (14th), and I. ramiroi (12–14th), (the latter two characteristics have been verified in limited samples of some species, intraspecific variation may be larger than recorded). A putatively autapomorphic character for the new species is the partial or total fusion between the anterior arms of the basipterygium (united minimally for 50% of their length) (Fig. 2).

     A. Type locality of Ituglanis crispim, riacho da Volta, right tributary to Parnaíba River, Uruçuí, Parnaíba River basin, Piauí, Brazil.
    B. In detail the submerged filamentous algae. Photo taken on July 18, 2005.

    Etymology. The specific epithet was given in reference to the Crispim, known for the local tragedy-legend “Cabeça de Cuia”. Having murdered his own mother, Crispin was cursed and turned into a horrific aquatic creature with a gigantic “cuia” (bowl-shaped) head, condemned to perpetually wander the Parnaíba River and only to be redeemed after devouring seven virgins named Maria. A noun in apposittion.

    Laura M. Donin, Mário C. C. de Pinna, William Severi and Telton P. A. Ramos. 2023. Filling in A Biogeographic Gap: the First Trichomycteridae from the Parnaíba River Basin (Siluriformes: Trichomycteridae).   Neotrop. ichthyol. 21(2); DOI: 10.1590/1982-0224-2023-0018    

    Tuesday, May 30, 2023

    [Paleontology • 2023] Santagnathus mariensis • Old Fossil findings in the Upper Triassic Rocks of southern Brazil improve Diversity of traversodontid Cynodonts (Therapsida: Cynodontia)

     Santagnathus mariensis
    Schmitt, Martinelli, Kaiuca, Schultz & Soares, 2023

    In this contribution we describe a new genus and species of gomphodontosuchine cynodont from the Late Triassic Hyperodapedon Assemblage Zone (AZ) of the Santa Maria Supersequence of southern Brazil, based on material collected 20 years ago. The new taxon, Santagnathus mariensis gen. et sp. nov., is based on numerous cranial and postcranial remains, which altogether provide data on several parts of the skeleton. Santagnathus mariensis is closely related to Siriusgnathus niemeyerorum and Exaeretodon spp. and expands the knowledge about gomphodontosuchine cynodonts. Morphologically, the new species has a skull bauplan particularly similar to S. niemeyerorum and E. riograndensis, differing from them by a unique combination of traits such as three upper incisors, the absence of a descending process in the jugal, a more posterior position of the postorbital bar and a preorbital region larger than the temporal one. The new traversodontid was found associated with the rhynchosaur Hyperodapedon sp., corroborating the assignment of the cynodont fossils to the Hyperodapedon AZ. We also provide comments on the status of the Argentine traversodontid cynodont Proexaeretodon vincei, typically considered a junior synonym of Exaeretodon argentinus, and here accepted as a valid taxon.

    Keywords: Eucynodontia, Late Triassic, Santa Maria Supersequence, Traversodontidae

     Santagnathus mariensis gen. et sp. nov.


    Maurício Rodrigo Schmitt, Agustín Guillermo Martinelli, João Felipe Leal Kaiuca, Cesar Leandro Schultz, Marina Bento Soares. 2023. Old Fossil findings in the Upper Triassic Rocks of southern Brazil improve Diversity of traversodontid Cynodonts (Therapsida, Cynodontia). The Anatomical Record. 

    [Herpetology • 2023] Gracixalus patkaiensis • A New Species of Green Tree Frog of the Genus Gracixalus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from the Evergreen Forest of Northeast India

    Gracixalus patkaiensis 
     Boruah, Deepak, Patel, Jithin, Yomcha & Das, 2023

    Patkai Green Tree Frog  ||  DOI: 10.3897/vz.73.e98444

    We describe a new species of rhacophorid frog of the genus Gracixalus from northeast India based on molecular, morphological and acoustic evidence. The new species, formally described herein as Gracixalus patkaiensis sp. nov., is morphologically distinct from other congeners by a suite of morphological characters such as snout-vent length 23.6–26.5 mm in adult males; green dorsum with irregular brown spots; dorsal skin shagreened with numerous spinules; snout shape nearly acuminate in dorsal and ventral view; a prominent dark streak along the cranial margins; white reticulations along lateral side and ventrum distinct in life. Genetically, the new taxon is found to differ from all the recognized Gracixalus species by 4–14.8% divergence in the 16S mitochondrial gene. The discovery confirms the presence of genus Gracixalus from the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh underlines the importance of biological exploration even in well-known protected areas of India.

    Keywords: Arunachal Pradesh, Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot, Namdapha Tiger Reserve, rainforest

    Gracixalus patkaiensis sp. nov. in life.
    A Holotype (WII-ADA1353) showing dorsolateral view; B lateral view of the head (Paratype, WII-ADA1356) showing subgular vocal sac;
    C–F Paratype (WII-ADA1400): C dorsolateral view, D showing dorsal spinules, E dorsal view, F closeup of head showing spinules on upper eyelids;
    G ventral side of right hand (Paratype WII-ADA1352); H ventral side of the paratype (WII-ADA1400), I granular skin on belly and thigh; J showing groin of the paratype (WII-ADA1356); K showing the vent and lateral side of thigh (WII-ADA1356).

    Habitat of Gracixalus patkaiensis sp. nov.
    A, B yellow arrow marks indicate the representative perch of the species;
    C and D two uncollected individuals of G. patkaiensis sp. nov. in natural habitat.

    Gracixalus patkaiensis sp. nov.

    Diagnosis: A small sized rhacophorid frog with SVL 23.6–26.5 mm (n = 6) in adult males, body slender, snout pointed, head longer than wide, nostril closer to snout tip than eye, internasal distance shorter than inter upper eyelid distance, tympanum and supratympanic fold distinct, limbs slender, digits with large disc, circum-marginal groove on disc present, nuptial pad present on first finger in males, webbing absent between fingers, vomerine ridge absent, dorsal skin on snout, head, dorsum and limbs with spinules of different size, belly granular, dorsally chartreuse green with brown spots of irregular shape and size, upper eyelids dark brown, a broad brown stripe along canthus rostralis from anterior corner of the eye to tip of the snout covering the nostril, another brown stripe from posterior edge of the upper eyelid along supratympanic fold running dorso-laterally to one third of the trunk, white patches of irregular shape and size on the lateral side of the head below mid-eye, below tympanum in the mandibular region, continues along flank to groin, below skin semi-transparent, light green with large white patch covering middle of throat, chest, axilla and anterior half of the belly, brown cross bars on fore-arm, thigh and tibia present.

    Etymology: We named the species after Patkai hills range where the type locality of the new species lies within Namdapha Tiger Reserve. The specific epithet “patkaiensis” is a noun in apposition.

    Suggested Common Name: Patkai green tree frog.

    Distribution: Currently the species is only known from a single locality in Kamala Valley Beat, popularly known as 25 mile in the Namdapha Tiger Reserve. It may occur in similar microhabitats in the forest interior of the tiger reserve.


    Bitupan Boruah, V. Deepak, Naitik G. Patel, Vijayan Jithin, Tajum Yomcha and Abhijit Das. 2023. A New Species of Green Tree Frog of the Genus Gracixalus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from the Evergreen Forest of Northeast India. Vertebrate Zoology. 73: 557-574. DOI: 10.3897/vz.73.e98444

    [Botany • 2023] Stigmatodon lemeanus (Bromeliaceae: Tillandsioideae: Vrieseinae) • A New epilithic Bromeliad from Pedra dos Três Pontões, Espírito Santo, Brazil, with An emended Combination for the Genus

    Stigmatodon lemeanus D.R.Couto, A.P.Fontana & Fraga,
    in Couto, Fontana, da Costa & de Fraga, 2023. 

    Background and aims – Stigmatodon (Bromeliaceae) is a monophyletic genus currently comprising 33 species, all endemic to rocky outcrops, mainly inselbergs, from the Atlantic Forest and campos rupestres of the Espinhaço range, Brazil.

    Material and methods – Our fieldwork in the inselbergs of the Atlantic Forest of the state of Espírito Santo led to the discovery of a new Stigmatodon species with a tubo-laciniate stigma type. Standard herbarium taxonomy practices were adopted to study the novelty. Morphological data were obtained from herbarium specimens and fresh material collected in the field.

    Key results – Stigmatodon lemeanus is here described and illustrated. Diagnostic characters and affinities of the new species are discussed, accompanied by notes on its ecology, geographic distribution, and conservation status. A key to the species of Stigmatodon from Espírito Santo state is provided. The novelty is similar to S. goniorachis from coastal inselbergs of Rio de Janeiro and S. attenuatoides, another inselberg endemic from southern Espírito Santo. Stigmatodon lemeanus is preliminarily assessed as Vulnerable (VU) according to the IUCN Red List criteria. Additionally, we present a new combination of Tillandsia oligantha in Stigmatodon, correcting a nomenclatural error.

    Keywords: Atlantic Forest, Brazilian endemics, campo rupestre, inselbergs, taxonomy, Vrieseinae

    Stigmatodon lemeanus.
    A. Habit. B. Leaf. C. Peduncle bract. D. Inflorescence before anthesis. E. Flower, frontal view with detail of the stamens arranged in two groups of three on each lateral side of the corolla. F. Flower, lateral view. G. Floral bract, adaxial side. H. Floral bract, abaxial side. I. Floral bract, detail of the thickest part at the base. J. Petal with two basal appendages. K. Basal appendages, details. L. Stamen. M. Pistil.
    From the holotype D.R. Couto & C.N. Fraga 4926 (MBML). Drawn by Joelcio Freitas.

    Stigmatodon lemeanus.
     A–B. Plants in situ at the type locality. C. Flowering individual in cultivation. D. Lateral view of the flower and floral bract. E. Frontal view of the flower. F. Details of the tubo-laciniate stigma and anthers.
    Photographs: A, C–F by Dayvid R. Couto, B by André P. Fontana.

    Stigmatodon lemeanus D.R.Couto, A.P.Fontana & Fraga, sp. nov.

    Diagnosis: Similar to Stigmatodon goniorachis (Baker) Leme, G.K.Br. & Barfuss but distinguished by the suberect to patent peduncle (vs erect to suberect) that is more robust with a diameter of 6.5–7.8 mm (vs 3.5–6.2 mm), the main axis with shorter internodes (8.5–9.5 mm vs 15–25 mm long) that supports fewer flowers (11–13 vs 14–32), the longer flowers (56–60 mm vs 35–40 mm long), the larger petals (38–39 × 17–21 mm vs 22–28 × 13–15 mm), the basal appendages with irregularly acute-dentate apex (vs irregularly bidentate), and the shorter stamens (19–22 mm vs 26–28 mm long).

    Habitat and ecology: The plant is epilithic, heliophilic, living on bare and vertical rock walls of inselbergs, where it forms large populations (Figs 2A, 4C), surrounded by Atlantic Forest fragments and farmland. In the type locality, Stigmatodon lemeanus grows on vertical rock walls (Fig. 2A–B), including on the large and pointed peaks of the mountain, from which the name “Pedra dos Três Pontões” is derived (Fig. 4B). In some places, they grow alongside sparse individuals of Pitcairnia diversifolia (Bromeliaceae), Mandevilla declinata (Apocynaceae), and the orchids Bulbophyllum weddellii Rchb.f., Bifrenaria harrisoniae (Hook.) Rchb.f., and Pseudolaelia dutrae Ruschi.

    Etymology: The specific epithet honours our friend Dr Elton Martinez Carvalho Leme (1960−), from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, whose personal efforts have substantially contributed to the knowledge of the diversity, taxonomy, and systematics of Brazilian bromeliads. In addition, Dr Elton Leme is one of the authors of the genus Stigmatodon and has greatly contributed to the knowledge of these plants.

    Stigmatodon lemeanus.
     A–B. General view of the landscape at the type locality, highlighting the large and vertical pointed peaks of Pedra dos Três Pontões. C. Detail of the population on a vertical rock wall alongside sparse individuals of Pitcairnia diversifolia; some individuals grow close to the base of the slope, which facilitated the collection of some specimens for the study and description of the new species.
    Photographs: A by André P. Fontana, B–C by Claudio N. Fraga.


     Dayvid Rodrigues Couto, André Pavioti Fontana, Andrea Ferreira da Costa and Claudio Nicoletti de Fraga. 2023. A New epilithic Bromeliad (Stigmatodon, Tillandsioideae) from Pedra dos Três Pontões, Espírito Santo, Brazil, with An emended Combination for the Genus. Plant Ecology and Evolution. 156(2): 215-224. DOI: 10.5091/plecevo.98904