Thursday, August 6, 2020

[Crustacea • 2020] Solomon’s Gold Mine: Description or Redescription of 24 Species of Caridina Freshwater Shrimps (Decapoda: Atyidae) from the Solomon Islands, including 11 New Species

 amphidromous freshwater shrimps of the genus Caridina from  the Solomon Islands

Mazancourt, Boseto, Marquet & Keith, 2020
Photographs by P. Keith and C. Lord. 

 Following recent (2014–2017) collections made in the Solomon Islands by the MNHN and the NGO ESSI, we provide a checklist of the species of amphidromous freshwater shrimps of the genus Caridina H. Milne Edwards, 1837 from this region. Using morphological as well as molecular data in an integrative taxonomic perspective, we found a total of 24 species, including 11 new for science, that are described or re-described, illustrated and discussed in relation to their habitat and distribution. Newly described species are Caridina barakoma sp. nov., C. choiseul sp. nov., C. intermedia sp. nov., C. maeana sp. nov., C. nana sp. nov., C. piokerai sp. nov., C. pisuku sp. nov., C. paratypus sp. nov., C. poarae sp. nov., C. sikipozo sp. nov. and C. turipi sp. nov. Caridina gueryi Marquet, Keith & Kalfatak, 2009 is re-validated as a species distinct from C. buehleri Roux, 1934. Lectotypes are designated for C. mertoni Roux, 1911 and C. papuana Nobili, 1905. Diagnoses for 6 informative species groups are provided: C. brevicarpalis group, C. gracilirostris group, C. nilotica group, C. typus group, C. serratirostris group and C. weberi group. A map of the species distribution in the Solomon Islands, as well as the phylogenetic relationships between the species and their relatives, are provided. 

Keywords. Amphidromous shrimp, Pacific Ocean, integrative taxonomy, morphology, 16S.

Fig. 1. Distribution of the species studied in the Solomon Islands. Symbols are colored according to the different species complexes (see Fig. 2): brown for C. brevicarpalis complex, blue for C. nilotica complex, red for C. weberi complex, grey for C. typus complex, green for C. gracilirostris complex and yellow for C. serratirostris complex.

Fig. 25. Live colourations. A. Caridina gracilirostris De Man, 1892 (MNHN-IU-2018-2804). B. Caridina neglecta Cai & Ng, 2007 (MNHN-IU-2018-2811). C. Caridina appendiculata Jalihal & Shenoy, 1998 (MNHN-IU-2018-135). D. Caridina brevidactyla Roux, 1919 (CA1503). E. Caridina choiseul sp. nov. (Choiseul Island). F. Caridina intermedia sp. nov. (MNHN-IU-2014-20847). G. Caridina mertoni Roux, 1911 (Kolombangara Island). Photographs by P. Keith (A–G).

Fig. 26. Live colourations. A. Caridina buehleri Roux, 1934 (MNHN-IU-2015-20). B. Caridina gueryi Marquet, Keith & Kalfatak, 2009 (MNHN-IU-2015-19). C. Caridina weberi De Man, 1892 (Kolombangara Island). D. Caridina serratirostris De Man, 1892 (MNHN-IU-2018-2931). E. Caridina papuana Nobili, 1905 (Choiseul Island). Habitats in the Solomon Islands. F. Caridina maeana sp. nov. (Choiseul Island). G. Lentic mode, Lodumoe river, Kolombangara Island. H. Lotic mode, Sulumuni river, Kolombangara Island. 
Photographs by P. Keith (A, D–F, H) and C. Lord (B–C, G). 

Valentin de Mazancourt, David Boseto, Gerard Marquet and Philippe Keith. 2020. Solomon’s Gold Mine: Description or Redescription of 24 Species of Caridina (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae) Freshwater Shrimps from the Solomon Islands, including 11 New Species. European Journal of Taxonomy. 696: 1–86. DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2020.696


[Entomology • 2020] Titanodula gen. nov. • A New Genus of Giant Oriental Praying Mantises (Mantodea: Mantidae: Hierodulinae)

Titanodula attenboroughi 
 Vermeersch, 2020

Belgian Journal of Entomology. 100

 Recent taxonomic expeditions that were made possible within the framework of the Global Taxonomic Initiative project “A step further in the entomodiversity of Vietnam” resulted in the collecting of large and robust Hierodula-like praying mantises with a unique morphology of the male genitalia for which the new genus Titanodula gen. nov. is created. All collected specimens were very similar in external morphology, but an in-depth analysis of the male genitalia revealed the existence of two distinct species in Vietnam. One species was matched with Hierodula fruhstorferi Werner 1916, previously only known by the holotype female, hereby transferring it to Titanodula gen. nov. The other species is new to science, endemic to the Annamite mountain range in the Vietnamese Central Highlands, and is described as Titanodula attenboroughi sp. nov. in tribute to Sir. David Attenborough. Additionally, two other Oriental species, Hierodula grandis Saussure, 1870 and Hierodula formosana GiglioTos, 1912 are discussed and transferred to Titanodula gen. nov.

 Keywords: Annamite mountains, Global Taxonomic Initiative, Hierodula, Vietnam 

Order Mantodea Burmeister, 1838
Family Mantidae Burmeister, 1838
Subfamily Hierodulinae Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1893

Genus Titanodula gen. nov.

Type species: Titanodula attenboroughi by present designation.

DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS. Titanodula gen. nov. can be distinguished from all other genera within Mantidae by the combination of the following characters:
1) Large and robust praying mantis.
2) Lower frons with two vertical margins within, interrupted in the middle, forming two small but distinct tubercles at its anterior margin.
3) Ventral coxal lobe darkened or black ventrad.
4) Darkened or black spots at the base of 2nd, 10th and 15th profemoral AvS.
5) All protarsal segments black anteriorly.
6) Male genitalia as described below.

ETYMOLOGY. The genus name is derived from the ‘Titans’ in Greek mythology, who were a mythological race of giants, thus emphasizing the large size and strength of the species belonging to this genus. The second part of the genus name “-dula” is a reference to the genus Hierodula in which some species were previously described. 

DISTRIBUTION. Titanodula gen. nov. has a confirmed presence in Bangladesh, Southern China, Taiwan and Vietnam. It appears that the genus has a wide distribution across the Oriental region but remains limited to suitable forested habitats, making these giant praying mantises vulnerable to habitat loss and deforestation as a result of expanding human activities. 

SPECIES INCLUDED: Titanodula attenboroughi sp. nov., Titanodula formosana (Giglio-Tos, 1912) comb. nov., Titanodula fruhstorferi (Werner, 1916) comb. nov. and Titanodula grandis (Saussure, 1870) comb. nov. 

Fig. 3. Titanodula attenboroughi gen. nov. et sp. nov., live photographs of holotype ♂ (A, B, C) and paratype ♀ [PT1] (D, E) at Kon Chu Rang N.R., VII. 2018.

Fig. 1. Titanodula attenboroughi sp. nov., holotype ♂ (RBINS). A, habitus, dorsal view. B, habitus, ventral view. C, head, frontal view. D, left prothoracic leg, anterior view. C, D not to scale.

Titanodula attenboroughi sp. nov.

 DIAGNOSIS. Very large and robust praying mantis. Head triangular, antennae filiform. Long but robust pronotum, with smooth dorsal surface. Pronotum very finely denticulate along the margins of the prozone in female, without denticulations in the metazone, entirely smooth edges in males. Spinal formula: F = 4DS/15AvS/4PvS; T = 13−14AvS/10PvS. Ratios ♂: MzL/PzL: 3.2; ♀: MzL/PzL: 2.9. With black spots on the anterior side of the profemora located at the base of the 2nd, 10th and 15th anteroventral spine. Protarsus (all segments) entirely black on the anterior side. Both sexes macropterous. Phalloid apophysis (afa) with two sclerotised processes, anterior process (aafa) small and tubercle-shaped, broad and dome-like at the base with a smaller rounded projection on top of it, located posteriorly from the middle. Posterior process (pafa) spear-shaped, with weakly developed base, almost straight, long and heavily sclerotised, projecting straight or slightly diagonally posteriad.

ETYMOLOGY. The species epithet is a patronym dedicated to Sir David Attenborough, one of the world's most beloved naturalists, in acknowledgment for his life-long endeavours to disseminate knowledge on all the beings that are part of the natural world and to advocate for their protection and conservation. 

DISTRIBUTION. Titanodula attenboroughi sp. nov. appears to be an endemic of undisturbed forests in the Vietnamese Annamite mountains. However, forests in the known distribution area are highly threatened and continue to disappear at an alarming rate. More distribution data are needed to evaluate the conservation status according to the IUCN Red Lists assessment guidelines, in the meanwhile the species is considered DD (Data Deficient).


 Xavier H.C. Vermeersch. 2020. Titanodula gen. nov., A New Genus of Giant Oriental Praying Mantises (Mantodea: Mantidae: Hierodulinae). Belgian Journal of Entomology. 100: 1–18.


Wednesday, August 5, 2020

[Botany • 2020] On the Taxonomic Status of the Varieties of Chorizanthe angustifolia (Polygonaceae)

Chorizanthe angustifolia (Gowen 1460) & C. eastwoodiae (Gowen 1461) 

in Gowen & Johnson, 2020.

Chorizanthe angustifolia var. eastwoodiae was named by Goodman in 1934, but has since generally been ignored as a taxon. A limited number of C. angustifolia var. angustifolia collections available for comparison and lack of clearly defined characters differentiating the two varieties likely account for the taxonomic concept for C. angustifolia that rejects infraspecific taxa. Nevertheless, several characters previously unnoted in floristic literature distinguish var. angustifolia from var. eastwoodiae. Variety angustifolia is a yellow-green plant with straw-colored tepals that are narrow and long-pointed, and has 3 stamens per flower. Variety eastwoodiae is a pinkish plant with pink, rounded and often erose tepals, with 8–9 stamens per flower. Morphological differences and comparative DNA sequencing indicate the two varieties are better treated as separate species. A new combination (C. eastwoodiae comb. et stat. nov.) is proposed and typification of the name C. angustifolia is clarified. A comparison table of closely related Chorizanthe is provided.

Keywords: California endemic flora, Chorizanthe minutiflora, nomenclatural change, Eudicots

Chorizanthe angustifolia (Gowen 1460) and C. eastwoodiae (Gowen 1461)
growing intertwined.

 David Gowen and Leigh Johnson. 2020. On the Taxonomic Status of the Varieties of Chorizanthe angustifolia (Polygonaceae). Phytotaxa. 455(1); 1–8. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.455.1.1

[Entomology • 2020] Notogaster gen. nov. • A New Genus of Microgastrinae Parasitoid Wasp (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) endemic to New Zealand

Notogaster spp.

in Fernández-Triana & Ward, 2020. 

A new genus of Microgastrinae parasitoid wasp endemic to New Zealand, Notogaster gen. nov. Fernández-Triana and Ward, is described, with ten new species: Notogaster avilai sp. nov., N. charlesi sp. nov., N. macdonaldae sp. nov., N. martini sp. nov., N. poultonae sp. nov., N. sucklingi sp. nov., N. toddae sp. nov., N. walkeri sp. nov., N. withersae sp. nov. and N. wornerae sp. nov. Based on some features, Notogaster resembles the genus Pholetesor Mason, although morphological and molecular data reveal they are not closely related. Notogaster is found throughout New Zealand, although many species are predominantly in the South Island. Species have been collected from a range of habitats, elevations, and collecting techniques. No host information is currently available.

Keywords: Hymenoptera, endemic, intra-specific variation, new taxa, parasitoid wasp

José L. Fernández-Triana and Darren F. Ward. 2020. Notogaster, A New Genus of Microgastrinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from New Zealand. Zootaxa. 4801(2); 251–279. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4801.2.3  

[Entomology • 2020] Revision of the Endemic Australian Robber Fly Genus Daptolestes Hull (Diptera: Asilidae) and Description of Humorolethalis gen. nov.

Humorolethalis sergius (Walker)

in Robinson, Li &  Yeates, 2020.
 DOI: 10.1111/aen.12465  

Daptolestes Hull, 1962 is a small genus of distinctive, ornate robber flies (Asilidae) endemic to Australia, currently placed in the subfamily Brachyrhopalinae, containing three described species, D. limbipennis, D. nicholsoni and D . sergius. Adults of Daptolestes species (except D. sergius) have patterned wings, brown and yellow integumental colour and a waisted abdomen and could be mistaken for vespid wasps when foraging for insect prey on flowers. Here, we present a phylogeny based on a morphological survey of adult specimens. Based on the phylogenetic results, we provide a description and revised diagnosis for Daptolestes and describe four new species: D . leei Robinson & Yeates, sp. nov. D . bronteflavus Robinson & Yeates, sp. nov. D . feminategus Robinson & Yeates, sp. nov. and D . illusiolautus Robinson & Yeates, sp. nov. We also erect a new genus, Humorolethalis Robinson, Li & Yeates, gen. nov. to accommodate Dasypogon sergius Walker [=Daptolestes sergius (Walker)]. For all species of both genera, we illustrate external features of the adults and male and female terminalia. Key to all Daptolestes species.

Keywords: Australian, Daptolestes, Dasypogininae, Humorolethalis, new genus, new species

Isabella J. Robinson, Xuankun Li and David K. Yeates. 2020. Revision of the Endemic Australian Robber Fly Genus Daptolestes Hull (Diptera: Asilidae) and Description of Humorolethalis gen. nov. Austral Entomology. DOI: 10.1111/aen.12465

The five flies with Marvel universe names are:
Stan Lee's fly is Daptolestes leei and shares his characteristic sunglasses and white moustache
Thor's fly is Daptolestes bronteflavus, meaning blond thunder
Loki's fly is Daptolestes illusiolautus, meaning elegant deception
Black Widow's fly is Daptolestes feminategus, meaning woman wearing leather
Deadpool's fly is Humorolethalis sergius, from the Latin for wet or moist, and dead, and shares his mask markings.

Tuesday, August 4, 2020

[Entomology • 2020] Abantiades cephalocorvus & A. tembyi • Two New Australian Species of Abantiades Herrich-Schäffer (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) and Females of Two further Species with Notes on their Biogeography

Abantiades cephalocorvus 
 Moore, Beaver, Velasco-Castrillón & Stevens, 2020

Abantiades cephalocorvus sp. nov. and Abantiades tembyi sp. nov. are described, along with the previously undescribed females of A. macropusinsulariae Simonsen, 2018 and A. pallida Simonsen, 2018. All of these species belong to a triforked Abantiades Herrich-Schäffer clade that is loosely centred around the Nullarbor and other arid regions of Australia. We explore DNA barcodes (mtDNA COI gene) from these and other Abantiades and discuss their significance for species recognition. The species distributions are entirely or largely allopatric and we discuss their origins from a widespread common ancestor that was likely distributed over inland and coastal regions in the mid- to late-Mesozoic before the onset of desertification. Notes on new distributional data for all of the known species in this clade are included.

Keywords: Lepidoptera, Australia, COI barcode, morphology, taxonomy, tripectinate

Michael D. Moore, Ethan P. Beaver, Alejandro Velasco-Castrillón and Mark I. Stevens. 2020. Description of Two New Australian Species of Abantiades Herrich-Schäffer (Lepidoptera: Hepialidae) and Females of Two further Species with Notes on their Biogeography. Zootaxa. 4822(1); 71–93. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4822.1.3

[Ichthyology • 2020] Rasbora adisi • A Molecular Phylogeny of the Freshwater‐fish Genus Rasbora (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in Sri Lanka reveals A Remarkable Diversification—And A Cryptic Species

Rasbora adisi 
Sudasinghe, Pethiyagoda, Hettiarachchige, Ranasinghe, Raghavan, Dahanukar & Meegaskumbura, 2020

 DOI: 10.1111/jzs.12395

The diversity of the freshwater‐fish genus Rasbora (Cyprinidae) on Sri Lanka (five species) is high compared with the four species reported from the peninsula of India, from which the island's cyprinid fauna is derived. The paucity of characters by which species of Rasbora can be phenotypically distinguished renders field identification difficult, adversely affecting the estimation of populations and distributions, with consequences for conservation and management, increasing also the risk of taxonomic inflation. From a sampling of 90 sites across Sri Lanka and based on phylogenetic and haplotype analyses of sequences of cox1 and cytb mitochondrial, and rag1 and irbp nuclear markers, we review the species diversity and phylogeography of Rasbora on the island. Molecular analyses recover, in addition to the five species previously reported, a new (cryptic) species: Rasbora adisi sp. nov. Uncorrected pairwise cox1 genetic distances between species range from 2.0 to 12.3 percent. The Sri Lankan diversification derives from a common ancestor which arrived from India during a sea‐level low‐stand in the mid‐Miocene (15.1 Ma [95% HPD: 11.5–19.8 Ma]), when the present‐day island was subaerially connected to the Indian subcontinent by a broad isthmus. This gave rise to a clade comprising five species—Rasbora adisi sp. nov., Rasbora armitagei, Rasbora microcephalus, Rasbora naggsi and Rasbora wilpita —with a crown age of 9.9 Ma (95% HPD: 7.1–13.3 Ma) and to a clade comprising Indian and Sri Lankan populations of Rasbora dandia, which themselves are reciprocally monophyletic. Morphological analysis of 334 specimens discriminates between most species which, however, are most reliably diagnosed by chromatic characters. The four endemic species exhibit a pattern of inter‐basin dispersal via headwater capture, followed by vicariance, explaining the high diversity of the genus on the island.

Keywords: cryptic species, diversification, freshwater fish, India, species delimitation

 a new (cryptic) species: Rasbora adisi sp. nov.  

Live color pattern variation in species of Rasbora in Sri Lanka.
(a)  Rasbora adisi sp. nov., ~75 mm SL, Kotagama, Gal Oya basin; (b) Rasbora microcephalus, ~60 mm SL, Yakkala, Attanagalu Oya basin;
(c) Rasbora naggsi, ~55 mm SL, Hambegamuwa, Walawe River basin; (d) Rasbora dandia, ~65 mm SL, Pitigala, Bentara River basin;
(e) Rasbora armitagei, ~65 mm SL, Weralugahamula, Kalu River basin; (f) Rasbora wilpita, ~70 mm SL, Kottawa Forest Reserve, Gin River basin. 

 Rasbora adisi, sp. nov

Etymology: The species name adisi, a noun in apposition, means mysterious or enigmatic in Sinhala: an allusion to the cryptic nature of this species.

Hiranya Sudasinghe, Rohan Pethiyagoda, Ranasinghe Hettiarachchige,Tharindu Ranasinghe, Rajeev Raghavan, Neelesh Dahanukar and Madhava Meegaskumbura. 2020. A Molecular Phylogeny of the Freshwater‐fish Genus Rasbora (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) in Sri Lanka reveals A Remarkable Diversification—And A Cryptic Species. Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. DOI: 10.1111/jzs.12395

Monday, August 3, 2020

[Cnidaria • 2020] Blastopathes medusa • A New Genus and Species of Black Coral (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Antipatharia: Antipathidae) from Papua New Guinea

Blastopathes medusa 
Horowitz, Brugler, Bridge & Cowman, 2020

Blastopathes medusa gen. nov., sp. nov., is described from Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea, based on morphological and molecular data. Blastopathes, assigned to the Antipathidae, is a large, mythology-inspiring black coral characterized by clusters of elongate stem-like branches that extend out at their base and then curve upward. Colonies are not pinnulate and contain single branches, which could represent new branch cluster formations. Morphological and molecular (mitochondrial DNA and targeted capture of nuclear loci) evidence supporting the establishment of a new genus is discussed. This is the first study to utilize the target capture of ultraconserved elements (UCEs) and exonic loci to elucidate phylogenetic relationships among black corals and to identify and place a new genus and species.

Keywords: taxonomy, systematics, ultraconserved elements, targeted capture, igrN, phylogeny, Kimbe Bay

FIGURE 2. Comparison A-B, branching characteristics of Allopathes denhartogi and Blastopathes medusa (A from A. denhartogi holotype RMNH Coel. 31293, B from Blastopathes medusa holotype MTQ G74904); comparison C-D, spine characteristics of A. denhartogi and B. medusa (C from A. denhartogi schizoholotype USNM 1014577, D from B. medusa holotype MTQ G74904).

FIGURE 5. Blastopathes medusa holotype (MTQ G74904):
A, branch cluster on stem; B, branch cluster on branch; C, branchlet on branch.

FIGURE 8. Blastopathes medusa paratypes:
A-C, in-situ images of colonies showing branch clusters (A from paratype MTQ G74911; B from paratype NMAG 1893; C from paratype MTQ G74913); D, paratype (MTQ G74912): section of terminal branch showing eight rows of compressed spines; E, paratype (NMAG 1893): section of branch showing polyp density and tentacle lengths.


Jeremy Horowitz, Mercer R. Brugler, Tom C.L. Bridge and Peter F. Cowman. 2020. Morphological and Molecular Description of A New Genus and Species of Black Coral (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Antipatharia: Antipathidae: Blastopathes) from Papua New Guinea. Zootaxa. 4821(3); 553–569. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4821.3.7

[Ichthyology • 2020] Gymnotus arapiuns & G. aripuana • Two New Species of Gymnotus (Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae) from Brazil and Historical Biogeography of the Subgenus Lamontianus

Gymnotus arapiuns Gymnotus aripuana
 Kim, Crampton & Albert, 2020

Gymnotus is the most species-rich and geographically widespread genus of gymnotiform electric fishes and has been widely explored to understand mechanisms of diversification in Neotropical freshwater fishes at a continental scale. Within Gymnotus, the subgenus Lamontianus is a phenotypically distinctive clade with an elongate, cylindrical body shape currently known from four valid species (G. anguillaris, G. cataniapo, G. pedanopterus, and G. tiquie) restricted to rivers draining the Guiana Shield. Here we use aspects of body-surface coloration, meristic, morphological, and osteological data, including cranial, laterosensory pore, and postcranial characters, to diagnose two new species of Lamontianus that inhabit the Aripuanã and Arapiuns rivers that drain the Brazilian Shield. We also use geometric morphometric analyses of head shape to separate the new species from one another and other species of Lamontianus. We report biogeographic distributions for all species of Lamontianus and estimate ancestral geographic ranges and range evolution using the parametric biogeographic program BioGeoBEARS. We use the phylogeny of Lamontianus to test alternative hypotheses regarding lineage divergence times, before or after the formation of the modern East-draining Amazon at c. 10 Ma. Our analysis suggests that diversification in Lamontianus occurred primarily by geographic range fragmentation (vicariance) from an ancestral species distributed across the Western Guiana Shield. These results are similar to those of other Gymnotus and gymnotiform clades, where allopatric speciation and secondary contact due to geographic range expansion are commonly observed. This study brings to 46 the number of valid species of the genus Gymnotus, and to six the number of valid species of the subgenus Lamontianus.

Gymnotus arapiuns, new species 

Etymology.—Named for the Arapiuns River, a blackwater river and tributary of the Tapajós River in Pará state, Brazil. Noun in apposition. 

Gymnotus aripuana, new species

Etymology.—Named for the Aripuanã River in Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Noun in apposition. 

Lesley Y. Kim, William G. R. Crampton and James S. Albert. 2020. Two New Species of Gymnotus (Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae) from Brazil and Historical Biogeography of the Subgenus Lamontianus. Copeia. 108(3); 468-484. DOI: 10.1643/CI-19-205


[Cnidaria • 2020] Distichopathes hickersonae • A New Species of Black Coral (Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Aphanipathidae: Distichopathes) from Elvers Bank, north-western Gulf of Mexico

Distichopathes hickersonae Opresko & Brugler

in Opresko, Goldman, Johnson, ... et Brugler, 2020. 

The continental shelf edge of the NW Gulf of Mexico supports dozens of reefs and banks, including the West and East Flower Garden Banks (FGB) and Stetson Bank that comprise the Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary (FGBNMS). Discovered by fishermen in the early 1900s, the FGBs are named after the colourful corals, sponges and algae that dominate the region. The reefs and banks are the surface expression of underlying salt domes and provide important habitat for mesophotic coral ecosystems (MCE) and deep coral communities to 300 m depth. Since 2001, FGBNMS research teams have utilized remotely operated vehicles (e.g. ‘Phantom S2’, ‘Mohawk’, ‘Yogi’) to survey and characterize benthic habitats of this region. In 2016, a Draft Environmental Impact Statement proposed the expansion of the current sanctuary boundaries to incorporate an additional 15 reefs and banks, including Elvers Bank. Antipatharians (black corals) were collected within the proposed expansion sites and analysed using morphological and molecular methods. A new species, Distichopathes hickersonae, collected at 172 m depth on Elvers Bank, is described within the family Aphanipathidae. This brings the total number of black coral species in and around the sanctuary to 14.

Keywords: Distichopathes, DNA barcoding, Flower Garden Banks National Marine Sanctuary, mesophotic coral ecosystem, scanning electron microscopytaxonomy

Fig. 2. Distichopathes hickersonae sp. nov., colony photographed in situ, at 172 m on Elvers Bank (specimen not collected).

Order ANTIPATHARIA Milne-Edwards & Haime, 1857

Family APHANIPATHIDAE Opresko, 2004

Diagnosis: Corallum sparsely to densely branched (i.e. bramble-like, bushy, broom-like or fan-shaped), or pinnulated with simple pinnules arranged in two or more rows. Spines conical; usually covered to varying degrees with conical tubercles, but may be smooth; apex of spines simple (acute or rounded), occasionally bifurcated. Polyps 0.6–3 mm in transverse diameter.

Genus Distichopathes Opresko, 2004
Antipathes, de Pourtalès, 1867: 112, 1871: 54, 1880: 118 (in part); van Pesch, 1914: 85 (in part, as subgenus Aphanipathes).
Aphanipathes Brook, 1889: 121 (in part); Opresko, 1972: 993 (in part).
Distichopathes Opresko, 2004: 235–237.

Diagnosis: Corallum monopodial, unbranched, or sparsely to densely branched; tending to be planar with overlapping branches. Stem and branches pinnulate. Pinnules simple, not subpinnulate; arranged primarily in two lateral rows, but with simple short pinnules occurring very rarely on the abpolypar side of the axis. Pinnules also arranged alternately along the stem and branches.

Type species: Distichopathes disticha Opresko, 2004.

Species assigned to DistichopathesThree species are currently assigned to the genus, D. filix (de Pourtalès, 1867), D. disticha Opresko, 2004, and D. hickersonae sp. nov.

Distribution: Species of Distichopathes are known only from the North-western Atlantic.

Fig. 3. Distichopathes hickersonae sp. nov.
(A) In-situ photo of holotype (USNM 1517703); (B) laboratory photo of holotype;
 (C) In-situ photo of paratype (USNM 1548274); (D) laboratory photo of paratype; (E) upper section of two branches of the paratype.

Distichopathes hickersonae sp. nov. Opresko & Brugler

Diagnosis: Corallum densely branched, branches tending to lie in one plane. Stem and branches with simple bilateral pinnules. Pinnules up to 2 cm long and 0.3 mm in diameter at their base; arranged in two very regular bilateral rows, with pinnules in each row alternating with those in opposite row. Small simple pinnules occurring very rarely on the abpolypar side of the axis. Spines anisomorphic: circumpolypar spines 0.26–0.35 mm tall, interpolypar spines 0.2–0.25 mm, the hypostomal spines 0.1–0.14 mm, and the abpolypar spines 0.1–0.18 mm. Polyps small, 0.65–0.8 mm in transverse diameter and are placed in a single series on one side of the pinnules, with 8–10 polyps per cm.

Etymology: Named in recognition of Emma L. Hickerson (NOAA's FGBNMS Research Coordinator). Since 2005, Emma has generously been inviting co-authors DMO and MRB, as well as underrepresented minority undergraduates from CUNY, to the FGBNMS to survey and collect black corals. These research cruises aboard the MV ‘Spree’ and RV ‘Manta’ have resulted in the discovery of a number of new species of antipatharian corals.

Distribution: Known only from the north-western Gulf of Mexico at 172 m depth.

Dennis M. Opresko, Samantha L. Goldman, Raven Johnson, Katherine Parra, Marissa Nuttall, G.P. Schmahl and Mercer R. Brugler. 2020. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of A New Species of Black Coral from Elvers Bank, north-western Gulf of Mexico (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Hexacorallia: Antipatharia: Aphanipathidae: Distichopathes). Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom. 100(4); 559-566. DOI: 10.1017/S002531542000051X 

[Ichthyology • 2020] Parotocinclus nandae • A New distinctive colored Catfish (Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae) from the upper Rio Paraguaçu, Bahia State, northeastern Brazil

Parotocinclus nandae 
Lehmann A., Camelier & Zanata, 2020

A new species of Parotocinclus from the upper Rio Paraguaçu, Bahia, Brazil, is described. The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its unique color pattern, with irregular dark blotches resulting in a somewhat marble-spotted pattern on head and trunk of most specimens and dorsum of head with a conspicuous V-shaped light mark from tip of snout to nares. The new species is also distinguished from congeners by having the lower lip elongated posteriorly and reaching or surpassing the anterior margin of cleithrum on the pectoral girdle, the canal cheek plate on the ventral surface of the head reduced and with a slightly concave margin, and abdomen covered by small embedded platelets, without contact with each other and not arranged in a line between the pectoral-fin axilla and pelvic-fin origin. The presence of a thick and rough skin in the interradial membrane of pelvic fin exclusively in the females of P. nandae is reported by the first time to occurs in Siluriformes.

Fig 1. Parotocinclus nandae, holotype. MCP 54184, 39.8 mm SL, male; Brazil, Bahia, Ibicoara, upper Rio Paraguaçu, under bridge on highway BA-142, between Ibicoara and Barra da Estiva, ...

Parotocinclus nandae sp. nov.

Diagnosis: The new species is distinguished from all congeners by its unique color pattern, with irregular dark blotches resulting in a somewhat marble-spotted pattern on head and trunk, and dorsum of head with a conspicuous pale V-shaped mark extending from tip of snout to, or slightly posterior of, nares (Fig 1). Parotocinclus nandae can be further diagnosed from its congeners by having the lower lip elongated posteriorly, longer than wide, and reaching to or surpassing the anterior margin of cleithrum (vs. lower lip not elongated, wider than longer, and falling distinctly short of pectoral girdle); canal cheek plate on the ventral surface of the head not expanded mesially or posteriorly, with a slightly concave margin (vs. canal cheek plate expanded mesially or posteriorly, with triangular tip) (Fig 2); and abdomen covered by small embedded platelets not in contact with each other and not aligned between pectoral- and pelvic-fin origins (vs. abdomen completely lacking plates or covered with plates usually contacting each other and arranged in transverse lines).

Fig 5. Parotocinclus nandae, variation in color pattern in alcohol. MCP 54185, paratypes, Brazil, Bahia, Ibicoara, upper Rio Paraguaçu basin: (A) male, 38.1 mm SL; (B) female, 37.8 mm SL; (C) female, 39.5 mm SL, (D) female, 41.2 mm SL; (E) female 41.2 mm SL; (F) female, 41.7 mm SL; and (G) male, 42.0 mm SL.

Fig 6. Color in life of Parotocinclus nandae in left lateral view. UFBA 6976, paratype, 40.7 mm SL, Brazil, Bahia, Ibicoara, upper Rio Paraguaçu basin, ...

Fig 7. Northeastern Mata Atlântica ecoregion of Brazil, highlighting the type localities of Parotocinclus species in this region. Red stars represent the localities where Parotocinclus nandae occurs. T = type-locality.

Fig 8. Type locality of Parotocinclus nandae. Brazil, Bahia State, Ibicoara, upper Rio Paraguaçu.

Geographic distribution: Parotocinclus nandae is known from two localities in the upper portion of the Rio Paraguaçu basin, Chapada Diamantina domain, Bahia State, Brazil (Fig 7).

Etymology: The specific name nandae honors Maria Fernanda Boaz Lehmann, daughter of the first author of this paper and affectionately known as “Nanda”. A noun in genitive.


 Pablo Lehmann A., Priscila Camelier and Angela Zanata. 2020. Parotocinclus nandae, A New distinctive colored Catfish (Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae) from the upper Rio Paraguaçu, Bahia State, northeastern Brazil. PLoS ONE. 15(7): e0236690. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0236690