Thursday, April 25, 2019

[Herpetology • 2019] Noblella thiuni • A New (singleton) Species of Minute Terrestrial-breeding Frog (Anura, Strabomantidae) from the Montane Forest of the Amazonian Andes of Puno, Peru

Noblella thiuni 
Catenazzi​ & Ttito, 2019

We describe a new species of minute, terrestrial-breeding frog in the genus Noblella. We collected a single specimen in the leaf litter of primary montane forest (2,225 m a.s.l.) near Thiuni, in the Provice of Carabaya, Department of Puno, in the upper watershed of a tributary of the Inambari River of southern Peru, the same locality where we found the types of Psychrophrynella glauca Catenazzi & Ttito 2018. We placed the new species within Noblella on the basis of molecular data, minute size, and overall morphological resemblance with the type species N. peruviana and other species of Noblella, including having three phalanges on finger IV (as in N. coloma, N. heyeri, N. lynchi, N. madreselva, N. peruviana, and N. pygmaea), and terminal phalanges T-shaped and pointed. Noblella thiuni sp. n. is distinguished from all other species of Noblella by having ventral surfaces of legs bright red, and chest and belly copper reddish with a profusion of silvery spots. The new species further differs from known Peruvian species of Noblella by the combination of the following characters: tympanic membrane absent, eyelids lacking tubercles, dorsal skin finely shagreen, tarsal tubercles or folds absent, three phalanges on Finger IV, tips of digits not expanded, no circumferential grooves on digits, inguinal spots present. The new species has a snout–vent length of 11.0 mm in one adult or subadult male. Our new finding confirms the high levels of endemism and beta diversity of small, terrestrial-breeding frogs inhabiting the moss layers and leaf litter in the montane forests of the Amazonian slopes of the Andes and adjacent moist puna grasslands, and suggests much work remains to be done to properly document this diversity.

Figure 4: Photographs of live and preserved specimen of the holotype of Noblella thiuni sp. n.
Live (A, C, E) and preserved (B, D, F) holotype of Noblella thiuni sp. n., male CORBIDI 18723 (SVL 11.0 mm) in dorsolateral (A, B), dorsal (C, D) and ventral (E, F) views. Photographs by A Catenazzi.

Noblella thiuni sp. n. 

Noblella thiuni is most similar to N. peruviana but differs from this and other known species in the genus (Catenazzi, Uscapi & von May, 2015) by having ventral surfaces of legs bright red, and chest and belly copper reddish with a profusion of silvery spots (Fig. 4). Noblella thiuni has three phalanges on Finger IV and differs from N. carrascoicola, N. lochites, N. myrmecoides, and N. ritarasquinae which have two phalanges on Finger IV (De la Riva & Köhler, 1998; Duellman & Lehr, 2009; Guayasamin & Teran-Valdez, 2009; Harvey et al., 2013; Köhler, 2000). It further differs from N. myrmecoides in having tips of toes not expanded (slightly expanded in N. duellmani, N. heyeri, and N. lynchi, tips of toes teardrop-shaped in N. myrmecoides) and in lacking circumferential grooves (present in N. myrmecoides). Among the eight species with three phalanges on Finger IV, it differs from N. heyeri, N. lynchi and N. pygmaea by lacking a distinct tympanic membrane, and from N. coloma, N. duellmani, N. madreselva and N. personina by having a tarsal fold. It further differs from N. madreselva by lacking a large white mark on venter, from N. duellmani, N. personina, and N. pygmaea by having inguinal spots, from all species but N. coloma, N. lochites, N. myrmecoides and N. peruviana in having a finely shagreen dorsum, and from all species but N. heyeri, N. lynchi, N. myrmecoides and N. peruviana by lacking tubercles on eyelids. Finally, N. thiuni differs from N. peruviana by having a smaller inner metatarsal tubercle, about the same size as outer metatarsal tubercle (inner tubercle large, about twice the size of outer metatarsal tubercle), Toe V about the same length of Toe III (Toe V shorter than Toe III).

Figure 2: Species of Noblella (Anura, Strabomantidae) from southern Peru.
(A) N. madreselva (unvouchered female, SVL 18.9 mm) from Madre Selva, La Convención, Cusco; (B) Noblella sp. “SP” (male AC 95.09, SVL 13.1 mm) from San Pedro, Paucartambo, Cusco; (C) N. pygmaea from Wayqecha, Paucartambo, Cusco (female holotype, MUSM 26320, SVL 12.4 mm); (D) Noblella thiuni sp. n. from Thiuni, Carabaya, Puno (male holotype, CORBIDI 18723, SVL 11.0 mm). Photographs by A Catenazzi.


Etymology. The name of the new species refers to the type locality and only known locality in Thiuni, Department of Puno, Peru.

Distribution, natural history and threats. The cloud forest at the type locality covers a ridge that separates two creeks and is accessible through a power line maintenance trail. We found N. thiuni in the leaf litter along with four specimens of Psychrophrynella glauca, and other frog species (Gastrotheca testudinea, Pristimantis platydactylus, and an unnamed Pristimantis sp.) in the understory vegetation or within bromeliads (Catenazzi & Ttito, 2018). Although much of the Ollachea Valley has been deforested, some relictual forests remain on steep slopes and ridges, and may support more populations of these frogs and of other unreported amphibians. In absence of more details concerning the distribution and population abundance of N. thiuni, and despite the known threats of deforestation, agriculture and hydropower development in the region (Catenazzi, Lehr & Vredenburg, 2014; Catenazzi & von May, 2014), we suggest an IUCN Red List threat assessment category of Data Deficient (IUCN, 2013). We recommend to include distribution and population surveys for this species, and the sympatric Psychrophrynella glauca, in any environmental assessment associated with hydroelectric development, power line maintenance, road construction, and similar large scale projects affecting the upper Ollachea Valley.

We describe a new species of terrestrial-breeding frog in the genus Noblella. We justify generic placement based on morphological similarity and phylogenetic analyses, but we note that such placement is tentative in light of the lack of known synapomorphies distinguishing Noblella from similar genera, particularly Psychrophrynella, and the absence of DNA sequence data for the type species of both Noblella and Psychrophrynella. We discuss limitations for singleton descriptions and adopt recent recommendations justifying our decision to proceed with a formal taxonomic decision for the new species. Our work contributes to documenting the rich diversity of small terrestrial-breeding frogs found at high elevations in the eastern slopes of the Andes of southern Peru and Bolivia.

Alessandro Catenazzi​ and Alex Ttito. 2019. Noblella thiuni sp. n., A New (singleton) Species of Minute Terrestrial-breeding Frog (Amphibia, Anura, Strabomantidae) from the Montane Forest of the Amazonian Andes of Puno, Peru. PeerJ. 7:e6780.  DOI: 10.7717/peerj.6780

Wednesday, April 24, 2019

[Entomology • 2019] Robber Flies (Diptera: Asilidae) from Sint Eustatius, Lesser Antilles, with the Descriptions of Efferia exaggerata

 Efferia exaggerata
Smit, 2019

Four species of robber flies are recorded from Sint Eustatius, Lesser Antilles. Efferia exaggerata sp. n. is described, as well as the male of Ommatius prolongatus Scarbrough.

Keywords: Diptera, Dutch Caribbean, northern Leeward islands

John T. Smit. 2019. Robber Flies from Sint Eustatius, Lesser Antilles, with the Descriptions of Efferia exaggerata sp. n. and the Male of Ommatius prolongatus Scarbrough (Diptera: Asilidae). Zootaxa. 4586(1); 141–150. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4586.1.7  

[Botany • 2019] Gymnosiphon philippinensis (Burmanniaceae) • A New Species from Cebu, Philippines

Gymnosiphon philippinensis Pelser, Salares & Barcelona

in Pelser, Salares & Barcelona, 2019.

Gymnosiphon philippinensis is described as a new species of Burmanniaceae from forest over limestone in southern Cebu (Philippines). Among Malesian Gymnosiphon, it is most similar to G. papuanus and G. pauciflorus in having flowers with stamens that are attached in the middle of the floral tube and having outer tepals with entire margins, but these tepals are longer in absolute and relative lengths than those of the aforementioned species. Gymnosiphon philippinensis is the first species of Gymnosiphon reported from the Philippines.

Keywords: Achlorophyllous mycoheterotroph, Alcoy, Nug-as, saprophyte, taxonomy, Monocots


Gymnosiphon philippinensis Pelser, Salares & Barcelona sp. nov.

Pieter B. Pelser, Val B. Salares and Julie F. Barcelona. 2019. Gymnosiphon philippinensis, A New Species of Burmanniaceae from Cebu, Philippines. Phytotaxa. 402(1); 68-72. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.402.1.10


[Botany • 2019] Pinanga schwanerensis (Arecaceae) • A New Species of Palm from Kalimantan, Indonesia

Pinanga schwanerensis A.Randi, Hikmat & Heatubun

in Randi, Hikmat & Heatubun, 2019. 

A new species of palm, Pinanga schwanerensis, is described and illustrated here. This is the third species of Pinanga to have been described from Kalimantan since the description of P. salicifolia Blume and P. albescens Becc. A discussion of its morphological characters, distribution, ecology, habitat and conservation status is provided. 

Keywords: Arecaceae, palms, Pinanga, Kalimantan, taxonomy

Figure 2. Pinanga schwanerensis.
 A. Clustering habit. B. Irregular divided leaf blade, upper surface. C. Undivided young leaf blade, below surface. D. Stem and crownshaft. E-F. Interfoliar inflorescence with persistent prophyll. G. Staminate flower. H-I. Mature fruit, epicarp and mesocarp. J. Endocarp and seed.
 Scale bar : A = 60 cm; B-C = 10 cm; D = 30 cm; E = 3 cm; F = 5 cm; 
G = 9 mm; H-J = 17 mm. All photos by A. Randi.

Pinanga schwanerensis A.Randi, Hikmat & Heatubun, sp. nov. 

Diagnosis:— This taxon is similar to Pinanga jambusana C.K.Lim in general habit and inflorescence appearance, but can be distinguished by a combination of the following characters: the leaf pinnate or divided irregularly into 2–3 leaflets each side, rarely entire, with petiole to 120 cm long, ligule present; inflorescence interfoliar, bursting out among marcescent leaf sheaths; prophyll leathery and persistent; stamens 15–18; fruits broadly ellipsoid, colored dull white with dark purple at the tip and turning dark purple entirely when mature.

Distribution:— Pinanga schwanerensis is known only from the Schwaner mountains, which include the Bukit Baka Bukit Raya National Park at the border of West and Central Kalimantan of Indonesia. It has been recorded from five localities so far, two localities from West and three from the Central Kalimantan (Figure 1).

 Habitat:— Pinanga schwanerensis grows in primary lowland Dipterocarp forest, on undulating land and slopes at an elevation of 150–550 m asl. It seems to prefer humid areas covered by dense forest canopy in narrow valleys and/or at the side of small rivers between ridges, usually growing on soil with a thick litter layer. 

 Etymology:— From Schwaner Mountain in the border of West and Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.  

Agusti Randi, Agus Hikmat and Charlie D. Heatubun. 2019. Pinanga schwanerensis, A New Species of Pinanga (Arecaceae) from Kalimantan, Indonesia. Phytotaxa. 402(2); 121–125. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.402.2.6

[Botany • 2019] Argyreia decemloba (Convolvulaceae) • A New Species of Argyreia from Chin State, Myanmar

Argyreia decemloba
 Traiperm, Fujikawa & Staples

in Traiperm, Fujikawa, Chitchak, et al., 2019. 

Argyreia decemloba Traiperm, Fujikawa & Staples, a new species of Convolvulaceae from Natma Taung National Park, Chin State, Myanmar, is described here with detailed illustrations and summaries for its distribution, ecology and IUCN conservation status. This new species is a high-climbing twiner that can be distinguished by a white or pale yellow corolla with a deep red or purple-black colour inside at the base of the tube, a ten-lobed corolla limb, and staminal filament bases expanded and densely covered by hispid hairs. Argyreia decemloba is here assessed as Near Threatened (NT) following IUCN Red List categories.

KEYWORDS: Argyreia, Chin State, Convolvulaceae, filament morphology, Mount Victoria, Myanmar, Natma Taung, new species discovery, SE Asian biodiversity, staminal trichomes, taxonomy

Fig. 1. Argyreia decemloba – A: stem with leaves and inflorescences; B: secondary veins at first run beside midvein on adaxial leaf surface; C: adaxial leaf surface; D: abaxial leaf surface; E: inflorescence bracts, outer (left) to inner (right); F: abaxial bract surface, showing 2 trichome types; G: 5 sepals from outer (left) to innermost (right); H: opened corolla with 5 stamens; I: single stamen; J: pistil, showing undulate disk and biglobose stigma; K: filament insertion showing dense covering of straight, hispid trichomes; L: fruits (right) and fruit with sepals (left); M: seeds in side view (left) and top view (right). – All drawn by N. Chitchak from voucher specimens Fujikawa & al. 95008 (QBG) (A–K), Kuroiwa & al. 30480 (MBK) (L–M).

Argyreia decemloba Traiperm, Fujikawa & Staples, sp. nov.  

Holotype: Myanmar, Chin State, Mindat Township, ...

Diagnosis — Three species of Argyreia are known to have a white or pale yellow corolla with a deep red or purple-black colour inside at the base of the tube as well as a 10-lobed limb: A. barbata (Wall.) Raizada; A. maymyensis (Lace) Raizada; and A. decemloba (Table 1). Argyreia barbata and A. maymyensis have quite narrow, linear inflorescence- and floral bracts that do not cover up the calyx and corolla base; the hispid-hirsute indumentum of A. barbata, composed of dense, bristly hairs may obscure the floral organs underneath. In contrast, A. decemloba has broad, laminar inflorescence- and floral bracts that cover the floral organs underneath; the abaxial surface of the bracts has a completely different, dimorphic indumentum composed of two different trichome types (Table 1).

Fig. 2. Argyreia decemloba inflorescence and corolla details
– A, B: plant habit (voucher: Fujikawa & al. 95008); C: flower in frontal view, showing 10-lobed corolla limb, included genitalia, and reddish interior of corolla tube; D: inflorescence and flower in lateral view, showing capitate inflorescence with short, thick peduncle, overlapping whitish bracts, and triangular-funnelform corolla shape (voucher: Fujikawa & al. 94296). – All photographs by C. Maknoi.

Distribution and ecology — So far known only from Chin State, Myanmar, occurring at elevations of (740–)1025–1200(–1530) m. A high-climbing twiner in trees and shrubs inhabiting open, sunny places such as roadsides, footpaths in secondary forest, edges of deciduous forest, clearings in evergreen forest, and in semi-evergreen forest; preferring moist soils along streams or the banks of rivers. The soil type has not been reported.

Etymology — The specific epithet recognizes the distinctive 10-lobed corolla limb.

Paweena Traiperm, Kazumi Fujikawa, Natthaphong Chitchak, Prachaya Srisanga, Charun Maknoi and George Staples. 2019. A New Species of Argyreia (Convolvulaceae) from Myanmar. Willdenowia.  49(1); 65–70.  DOI: 10.3372/wi.49.49108  

Tuesday, April 23, 2019

[Ichthyology / Behaviour • 2019] Cryptic Habitat Use of White Sharks Carcharodon carcharias in Kelp Forest revealed by Animal-borne Video

a white shark Carcharodon carcharias 
encountering Cape fur seals Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus in kelp canopy. 

in Jewell, Gleiss, Jorgensen, et al., 2019.

Traditional forms of marine wildlife research are often restricted to coarse telemetry or surface-based observations, limiting information on fine-scale behaviours such as predator–prey events and interactions with habitat features. We use contemporary animal-attached cameras with motion sensing dataloggers, to reveal novel behaviours by white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, within areas of kelp forest in South Africa. All white sharks tagged in this study spent time adjacent to kelp forests, with several moving throughout densely kelp-covered areas, navigating through channels and pushing directly through stipes and fronds. We found that activity and turning rates significantly increased within kelp forest. Over 28 h of video data revealed that white shark encounters with Cape fur seals, Arctocephalus pusillus pusillus, occurred exclusively within kelp forests, with seals displaying predator evasion behaviour during those encounters. Uniquely, we reveal the use of kelp forest habitat by white sharks, previously assumed inaccessible to these large predators.

Keywords: biologging, animal-borne video and environmental data collection systems (AVEDs), foraging, camera tags

Figure 2. Still-picture frames of a white shark encountering Cape fur seals in kelp canopy. (a) AVED footage of a white shark (Shark 5) encountering Cape fur seals. (b) The seals respond to the shark's presence by hunkering to the sea floor and blowing bubble streams as the shark passes overhead or swimming further into the kelp. (c) The shark swims through the bubbles, (d) then through kelp. (e) The shark pursues the seals, making contact with dense kelp fronds at several points and pushing through them. (f) At least three Cape fur seals (indicated by red arrows) are seen taking refuge in the canopy area of the kelp forest fronds and successfully avoiding the white shark.

Oliver J. D. Jewell , Adrian C. Gleiss , Salvador J. Jorgensen , Samantha Andrzejaczek , Jerry H. Moxley , Stephen J. Beatty , Martin Wikelski , Barbara A. Block  and Taylor K. Chapple. 2019. Cryptic Habitat Use of White Sharks in Kelp Forest revealed by Animal-borne Video.  Biology Letters.  DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2019.0085  
Shark's-Eye-View Video Captures Epic Seal Chase Through Kelp Forest via @LiveScience

Monday, April 22, 2019

[Herpetology • 2019] A Species-level Phylogeny of Trachylepis (Scincidae: Mabuyinae) provides insight into their Reproductive Mode Evolution

Phylogeny of Trachylepis 
in Weinell, Branch, Colston, et al., 2019. 

• Species-level phylogeny of Trachylepis inferred. 
• Oviparity inferred as ancestral reproductive condition for Trachylepis.
• Multiple reproductive mode transitions supported within Trachylepis.
• Best-fit model supports controversial viviparity to oviparity transitions.

Trachylepis (Mabuyinae) includes 80 species of fully-limbed skinks found primarily in Africa and Madagascar, but a robust species-level phylogeny for this genus is lacking and this impedes studies on a wide-range of topics from biogeography to character evolution. Trachylepis and its close relatives (which together form the Mabuya group or Mabuyinae) are notable in that they have undergone multiple transitions and remarkable specializations in their reproductive modes. A Trachylepis phylogeny will be particularly useful for investigating reproductive evolution, because it includes species that exhibit oviparity, viviparity, and bimodal parity (species with both oviparous and viviparous populations). We sequenced DNA at four mitochondrial and five nuclear loci for 67 (84% of) Trachylepis species to infer a phylogeny for this genus. We performed stochastic character mapping of parity mode under a variety of parity mode transition models to infer ancestral parity mode states and the number and type of parity mode transitions. We recovered a strongly supported phylogeny of Trachylepis that is generally consistent with earlier phylogenetic studies. The best-fit model of reproductive mode evolution supports an oviparous ancestor for Trachylepis, and supports at least three viviparity to oviparity transitions. We compared parity mode evolution under the overall best-fit model (no constraints on parity mode transitions) to the best-fit model among the subset of models that assume viviparity to oviparity transitions are impossible. Our results support a model of reproductive evolution that allows for reversibility from viviparity to oviparity, a process that is not generally accepted. Alternatively, the best-fit model of evolution among the set of models that eliminate reversals from viviparity to oviparity suggests that bimodal reproduction may have persisted for millions of years within multiple lineages.

Keywords: Dollo’s law, Viviparity, Oviparity, Bimodal parity, Stochastic character mapping, Squamata


Jeffrey L. Weinell, William R. Branch, Timothy J. Colston, Todd R. Jackman, Arianna Kuhn, Werner Conradie and Aaron M. Bauer. 2019. A Species-level Phylogeny of Trachylepis (Scincidae: Mabuyinae) provides insight into their Reproductive Mode Evolution.  Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 136; 183-195.  DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2019.04.002  

Saturday, April 20, 2019

[Ichthyology • 2019] Tanichthys kuehnei • A New Species (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from Central Vietnam

Tanichthys kuehnei
Bohlen, Dvorák, Thang & Šlechtová, 2019

Tanichthys kuehnei, new species, is described from a stream in the Bach Ma Mountains in Hue Province in Central Vietnam. The new species differs from its congeners by having more branched rays in anal fin (9 1/2 vs. 7-8 1/2 in T. micagemmae and 8 1/2 in T. albonubes and T. thacbaensis). Morphological and genetic characters suggest it to be closer related to T. micagemmae, the only other species of Tanichthys known from Central Vietnam. Tanichthys kuehnei differs from T. micagemmae by having a white anal-fin margin (vs. red).

Jörg Bohlen, Tomáš Dvorák, Ha Nam Thang and Vendula Šlechtová. 2019. Tanichthys kuehnei, New Species, from Central Vietnam (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters. DOI: 10.23788/IEF-1081

[Botany • 2019] Begonia rheophytica (Begoniaceae) • A New Species of Begonia from northern Myanmar with An Updated Checklist of Begonia in Myanmar

 Begonia rheophytica M.Hughes

in Hughes, Aung & Armstrong, 2019. 

A new species, Begonia rheophytica Platycentrum), is described from northern Myanmar; it was initially confused with B. rhoephila, which is confined to Peninsular Malaysia. Comparison with other species with a rheophytic leaf shape is made. This new addition brings the number of currently recognised Begonia species in Myanmar to 73. An updated checklist of Myanmar Begonia species is also included.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Hkakaborazi National Park, Kachin State, Myanmar, taxonomy

FIG . 1.  Begonia rheophytica M.Hughes, sp. nov. A, Habit in the field (note water level at the base of the image); B, abaxial surface of petiole, showing short curled hairs; C, inflorescence; D, adaxial (left) and abaxial (right) leaf surface.
A–D, Armstrong et al. 3041. All scale bars, 1 cm.

Begonia rheophytica M.Hughes, sp. nov. 
§ Platycentrum

Etymology. Named after the rheophytic habit of the species (rheo-, pertaining to flowing water [Greek]).

M. Hughes, M. M. Aung and K. Armstrong. 2019. An Updated Checklist and A New Species of Begonia (B. rheophytica) from Myanmar. Edinburgh Journal of Botany. DOI: 10.1017/S0960428619000052


[Herpetology • 2019] Leap-frog Dispersal and Mitochondrial Introgression: Phylogenomics and Biogeography of Limnonectes Fanged Frogs in the Lesser Sundas Archipelago of Wallacea

  (b) Limnonectes dammermani occurs on Lombok. 
(c) L. kadarsani occurs on Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Adonara and Lembata.  
(a) Map of southern Wallacea.

in Reilly, Stubbs, Karin, et al., 2019. 
  DOI: 10.1111/jbi.13526  
(Photos: J. McGuire)

Aim: The Lesser Sunda Islands are situated between the Sunda and Sahul Shelves, with a linear arrangement that has functioned as a two‐way filter for taxa dispersing between the Asian and Australo‐Papuan biogeographical realms. Distributional patterns of many terrestrial vertebrates suggest a stepping‐stone model of island colonization. Here we investigate the timing and sequence of island colonization in Asian‐origin fanged frogs from the volcanic Sunda Arc islands with the goal of testing the stepping‐stone model of island colonization.

Location: The Indonesian islands of Java, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores and Lembata.

Taxon: Limnonectes dammermani and L. kadarsani (Family: Dicroglossidae)

Mitochondrial DNA was sequenced from 153 frogs to identify major lineages and to select samples for an exon‐capture experiment. We designed probes to capture sequence data from 974 exonic loci (1,235,981 bp) from 48 frogs including the outgroup species, L. microdiscus. The resulting data were analysed using phylogenetic, population genetic and biogeographical model testing methods.

The mtDNA phylogeny finds L. kadarsani paraphyletic with respect to L. dammermani, with a pectinate topology consistent with the stepping‐stone model. Phylogenomic analyses of 974 exons recovered the two species as monophyletic sister taxa that diverged ~7.6 Ma with no detectable contemporary gene flow, suggesting introgression of the L. dammermani mitochondrion into L. kadarsani on Lombok resulting from an isolated ancient hybridization event ~4 Ma. Within L. kadarsani, the Lombok lineage diverged first while the Sumbawa and Lembata lineages are nested within a Flores assemblage composed of two parapatrically distributed lineages meeting in central Flores. Biogeographical model comparison found strict stepping‐stone dispersal to be less likely than models involving leap‐frog dispersal events.

Main conclusions: 
These results suggest that the currently accepted stepping‐stone model of island colonization might not best explain the current patterns of diversity in the archipelago. The high degree of genetic structure, large divergence times, and absent or low levels of migration between lineages suggests that L. kadarsani represents five distinct species.

Keywords: amphibians, exon‐capture, genomics, Indonesia island, biogeography, phylogeography

Figure 1: (a) Map of southern Wallacea. (b) Limnonectes dammermani occurs on Lombok and (c) L. kadarsani occurs on Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Adonara and Lembata (Photos: J. McGuire)

Sean B. Reilly, Alexander L. Stubbs, Benjamin R. Karin, Ke Bi, Evy Arida, Djoko T. Iskandar and Jimmy A. McGuire. 2019. Leap-frog Dispersal and Mitochondrial Introgression: Phylogenomics and Biogeography of Limnonectes Fanged Frogs in the Lesser Sundas Archipelago of Wallacea. Journal of Biogeography. DOI: 10.1111/jbi.13526   

Friday, April 19, 2019

[Herpetology • 2019] Rediscovery of Cnemaspis nilagirica (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Kerala, India with Notes on Morphology and Distribution

Cnemaspis nilagirica Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita et Pethiyagoda, 2007

in Cyriac, Johny, Umesh, et al., 2019. 

Cnemaspis nilagirica was described by Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita and Pethiyagoda in 2007 based on a single female specimen that was a syntype of Gonatodes kandianus var. tropidogaster described by Boulenger in 1885. However, a living population of this species has not been reported since its original description by Boulenger. Based on fresh material and comparisons with the holotype of C. nilagirica, we here report the collection of this species after over 130 years. We provide the first description of a male specimen and additional information on morphological variation, distribution and natural history.

Keywords: Reptilia, Day geckos, Nilgiri Hills, Western Ghats

FIGURE 3. Colour in life of male Cnemaspis nilagirica (ZSI/WGRC/IR.V/2710)
A. dorsal view; B. ventral view.

Vivek Philip Cyriac, Alex Johny, Pavukandy Umesh, Muhamed Jafer Palot and Patrick D. Campbell. 2019. Rediscovery of Cnemaspis nilagirica Manamendra-Arachchi, Batuwita and Pethiyagoda, 2007 (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Kerala, India with Notes on Morphology and Distribution. Zootaxa. 4586(1); 98–108. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4586.1.4