Friday, March 5, 2021

[Botany • 2021] Amorphophallus calcicolus (Araceae: Thomsonieae) • A New Species from the Bohol Island, Central Visayas, Philippines


Amorphophallus calcicolus 

in Tamayo, Magtoto, Sumalinog, et al., 2021.

Amorphophallus calcicolus from the forest over karst of Bohol island, Central Visayas, Philippines is hereby described and illustrated. The species is closely related to A. longispathaceus but distinct in having shorter leaves, smaller male zone, depressed disk-shaped ovary, longer styles, ovoid or irregularly shaped warts inside the spathe base, and shallowly 2–3-lobed stigma. Due to anthropogenic factors and a relatively confined distribution, it is hereby proposed as Critically Endangered (CR) following IUCN guidelines.

Keywords: aroids, karst, Loboc watershed, Malesia, monocots, taxonomy

Maverick N. Tamayo, Liezel M. Magtoto, Melchor S. Sumalinog Jr., Tomas D. Reyes Jr. and Celia M. Austria. 2021. Amorphophallus calcicolus (Thomsonieae, Araceae), A New Species from the Bohol Island, Central Visayas, Philippines. Phytotaxa. 489(2); 229–235. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.489.2.12

[Arachnida • 2021] Revision and Molecular Phylogeny of the Spider Genus Micaria Westring, 1851 (Araneae: Gnaphosidae) in the Afrotropical Region

Micaria sp. 
Booysen & Haddad, 2021


The genus Micaria Westring, 1851 (Araneae, Gnaphosidae) is a group of small (1.85–5 mm) ant-like spiders that can be distinguished from other gnaphosids by their piriform gland spigots that are similar in size to the major ampullate gland spigots. According to the World Spider Catalog, there are 105 species of Micaria in the world, of which only three species are known from the African part of the Afrotropical Region, namely M. chrysis (Simon, 1910), M. tersissima Simon, 1910 and M. beaufortia (Tucker, 1923). The objectives of this study were to revise Micaria in the Afrotropical Region, providing new and updated records for each of the species, evaluating the relationships between them using COI barcoding data, and providing information on their biology, mimetic relationships and feeding ecology. These objectives were met by collecting fresh material from the KwaZulu-Natal, Western Cape, Northern Cape and Free State provinces in South Africa. Fresh material of M. tersissima and M. chrysis were collected from their type localities, Komaggas and Port Nolloth (Northern Cape Province), respectively, for identification and DNA analyses. COI sequences generated, together with those sourced from Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) and GenBank, were aligned using the CulstalW alignment algorithm in the Mega X software, and molecular phylogenetic analyses were performed using MrBayes for Bayesian Inference (BI) and RaxML for maximum likelihood (ML) analyses. Morphological examination of the collected and voucher material yielded 17 new species for the Afrotropical Region, namely M. basaliducta sp. nov. (♀, ♂, South Africa), M. bimaculata sp. nov. (♀, ♂, Mauritania), M. bispicula sp. nov. (♀, ♂, Namibia, South Africa), M. durbana sp. nov. (♀, ♂, South Africa, Zambia), M. felix sp. nov. (♀, ♂, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Zambia, Zimbabwe), M. gagnoa sp. nov. (♀, ♂, Côte d’Ivoire, Mozambique, Mozambique, Tanzania), M. koingnaas sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), M. lata sp. nov. (♂, Namibia, South Africa), M. laxa sp. nov. (♀, South Africa), M. mediospina sp. nov. (♂, South Africa), M. parvotibialis sp. nov. (♀, ♂, Senegal), M. plana sp. nov. (♀, ♂, Ethiopia), M. quadrata sp. nov. (♀, Ethiopia), M. quinquemaculosa sp. nov. (♀, ♂, Namibia, South Africa), M. rivonosy sp. nov. (♀, ♂, Madagascar), M. sanipass sp. nov. (♂, South Africa) and M. scutellata sp. nov. (♂, South Africa). Furthermore, both sexes of M. beaufortia, as well as the male of M. tersissima, are redescribed. Both sexes of M. chrysis are described for the first time, as this species was only known from a juvenile. Of the previously known species, M. beaufortia (Botswana, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Zimbabwe) and M. chrysis (Côte d’Ivoire, Ethiopia, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania) are widespread in the Afroptropics, while M. tersissima is only known from South Africa. Both the Bayesian inference and the maximum likelihood analysess recovered Micaria (sensu lato) as monophyletic with the inclusion of the subopaca group. The pulicaria species group was recovered as polyphyletic in both the BI and ML analyses. Four Afrotropical species, as well as the M. rossica Thorell, 1875/M. foxi Gertsch, 1933 group, formed a clade sister to M. formicaria (Sundevall, 1831). Eight of the Afrotropical species now have COI barcoding data uploaded to BOLD.


Ruan Booysen and Charles Haddad. 2021. Revision and Molecular Phylogeny of the Spider Genus Micaria Westring, 1851 (Araneae: Gnaphosidae) in the Afrotropical Region. Zootaxa. 4940(1); 1–82. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4940.1.1

[Mammalogy • 2021] A New Species of Long-eared Brown Bat of the Genus Histiotus (Chiroptera) and the Revalidation of Histiotus colombiae


Histiotus sp.
Rodríguez-Posada, Morales-Martínez, Ramírez-Chaves, Martínez-Medina & Calderón-Acevedo, 2021. 

The South American bats of the genus Histiotus comprises between four and eight species, but their taxonomy has been controversial and the limits between species and their distribution are not well understood. In Colombia, Histiotus humboldti and H. montanus colombiae have been recorded, but undescribed species has been suggested. We evaluated the species richness and distribution of Colombian Histiotus using morphological, molecular, and acoustic traits. Our results evidence three species in Colombia, the two previously recorded taxa and a new species from the Cordillera Central of Colombia and northern Ecuador that we describe here. We also revalidated H. colombiae as a full species. H. humboldti is widely distributed in the Colombian and Ecuadorean Andes and can be sympatric with the other two species. H. colombiae is restricted to the Colombian Cordillera Oriental. Finally, we highlight the potential hidden diversity within Histiotus in the Peruvian and Bolivian Andes, the need to resolve the evolutionary relationships of the genus, and its implications to the understanding of the processes that have structured the Andean mammal fauna.

Keywords: Andes, Cytochrome b, echolocation calls, morphometry, Vespertilionidae


Miguel E. Rodríguez-Posada, Darwin M. Morales-Martínez, Héctor E. Ramírez-Chaves, Daniela Martínez-Medina and Camilo A. Calderón-Acevedo. 2021. Una nueva especie de murciélago pardo de orejas largas del género Histiotus (Chiroptera) y revalidación de Histiotus colombiae [A New Species of Long-eared Brown Bat of the Genus Histiotus (Chiroptera) and the Revalidation of Histiotus colombiae]. CALDASIA. 43(2) DOI: 10.15446/caldasia.v43n2.85424

Los murciélagos suramericanos del género Histiotus comprenden entre cuatro y ocho especies, pero su taxonomía ha sido controversial y los límites entre sus especies y sus áreas de distribución no son bien entendidos. En Colombia, se han registrado a Histiotus humboldti y a H. montanus colombiae, pero se ha propuesto que hay especies por descubrir. Evaluamos la riqueza de especies de murciélagos Histiotus colombianos incluyendo caracteres morfológicos, moleculares y acústicos. Nuestros resultados evidencian la presencia de tres especies en Colombia, los dos taxones previamente registrados y una especie nueva de la Cordillera Central de Colombia y el norte de Ecuador que describimos aquí. Además, revalidamos H. colombiae a nivel de especie. H. humboldti presenta la distribución más amplia en los Andes colombianos y ecuatorianos, y puede estar en simpatría con las otras dos especies. H. colombiae es sólo conocida de la Cordillera Oriental de Colombia. Finalmente, resaltamos la diversidad potencial no descrita de Histiotus en los Andes peruanos y bolivianos, la necesidad de resolver las relaciones evolutivas del género y sus implicaciones en el entendimiento de los procesos que han estructurado la fauna Andina de mamíferos.
Palabras clave: Andes, Vespertilionidae, Citocromo b, ecolocalización, Morfometría 

[Crustacea • 2021] Tritodynamia bengalensis • A New Species of Brachyuran Crab (Decapoda: Brachyura: Macrophthalmidae) from West Bengal State, India

Tritodynamia bengalensis 
Trivedi, Mitra & Ng, 2021

Tritodynamia bengalensis n. sp. is described on the basis of a male specimen dredged from the shallow coastal waters of West Bengal state, India. The new species is morphologically similar to T. bidentata Yang & Tang, 2005 and T. serratipes Anker & Ng, 2014, but can be distinguished by the carapace shape, dentition of the pollex, relative length of the dactylus of the third maxilliped, proportions of the propodus of the third pereopod, and structure of the male left gonopod. This is the first record of the genus Tritodynamia from India.

Keywords: Crustacea, Tritodynamia, new species, by-catch, West Bengal, India

Jigneshkumar N. Trivedi, Santanu Mitra and Peter K. L. Ng. 2021. Tritodynamia bengalensis n. sp., A New Species of Brachyuran Crab from West Bengal State, India (Decapoda: Brachyura: Macrophthalmidae). Zootaxa. 4938(3); 325–330. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4938.3.3

[Entomology • 2021] Checklist and Identification Key to Brazilian Species of Triplocania Roesler (Psocodea: ‘Psocoptera’: Psocomorpha: Ptiloneuridae), with Four New Cave-dwelling Species

Triplocania pains
Neto, Aldrete, Rafael & Ferreira, 2021

Four species of Triplocania are described and illustrated (T. brancoi n. sp., T. ferratilis n. sp., T. pains n. sp., and T. zairae n. sp.), all based on male specimens collected in caves of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais. An identification key is presented to the Brazilian species of Triplocania, based on males, together with information on both sexes and distributions.

Keywords: Psocoptera, taxonomy, neotropics, psocids

Alberto Moreira Da Silva Neto, Alfonso N. García Aldrete, José Albertino Rafael and Rodrigo Lopes Ferreira. 2021. Checklist and Identification Key to Brazilian Species of Triplocania Roesler (Psocodea: ‘Psocoptera’: Psocomorpha: Ptiloneuridae), with Four New Cave-dwelling Species. Zootaxa. 4938(5); 537–558. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4938.5.2

[Herpetology • 2021] An Integrative Approach to Infer Systematic Relationships and Define Species Groups in the Shrub Frog Genus Raorchestes (Anura, Rhacophoridae), with Description of Five New Species from the Western Ghats, India

Raorchestes keirasabinae
Garg​, Suyesh​, Das, Bee & Biju,. 2021

The genus Raorchestes is a large radiation of Old World tree frogs for which the Western Ghats in Peninsular India is the major center for origin and diversification. Extensive studies on this group during the past two decades have resolved long-standing taxonomic confusions and uncovered several new species, resulting in a four-fold increase in the number of known Raorchestes frogs from this region. Our ongoing research has revealed another five new species in the genus, formally described as Raorchestes drutaahu sp. nov., Raorchestes kakkayamensis sp. nov., Raorchestes keirasabinae sp. nov., Raorchestes sanjappai sp. nov., and Raorchestes vellikkannan sp. nov., all from the State of Kerala in southern Western Ghats. Based on new collections, we also provide insights on the taxonomic identity of three previously known taxa. Furthermore, since attempts for an up-to-date comprehensive study of this taxonomically challenging genus using multiple integrative taxonomic approaches have been lacking, here we review the systematic affinities of all known Raorchestes species and define 16 species groups based on evidence from multi-gene (2,327 bp) phylogenetic analyses, several morphological characters (including eye colouration and pattern), and acoustic parameters (temporal and spectral properties, as well as calling height). The results of our study present novel insights to facilitate a better working taxonomy for this rather speciose and morphologically conserved radiation of shrub frogs. This will further enable proper field identification, provide momentum for multi-disciplinary studies, as well as assist conservation of one of the most colourful and acoustically diverse frog groups of the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot.

Raorchestes drutaahu sp. nov.
Fast-calling Shrub Frog

Etymology. The species name is derived from Sanskrit ‘druta’ (meaning fast) and ‘ahu’ (meaning call), referring to the fast-pulsatile calls of the new species. The species epithet drutaahu is treated as an invariable noun in apposition to the generic name.

Distribution and natural history. Raorchestes drutaahu sp. nov. is endemic to the Western Ghats and currently known only from elevations ranging between 1,000 to 1,450 m asl at two localities: Kadalar in Idukki district (south of Palghat gap) and Siruvani in Palakkad district (north of Palghat gap). The species has been observed in forest areas, either on grassland-shola fringes or fragmented forest patches near plantations. Individuals were located on leaves of short shrubs at heights of 0.5–1.5 m.

Raorchestes kakkayamensis sp. nov.
Kakkayam Shrub Frog

Etymology. The species is named after the place Kakkayam, where the type series was collected.

Distribution and natural history. Raorchestes kakkayamensis sp. nov. is endemic to the Western Ghats and currently known only from its type locality (Kakkayam) in Kozhikode district, north of Palghat gap in Kerala State. The species was observed inside a primary forest patch and adjoining secondary forest areas at an elevation of 750 m asl. Individuals were located on the ground leaf litter or found perching on vegetation 1–3 m high.

Raorchestes keirasabinae sp. nov.
Keira’s Shrub Frog

Etymology. The species is named after a young nature lover Keira Sabin, in appreciation of the long-time support and commitment of the Andrew Sabin Family Foundation towards amphibian research and conservation around the world. The species epithet keirasabinae is treated as a noun in the genitive case.

Distribution and natural history. Raorchestes keirasabinae sp. nov. is endemic to the Western Ghats and currently known from elevations of 100–1,000 m asl south of Palghat gap. It has been observed at Agasthyamalai Biosphere Reserve (Chathankod-Makki, Ponmudi, Peppara Wildlife Sanctuary, and Shendurney Wildlife Sanctuary) in Thiruvananthapuram and Kollam districts, and Periyar Tiger Reserve in Idukki district of Kerala State. Since the species inhabits the highest canopy layers and cannot be located easily, it could have a wider geographical range in the Western Ghats regions south of Palghat gap, both in Kerala and the adjoining State of Tamil Nadu. The vocalisations of this species have not been recorded and analysed.

Figure 16: Raorchestes chromasynchysi species group. (A) Phylogenetic relationships and major morphological characters for members of the group: (1) adult size range (male SVL 20–35 mm, female SVL 27–37 mm); (2) dorsum with a horny ridge extending from the snout tip to the vent; (3) presence of lingual papillae; (4) foot webbing moderate to large, up to or well beyond the second subarticular tubercle on either side of toe IV. (B and C) Male calls in members of the group: Calling individual, followed by a call oscillogram (above) and spectrogram (below) for R. chromasynchysi and R. silentvalley (1 s section showing a single call for each species). (D and E) Adult male, followed by a call oscillogram (above) and spectrogram (below) for R. ravii and R. sanjappai sp. nov. (0.1 s section showing a single call for each species). (F) Adult male of R. vellikkannan sp. nov. (call not studied). (G–K) Eye colour and pattern in five members of the group. (L) Geographical distribution of members of the group; species range colours on the map correspond to the square colours indicated alongside each species label in (B)–(F).

Raorchestes sanjappai sp. nov.
Sanjappa’s Shrub Frog

Etymology. The species is named after Dr. M. Sanjappa, a renowned Indian Botanist and former Director of the Botanical Survey of India. The species name is in appreciation of his taxonomic contributions as well as generous support to SDB during the initial phases of his research career. The species epithet sanjappai is treated as a noun in the genitive case.

Distribution and natural history. Raorchestes sanjappai sp. nov. is endemic to the Western Ghats and currently known only from an altitude of about 750 m asl at its type locality (Periya) that lies north of Palghat gap in the Wayanad district of Kerala State. The species was observed inside secondary forests and individuals were located on vegetation up to 3 m high during the breeding season.

Raorchestes vellikkannan sp. nov.
Silver-eyed Shrub Frog

Etymology. The species name is derived from Malayalam (the language of Kerala State where the type series were collected) ‘velli’ (meaning silver) and ‘kannu’ (meaning eye) referring to the silver colour of the iris in this species. The species epithet vellikkannan is treated as an invariable noun in apposition to the generic name.

Distribution and natural history. Raorchestes vellikkannan sp. nov. is endemic to the Western Ghats and currently known only from its type locality (Singappara, Siruvani) and surrounding regions of the Silent Valley National Park in Palakkad district of Kerala State, north of Palghat gap. This species was observed inside primary forests and individuals were found on vegetation up to 4 m high during the breeding season. The vocalisations of this species have not been recorded and analysed.

Figure 23: Ungrouped species. (A) Phylogenetic position of two ungrouped species, Raorchestes echinatus and R. indigo.
(B–E) R. echinatus: (B) Dorsolateral view.(C) Lateral view. (D) Posterior view of thighs. (E) Eye colour and pattern.
(F–I) R. indigo: (F) Dorsolateral view. (G) Lateral view. (H) Posterior view of thighs. (I) Eye colour and pattern.
 (J) Geographical distribution of R. echinatus and R. indigo.

Sonali Garg​, Robin Suyesh​, Sandeep Das, Mark A. Bee and S. D. Biju​. 2021. An Integrative Approach to Infer Systematic Relationships and Define Species Groups in the Shrub Frog Genus Raorchestes, with Description of Five New Species from the Western Ghats, India. PeerJ. 9:e10791. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.10791

[Ichthyology • 2021] Oxynoemacheilus amanos • A New Nemacheilid Loach (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae) from the Orontes River Drainage

Oxynoemacheilus amanos
Kaya, Yoğurtçuoğlu & Freyhof, 2021

Oxynoemacheilus amanos, new species, is described from İncesu spring in the upper Hupnik drainage, a northern tributary of the lower Orontes in Turkey. It is distinguished from the other Oxynoemacheilus species in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea basin by possession of an incomplete lateral line with 23–45 pores, terminating between the vertical through the dorsal fin origin and the anus, 10–13 pores in the infraorbital canal, a deeply emarginate caudal fin, no suborbital groove in the male, and a series of irregularly shaped and set dark-brown bars on the flank, not connected to saddles on the back.

Keywords: Pisces, Freshwater fish, taxonomy, Middle East, Amanos mountains, Hatay

Cüneyt Kaya, Baran Yoğurtçuoğlu and Jörg Freyhof. 2021. Oxynoemacheilus amanos, A New Nemacheilid Loach from the Orontes River Drainage (Teleostei: Nemacheilidae). Zootaxa. 4938(5); 559–570. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4938.5.3

Thursday, March 4, 2021

[Botany • 2021] Ceropegia longicaudata (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) • Taxonomic Study of Ceropegia L. for The Flora of Laos: One New Species and One New Record from central Laos

Ceropegia longicaudata Phonep. & Rodda.

in Phonepaseth & Rodda, 2021. 
ດອກຈິນດາພູເຂົາຄວາຍ || 

A newly discovered species from central Laos, Ceropegia longicaudata, is here described and illustrated. It is compared with the morphologically similar species Ceropegia cochleata Kidyoo. Ceropegia longicaudata displays clear differences in the leaf pubescence and venation, length of the corolla lobe tips, colour of corolla lobe, and shape of staminal corona lobes. Ceropegia cochleata is newly recorded for the Flora of Laos. A key to the now three species of Ceropegia in Laos is also provided.

Keyword: Ceropegia cochleata, Ceropegia laotica, Ceropegieae, Khammouan, new species, Phoukhaokhouay National Protected Area

Ceropegia longicaudata Phonep. & Rodda.
A. habit; B. open flower; C. longitudinal section of corolla; D. young flower bud; E. corona top view; F. corona side view; G. Pollinarium.
Drawn by P. Phonepaseuth from P005 (FOF).

Ceropegia longicaudata Phonep. & Rodda.
 A. habitat; B. habit; C. leaves adaxial and abaxial side; D. tuber; E. flower bud and open flower; F. longitudinal section of corolla; G. corona top view; H. corona from underneath; I. corona side view; J. pollinarium; K. dry flower (specimen).
Photos by P. Phonepaseuth from P005 (FOF)

Ceropegia longicaudata Phonep. & Rodda, sp. nov.

Diagnosis. Ceropegia longicaudata is similar to C. cochleata in having tuberous rootstock and linear lanceolate laminas. It can be separated by glabrous leaves without distinct nerves (vs. pubescent with distinct nerves in C. cochleata), longer corolla lobe tips (25–30 mm in C. longicaudata vs. 15–20 mm in C. cochleata), colour of corolla lobe completely bright green (vs. basally green with reddish brown apex), and staminal corona lobes distally with recurved diverging apices (vs. straight and converging).

Etymology. The specific epithet ‘longicaudata’ refers to long corolla lobes that characterize this species. 

Distribution. Only known from Phoukhaokhouay National Protected Area, in Laos. It is found at two locations, the type locality in Vientiane Province (Fig, 5), and from a locality 25–30 km eastwards, in Bolikhamxay Province, where it was photographed by Bertrand Laville in 2016 ( 

Ecology and habitat. This species rooted in very thin soils over large sandstone boulders growing together with grasses. The plants were climbing over grasses in open areas partially exposed, at 270–300 m a.s.l. Flowering August–September.

 Vernacular name. ດອກຈິນດາພູເຂົາຄວາຍ ‘Dok Chinda Phoukhaokhouay’ [Phoukhaokhouay jewelry flower] (proposed here).

Phongphayboun Phonepaseth and Michele Rodda. 2021. Taxonomic Study of Ceropegia L. (Apocynaceae, Asclepiadoideae) for The Flora of Laos: One New Species and One New Record from central Laos. Taiwania. 66(1); 93-100. 

[Botany • 2021] Bopopia parviflora • A New Monotypic Genus of Gesneriaceae (Gesnerioideae, Coronanthereae) from New Caledonia


 Bopopia parviflora Munzinger & J.R.Morel 

in Morel, Duminil & Munzinger, 2021. 

A new genus of Gesneriaceae, Bopopia Munzinger & J.R.Morel gen. nov., is described from New Caledonia. The genus is based on Bopopia parviflora Munzinger & J.R.Morel gen. et sp. nov., a new species collected during an expedition on Mt Katalupaik, in the North Province of New Caledonia’s main island. Originally considered as a species of Coronanthera, our phylogenetic analysis – including 19 species within Coronanthereae and two individuals of B. parviflora gen. et sp. nov., and using three molecular markers (nuclear rDNA ITS, and chloroplast regions trnL-trnF and trnE-trnT) – showed that the new species is not close to Coronanthera in subtribe Coronantherinae, but belongs to subtribe Negriinae where it is sister to Depanthus. From that genus Bopopia gen. nov. differs in floral symmetry (zygomorphic vs actinomorphic) and the number of stamens (4 vs 5). From the other genera of Negriinae the new genus differs in the white corolla and its indeterminate thyrse with 3 to 5 levels of branching. The morphological circumscription of the subtribe Negriinae is amended to include Bopopia gen. nov. Two keys are provided, one to the subtribes in the tribe Coronanthereae, and one to the genera in subtribe Negriinae. Following the IUCN Red List categories and criteria, the conservation status of B. parviflora gen. et sp. nov. is provisionally assessed as Endangered (EN).

Keywords: Gesneriaceae, Gesnerioideae-Coronanthereae-Negriinae, La Planète Revisitée, New Caledonia, Grande Terre, Mt Katalupaik, molecular phylogeny, taxonomy

Fig. 3.  Bopopia parviflora Munzinger & J.R.Morel gen. et sp. nov.
 A. Habit. B. Upper part of stem and axillary inflorescences C. Adaxial side of leaf. D. Trunk. E. Magnified leaf showing leaf teeth (or hydathodes?). F. Flower in lateral view. G. Abaxial side of leaf.
Scale bar: F = 1 mm. Photographs taken by Jérôme Munzinger.

Fig. 5.  Bopopia parviflora Munzinger & J.R.Morel gen. et sp. nov.
A. Part of plant showing opposite leaves and axillary inflorescences. B. Flower in lateral view. C. Calyx cut open to show the gynoecium. D. Longitudinal section of corolla, showing stamens (lobes unrolled). E. Top view of connate anthers.
Scale bars: A = 20 mm; B–D = 1 mm; E = 0.4 mm. Drawn from photographs taken by Jérôme Munzinger and parts of the specimen Munzinger et al. 7980 preserved in alcohol.

Genus Bopopia Munzinger & J.R.Morel gen. nov.

Type species Bopopia parviflora Munzinger & J.R.Morel gen. et sp. nov., 
by present designation.

Diagnosis: Bopopia gen. nov. differs from other genera of Coronanthereae in its inflorescence: an axillary indeterminate thyrse with ultimate axes being pair-flowered cymes and inferior axes being indeterminate thyrses with three to five levels of branching (vs 3-flowered cymes or solitary flowers); it differs from Depanthus in floral symmetry (zygomorphy vs actinomorphy), stamen number (4 vs 5); from Negria in inserted (vs exserted) stamens, and connate (vs free) anthers; from Lenbrassia in bilobed (vs spatulate) stigma.

Etymology: The genus is named after the land and people of Bopope (Pŵpŵp), in the vicinity of Mt Katalupaik.

Bopopia parviflora Munzinger & J.R.Morel gen. et sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Bopopia parviflora gen. et sp. nov. is similar to Coronanthera clarkeana Schltr., C. deltoidifolia Vieill. ex C.B.Clarke, C. pinguior C.B.Clarke and Depanthus glaber in its glabrous adaxial leaf surface but differs in its unique inflorescence structure within the tribe and also vegetatively in leaf measurements, blade, apex and base shape, margin (entire vs serrate), and abaxial indumentum, as well as petiole length and indumentum ( Table 2).

Etymology: The specific epithet refers to the small flowers as compared to other Gesneriaceae known from New Caledonia.

Jérémie Morel, Jérôme Duminil and Jérôme Munzinger. 2021. Bopopia, A New Monotypic Genus of Gesneriaceae (Gesnerioideae, Coronanthereae) from New Caledonia. European Journal of Taxonomy. 736(1), 82-101. DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2021.736.1253

[Ichthyology • 2021] Brachyhypopomus degy • A New Species of Amazonian Bluntnose Knifefish Brachyhypopomus (Gymnotiformes: Hypopomidae), with Comments on Its Phylogenetic Position

Brachyhypopomus degy
Dutra, Peixoto, Ochoa, Ohara, de Santana, Menezes & Datovo, 2021

A new species of the bluntnose knifefish genus Brachyhypopomus Mago-Leccia is described from headwaters of upper Rio Juruena, and upper Rio Machado, Amazon basin, Brazil. The new species differs from all congeners by the absence of a small independent ossification of the Weberian complex located posterodorsally to the supraoccipital. It can be additionally distinguished from its congeners by a set of characters in combination that includes: absence of accessory electric organ over the opercular region, absence of a prominent pale uninterrupted middorsal stripe on body, presence of scales on the entire middorsal region of body, dorsal rami of the recurrent branch of anterior lateral-line nerve not externally visible, presence of a dark suborbital stripe, and possession of 8–10 scale rows above the lateral line. The phylogenetic position of the new species is inferred by its inclusion in a total-evidence matrix with data from morphology, mitochondrial genes, and nuclear genes of all species. The new species is apparently restricted to upland tributaries of the Chapada dos Parecis, more than 500 m high. Comments on the occurrence of fish species in multiple independent basins at Chapada dos Parecis are also provided.
Key words: Bayesian inference, biodiversity, electric fishes, maximum parsimony, neotropical fauna, taxonomy

Brachyhypopomus degy

Guilherme Moreira Dutra, Luiz Antônio Wanderley Peixoto, Luz Eneida Ochoa, Willian Massaharu Ohara, Carlos David de Santana, Naércio Aquino Menezes and Aléssio Datovo. 2021. A New Species of Amazonian Bluntnose Knifefish Brachyhypopomus (Gymnotiformes: Hypopomidae), with Comments on Its Phylogenetic Position. Systematics and Biodiversity. DOI: 10.1080/14772000.2021.1877844  

[Herpetology • 2021] Paroedura renneraeCompleting A Taxonomic Puzzle: Integrative Review of Geckos of the Paroedura bastardi Species Complex (Squamata, Gekkonidae)

Paroedura rennerae 
Miralles, Bruy, Crottini, Rakotoarison, Ratsoavina, Scherz, Schmidt, Köhler, Glaw & Vences, 2021

The Paroedura bastardi clade, a subgroup of the Madagascan gecko genus Paroedura, currently comprises four nominal species: P. bastardi, supposedly widely distributed in southern and western Madagascar, P. ibityensis, a montane endemic, and P. tanjaka and P. neglecta, both restricted to the central west region of the island. Previous work has shown that Paroedura bastardi is a species complex with several strongly divergent mitochondrial lineages. Based on one mitochondrial and two nuclear markers, plus detailed morphological data, we undertake an integrative revision of this species complex. Using a representative sampling for seven nuclear and five mitochondrial genes we furthermore propose a phylogenetic hypothesis of relationships among the species in this clade. Our analyses reveal at least three distinct and independent evolutionary lineages currently referred to P. bastardi. Conclusive evidence for the species status of these lineages comes from multiple cases of syntopic occurrence without genetic admixture or morphological intermediates, suggesting reproductive isolation. We discuss the relevance of this line of evidence and the conditions under which concordant differentiation in unlinked loci under sympatry provides a powerful approach to species delimitation, and taxonomically implement our findings by (1) designating a lectotype for Paroedura bastardi, now restricted to the extreme South-East of Madagascar, (2) resurrecting of the binomen Paroedura guibeae Dixon & Kroll, 1974, which is applied to the species predominantly distributed in the South-West, and (3) describing a third species, Paroedura rennerae sp. nov., which has the northernmost distribution within the species complex.

Keywords: Madagascar, new species, phylogenetics, species delimitation, sympatry, taxonomy.

Figure 4. Multilocus phylogenetic trees (full dataset concatenated, nDNA and mtDNA concatenated trees), with haplotype networks reconstructed for each of the nuclear markers (after phasing). Photo credits: AM (Paroedura rennerae sp. nov., P. picta, both from Kirindy), MV (P. ibityensis from Itremo), FG and JK (P. neglecta and P. tanjaka, both from Bemaraha), FG and MV (P. bastardi from Berenty, and P. guibeae from Tranoroa).

Figure 9. Holotype of Paroedura rennerae sp. nov. (ZSM 849/2010, from Kirindy CNFEREF).
The four top photographs are of the living specimen, whereas the bottom picture shows the preserved specimen after nine years in 70% ethanol (pictures by Aurélien Miralles).

Paroedura rennerae sp. nov.
Remarks: This species was previously named P. sp. aff. bastardi Ca01 “Marofandilia/Miandrivazo” by Cocca et al. (2018) and Paroedura bastardi by Aprea et al. (2013) and Köhler et al. (2019; partim).
Paroedura rennerae sp. nov. is characterized by the unique combination of the following characters: (1) presence of prominent dorsal tubercles arranged in regular longitudinal rows, (2) presence of three broad light crossbands on the dorsum in juveniles and subadults, (3) spines on the tail, (4) nostril separated from rostral scale by prenasal, and (5) a curly-bracket shaped marking in the occipital region.

Paroedura rennerae sp. nov. can be distinguished from most other currently recognized Paroedura species by the presence of only three broad light crossbands on the dorsum in juveniles and subadults (the first one between forelimbs, the second one at midbody, and the third one between hindlimbs) versus four light crossbands in all other species except those of the P. bastardi clade (P. bastardi, P. guibeae, P. ibityensis, P. neglecta, and P. tanjaka, which all have three crossbands) and P. oviceps and P. vahiny (in which the juvenile coloration is still unknown). It can be distinguished from P. gracilis by larger dorsal scales, absence of a white tip to the original tail, absence of a raised vertebral ridge on the dorsum and shorter forelimbs, which do not extend forward beyond tip of snout; from P. masobe by much smaller eyes and absence of a dorsal row of paired spines on the tail; from P. fasciata, P. homalorhina, P. hordiesi, P. vahiny, and P. spelaea by presence of spines on the original tail (versus absence); from P. gracilis, P. homalorhina, P. kloki, P. maingoka, P. masobe, P. oviceps (from its type locality Nosy Be), P. picta, P. spelaea, most P. tanjaka, and P. vahiny by the presence of prominent dorsal tubercles arranged in regular longitudinal rows (versus rather irregular rows of dorsal tubercles).

Within the P. bastardi clade, the species can easily be distinguished from P. tanjaka and P. neglecta by the absence of contact between the nostril and the rostral scale (versus presence). It can be distinguished from P. ibityensis by larger maximum SVL (> 70 mm versus 61 mm). In comparison with P. bastardi sensu novo and P. guibeae, the new species can be distinguished by the presence of a very sharp and contrasting dark transverse pattern, evoking the shape of a thin curly-bracket ({) , in the occipital region and delimiting the skull from the neck. Moreover, Paroedura rennerae sp. nov. is unambiguously larger in size than P. guibeae (adult SVL > 70 mm versus < 60 mm in P. guibeae), and its dorsal tubercles are more prominent. It also lacks striped fingers (versus striped in P. guibeae), and the light patch on its head lacks concave anterior edge and central vacuity in juveniles (versus both present in P. bastardi).

Etymology: This new species, elegant and prickly, is dedicated to Susanne Renner, eminent botanist and evolutionary biologist, and Professor Emeritus of the University of Munich, in recognition of her substantial contributions to taxonomy and her invaluable collaboration in the framework of the “Taxon-omics” priority program of the German Research Foundation, DFG.

Habitat, habits, and distribution: Paroedura rennerae is reliably known from five localities, some of them relatively distant from each other, suggesting this species is widely distributed in the central/southern region of Madagascar. In the dry forest of Kirindy CNFEREF, specimens have been observed on vertical surfaces (tree trunks, wooden walls of the CNFEREF camp huts), around 1 to 2 m above the ground. Like other members of the P. bastardi species complex, it is quick to bite when handled. In Anja, several specimens have been collected on granitic boulders. ZSM 779/2009 was found in a large cavity below two large granitic boulders, in a quite humid environment. In this cavity, ZSM 779/2009 and other individuals were found on the walls. In Isalo, specimens belonging to this species were found at two sites (Zahavola and Namazaha Valley). These individuals were found within the canyons of the sandstone Massif in shaded areas and in close proximity to a small cave or a small waterfall, again in quite humid microhabitats. Two additional 16S sequences confirm the presence of this species also in Marofandilia and Miandrivazo (GU129005 and GU128989, Aprea et al. 2013). All specimens have been observed at night or near dusk.

Aurélien Miralles, Teddy Bruy, Angelica Crottini, Andolalao Rakotoarison, Fanomezana M. Ratsoavina, Mark D. Scherz, Robin Schmidt, Jörn Köhler, Frank Glaw and Miguel Vences. 2021. Completing A Taxonomic Puzzle: Integrative Review of Geckos of the Paroedura bastardi Species Complex (Squamata, Gekkonidae). Vertebrate Zoology. 71: 27-48. DOI: 10.3897/vertebrate-zoology.71.e59495


Wednesday, March 3, 2021

[Botany • 2020] Three New Species of Tricalysia (Rubiaceae: Coffeeae) from Atlantic Central Africa

Tricalysia lophocarpa O.Lachenaud & Sonké 

in Lachenaud, Stévart & Sonké, 2020. 


Background and aims – The genus Tricalysia A.Rich. (Rubiaceae), regarded here in the strict sense (i.e., excluding Empogona Hook.f.), includes 77 species in tropical Africa, Madagascar and the Comoros. In the current paper, three new species from Atlantic Central Africa are described and illustrated; their conservation status is also assessed.

Material and methods – This paper is based on a study of herbarium collections from BR, BRLU, K, LBV, P, WAG and YA. Normal practices of herbarium taxonomy have been applied. The conservation status assessments follow the IUCN Red List criteria.

Results – Tricalysia lophocarpa O.Lachenaud & Sonké is endemic to Gabon and is best recognised by its fruits with 8–10 narrow longitudinal ribs. Tricalysia obovata O.Lachenaud & Sonké is endemic to Equatorial Guinea (Rio Muni) and may be recognised by its obovate leaves with rounded base, glabrous stems, and sessile flowers with included style and half-exserted anthers. Tricalysia wilksii O.Lachenaud & Sonké occurs in Gabon and southwestern Republic of Congo, and may be recognised by its glabrous stems and leaves, the latter with crypt domatia, its linear calyx teeth equalling or exceeding the tube in length, and its shortly pedicellate fruits. The three species are assessed respectively as Near-threatened (T. lophocarpa), Critically Endangered (T. obovata) and Vulnerable (T. wilksii).

Keywords: Tricalysia, Rubiaceae, Coffeeae, new species, taxonomy, Central Africa, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Republic of Congo

Tricalysia lophocarpa O.Lachenaud & Sonké.
 A. Fruiting stem. B. Stipule. C. Detail of the domatia. D. Inflorescence. E. Flower. F. Longitudinal section of flower. G. Fruit, side view. H. Fruit, viewed from above.
A–C, G–H from Moungazi 1545; D–F from J.J. de Wilde & de Wilde-Bakhuizen11799. 
Drawn by O. Lachenaud

Tricalysia lophocarpa O.Lachenaud & Sonké, sp. nov.

Diagnosis – Ramulis breviter pubescentibus, foliis ellipticis parvis, floribusque parvis et sessilibus T. pallenti Hiern si-milis, sed differt fructibus longitudinaliter 8–10-costatis (nec laevibus), calyci lobis 0.5–1 mm longis (nec 0.1–0.5 mm), stylo glabro (nec pubescente), foliisque domatiis cryptiformibus (nec foveolatis) munitis et subtus in sicco minute granulosis (nec laevibus).

Etymology – The name lophocarpa refers to the ribbed fruits, the most diagnostic character of the species.

Tricalysia obovata O.Lachenaud & Sonké, sp. nov.

Diagnosis – Foliis obovatis basi rotundatis et ut caulibus glaberrimis, floribusque parvis et sessilibus T. amplexicauli Robbr. et T. pedunculosae (N.Hallé) Robbr. var. walkerianae(N.Hallé) Robbr. similis, sed ab ambabus conspicue differt foliis minoribus 8.5–10.7 cm longis (nec 14–35 cm) et sub-tus in sicco laevibus (nec granulosis), floribusque stylo in-cluso (nec exserto) et antheris pro parte inclusis (nec omnino exsertis).

Etymology – The species name refers to the obovate leaves.

Tricalysia wilksii O.Lachenaud & Sonké, sp. nov.

Diagnosis – Foliis ellipticis basi acutis et glabris domatiis exceptis, calycisque lobis linearibus tubo aequantibus vel ex-cedentibus T. obstetrici N.Hallé similis, sed differt fructibus pedicellatis pericarpio tenue (nec sessilibus pericarpio inc-rassato), ovario dense pubescente (nec glabro), bracteolis in cupula breviora (0.8–1.3 mm, nec 1.5–2 mm) connatis, stipu-lis glabris (nec pubescentibus), foliisque nitidis et subtus in sicco laevibus (nec opacis et in sicco granulosis).

Etymology – The species name commemorates the British botanist Christopher Morris Wilks (13 July 1947–2 November 2008), a specialist of Central African trees, and one of the collectors of this plant.

Olivier Lachenaud, Tariq Stévart and Bonaventure Sonké. 2020. Three New Species of Tricalysia (Rubiaceae) from Atlantic Central Africa. Plant Ecology and Evolution. 153(2); 257-266. DOI: 10.5091/plecevo.2020.1670

[Herpetology • 2021] Cyrtodactylus zhenkangensis • A New Species of Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Squamata, Gekkonidae) from Yunnan, China

 Cyrtodactylus zhenkangensis  
Liu & Rao, 2021

A new species of Cyrtodactylus is described on the basis of five specimens collected from the karst formations of Zhenkang County, Yunnan Province, China. Cyrtodactylus zhenkangensis sp. nov. is recognized by having a unique combination of morphological characters, the most diagnostic being: 12–15 enlarged femoral scales on each thigh; 2–5 femoral pores on each thigh in males, 0–3 pitted scales on each thigh in females; eight or nine precloacal pores in a continuous row or separated by one poreless scale in males, 7–9 pitted scales in females; subcaudals enlarged, arranged alternately as single and double on anterior and mostly single at middle and posterior; dorsal surface of head with obvious reticulations. Phylogenetic analyses show that the new species is a member of the C. wayakonei species group and a sister taxon to a clade consisting of C. wayakonei and C. martini based on Maximum Likelihood analyses and Bayesian Inference and differs from its congeners by at least 12.0% genetic divergence in a fragment of the COI gene.

Keywords: Bent-toed gecko, Cyrtodactylus wayakonei, karst-dwelling, taxonomy, Zhenkang

Figure 4. The holotype (KIZL20200049) of  Cyrtodactylus zhenkangensis sp. nov. in life
A dorsal view B lateral view.

Figure 5. The paratypes of Cyrtodactylus zhenkangensis sp. nov. in life
 A subadult male (KIZL2020046) B subadult female (KIZL2020047)
C adult female (KIZL2020048) D adult female (KIZL2020050).

Cyrtodactylus zhenkangensis sp. nov.
Diagnosis: Cyrtodactylus zhenkangensis sp. nov. differs from all other congeners by the following combination of characters: medium size (SVL 78.1–87.4 mm); ventrolateral folds present with interspersed tubercles; 12–15 enlarged femoral scales on each thigh; 2–5 femoral pores on each thigh in males, 0–3 pitted scales on each thigh in females; eight or nine precloacal pores in a continuous row or separated by one poreless scale in males, 7–9 pitted scales in females; two or three postcloacal tubercles on each side; 18–21 lamellae under finger IV, 21–23 lamellae under toe IV; subcaudals enlarged, arranged alternately as single and double on anterior and mostly single at middle and posterior; dorsal surface of head with obvious, light-colored reticulations; eight or nine irregular transverse bands on the dorsum of body.

Etymology: The name refers to Zhenkang County, where the new species was found.

Figure 7. Habitat of Cyrtodactylus zhenkangensis sp. nov. at the type locality in Zhenkang County, Yunnan Province, China.

Distribution: The new species is currently known only from the type locality in Zhenkang County, Yunnan Province, China.

Natural history: All specimens were found at night between 19:00 and 21:00 on limestone cliffs of the karst formations. The surrounding habitat was primary forest with a stream nearby. No eggs or juveniles were found.

Shuo Liu and Dingqi Rao. 2021. A New Species of Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 (Squamata, Gekkonidae) from Yunnan, China. ZooKeys. 1021: 109-126. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1021.60402