Wednesday, January 29, 2020

[Arachnida • 2020] Tliltocatl gen. nov. • Systematic Revision of Mexican Threatened Tarantulas Brachypelma (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae), with A Description of A New Genus, and Implications on the Conservation

A, B, C: Brachypelma boehmei 
D: Tliltocatl kahlenbergi
F: Tliltocatl schroeder

in Mendoza & Francke, 2020. 
 Photos: J. Mendoza & E. Goyer.

The tarantula genus Brachypelma includes colourful species that are highly sought after in the commercial pet trade. They are all included in CITES appendix II. We present phylogenetic analyses using molecular and morphological characters to revise Brachypelma, in which we include all currently known species. Our results agree with a previous study that shows the non-monophyly of Brachypelma. Both phylogenies strongly favour the division of Brachypelma into two smaller genera. The first clade (Brachypelma s.s.) is formed by B.albiceps, B. auratum, B. baumgarteni, B. boehmei, B. emilia, B. hamorii, B. klaasi and B. smithi. The species included in the second clade are transferred to the new genus Tliltocatl and is formed by T. albopilosum comb. nov., T. epicureanum comb. nov., T. kahlenbergi comb. nov., T. sabulosum comb. nov., T. schroederi comb. nov., T. vagans comb. nov. and T. verdezi comb. nov. Both genera can be differentiated by their coloration and the shape of the genitalia. We transfer to Tliltocatl: T. alvarezi, T. andrewi and T. aureoceps, but should be considered as nomina dubia. In addition, we transfer B. fossorium to Stichoplastoris. We discuss the implications of these taxonomical changes for CITES and for the Mexican Laws for wildlife protection.

Keywords: distribution, geography, genus revision, mitochondrial DNA, new genera, phylogenetic nomenclature, phylogenetics

Distribution map of formerly known Brachypelma redleg (s.s.) and red rump (s.l.) species complex with more accurate distribution areas based on museum specimens. Biogeographic regions of distribution for Mexican species is indicated. Circles = red leg complex; squares = red rump complex; diamond = Brachypelma fossorium, which actually does not belong to any of the mentioned groups.

Figure 22. A–C, Brachypelma boehmei, habitus; D, habitat. A, male; B, female with black around ocular area; C, female with black lateral areas on ocular regions;
D, deciduous forest and shrubland in the habitat of B. boehmei.
Photos: A, B, D, J. Mendoza; C, E. Goyer.

Figure 42. A–F, Tliltocatl spp, habitus.
 A–B, Tliltocatl epicureanum: A, male from type locality (Yucatán); B, female from type locality (Yucatán).
C–D, Tliltocatl kahlenbergi: C, female (Veracruz); D, male (Oaxaca);
E–F, Tliltocatl schroeder: E, female (Oaxaca); F, male (Oaxaca). Photos: J. Mendoza.

Tliltocatl Mendoza & Francke, gen. nov.

Etymology: The genus gender is masculine. The name is a noun in apposition comprising the Nahuatl words Tlil, which means ‘black’, and tocatl, which means ‘spider’, referring to the black coloration of species in the genus.

Jorge Mendoza and Oscar Francke. 2020. Systematic Revision of Mexican Threatened Tarantulas Brachypelma (Araneae: Theraphosidae: Theraphosinae), with A Description of A New Genus, and Implications on the Conservation. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 188(1); 82–147. DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz046 


[Entomology • 2020] Vates phoenix • A New Species and First Record of Vates Burmeister, 1838 (Mantodea: Mantidae: Vatinae) from the Atlantic Rainforest

Vates phoenix 
 Rivera, Herculano, Lanna, Cavalcante & Teixeira, 2020

A new species of praying mantis, Vates phoenix sp. nov. (Mantidae, Vatinae), is described from localities within Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo states, Brazil. This is the first record of Vates from the Atlantic Rainforest biome. The new species is unique among its congeners in having, among other features, strongly reduced cuticular projections above the lateral ocelli, structures otherwise well developed and produced in all other species of Vates. Remarks on the natural history and biogeography of Vates, in relation to this new finding, are further discussed.

Keywords: Atlantic Rainforest; new species; Mantodea; Vatinae; natural history

Class Insecta Linnaeus, 1758 
Order Mantodea Burmeister, 1838 

Family Mantidae Latreille, 1802 
Subfamily Vatinae Stål, 1877 
Tribe Vatini Stål, 1877 

Genus Vates Burmeister, 1838 

Fig. 2. Adults of Vates phoenix sp. nov. 
A–B. Live specimens photographed in a studio. A. Paratype, ♂, from Reserva Ecológica de Guapiaçu (MNRJ-ENT6-28446). B. Allotype, ♀, from Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro (MNRJ-ENT6-28442). – C–D. Pinned adults. C. Holotype, ♂, from Fazenda Recanto (MNRJ-ENT6-28441). D. Allotype, ♀ (MNRJ-ENT6-28442). Scale bars: C–D = 10 mm.

Vates phoenix sp. nov. 

 Diagnosis: The new species can be easily recognized by the following combination of characters: i) cuticular projections above lateral ocelli strongly reduced (almost entirely missing in some specimens); ii) antennomeres of males asymmetrical (s-shaped); iii) hindwing of females with large, yellowish white and partially opaque area that spreads over most or part of the membrane; iv) anterodorsal lobe of hind tibiae at least 50% the length of tibial length (i.e., not narrowly restricted to its middle section). 

Etymology: The specific epithet refers to the Phoenix, a mythical, immortal creature that is born again from its own ashes after being consumed by fire. The new species is a homage to the Museu Nacional of Rio de Janeiro, which was destroyed during a massive fire on September 2, 2018. The entire entomological collection, representing more than 5 million specimens, was destroyed, including all praying mantis specimens. Only a few specimens of Vates borrowed in the context of this study, including our new species, survived the event. Vates phoenix sp. nov. thus symbolically attempts to link the past and the future of the Museu Nacional, as it represents the rebirth of the Mantodea collection and our hopes for the revival of an even stronger institution in the not too distant future.
Fig. 8. Habitus of Vates phoenix sp. nov. Adult female is portrayed upside-down with raptorial legs stretched forward, perching on Licania tomentosa (Benth.) Fritsch. (‘oiti’), an arboreal species distinct from the Atlantic Rainforest and abundant within the general area where the female allotype was found. A male specimen is depicted flying, as they often are on the wings through adulthood. Scientific illustration executed by Paulo Ormindo, based on observations of wild specimens.

Julio Rivera, João Felipe Herculano, Leonardo Moutinho Lanna, Sávio Cavalcante and Maria Lúcia França Teixeira. 2020. A New Species and First Record of Vates Burmeister, 1838 from the Atlantic Rainforest (Mantodea: Vatinae). European Journal of Taxonomy. 598; 1–25. DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2020.598

Pesquisadores batizam nova espécie de louva-a-deus da Mata Atlântica em homenagem ao Museu Nacional via @natgeobrasil

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

[Botany • 2020] Impatiens gongchengensis (Balsaminaceae) • A New Species from Guangxi, Southern China

Impatiens gongchengensis Z.C. Lu, B. Pan & Yan Liu

in Lu, Pan, Huang & Liu, 2020.

Impatiens gongchengensis Z.C. Lu, B. Pan & Yan Liu is described and illustrated as a new species in northeastern Guangxi, China. This new species is similar to Impatiens platychlaena Hook.f., Impatiens soulieana Hook.f. and Impatiens faberi Hook.f., but differs in having stipitate glands at leaves base, 4–5 pairs of lateral veins, pale purple or purple-red flowers and the shape of the flower.

Keyword: Balsaminaceae, China, Impatiens faberi, Impatiens platychlaena, Impatiens soulieana, morphology, taxonomy

Fig. 1. Impatiens gongchengensis Z.C. Lu, B. Pan & Yan Liu
A. Flowering twig, B. Leaf base dorsal view with stipitate glands, C. Flower lateral view, D. Lateral sepals, E. Upper petal dorsal view, F. and H. Lateral united petals, G. Lip side view, I. Stamens and pistils, J. Capsule.

Fig. 2. Impatiens gongchengensis Z.C. Lu, B. Pan & Yan Liu
A. Habitat, B. Habit, C. Flower face view, D. Flower side view, E. Flower dorsal view, F. Dissected floral parts, G. Lateral united petal, H. Seed, I. Capsule.

Impatiens gongchengensis Z.C. Lu, B. Pan & Yan Liu, sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Impatiens gongchengensis is similar to Impatiens platychlaena Hook.f. (1908), Impatiens soulieana Hook.f. (1908) and Impatiens faberi Hook.f. (1910), but it is distinct from the three latter species in its having stipitate glands at leaves base, 4–5 pairs of lateral veins; pale purple or purple-red flowers, upper petal oblate, abaxial midvein thickened, narrowly carinate, beak-like, purple-red, 2-lobed lateral united petals, with a filamentous long hair at apex of base lobes and distal lobes. 

Etymology: The specific epithet gongchengensis refers to the type locality of this species. 

Notes: Impatiens gongchengensis is easily distinguished from the other species of Impatiens by having stipitate glands at leaves base; 4–5 pairs of lateral veins; pale purple or purple-red flowers; 2-lobed lateral united petals, lobes with a filamentous long hair at apex; basal lobes ovate, purple spotted; distal lobes dolabriform, purple striate, apex obtuse. 
More detailed morphological dissimilarities between I. gongchengensis and its related species are presented in Table 1.

Zhao-Cen Lu, Bo Pan, Fu-Zhao Huang and Yan Liu. 2020. Impatiens gongchengensis (Balsaminaceae), A New Species from Guangxi, Southern China. Taiwania. 65(1); 1-4.  DOI:  10.6165/tai.2020.65.1


[Invertebrate • 2020] Keratosminthurus tapigu & K. calamitosus • A New Highly Dimorphic Genus of Sminthuridae (Collembola: Symphypleona) from Brazil

 Keratosminthurus calamitosus 
Zeppelini, Brito, Zampaulo & Lima, 2020

A new genus and two new species of Sminthurinae are described. Keratosminthurus tapigu gen. nov. sp. nov. and K. calamitosus sp. nov. show a combination of features that redefines the subfamily Sminthurinae, such as a pair of sminthuroid chaetae, unguis without cavity, nine apical chaetae on tibiotarsus, 11 or more anterior dental chaetae, fourth antennal segment clearly subdivided into many (18 or more) subsegments, and asymmetric apex of mucro. The new genus also presents a striking sexual dimorphism, with modifications on male apical organ of antennal segment III, spines on the clypeus and special organs on the interocular area.

Keywords: Collembola, Globular springtails, Keratosminthurus gen. nov., new species, Sminthurinae, Temeritas

Douglas Zeppelini, Roniere A. Brito, Robson Zampaulo and Estevam C. A. Lima. 2020. A New Highly Dimorphic Genus of Sminthuridae (Collembola: Symphypleona) from Brazil. Zootaxa. 4729(1); 25–46. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4729.1.2

Monday, January 27, 2020

[Ichthyology • 2020] Platygobiopsis hadiatyae • A New Species of Deepwater Gobiid (Gobiidae, Gobiinae) from east Sunda Strait, Indonesia

Platygobiopsis hadiatyae
 Larson, Jaafar, Hui & Peristiwady, 2020

 The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 68

 A new species of the gobiid genus Platygobiopsis Springer & Randall, 1992, is described based on a single specimen collected via dredge deployed at a depth range of 172 m and 182 m within the East Sunda Strait off Panaitan Island (Indonesia). The new species differs chiefly from congeners in having a scaleless (vs. scaled) chest and belly. A key to the four known species of Platygobiopsis is provided. 

Key words. Gobiidae, Gobiinae, Platygobiopsis, new species

Fig. 1. Platygobiopsis hadiatyae, new species, MZB 17230, holotype, 43.0 mm SL, photographed soon after collection; Indonesia, Panaitan Strait along the Sunda Strait. Photographs by Tan Heok Hui.

Platygobiopsis hadiatyae, new species 
Renny’s Flat Goby

Diagnosis. A very elongate, slender member of Platygobiopsis with flattened head and body, distinguished from congeners by the following combination of characters: total number of vertebrae 26; dorsal pterygiophore pattern 3-12210; sensory papillae on head in longitudinal pattern, with most papillae fleshy and forming two low fleshy ridges or folds on side of head; sensory pores on head absent; lateral scales 56; scales absent from head, predorsal, pre-pelvic area and belly; no barbels on underside of head; I,12 dorsal-fin rays; I,13 anal-fin rays; 17 pectoral-fin rays; translucent pinkish when fresh, upper part of head and body with fine dark brown speckling, fins translucent with variable brown speckling.

Distribution. Indonesia, currently only known from Panaitan Strait along the Sunda Strait.

Ecology. Large polychaetes, many tube worms, molluscs, crustacea, and ophiuroids came up in the dredge with the goby. The dredge started at 182 m and was lifted at 172 m (after 14 minutes of bottom time), over mud and clay bottom.

 Etymology. This species is named for our dear colleague Renny Kurnia Hadiaty, who died too soon (21 August 1960 to 30 January 2019). She co-authored 19 gobioid species names in addition to many other taxa. 

Helen K. Larson, Zeehan Jaafar, Tan Heok Hui and Teguh Peristiwady. 2020. Platygobiopsis hadiatyae, A New Species of Deepwater Gobiid from Indonesia (Teleostei, Gobiidae, Gobiinae). The Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 68; 14-18. 

[Botany • 2020] Genlisea hawkingii (Lentibulariaceae) • A New Species from Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil

Genlisea hawkingii S.R.Silva, B.J.Płachno & V.Miranda

in Silva, Płachno, Carvalho & Miranda, 2020.

Genlisea hawkingii, which is a new species of Genlisea subgen. Tayloria (Lentibulariaceae) from cerrado in southwest Brazil, is described and illustrated. This species has been found in only one locality thus far, in the Serra da Canastra, which is located in the Delfinópolis municipality in Minas Gerais, Brazil. The new species is morphologically similar to Genlisea violacea and G. flexuosa, but differs from them in having a corolla with a conical and curved spur along with sepals with an acute apex and reproductive organs that only have glandular hairs. Moreover, it is similar to G. uncinata’s curved spur. G. hawkingii is nested within the subgen. Tayloria clade as a sister group to all the other species of this subgenus. Therefore, both morphological and phylogenetic results strongly support G. hawkingii as a new species in the subgen. Tayloria.

Fig 1. Genlisea hawkingii S.R.Silva, B.J.Płachno & V.Miranda.
A. Habit. B. Rhizophyll. C. Glabrous leaf. D. Glandular capitate hairs. E. Open corolla, lateral view. F. Corolla, front view. G. Calyx. H. Capsule. 

Fig 2. Genlisea hawkingii S.R.Silva, B.J.Płachno & V.Miranda
A. Habitat. B. Habit of the plant in Delfinópolis, Minas Gerais (Brazil). C. Corolla, front view. D. Corolla, lateral view. E. Dry infructescence. The pedicel twist upward. F. Immature fruit. G. Mature fruit. Pedicels bent upward. H. A rosette with two scapes. I. A rosette with photosynthetic leaves (above) and rhizophylls (below).

Genlisea hawkingii S.R.Silva, B.J.Płachno & V.Miranda, sp. nov. 

Diagnosis: Similar to Genlisea violacea A.St.-Hil. and G. flexuosa Rivadavia, A.Fleischm. & Gonella, but it is distinct for the dark green leaves having a glabrous lamina and the flower that has a long conical spur with a curved apex, acute sepals apex and reproductive organs that are exclusively covered with glandular hairs.

Etymology: The species epithet ‘hawkingii’ was attributed as homage to the great English theoretical physicist and cosmologist, Stephen William Hawking, who died on March 14, 2018. We were impressed with his life’s trajectory and his outstanding discoveries in cosmology. He became a signpost not only for other scientists but for all people.

Saura Rodrigues Silva, Bartosz Jan Płachno, Samanta Gabriela Medeiros Carvalho and Vitor Fernandes Oliveira Miranda. 2020. Genlisea hawkingii (Lentibulariaceae), A New Species from Serra da Canastra, Minas Gerais, Brazil. PLoS ONE. 15(1): e0226337. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0226337

[Botany • 2019] Pecteilis korigadensis (Orchidaceae: Orchidoideae) • A New Terrestrial Orchid from the northern Western Ghats, India

Pecteilis korigadensis Jalal & Jayanthi

in Jalal & Janakiraman, 2019.

The Western Ghats are a global biodiversity hotspot and treasure trove of biological diversity. They harbour many endemic species of flowering plants and also form an important centre of evolution of economically important domesticated plant species. Certain identified parts of the Western Ghats have been included in the UNESCO World Natural Heritage list because they are considered as cradle of evolution (MOEF&CC 2015). Although the Western Ghats cover only 5% of the country’s total land area, they also are a habitat for more than 7000 or 27% of the total plant species in India. The number of endemic plant species in the Western Ghats is estimated to be 2253 (Nayar et al. 2014).This natural landscape exhibits wide variation in rainfall coupled with complex geography, forming a vast diversity of vegetation types (Chitale et al. 2014) and supporting a rich orchid diversity. To date, 306 species of orchids have been recorded from the Western Ghats (Nayar et al. 2014), nearly one-third of them endemic. These orchids are mainly found in semi-evergreen forest, shola forest and lateritic plateaus. The Western Ghats region has been a site of intense taxonomic activity, and due to plant explorations by several researchers there has been discovery of many new species and reports (Kumar et al. 2016, Jayanthi et al. 2017). In the past fifty years (1950–2000), more than 27 species of orchids have been discovered in the Western Ghats, and the species discovery curve has not yet attained an asymptote (Aravind et al., 2007). 

FIGURE 2. Pecteilis korigadensis in its natural habitat with inflorescence details.

Pecteilis korigadensis Jalal & Jayanthi, sp. nov.  

Etymology:— Named after the type locality, which is well known for the famous Korigad Fort, a place of historic importance associated with Maratha ruler, Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. 

  Jeevan Singh Jalal and Jayanthi Janakiraman. 2019. Pecteilis korigadensis (Orchidaceae: Orchidoideae), A New Terrestrial Orchid from the northern Western Ghats, India. Phytotaxa. 388(2); 167–173. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.388.2.3
एक नवीन आणि लक्षवेधी ऑर्किड – पेक्टिलिस कोरीगडेन्सीस

[Entomology • 2020] Pseudolebinthus lunipterus • A Striking Deaf and Mute New Cricket (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Eneopterinae) from Malawi

Pseudolebinthus lunipterus 
 Salazar, Murphy, Guillaume, Nattier & Robillard, 2020 

This article presents an intriguing new cricket species of the tribe Xenogryllini discovered in Northern Malawi. This is the first case of mute and deaf species in the subfamily Eneopterinae; it shows no stridulatory apparatus on short male forewings and no tympana on either side of fore tibiae in both sexes. We introduce the new species and its complete mitogenome and assess phylogenetic relationships based on molecular data obtained from next-generation sequencing genome skimming method. Phylogenetic analyses place the new species within the genus Pseudolebinthus in Xenogryllini, as the sister species of Pseudolebinthus gorochovi Robillard. We describe Pseudolebinthus lunipterus sp. nov., provide illustrations of main morphology, male and female genitalia, photographs of living specimens and information about habitat and update the identification key for species of genus Pseudolebinthus. We discuss the differences between the new species and related taxa and the striking loss of acoustic communication in this cricket.

Insecta Linnaeus, 1758
Orthoptera Olivier, 1789
Gryllidae Laicharting, 1781
Eneopterinae Saussure, 1874

Xenogryllini Robillard, 2004

Genus Pseudolebinthus Robillard, 2006
Type species: Pseudolebinthus africanus Robillard, 2006

Figure 1: Pseudolebinthus lunipterus sp. nov.
 (A) Male habitus on low vegetation at night; (B) natural habitat indicated by a green arrow (left) and location of Malawi on simplified map of Africa (left); (C) type locality in Malawi. Photo Tony Robillard.

Pseudolebinthus lunipterus sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Size small, mostly dark brown with pale wings (Figs. 1, 3 and 4). Among Eneopterinae genera, the new species presents the characteristics of Pseudolebinthus: large lateral eyes (Figs. 5A–5C); brachypterous FWs barely reaching quarter of abdomen length in males (Figs. 4 and 6), shorter in females where it forms pale narrow crescents (Figs. 4 and 5D); male genitalia with long sclerotized lophi, close to that of P. gorochovi (Figs. 8 and 9); female ovipositor little differentiated but less pointed and thicker than in P. gorochovi (Fig. 10A). The new species is characterized by complete absence of tympana (unique feature among eneopterines) (Figs. 7A and 7B), absence of stridulatory apparatus on male FWs (Fig. 6), abdomen ventrally yellow with a wide black stripe (Fig. 5F), thick and short female ovipositor (Fig. 4D), and differences in male genitalia, including shape of pseudepiphallic parameres, shape of sclerite in ectophallic fold and endophallic apodeme with anterior lateral expansions.

Type locality. North Malawi, Mount Uzumara, ..., 1,941 m.

Distribution. The species is only known from the type locality in Northern Malawi (Fig. 1C).

Etymology. The species name refers to the whitish wings, rounded in males and crescent-shaped in females, which look like tiny moons on the back of the dark body of these crickets when encountered at night.

Habitat and life history. Pseudolebinthus lunipterus lives on low vegetation in herbaceous areas near forest hedge or in open areas along trails in forest (Figs. 1A and 1B). Adults and juveniles have been found active at night on top of vegetation, but can also be found lower within vegetation during the day. Remarkably, the species lives in syntopy with P. gorochovi in the type locality, where adults and juveniles of both species are quite abundant. One juvenile specimen of P. lunipterus has been observed eating a dead insect on a low leaf on vegetation (Fig. 11B).

Females maintained in controlled laboratory conditions (20–22 °C, 14–10 day–night cycle) with a single male produced 46–50 offspring (n = 2) during their life; first hatchings started 42–49 days after first mating and occurred on a period of 35–66 days.

Figure 11: Live photos of Pseudolebinthus lunipterus sp. nov.
(A) Female on vegetation; (B) subadult male eating a dead insect on a leaf at night; (C) first instar juvenile. Photos (A and B) Tony Robillard and (C) Karen Salazar.

Conclusion: Crickets of Malawi
The diversity of crickets in Eastern Africa in general, and Malawi in particular, has been underestimated, understudied and undersampled. This is at least the case for the members of the tribe Xenogryllini which were recently revised (Jaiswara, Dong & Robillard, 2018, 2019; Jaiswara et al., 2019). Despite the large amount of data considered in these systematic studies (several hundreds of specimens studied across the study of the largest natural history museum collections), they gathered very little information about the species of Pseudolebinthus, known by a few specimens each.

A single recent field trip in Malawi allowed us to re-discover two of the previously described species of the genus, which are in fact common species, and it allowed documenting the acoustic features of their calling songs and their ecology (T. Robillard et al., 2020, in prep.). Interestingly, these findings allowed us to discover P. lunipterus, a completely different new species belonging to the Xenogryllini lineage, but with strikingly new morphological features. This finding reveals that more taxa probably remain unrecorded in the whole Eastern African region, as suggested by the large amount of new species and genera recently discovered in this region for other clades of orthopteran insects (Hemp et al., 2018; Hemp & Heller, 2019). More taxonomic surveys with appropriate collecting methods in regions where there is zero record about these crickets, such as other regions of Malawi, but also Zimbabwe, Zambia, Western Mozambique and Northern South Africa, are thus necessary to explore this part of African biodiversity.

Karen Salazar, Raymond J. Murphy, Marion Guillaume, Romain Nattier and Tony Robillard​. 2020. 
Pseudolebinthus lunipterus sp. nov.: A Striking Deaf and Mute New Cricket from Malawi (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Eneopterinae). PeerJ. 8:e8204. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.8204

[Crustacea • 2019] Acutocoxae ogilvieae • A New Southern Ocean Species in the Remarkable and Rare Amphipod Family Podosiridae (Crustacea: Amphipoda) questions existing Systematic Hypotheses

Acutocoxae ogilvieae Horton, Ashford & Thurston

in Ashford, Horton, ... et Brandt, 2019.

The amphipod family Podosiridae is unusual in that it combines morphological elements of the disparate families Podoceridae and Eusiridae. Here, we describe a new species in the family from specimens collected from the Southern Ocean in the vicinity of the South Orkney Islands and South Shetland Islands. We present mitochondrial (COI and 16S) and nuclear (18S) nucleic acid sequences for this and a congeneric species and use these to investigate the phylogenetic placement of Podosiridae within the Amphipoda. Our results do not provide evidence for a close relationship between Podosiridae and Podoceridae or Eusiridae, suggesting that the superficial similarity between these families is the result of morphological convergence. Instead, it is likely that Podosiridae are more closely related to families within Amphilochidira, such as Stenothoidae. Definitive placement of Podosiridae in the Amphipoda awaits further specimen collection, additional nucleotide data (including sequences from the Hyperiopsidae and the Vitjazianidae) and a more directed analysis of relationships within this portion of the amphipod phylogeny.

Keywords: Acutocoxae ogilvieae, molecular phylogeny, South Orkney Islands

Figure 2. Photograph of Acutocoxae ogilvieae holotype; adult female, 25.3 mm, lateral view. 

Figure 6. Acutocoxae ogilvieae holotype; adult female, 25.3 mm, habitus, lateral view.

Order Amphipoda Latreille, 1816 
Suborder Hyperiopsidea Bovallius, 1886 
Infraorder Hyperiopsida Bovallius, 1886 
Parvorder Podosiridira Lowry & Myers, 2012 

Superfamily Podosirioidea Lowry & Myers, 2012

Family Podosiridae Lowry & Myers, 2012 (amended) 
Debroyeridae Rauschert, 2017: 11 (nomen nudum)

Genus Acutocoxae Rauschert, 2017 (amended) 
Type species: Acutocoxae weddellensis Rauschert, 2017.

Acutocoxae ogilvieae Horton, Ashford & Thurston sp. nov.

Etymology This species is named as a noun in a genitive case after the maiden name (Ogilvie) of Imogen Catherine Rachel Ashford, wife to author O.S.A. 

Oliver S. Ashford, Tammy Horton, Christopher N. Roterman, Michael H. Thurston, Huw J. Griffiths and Angelika Brandt. 2019. A New Southern Ocean Species in the Remarkable and Rare Amphipod Family Podosiridae (Crustacea: Amphipoda) questions existing Systematic Hypotheses. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. zlz145. DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz145

New Antarctic Crustacean Species via @SeaTechnology


Saturday, January 25, 2020

[Paleontology • 2020] Allosaurus jimmadseni • A New Species of Theropod Dinosaur (Theropoda: Allosauroidea) from the lower part of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Western North America

Allosaurus jimmadseni
Chure​ & Loewen,​. 2020

Allosaurus is one of the best known theropod dinosaurs from the Jurassic and a crucial taxon in phylogenetic analyses. On the basis of an in-depth, firsthand study of the bulk of Allosaurus specimens housed in North American institutions, we describe here a new theropod dinosaur from the Upper Jurassic Morrison Formation of Western North America, Allosaurus jimmadseni sp. nov., based upon a remarkably complete articulated skeleton and skull and a second specimen with an articulated skull and associated skeleton. The present study also assigns several other specimens to this new species, Allosaurus jimmadseni, which is characterized by a number of autapomorphies present on the dermal skull roof and additional characters present in the postcrania. In particular, whereas the ventral margin of the jugal of Allosaurus fragilis has pronounced sigmoidal convexity, the ventral margin is virtually straight in Allosaurus jimmadseni. The paired nasals of Allosaurus jimmadseni possess bilateral, blade-like crests along the lateral margin, forming a pronounced nasolacrimal crest that is absent in Allosaurus fragilis.

Figure 4: Lateral view of the skull of the holotype specimen of Allosaurus jimmadseni (DINO 11541). Photograph of skull (A) in left lateral view and (B) explanatory line drawing. Matrix shown as stippled in B. Photo by Dan Chure.
 Scale bar equals 10 cm. Osteological abbreviations: a, articular; an, angular; aof, antorbital fossa; aofe, antorbital fenestra; d, dentary; emf, external mandibular fenestra; j, jugal; l, lacrimal; lv, lacrimal vacuity; ltf, laterotemporal fenestra; m, maxilla; mf, maxillary fenestra; n, nasal; na, naris; nf, narial fossa (external naris); o, orbit; pa, prearticular; pm, premaxilla; pnf, perinarial fossa; po, postorbital; q, quadrate; qj, quadratojugal; sa, surangular; sf, surangular foramen; scr, sclerotic ring; sq, squamosal.

Systematic paleontology

Dinosauria Owen, 1842; sensu Padian & May, 1993
Saurischia Seeley, 1887; sensu Gauthier, 1986

Theropoda Marsh, 1881; sensu Gauthier, 1986
Tetanurae Gauthier, 1986

Allosaurioidea Currie and Zhao, 1994; sensu Carrano, Benson & Sampson, 2012
Allosauria Paul, 1988
Allosauridae Marsh, 1878; sensu Sereno, 2005

Allosaurus Marsh, 1877

Allosaurus jimmadseni Chure and Loewen sp. nov. 
(previously inudum (Chure et al. 2006))

Etymology— In honor of the late James H. Madsen, Jr and in recognition of his outstanding contributions to our knowledge of Allosaurus through his herculean efforts of protecting, excavating, preparing, and curating of many thousands of Allosaurus bones from the Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur and his masterful monograph (Madsen, 1976) of that collection.

Figure 1: Quarry map of DINO 11541. Photograph of a painted cast of parts of the skeleton and skull of DINO 11541 in their original positions with respect to each other (A) and an explanatory line drawing taken from original quarry photos (B). Photos by Dan Chure. Scale bar equals one m.

Figure 3: Skull and skeletal reconstructions of Allosaurus jimmadseni.
 Idealized skull of Allosaurus jimmadseni in lateral (A), dorsal (B) and posterior (C) views. Skeletal reconstructions of DINO 11541 (D) and MOR 693 (E). Missing elements in indicated in gray. A–C original artwork by Samantha Zimmerman; D and E are modified from artwork by Scott Hartman. Scale bar equals 10 cm for A–C; one m for D and E.
Holotype locality—DINO 11541 was recovered from locality DNM 116, east of the enclosed Carnegie Quarry in the Utah part of Dinosaur National Monument. Exact locality data are on file at Dinosaur National Monument.

Holotype horizon—DINO 11541 was recovered from the Salt Wash Member of the Upper Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) Morrison Formation. All referred specimens occur in the stratigraphically equivalent lower part of the Morrison Formation in Wyoming.

Regional horizon—Allosaurus jimmadseni was found in the Salt Wash Member of the Morrison Formation in Utah and lower part of the Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation in Wyoming and South Dakota. Allosaurus jimmadseni occurs below the “clay change” of Turner & Peterson (1999), except for at DMQ, which occurs only two m above the “clay change”.

Diagnosis—Allosaurus jimmadseni is distinguished from other basal tetanurans by the following unique combination of characters: (1) in lateral view, a row of neurovascular foramina pierce the medioventral wall of the maxillary antorbital fossa; (2) straight posteroventral jugal ramus of maxilla where it articulates with jugal; (3) laterodorsal margin of nasal “pinched” into low crest continuous from premaxilla to lacrimal; (4) posterior portion of dorsal surface of nasal cup-shaped, producing a median peak in region of nasofrontal contact; (5) relatively taller lacrimal horns than in Allosaurus fragilis; (6) jugal with relatively straight ventral margin and straight-to-slightly-curved outline in dorsal view; a well-developed distinct antarticular, and (7) axial intercentrum is rotated dorsally and has a flared rim in lateral view.

Figure 16: Skulls of Allosaurus in left lateral view.
(A) Allosaurus fragilis (DINO 2560). (B) Allosaurus jimmadseni (DINO 11541). (C) Allosaurus europeaus (ML 415). Scale bars equal 10 cm.

Based on all known data for specimens of Allosaurus, the genus contains two valid species from the Morrison Formation of North America, Allosaurus fragilis and Allosaurus jimmadseni, which are distinct from Allosaurus europeaus (Fig. 16). The jugal, maxilla and nasal of the two taxa differ in multiple characters, including features associated both with signaling structures (nasolacrimal crest in Allosaurus jimmadseni; lacrimal horn of Allosaurus fragilis) and with craniofacial modifications that more likely reflect modification under the direction of natural selection (e.g., transverse expansion of the rear portion of the skull in Allosaurus fragilis; dorsal displacement of the maxillary tooth row relative to the jaw joint in Allosaurus fragilis). Using these characters, this study assigns several specimens to Allosaurus jimmadseni. In a subsequent publication we will review all named species of Allosaurus from North America in support of our view that there are only two valid species of Allosaurus in North America, Allosaurus fragilis and Allosaurus jimmadseni.


Daniel J. Chure​ and Mark A. Loewen​​. 2020. Cranial Anatomy of Allosaurus jimmadseni, A New Species from the lower part of the Morrison Formation (Upper Jurassic) of Western North America. PeerJ. 8:e7803. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.7803

New species of Allosaurus discovered in Utah via @uofunews @EurekAlert
Remarkable New Species of Meat-Eating Jurassic Dinosaur Discovered in Utah -