Wednesday, March 22, 2023

[Botany • 2023] Mollinedia arianeae (Monimiaceae: Mollinedioideae: Mollinedieae) • A New Microendemic Species from the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil

Mollinedia arianeae Lírio & M.Pignal, 

in Lírio, Zavatin & Pignal, 2023.

In this paper we describe Mollinedia arianeae Lírio & M.Pignal, sp. nov., a new microendemic species from the Itatiaia National Park, at the Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil. The new species is most similar to M. jorgearum Peixoto and M. leucantha Molz & D.Silveira, being differentiated of them mainly by the habit, shape and colour of leaves when dried, type and indumentum of inflorescence, shape of the receptacle and margin of tepals shape in staminate flowers. We provide a morphological description, a comparison with related species, geographic distribution, comments on ecology and a preliminary extinction risk assessment. Beyond the academic readership, we believe that it is essential to promote science, technology and education in Brazil. We therefore also propose a summary in Portuguese intended for amateur botanists and students who may be interested in this work.
KEYWORDS: flora of Brazil, flora of Rio de Janeiro, morphology, tropical biodiversity, plant conservation, Endemism, extinction risk assessment, IUCN status, 

Mollinedia arianeae Lírio & M.Pignal, sp. nov.

Mollinediae jorgearum M. leucanthaeque similis, sed M. jorgearum minore altitudine (statura) (c. 3,5 m vs c. 9 m), foliorum base cuneiformi (vs obtusam vel rotundatam), foliorum apice acuto vel attenuato (vs acutum vel acuminatum), in sicco foliis discoloribus superne flavidis vel viridulis inferneque brunneolis (vs ambas pagines concolores bruneasque), floribus masculis pilis dimorphis, granulosis erectisque (vs uniformos flavescento-tomentosos), et M. leucanthae floribus masculis bracteis bracteolisque persistentibus (vs caducas), receptaculo plano (vs campanulatum), internis tepalis margine integra (vs dentatam) praecipue differt.

Elton John De Lírio, Danilo Alvarenga Zavatin and Marc Pignal. 2023. Mollinedia arianeae Lírio & M.Pignal, sp. nov. (Mollinedieae, Mollinedioideae, Monimiaceae): une nouvelle espèce microendémique de la forêt atlantique dans l'état de Rio de Janeiro, Brésil [Mollinedia arianeae Lírio & M.Pignal, sp. nov. (Mollinedieae, Mollinedioideae, Monimiaceae): A New Microendemic Species from the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil.]. Adansonia. 45(6); 83-91. DOI: 10.5252/adansonia2023v45a6

Dans cet article, nous décrivons Mollinedia arianeae Lírio & M.Pignal, sp. nov.une nouvelle espèce microendémique du Parc national d'Itatiaia, dans l'état de Rio de Janeiro, au Brésil. La nouvelle espèce est très similaire à M. jorgearum Peixoto et M. leucantha Molz & D.Silveira et se différencie d'elles principalement par le port, la forme et la couleur des feuilles une fois séchées, le type et l'indument de l'inflorescence, la forme du réceptacle et le contour des tépales des fleurs staminées. Nous fournissons une description morphologique, une comparaison avec les espèces apparentées, la distribution géographique, des commentaires sur l'écologie et une évaluation préliminaire du risque d'extinction. Au-delà du lectorat académique, nous pensons qu'il est indispensable de promouvoir la science, la technologie et l'éducation au Brésil. Nous proposons donc aussi un résumé en portugais destiné aux botanistes amateurs et aux étudiants qui pourraient être intéressés par ce travail.
Flore du Brésil, flore de Rio de Janeiro, morphologie, biodiversité tropicale, conservation des plantes, endémisme, évaluation du risque d'extinction, statut UICN, 

[Entomology • 2023] Eotrechus kerberos, E. konkakinh, E. thai, etc. • Revision of the Genus Eotrechus Kirkaldy (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Gerridae), with Descriptions of Six New Species


 Eotrechus konkakinh 
 Tran, Zettel & Sites, 2023

Species of the Asian genus Eotrechus Kirkaldy, 1902 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Gerromorpha, Gerridae, Eotrechinae) are atypical water striders because they live on the near-vertical rock surfaces of waterfalls. The taxonomy of the genus is revised and six new species are described: E. steineri sp. nov., E. kerberos sp. nov., E. thai sp. nov., E. konkakinh sp. nov., E. boukali sp. nov., and E. anderseni sp. nov. Supplementary descriptions of the apterous female and macropterous male of Efuscus Basu, Chandra & Venkatesan, 2017 are provided. Additional and updated distribution data of species of Eotrechus are reported. Eotrechus fuscus is reported from Myanmar for the first time; E. brevipes is reported from Nepal for the first time; E. hygropetricus Andersen, 1982 is reported from southern Thailand for the first time, which extends the southernmost limit of the known distribution of the genus. A revised key to the species of Eotrechus is also provided.

Key Words: Eotrechus, Gerridae, Gerromorpha, new species, taxonomy

In-situ photographs of Eotrechus.
A. E. vietnamensis, apterous male, from Ha Giang Province, Vietnam;
B. E. konkakinh sp. nov., apterous male, from Gia Lai Province, Vietnam.

 Eotrechus konkakinh sp. nov.

 Eotrechus konkakinh sp. nov., apterous male, from Gia Lai Province, Vietnam.

 Eotrechus thai sp. nov.

 Anh Duc Tran, Herbert Zettel and Robert W. Sites. 2023. Revision of the Genus Eotrechus Kirkaldy (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Gerridae), with Descriptions of Six New Species. Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift. 70(1): 69-111. DOI: 10.3897/dez.70.97117

[Fungi • 2023] Geastrum suae (Basidiomycota: Geastraceae) • A New Species from Yunnan Province, China

Geastrum suae Z.Q. Zhang C.H. Li & Z.L. Luo,

in Zhang, Li, Li, Shen, He, Su & Luo, 2023. 

Geastrum is the largest genus of Geastraceae and is widely distributed all over the world. Four specimens which belong to Geastrum were collected during our scientific expedition to Cangshan Mountain, Yunnan, China. Based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis, a new species was introduced.

New information: 
Geastrum suae is characterised by its large basidiomata (height 35–70 mm, diameter 18–37 mm) with long stipe (height 10–45 mm), smooth pink exoperidium and sessile globose endoperidial body. Phylogenetic analysis has been carried out, based on the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid (nrLSU) sequence data. The illustration and description for the new taxa are provided.

Keywords: Geastraceae, ITS, nrLSU, taxonomy, phylogeny

Geastrum suae (KUN-HKAS 123795, holotype).
a fresh unexpanded fruiting bodies; b, c fresh mature fruiting bodies; d mycelial layer, fibrous layer and pseudoparenchymatous layer; e hyphae of mycelial layer; f pseudoparenchymatous layer (cells in the stack); g, h eucapillitium hyphae; i-k basidiospores (LM); l-n basidiospores (SEM).
Scale bars: a = 10 mm; b, c, e = 20 mm; d = 80 μm; f, g, i-k = 10 μm; h = 70 μm; l = 1 μm; m, n = 500 nm.

Geastrum suae Z.Q. Zhang C.H. Li & Z.L. Luo, sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Geastrum suae is characterised by long stipes and larger basidiomata; Pseudoparenchymatous layer is pink, smooth; globose endoperidial body, grey; the ends of eucapillitium hyphae taper and are bluntly rounded; and they live in groups.

Etymology: The species is named suae (Lat.), in memory of the Chinese mycologist Prof. Hong-Yan Su, who kindly helped the authors in many ways and sadly passed away on 3 May 2022 during the preparation of the current paper.

Habit: It grows in groups on the ground in mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forests where there are Alnus nepalensis and Pinus yunnanensis, with thick humus. Currently, it is known only from Cangshan Mountain.

 Zheng-Quan Zhang, Chao-Hai Li, Lin Li, Hong-Wei Shen, Jun He, Xi-Jun Su and Zong-Long Luo. 2023. Geastrum suae sp. nov. (Geastraceae, Basidiomycota) A New Species from Yunnan Province, China.  Biodiversity Data Journal. 11: e99027. DOI: 10.3897/BDJ.11.e99027

[Herpetology • 2023] Litoria lakekamu • A New Species of Small Green Treefrog (Anura: Pelodryadidae) from the Lakekamu Basin in Southern Papua New Guinea

Litoria lakekamu 
Richards & Bickford, 2023

We describe a new species of very small (male body length 22.0–22.8 mm), green treefrog in the pelodryadid genus Litoria Tschudi from lowland rainforest on the southern margin of Papua New Guinea's central cordillera. The new species is morphologically most similar to Litoria leucova, a small green treefrog known only from the north-flowing Sepik River catchment in western Papua New Guinea. It differs from that species by having longer limbs (TL/SVL 0.56–0.60 vs. 0.53–0.55), a poorly defined (vs. prominent) tympanum, in having a distinct lemon yellow mid-lateral line, and in its unique advertisement call comprising a slowly repeated series of short clicks followed by a discrete group of pulses produced rapidly but with highly variable inter-pulse intervals. Although genetic data are not available, the new species' association with a fast-flowing rocky stream suggests that its relationships may lie with other torrent-dwelling Litoria species.

KEYWORDS: advertisement calls, frog, Litoria lakekamu sp. nov, morphology, taxonomy

Images in life of: (A) Litoria lakekamu sp. nov. paratype SAMA R70114, (B) Litoria lakekamu sp. nov. paratype PNGNM (FN: 11625),
(C) Litoria leucova SAMA R71844 from the Sepik River catchment, northern Papua New Guinea, (D) Litoria lodesdema SAMA R64772 from New Britain Island, Papua New Guinea.
Photographs by S. Richards.

Litoria lakekamu sp. nov.
(English name: Lakekamu pygmy treefrog)

Diagnosis: The new species is distinguished from all other Litoria by the following unique combination of characters: size very small (SVL of four males 20.0–22.8 mm, females unknown); dorsum in life predominantly green; vomerine teeth absent; tympanum indistinct; finger webbing extensive, reaching distal edge of subarticular tubercle at base of penultimate phalanx on outer edge of Finger 3 and inner edge of Finger 4; finger discs slightly larger than or same size as toe discs; webbing on toes extending nearly to base of all discs except Toe 4 where it reaches midway between subarticular tubercle at base of penultimate phalanx and disc on both sides of digit; dermal fringes on limbs and below vent absent; pigmentation on nictitating membrane restricted to scattered flecks at dorsal margin; advertisement call a series of short (0.017–0.053 s) distinctly pulsed rasping notes repeated at 2.1–6.5 s intervals, followed by a discrete group of rapidly repeated pulses with highly variable inter-pulse intervals.

Etymology: The specific name lakekamu is a noun in apposition referring to the type and only known locality [Lakekamu Basin, Gulf Province, Papua New Guinea] of this species.

Torrential stream habitat of Litoria lakekamu sp. nov. on the Sapoi River near Ivimka Camp, Lakekamu Basin, Gulf Province, Papua New Guinea. Males were calling from vegetation along the stream bank.
Photograph by S. Richards.

Stephen J. Richards and David Bickford. 2023. A New Species of Small Green Treefrog (Pelodryadidae: Litoria) from the Lakekamu Basin in Southern Papua New Guinea. Current Herpetology. 42(1);  43-54. DOI: 10.5358/hsj.42.43

[Phycology • 2023] Halimeda taiwanensis • Species Diversity and Distribution of the Calcareous Green Macroalgae Halimeda (Chlorophyta: Ulvophyceae) in Taiwan, Spratly Island, and Dongsha Atoll

Halimeda taiwanensis 
Phetcharat, Pattarach, Chen, Wang, Liu & Mayakun, 2023

The calcified green algal genus Halimeda is one of the most ecologically important but morphologically diverse seaweeds in sub-tropical and tropical waters. Because of its high morphological plasticity, the identification of Halimeda species based on morphological characters is challenging without the assistance of molecular analysis. To date, the species diversity of Halimeda in Taiwan and its overseas territories has not been investigated with the assistance of DNA sequencing, and this taxonomic knowledge gap should be filled. The present study initiates a systematic examination of the species diversity and distribution of Halimeda in Taiwan, Spratly Island, and Dongsha Atoll in the South China Sea, using DNA sequence data (plastid tufA gene and rbcL) and morphological data. Our DNA analyses revealed the presence of 10 Halimeda species (Halimeda borneensis, Halimeda cylindracea, Halimeda discoidea, Halimeda distorta, Halimeda macroloba, Halimeda minima, Halimeda opuntia, Halimeda renschii, Halimeda taiwanensis sp. nov., and Halimeda velasquezii) in the waters around Taiwan, Spratly Island, and Dongsha Atoll. The majority of the species could be readily distinguished by their morphological and anatomical characters. The proposed new species, H. taiwanensis, was differentiated not only by our algorithmic species delimitation analyses (statistical parsimony network analysis and automated barcode gap discovery), but also by its morphological features. The proposed new species differs from two externally resembled species, H. cuneata and H. discoidea, in having an undulated segment margin, the complete fusion of medullary siphons at the node, the lack of segment stalk, and the presence of a large primary utricle. Here, we present the up-to-date taxonomic account, molecular diversity, and geographical distribution of Halimeda spp. in Taiwan and associated areas of the South China Sea. Environmental factors that might drive the occurrence and latitudinal distribution of the species are also discussed.

Keywords: genetic diversity, Halimeda, morphology, sea-surface currents, tufA

Sinjai Phetcharat, Kattika Pattarach, Pin-Chen Chen, Wei-Lung Wang, Shao-Lun Liu and Jaruwan Mayakun. 2023. Species Diversity and Distribution of the Calcareous Green Macroalgae Halimeda in Taiwan, Spratly Island, and Dongsha Atoll, with the proposal of Halimeda taiwanensis sp. nov. Phycological Research. DOI: 10.1111/pre.12516

Tuesday, March 21, 2023

[Botany • 2023] Hoya medusa • A New Species of Hoya R.Br. (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) from the Philippines


Hoya medusa  M.D.De Leon, Cabactulan, Cuerdo & Rodda, 

in De Leon, Cabactulan, Cuerdo & Rodda, 2023. 

Hoya medusa M.D.De Leon, Cabactulan, Cuerdo & Rodda, sp. nov. (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) is described from the Philippines. Even though numerous taxa with a shrubby habit from this area are known, it can be immediately separated because of its urceolate corolla and prominent elongated corona lobes. No other species in the genus possesses such a combination of characters.

Keywords: Hoya edeni, Hoya linavergarae, Hoya odorata, Luzon, Marsdenieae

Hoya medusa photographed in cultivation
A flower, top view B corolla, from underneath C flower, side view two corolla lobes removed D flower, side view E corona, top view F corona, from underneath G, H corona, side view I calyx and ovaries J pollinarium.
(Photographs by R.D. Cuerdo).

Hoya medusa flowering branch.
(Photograph by M.D. De Leon).

 Hoya medusa M.D.De Leon, Cabactulan, Cuerdo & Rodda, sp. nov.
Diagnosis: Similar to Hoya edeni King & Hook.f. in its shrubby habit and caudate and curved inner corona lobe processes, distinct by the corona processes (wavy to serpentine in H. medusa versus linear and curved at the tip in H. edeni), corolla shape (urceolate in H. medusa versus rotate with reflexed lobes in H. edeni) and size (8.5–10 mm in H. medusa versus c. 20 mm in H. edeni).

Etymology: The specific epithet refers to the serpentine processes of the inner corona reminiscent of the snake headdress of Medusa in Greek mythology.

Distribution and ecology: Hoya medusa was collected by local collectors in Luzon Island, Mt. Cetaceo and has been in cultivation, circulated by local plant nurseries and plant hobbyists. It was first collected in low montane forest at 500 to 1,000 m where it was growing as an epiphyte in disturbed primary broadly leaf and mossy forest in full sun to part shade.

 Miguel David De Leon, Derek Cabactulan, Ryu D. Cuerdo and Michele Rodda. 2023. A New Species of Hoya R.Br. (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) from the Philippines. PhytoKeys. 222: 19-26. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.222.98275

[Botany • 2023] Cyrtopodium valebellae (Orchidaceae: Cymbidieae) • A New Overlooked Species from the Southern Andean Yungas and Chaco Serrano Ecoregions of Northern Argentina and Southwestern Bolivia

Cyrtopodium valebellae  

in Batista, Valebella & Cruz-Lustre, 2023.

Cyrtopodium valebellae, a new species from northwestern Argentina and southwestern Bolivia, is described, illustrated, and compared with morphologically similar taxa. The species is similar to C. virescens in general morphology and flower colour but differs in floral morphology details, particularly in lip morphology and geographic distribution. All known records are from the Southern Andean Yungas and Chaco Serrano ecoregions, indicating that the species is endemic to these regions. Cyrtopodium valebellae has been known since 1965 but has been misidentified so far with C. paniculatum, C. punctatum or C. virescens. The new species was first noticed through photographs available on online biodiversity platforms, highlighting its usefulness as a complementary source of data for discovering new species.

Keywords: citizen science, endemism, online biodiversity databases, Taxonomy, xerophytic vegetation, Monocots

João A. N. Batista, Miriam Valebella, Gabriela Cruz-Lustre. 2023. A New Overlooked Species of Cyrtopodium (Cymbidieae, Orchidaceae) from the Southern Andean Yungas and Chaco Serrano Ecoregions of Northern Argentina and Southwestern Bolivia.  Phytotaxa. 587(3); 283-293. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.587.3.6 

[Botany • 2018] Hornstedtia garbosa (Zingiberaceae: Alpinieae) • A New Species from Mindanao, Philippines

Hornstedtia garbosa Naive & Alejandro,

in Naive & Alejandro, 2018. 

Hornstedtia garbosa Naive & Alejandro, a new endemic species from southern Philippines, is here described and illustrated. This new species is comparable to H. microcheila Ridl. and H. sanhan M.F. Newman but distinct by its obovate labellum which is white with a red centre. Information on habitat and ecology as well as notes on its similarity to other probably allied species of the genus are provided. An identification key to the five recognized Philippine Hornstedtia species is also included. 

Key words: Alpinioideae, Hornstedtia, Northern Mindanao, Philippines, Zingiberales

Hornstedtia garbosa Naive & Alejandro sp. nov.  

Diagnosis: Hornstedtia garbosa is closely similar to Hornstedtia microcheila but differs significantly in having scarlet red corolla lobes, white with red along centre, obovate labellum and a broader, bright red involucral bracts. It is also allied to Hornstedtia sanhan of Vietnam, however, it is distinct in the shape of the lip, and in having an involucral bracts with glabrous margins and sharply pointed apex.

Etymology: From the Bisaya dialect in the Philippines, which means beautiful, elegant, attractive, and jaunty, alluring to the inflorescence of this delightful Zingiberaceae species; noun in apposition. 

Vernacular name: Pinoon, Tagbac (local people in the type locality).

Distribution: Endemic to the Philippines. It has only been recorded so far in northern Mindanao on Sitio Lantawon, Aposkahoy, Claveria, Misamis Oriental. 

 Ecology: Found growing in stony banks in degraded primary forest with dark and humid environment along the river at elevation of 1,115–1,120 m asl. 


  Mark Arcebal K. Naive and Grecebio Jonathan D. Alejandro. 2018. Hornstedtia garbosa (Zingiberaceae: Alpinieae), A New Species from Mindanao, Philippines.  Phytotaxa. 347(2); 183-188. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.347.2.6

Monday, March 20, 2023

[Arachnida • 2023] Euoplos dignitas • A New Species of Endangered Giant Trapdoor Spider (Araneae: Mygalomorphae: Idiopidae) from the Brigalow Belt of inland Queensland, Australia

Euoplos dignitas
Rix, Wilson & Oliver, 2023

A new species of giant trapdoor spider, Euoplos dignitas sp. nov. (family Idiopidae), is described from the Brigalow Belt of inland Queensland, Australia. Phylogenetic analysis of a six gene molecular dataset for the tribe Euoplini reveals that this species is sister to the spinnipes-group from eastern Queensland, and unrelated to a morphologically similar congener (E. grandis Wilson & Rix, 2019) that occurs further south in the Brigalow Belt. Both E. dignitas sp. nov. and E. grandis are very large, scopulate, plug door-building trapdoor spiders from transitional woodland habitats on vertosols (‘black soils’), with superficially similar females and strongly sexually-dimorphic ‘honey-red’ males. Information on the known biology and distribution of E. dignitas sp. nov. is summarized, and a conservation assessment is provided under the International Union for Conservation of Nature’s (IUCN) Red List Criteria, indicating that this species is likely Endangered.

KEYWORDS: Avicularioidea, biogeography, Bipectina, Domiothelina, phylogeny, taxonomy


Michael G. Rix, Jeremy D. Wilson and Paul M. Oliver. 2023. A New Species of Endangered Giant Trapdoor Spider (Mygalomorphae: Idiopidae: Euoplos) from the Brigalow Belt of inland Queensland, Australia. The Journal of Arachnology. 51(1); 27-36. DOI: 10.1636/JoA-S-21-056

[Botany • 2023] Spiranthes hachijoensis (Orchidaceae: Orchidoideae) • A New Species within the S. sinensis Species Complex in Japan, based on Morphological, Phylogenetic, and Ecological Evidence

Spiranthes hachijoensis Suetsugu, 

in Suetsugu, Hirota, Hayakawa, Fujimori, Ishibashi, Hsu & Suyama, 2023. 

The systematics of the Old World Spiranthes sinensis (Pers.) Ames species complex (Orchidaceae) has been complicated by its wide distribution and morphological variations. Within the species complex, S. australis Lindl. has been generally accepted as the only Spiranthes Rich. species distributed on the Japanese mainland. The present study provides morphological, phylogenetic, and ecological evidence for the recognition of S. hachijoensis Suetsugu as a new species of the S. sinensis species complex on the Japanese mainland. Spiranthes hachijoensis is morphologically similar to S. hongkongensis S.Y. Hu & Barretto and S. nivea T.P. Lin & W.M. Lin, sharing a degenerated rostellum, pollinia without a viscidium, and distinctly trilobed stigma. However, the taxon can be morphologically distinguished from S. hongkongensis by its glabrous rachis, ovaries, and sepals, and from S. nivea by its papillate labellum disc, larger papillate basal labellum callosities, and glabrous rachis, ovaries, and sepals. The autogamy and flowering phenology (i.e., earlier flowering) of S. hachijoensis are most likely responsible for premating isolation from the sympatric S. australis. A MIG-seq-based high-throughput molecular analysis indicated that the genetic difference between S. hachijoensis and its putative sister species S. sinensis is comparable to, or even greater than, the genetic difference between pairs of other species within the S. sinensis species complex. Our multifaceted approach strongly supports the recognition of S. hachijoensis as a morphologically, phenologically, phylogenetically, and ecologically distinct species.
Keywords: Integrative taxonomy, Orchidaceae, Reproductive isolation, SNP data, Speciation, Species delimitation, Spiranthes sinensis species complex

Spiranthes hachijoensis in its natural habitat in Japan.
a–d Flowering individual observed on Hachijo Island.
e, f Flowering individual observed in Ichihara-shi, Chiba Pref. g Flowering individual observed in Kimitsu-shi, Chiba Pref. h Flowering individual observed in Nagoya-shi, Aichi Pref. i Flowering individual observed in Kagoshima-shi, Kagoshima Pref.
 Scale bars: 30 mm

Spiranthes hachijoensis Suetsugu, sp. nov.
Diagnosis: Spiranthes hachijoensis is most morphologically similar to S. hongkongensis but can be distinguished by its glabrous rachis, ovaries, and sepals.

Japanese name: Hachijo-neji-bana. ネジバナ

Kenji Suetsugu, Shun K. Hirota, Hiroshi Hayakawa, Shohei Fujimori, Masayuki Ishibashi, Tian-Chuan Hsu and Yoshihisa Suyama. 2023. Spiranthes hachijoensis (Orchidaceae), A New Species within the S. sinensis Species Complex in Japan, based on Morphological, Phylogenetic, and Ecological Evidence. Journal of Plant Research. DOI: 10.1007/s10265-023-01448-6

[Ichthyology • 2023] Nemateleotris lavandula • Synopsis of the ptereleotrine Goby Genus Nemateleotris (Gobiiformes: Gobiidae), with Description of A New Species from the western and central Pacific Ocean


A, N. helfrichi, underwater photograph from Rarotonga, Cook Islands; B, Nemateleotris lavandula, new species, underwater photograph from Siaes Tunnel, Palau;
C, head profiles of N. helfrichi (left) and N. lavandula, new species, (right) showing difference in colouration of the head and maxilla; D, N. magnifica, underwater photograph from Bali;
E–F, N. decora, showing variability in colouration of the anterior body, underwater photograph from Fiji and the Maldives (the latter = N. exquisita sensu Randall & Connell, 2013) respectively.

 Tea & Larson, 2023

Photographs by: A, P.Jaletzky; B, R. Spangler; C, Y.K. Tea; D, V. Chalias; E, J. Heard; F, M. Harada.

 Nemateleotris lavandula, new species, is described on the basis of the holotype from Augulupelu Reef, Palau, and twelve paratypes from across the western and central Pacific Ocean, including Fiji, Guam, Japan, and the Marshall Islands. The new species was previously confused with Nemateleotris helfrichi, but molecular analysis of mitochondrial COI reveals a difference of 1% in sequence data between both species, in addition to differences in morphometric measurements, live, and preserved colouration details. Both species are allopatric and do not overlap in distribution. The new species is readily separated from all congeners based on the following combination of characters: body lavender to lilac in life; maxilla unmarked, bright yellow in life; caudal fin truncate to weakly emarginate, unmarked, pale yellowish green in life; and snout, lower jaw, preopercle, and postorbital region bright yellow in life. We comment on the relationships among species of Nemateleotris, the taxonomic status of N. exquisita, and the doubtful identity of Zagadkogobius ourlazon. A revised key to species of Nemateleotris is provided. 

Key words. dartfish, mesophotic, gobioid, Ptereleotrinae, Microdesminae

head profiles of N. helfrichi (left) and N. lavandula, new species, (right)
showing difference in colouration of the head and maxilla

A–C, Nemateleotris helfrichi; D–F, Nemateleotris lavandula, new species.
A, BPBM 11595, holotype, 43.3 mm SL, Tahiti, Society Islands; B, USNM 410981, 35.6 mm SL, Moorea, Society Islands, French Polynesia; C, ZRC 61811, 62.4 mm SL, aquarium specimen from the Cook Islands;
D, BPBM 10153, paratype (also paratype of N. helfrichi), 30.9 mm SL, Rigili Islet, Enewetak Atoll, Marshall Islands; E–F, ZRC 62990, paratypes, 36.1 mm SL and 29.8 mm SL respectively, aquarium specimens from Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands, Micronesia.
Photographs by: A, C, D, J.E. Randall; B, J.T. Williams; E, F, H.H. Tan.

Nemateleotris lavandula, new species 
Lavender-blushed Dartfish

Diagnosis. Nemateleotris lavandula is most similar to N. helfrichi, sharing with it the following combination of characters and live colouration details to the exclusion of all other Nemateleotris: caudal fin truncate to weakly emarginate; dorsoposterior ctenoid scales with fewer than 10 ctenii; elevated portion of first dorsal fin blue on anterior edge; median fins pale yellowish green, caudal fin without any markings, outermost edge of second dorsal and anal fin tipped with a yellow or orange spot, one in each interradial membrane space; body lavender to lilac in life; pelvic fins black-tipped; dorsal edge of iris with a black mark at 1 o’clock position, sometimes continuing onto interorbital space as a short streak. It is readily separated from N. helfrichi and all other congeners based on the following: maxilla unmarked (bright yellow in life, pale tan in preservation); and snout, lower jaw, preopercle, and postorbital region bright yellow in life.

Etymology. The species is named lavandula, after the genus of Lavandula flowering plants which includes the ornamental herb lavender, in reference to its beautiful colouration in life. To be treated as a noun in apposition.

Species of Nemateleotris and their putative hybrids.
A, N. helfrichi, underwater photograph from Rarotonga, Cook Islands; B, N. lavandula, new species, underwater photograph from Siaes Tunnel, Palau;
C, head profiles of N. helfrichi (left) and N. lavandula, new species, (right) showing difference in colouration of the head and maxilla; D, N. magnifica, underwater photograph from Bali;
E–F, N. decora, showing variability in colouration of the anterior body, underwater photograph from Fiji and the Maldives (the latter = N. exquisita sensu Randall & Connell, 2013) respectively;
G, putative N. magnifica × N. decora, underwater photograph from Izu Peninsula, Japan; H, putative N. magnifica × N. lavandula, new species, underwater photograph from Okinoerabu Island, Japan.
Photographs by: A, P.Jaletzky; B, R. Spangler; C, Y.K. Tea; D, V. Chalias; E, J. Heard; F, M. Harada; G, Y. Yamada; H, K. Uehara.
Frontal head profiles of selected species of Nemateleotris.
A, N. helfrichi, aquarium specimen from Cook Islands; B, N. lavandula, new species, ZRC 62990, paratype in life, specimen from Kwajalein Atoll, Marshall Islands, Micronesia; C, N. decora, underwater photograph from Bali, Indonesia; D, N. magnifica, underwater photograph from Bali, Indonesia.
Photographs by: A, B-box Aquarium, Japan; B, H.H. Tan; C–D, V. Chalias.

Yi-Kai Tea and Helen K. Larson. 2023. Synopsis of the ptereleotrine Goby Genus Nemateleotris, with Description of A New Species from the western and central Pacific Ocean (Teleostei: Gobiidae). RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY. 71; 248–266.

[PaleoMammalogy • 2023] The Fallow Deer Dama celiae sp. nov. with Two-pointed Antlers from the Middle Pleistocene of Madrid, A Contemporary of Humans with Acheulean Technology

Dama celiae  
van der Made, Rodríguez-Alba, Martos, Gamarra, Rubio-Jara, Panera & Yravedra, 2023

Reconstruction of the Manzanares valley. 
Other species present are Anas platyrhynchos, Equus ferus, Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) antiquus, Mauremys leprosa, Bison sp., Bos primigenius, and Stephanorhinus hemitoechus
artwork y J. Gamarra

We describe fossils of a new species of fallow deer, Dama celiae. It is the end member of the lineage Dama farnetensis–D. vallonnetensis–D. roberti–D. celiae, which reduced the number of points of the antler from four to two, while the parallel lineage leading to the living fallow deer evolved more complex and palmate antlers. The fossils are from localities Pedro Jaro I and Orcasitas in the + 25–30-m terrace of the Manzanares river, which is correlated to MIS9 (337–300 ka) and which also yielded fossils of Megaloceros matritensis, a recently named species, end member of a lineage that survived longer than previously believed. A younger terrace of the Manzanares yielded remains of Haploidoceros, a rare deer known from two older localities in southern France and one younger locality in Spain. So many rare deer species in this valley indicates either endemism and a very special environment or that the record of fossil deer is much less known than generally assumed. Until recently, the European Middle Pleistocene record of deer had only one middle-sized species at a time. Now, it appears that there were up to three contemporaneous species of the size of a fallow deer. Acheulean lithic assemblages have been documented from the same sites as Dama celiae. This species was contemporaneous to Neanderthals with Acheulean culture. Cut marks suggest that it was consumed by them and probably was hunted.

Keywords: New species, Cervidae, Evolution, Manzanares valley, Cut marks

Antlers of Dama celiae sp. nov.
 (1) MAN 73/58/PJ/39 + 21 + 26—left antler holotype from Pedro Jaro I: (a) left lateral view, (b) anterior view, (c) dorsal view. (2) MAN 73/58/PJ/24 main beam of right antler of the same individual: dorsal view, placed symmetrically with respect to the left antler. (3) MAN C37/V6—left frontal and basal antler and right frontal with pedicle from Orcasitas: (a) medial view of left antler, (b) lateral view of left antler, and (c) frontal view of both. (4) MAN 73/58/ORC-3—left shed antler from Orcasitas: (a) anterior, (b) lateral, and (c) dorsal views. (5) MAN 73/58/ORC-1—right antler of Dama celiae fom Orcasitas: (a) lateral and (b) medial views. (6) MSI 1962/13/32 + 33—left frontal and antler base + brow tine from Orcasitas. Figure 4 (6). (7) MAN 73/58/ CA K7/7–8—left shed antler from Orcasitas: (a) lateral view, (b) section. Scale bar approximate

Family Cervidae.

Genus Dama Frisch, 1775.

Species Dama celiae sp. nov.

Type locality and horizon:  Arenero de Pedro Jaro I, Manzanares valley, Madrid, Spain. Late Middle Pleistocene, probably MIS9-10.

Derivatio nominis: The species is named in honor of Celia Casado Sarrión.

Diagnosis: Middle-sized Cervidae. Males with antlers with large upwards-directed brow tines and main beams directed backwards and curving laterally and again backwards, without important upward curvature and without signs of further bifurcation, important flattening or palmation. The bifurcation between brow tine and main beam is situated low above the burr.

Differential diagnosis: Dama celiae differs from Dama roberti and other species of Dama in having a long main beam without bifurcation or the flattening that preceedes such a bifurcation (or if it would have had such a bifurcation, it would be situated much further from the burr). Dama celiae differs from Haploidoceros in that the bifurcation between brow tine and main beam is situated much lower above the burr and that the main beam does not curve upward and then foreward. Dama celiae differs from R. eldii in that the main beam of the antler does not curve upward in its distal part and in not having minor tines.

Reconstruction of Dama celiae in the Manzanares valley. Other species present are Anas platyrhynchos, Equus ferus, Elephas (Palaeoloxodon) antiquus, Mauremys leprosa, Bison sp., Bos primigenius, and Stephanorhinus hemitoechus.
(artwork y J. Gamarra)

Jan van der Made, Juan José Rodríguez-Alba, Juan Antonio Martos, Jesús Gamarra, Susana Rubio-Jara, Joaquín Panera and José Yravedra. 2023. The Fallow Deer Dama celiae sp. nov. with Two-pointed Antlers from the Middle Pleistocene of Madrid, A Contemporary of Humans with Acheulean Technology. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences.15: 41. DOI: 10.1007/s12520-023-01734-3