Monday, June 17, 2019

[PaleoMammalogy • 2019] Diaphorocetus poucheti (Cetacea, Odontoceti, Physeteroidea) from Patagonia, Argentina: One of the Earliest Sperm Whales

Diaphorocetus poucheti (Moreno, 1892)

in Paolucci, Buono, Fernández, et al., 2019. 

Sperm whales (Physeteroidea) are the basal-most surviving lineage of odontocetes, represented today by just three highly specialized, deep-diving suction feeders. By contrast, extinct sperm whales were relatively diverse, reflecting a major Miocene diversification into various suction feeding and macroraptorial forms. The beginnings of this diversification, however, remain poorly understood. The Atlantic coast of South America provides a crucial window into early physeteroid evolution and has yielded some of the oldest species known from cranial material, Idiorophus patagonicus and Diaphorocetus poucheti – both of which are in need of re-description and phylogenetic reappraisal. Here, we re-examine Diaphorocetus in detail and, in light of its complex taxonomic history, declare it a nomen protectum. Phylogenetically, the species forms part of a polytomy including ‘Aulophyseter’ rionegresis and the two crown lineages (Physeteridae and Kogiidae) and demonstrates that facial asymmetry and a clearly defined supracranial basin have characterized this lineage for at least 20 Ma. With a total body length of 3.5–4 m, Diaphorocetus is one of the smallest physeteroids yet known. Its cranial morphology hints at an intermediate raptorial/suction feeding strategy and it has a moderately developed spermaceti organ and junk.

Keywords: Physeteroidea, Gaiman Formation, phylogeny, anatomy, body size, Miocene

Figure 10. Schematic reconstruction of Diaphorocetus poucheti.
 A, head in lateral view showing the nasal complex and proposed outline of spermaceti organ and junk, based on Zygophyseter varolai Bianucci & Landini, 2006; B, full body reconstruction. Drawing by Florencia Paolucci.

Systematic palaeontology

Cetacea Brisson, 1762
Neoceti Fordyce & de Muizon, 2001
Odontoceti Flower, 1867
Physeteroidea Gray, 1821

Diaphorocetus Ameghino, 1894 nomen protectum

Diaphorocetus poucheti (Moreno, 1892)


Florencia Paolucci, Mónica R. Buono, Marta S. Fernández, Felix G. Marx and José I. Cuitiño. 2019. Diaphorocetus poucheti (Cetacea, Odontoceti, Physeteroidea) from Patagonia, Argentina: One of the Earliest Sperm Whales. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. DOI: 10.1080/14772019.2019.1605544    

[Botany • 2019] Cynanchum brevipedunculatum (Apocynaceae) • A New Species from Yunnan, China

Cynanchum brevipedunculatum J. Y. Shen

in Shen, Ma, Wang & Shi, 2019

Cynanchum brevipedunculatum (Apocynaceae), a new species from Menghai, Yunnan, China, is described and illustrated. It is compared with two morphologically similar species, Cynanchum decipiens and C. longipedunculatum. Cynanchum brevipedunculatum differs from the preceeding species in having much bigger leaves, adaxially sparsely strigillose, abaxially glabrous or sparsely strigillose on veins, shorter peduncle and the very distinctive bowl-shaped corona. A comprehensive morphological description of C. brevipedunculatum is provided, together with photographs, and a conservation assessment for this rare vine species.

Keyword: Apocynaceae, Asclepiadeae, China, Cynanchum brevipedunculatum, Xishuangbanna, Yunnan

Fig. 1. Cynanchum brevipedunculatum J. Y. Shen.
A. Habit. B-C. Adaxial and abaxial leaf surface. D-E. Inflorescences and flowers. F. Gynostegium in side view. G. Gynostegium in top view. H. Pollinarium.

Cynanchum brevipedunculatum J. Y. Shen, sp. nov.

Type: CHINA, Yunnan, Menghai, Bada, Hesong village, roadside, climbing on the tree, 21°50′N, 100°7′E, alt. 1905 m, 18 Nov. 2018, Shen Jian-Yong 1352 (holotype: HITBC; isotype: HIB, TAI). 

Diagnosis: C. brevipedunculatum can be distinguished from its closest morphological matches C. decipiens and C. longipedunculatum, by several morphological features (Table 1), C. brevipedunculatum has bigger (compared to 5–8 × 2–4 cm in C. decipiens and ca. 5.6 × 2.3 cm in C. longipedunculatum) leaves (12–20 × 6–11 cm), adaxially sparsely strigillose and abaxially glabrous or sparsely strigillose on the veins, and with a shorter (compared to 4–10 cm in C. decipiens and 6–9 cm in C. longipedunculatum) peduncle (1.8–2.2 cm).  

Distribution & habitat: Currently known only from the type locality and found growing beside the road, not in a protected area, at ca. 1900 m high elevation. 

Etymology: The peduncle of this species is short (1.8– 2.2 cm), thus the specific epithet “brevipedunculatum” was chosen. Chinese name is “短梗豹藥藤” (duǎn gěng bào yào téng), which means the plant is poisonous and has short peduncle.

Jian-Yong Shen, Xing-Da Ma, Wen-Guang Wang and Ji-Pu Shi. 2019. Cynanchum brevipedunculatum, A New Species of Apocynaceae from Yunnan, China. Taiwania.  64(3); 217-220. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2019.64.217

[Entomology • 2019] A Review of the Barsine hypoprepioides (Walker, 1862) Species-group (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae), with Descriptions of Fifteen New Species and A New Subspecies

Barsine compar (Fang, 1991)

in Volynkin, Černý & Huang, 2019. 
 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4618.1.1

The Barsine hypoprepioides (Walker, 1862) species-group is reviewed. Forty seven species and one subspecies belong to the species-group. Among them, fifteen species and one subspecies are new for science and described in the present paper: B. amoenissima sp. n. (Myanmar), B. selene sp. n. (Thailand and Laos), B. cao sp. n. (Thailand, Laos and Vietnam), B. speideli sp. n. (SE China, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam), B. mesomene sp. n. (NE India, Myanmar, China, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam), B. pandeia sp. n. (Vietnam), B. karenkensis wushipheri ssp. n. (S Taiwan), B. euryphaessa sp. n. (Vietnam), B. ivanovamariae sp. n. (Vietnam and SE China), B. eos sp. n. (Thailand), B. mene sp. n. (Thailand), B. syntypicoida sp. n. (Malaysia and Indonesia), B. dubatolovi sp. n. (The Philippines), B. visaya sp. n. (The Philippines), B. nemea sp. n. (The Philippines) and B. kishidai sp. n. (The Philippines). Eight new combinations are established: B. parameia (Rothschild, 1913), comb. n. B. takamukui (Matsumura, 1927), comb. n., B. karenkensis (Matsumura, 1930), comb. n., B. rhipiptera (Wileman & West, 1928), comb. n., B. chi (Roepke, 1946), comb. nov., B. salakia (Schaus, 1922), comb. n., B. marginis (Fang, 1991), comb. nov. and B. dentata (Wileman, 1910), comb. nov. The lectotype is designated for Lithosia hypoprepioides Walker, 1862. Adults, male and female genitalia of all species are illustrated.

Keywords: Lepidoptera, Asia, lectotype, Lithosiini, new combination

Barsine compar (Fang, 1991) 
Anton V. Volynkin, Karel Černý and Si-Yao Huang. 2019. A Review of the Barsine hypoprepioides (Walker, 1862) Species-group, with Descriptions of Fifteen New Species and A New Subspecies (Lepidoptera, Erebidae, Arctiinae). Zootaxa. 4618(1); 1-82. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4618.1.1

Sunday, June 16, 2019

[Mammalogy • 2019] Genetic Variation and Relationships among Afrotropical Species of Myotis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)

Myotis welwitschii (Gray, 1866)

Patterson, Webala, Peterhans, et al., 2019. 

The genus Myotis is nearly cosmopolitan and the second-most speciose genus of mammals, but its Afrotropical members are few and poorly known. We analyzed phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships of six of the eight known Afrotropical species using Cytb and sequences from four nuclear introns. Using Bayesian and maximum-likelihood approaches to generate single-locus, concatenated, and species trees, we confirmed prior evidence that the clade containing Afrotropical Myotis also contains both Palearctic and Indomalayan members. Additionally, we demonstrate that M. bocagii is sister to the Indian Ocean species M. anjouanensis, that this group is sister to M. tricolor and the Palearctic M. emarginatus, and find evidence suggesting that M. welwitschii is the earliest-diverging Afrotropical species and sister to the remainder. Although M. tricolor and M. welwitschii are both currently regarded as monotypic, both mitochondrial and nuclear data sets document significant, largely concordant geographic structure in each. Evidence for the distinction of two lineages within M. tricolor is particularly strong. On the other hand, geographic structure is lacking in M. bocagii, despite the current recognition of two subspecies in that species. Additional geographic sampling (especially at or near type localities), finer-scale sampling (especially in zones of sympatry), and integrative taxonomic assessments will be needed to better document this radiation and refine its nomenclature.

Key words: Afrotropical biodiversity, DNA sequence, East Africa, introgression, phylogeny, taxonomy 

Bruce D. Patterson, Paul W. Webala, Julian C. Kerbis Peterhans, Steven M. Goodman, Michael Bartonjo and Terrence C. Demos. 2019. Genetic Variation and Relationships among Afrotropical Species of Myotis (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Journal of Mammalogy. gyz087.  DOI: 10.1093/jmammal/gyz087

[Botany • 2019] Gladiolus mariae (Iridaceae) • A New Species from Fire-free Shrubland in the Kounounkan Massif, Guinea

Gladiolus mariae Burgt

in van der Burgt, Konomou, Haba & Magassouba, 2019.

Gladiolus mariae Burgt (Iridaceae), a new species from Guinea, West Africa, is described and illustrated. The new species is placed in Gladiolus sect. Decorati Goldblatt and compared with the nine species already known from that section. Flowering plants stand 28–160 cm high with 1–6 bright orange flowers, opening one at a time. The ecology of the new species is discussed in detail, and a description of the vegetation in the region is provided. Gladiolus mariae is at present known only from two uninhabited sandstone table mountains in the Kounounkan Massif, Forécariah Prefecture. About 210 plants were found, on rocky soils at altitudes of 650–1100 m. The majority of plants, about 160, were found in fire-free shrubland, in five patches of 1–4 ha each, dominated by fire-sensitive plant species, but grasses are infrequent. Gladiolus mariae seems vulnerable to grassland fires. The area of occupancy is 28 km2. The species is assessed to the IUCN category Endangered.

 Fig. 2. Gladiolus mariae – A: flowering plant; B: detail of leaf; C: base of plant showing corm and 3 cataphylls; D: upper part of plant with an open flower and a flower bud; E: upper part of fruiting plant with 5 mature fruits; F: mature, open fruit with seeds; G: detail of dotted epidermis of fruit; H: seeds. – Origin: A–D from Burgt & Haba 2012 (type gathering); E–H from Burgt 2161. – Drawing by Lucy T. Smith.

Fig. 1. Gladiolus mariae – A: habit of flowering plant; B: flowers; C: fruiting plant; D: fruit. – Origin: A from Burgt & Haba 2012 (type gathering); B from Burgt 2207; C, D from Burgt 2161. – All photographs by Xander van der Burgt. 

Gladiolus mariae Burgt, sp. nov.  

Holotype: Guinea, Forécariah Prefecture, southern plateau of Kounounkan Massif, ..., fl., 25 Sep 2016, X. M. van der Burgt & P. M. Haba 2012 (K001243991; isotypes: HNG, P, PRE, WAG).

Diagnosis — Gladiolus mariae morphologically resembles G. sudanicus Goldblatt. Gladiolus mariae plants are 28–160 cm tall with 7–11 foliage leaves and 1–6 flowers (vs 15–20 cm tall with 4 or 5 leaves and 2 or 3 flowers in G. sudanicus). The outer bract of the flower is 40–110 mm long (vs 20–25 mm long in G. sudanicus). The perianth tube is 39–50 mm long (vs 16–20 mm long in G. sudanicus); the tepals are 28–36 mm long and bright orange (vs 16–24 mm long and pale to deep pink in G. sudanicus).

Distribution — Gladiolus mariae is at present known only from two uninhabited sandstone table mountains in the Kounounkan Massif in Forécariah Prefecture, Guinea (Fig. 3). Sandstone plateaus elsewhere in the region are inhabited by farmers and cattle herders, and most of the original vegetation there has been modified by fire. If the species originally occurred elsewhere in the sandstone plateaus region, then it may still survive there, in rock crevices on vertical sandstone cliffs.

Habitat and ecology — Gladiolus mariae occurs on sandstone, on rocky soils; altitude 650–1100 m, in three vegetation types. Most plants were found in open fire-free shrubland vegetation (Fig. 4, 5). The species was also found in rock crevices on vertical sandstone cliffs; and occasionally in sparsely wooded submontane grassland, in sheltered sites where dry-season fires do not occur every year (Fig. 6).

Eponymy — Gladiolus mariae is named after Maria Alvarez Aguirre, the wife of XvdB.

Fig. 6. Submontane wooded grassland vegetation in the Kounounkan Massif. Gladiolus mariae was collected on this 1020 m high hill and was also observed there, growing on vertical sandstone cliffs. In some years the vegetation on the hill is not subject to the annual dry season fires because it is separated from the main plateau by a narrow, 350 m long canyon. – Photograph taken on 7 Feb 2019 by Xander van der Burgt.

Fig. 5. Inside the submontane shrubland vegetation of Fig. 4. Gladiolus mariae occurs abundantly in this vegetation type. The vegetation is dominated by shrubs that are not resistant to fire: Cailliella praerupticola (in flower), Dissotis leonensis (both Melastomataceae) and Microdracoides squamosa (Cyperaceae). Grasses (Poaceae) are infrequent; the only grass visible is Rhytachne perfecta, front and centre right. – Photograph taken on 27 Nov 2017 by Xander van der Burgt. 

Xander M. van der Burgt, Gbamon Konomou, Pepe M. Haba and Sékou Magassouba. 2019. Gladiolus mariae (Iridaceae), A New Species from Fire-free Shrubland in the Kounounkan Massif, Guinea. Willdenowia.  49(1);117-126. DOI: 10.3372/wi.49.49112

[Entomology • 2019] Revision of the Genus Cimeliomorpha Diakonoff (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)

[18, 19, 7] ผีเสื้อขมิ้นดิ้นเงิน Cimeliomorpha jarujini,
[21] C. perspinosa,  [22-23] C. inflata

Pinkaew & Horak, 2019

The enarmoniine genus Cimeliomorpha Diakonoff, 1966 is reviewed. Seven species are treated, and a key to the species is provided. Three named species, C. cymbalora (Meyrick), C. novarana (Felder & Rogenhofer), and C. egregiana (Felder & Rogenhofer), are redescribed, with the identity of C. novarana finally settled. Three new speciesCimeliomorpha jarujini, sp. n.; C. inflata, sp. n.; and C. perspinosa, sp. n., are described. Cimeliomorpha nabokovi Kuznetsov is included based on the original description. Illustrations of adults and genitalia of all species are provided, and the original hand-coloured images of C. egregiana and C. novarana are reproduced from a copy of the relevant book with unusually well-preserved plates.

Keywords: Lepidoptera, new species, Enarmoniini, Olethreutinae, Thailand, New Guinea

FIGURES 4−9. Labial palpi of Cimeliomorpha spp.
4. C. cymbalora, female (Thailand, KKIC, np2895). 5. C. novarana, female (Thailand, KKIC, np5789). 6. C. egregiana, male (Amboyna, Doherty, 1892 No.41343, NHMUK). 7. Cimeliomorpha jarujini, male (Thailand, holotype). 8. C. perspinosa, male (West Papua, holotype). 9. C. inflata, male (Woodlark Id, holotype).

Cimeliomorpha Diakonoff, 1966 
Cimeliomorpha Diakonoff, 1966: 50, fig. 1. Obraztsov, 1968: 185, figs 9‒13; Robinson et al., 1994: 104, plate 17 fig. 5; Kuznetsov, 1997: 801, fig. 7; Brown et al., 2005: 177. 

Type species: Copromorpha cymbalora Meyrick, 1907, by original designation. 

Diagnosis. Cimeliomorpha has an unmistakable two-toned forewing pattern with a uniformly yellow or white basal half and a distal half with complex mostly black pattern on red-brown ground with raised silvery lines and spots, and a hindwing that is either white or orange at the base, with a narrow to wide blackish band around its margin. Anthozela Meyrick and some Loboschiza species also have a conspicuously two-toned forewing, but in the former the basal half is yellow and either speckled with black or suffused with orange, and in the latter the hindwing is not white or yellowish in its basal half. The genitalia of both sexes of Cimeliomorpha also indicate a close relationship with Loboschiza, but not with Anthozela. The wing venation with widely separated Rs and M1 and parallel M2 and M3 in the hindwing (Fig. 3) is most similar to that of Irianassa Meyrick, but this is due rather to symplesiomorphy than to a close relationship as evidenced by the very different genitalia in both sexes.

The cymbalora-group. Forewing length 5.8−7.2 mm. Frons, vertex, labial palpus, pronotal collar, tegulae and mesonotum white. Forewing with basal 2/5 white; hindwing with basal half white; male genitalia with membrane next to juxta without setae, cucullus tip pointed and ending in short strong spine; female genitalia with one small signum, a granulate sclerite. 

The egregiana-group. Forewing length 7.2−9.9 mm. Frons, vertex, labial palpus, pronotal collar, tegulae and mesonotum yellow. Forewing with basal 2/5 yellow; hindwing with basal part orange or at least with large orange patch in centre; male genitalia with membrane next to juxta with numerous short setae, cucullus distally rounded and not ending in a single long spine (C. jarujini with one strong spine centrally); female genitalia with two horn-shaped signa.

Cimeliomorpha cymbalora (Meyrick, 1907)

Distribution. India, Thailand (new record). Specimens from Thailand were collected from evergreen forest. 

Cimeliomorpha novarana (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875) 

Distribution. Nicobar Island, Thailand (new record), Malaysia, Indonesia. Specimens from Thailand were collected from evergreen and dry evergreen forest.

Cimeliomorpha nabokovi Kuznetsov, 1997 

Distribution. Vietnam.

FIGURES 16−23. Adults of egregiana group (scale bars = 2 mm).
16. C. egregiana, male (Amboyna, Doherty, 1892 No.41343, NHMUK). 17. C. egregiana, female (Amboyna, Doherty, 1892 No.41344, NHMUK). 18. Cimeliomorpha jarujini, male holotype (Thailand). 19. C. jarujini, female paratype (Thailand, KKIC, np1852). 20. C. perspinosa, male holotype (West Papua). 21. C. perspinosa, female paratype (Papua New Guinea, NHMUK). 22. C. inflata, male holotype (Woodlark Id). 23. C. inflata, female paratype (Woodlark Id, ANIC).

Cimeliomorpha egregiana (Felder & Rogenhofer, 1875) 

Distribution. Ambon Island (Maluku Islands), Indonesia. 

Cimeliomorpha jarujini, sp. n.

Diagnosis. This species differs from members of the cymbalora group by the yellowish basal 2/5 of the forewing and a mostly orange hindwing. It is similar to all other species of the egregiana group in forewing pattern, but in the hindwing the short crescent-shaped blackish band is diagnostic: it reaches neither the base of the costa nor the anal angle, or at most only as some scattered scales, unlike all other species of the egregiana group. The valva of C. jarujini is most similar to that of C. perspinosa, but the cucullus of the former is less densely setose and has a central single large spine.

Etymology. This species is named after the late Jarujin Nabhitabhata, the first director of The Thailand Natural History Museum. 

Distribution. Southern Thailand (Nakhon Si Thammarat). Specimens were collected from evergreen forest. 

Cimeliomorpha perspinosa, sp. n. 

Diagnosis. This species differs from members of the cymbalora group by the yellow basal 2/5 of the forewing and a mostly orange hindwing. It is similar to the other species of the egregiana group in forewing pattern. The hindwing above is similar to that of C. egregiana with the black band reaching to the anal angle but not beyond, while in C. jarujini it ends before the anal angle, and in C. perspinosa it extends also along the anal margin. A diagnostic difference on the ventral side of the hindwing separates C. perspinosa with the subelliptical patch on costa medially from C. egregiana with a longitudinal blackish patch on costa. The valva of C. perspinosa is most similar to that of C. jarujini, but the cucullus of C. perspinosa has a dense tuft of equally large spines, whereas C. jarujini has a single, much larger spine.

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the cluster of bristles on the cucullus. 

Distribution. New Guinea: West Papua (Indonesia) and New Britain (Papua New Guinea).

 Cimeliomorpha inflata, sp. n.

Diagnosis. This species differs from members of the cymbalora group by the yellow basal 2/5 of the forewing and the partially orange hindwing. From other species in the egregiana group it differs by the very distinct but short, black, longitudinal fine striation in the ocelloid patch, and by the orange scales in the hindwing restricted to a bipartite median patch. The valva of C. inflata is unique, with a large and swollen cucullus, and the female genitalia are diagnostic with two elliptical patches of scale sockets on the membranous lamella postvaginalis and a very long colliculum.

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the swollen appearance of the cucullus (inflata=swollen). 

Distribution. Papua New Guinea (St. Matthias Island near New Britain, and Woodlark, Goodenough and Bougainville islands) and Solomon Islands (Guadalcanal and The Nggela Islands).

Nantasak Pinkaew and Marianne Horak. 2019. Revision of the Genus Cimeliomorpha Diakonoff (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). Zootaxa. 4615(3); 457–480.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4615.3.3


Friday, June 14, 2019

[Paleontology • 2019] Redlichia rex • The Trilobite Redlichia from the lower Cambrian Emu Bay Shale Konservat-Lagerstätte of South Australia: Systematics, Ontogeny and Soft-part Anatomy

Redlichia rex 

Holmes, Paterson & García-Bellido, 2019

The trilobite Redlichia Cossmann, 1902 is an abundant element of the lower Cambrian (Series 2, Stage 4) Emu Bay Shale (EBS) Konservat-Lagerstätte on Kangaroo Island, South Australia. Well-preserved, fully articulated specimens from this deposit are known to reach lengths of up to 25 cm, representing one of the largest known Cambrian trilobites. Until now, all Redlichia specimens from the EBS have been referred to Redlichia takooensis Lu, 1950, a species originally described from South China. Previous work recognized considerable differences in exoskeletal morphology among specimens of varying sizes, which was attributed to ontogeny. However, close examination of a large collection of recently acquired specimens shows that this variation actually represents two distinct morphs, interpreted here as separate species: R. takooensis, and a large, new species, Redlichia rex sp. nov. An analysis of morphological variation in holaspides (‘adults’) of the more common R. takooensis reveals considerable ontogenetic change occurred even during this later phase of growth. Some specimens of both Redlichia species from the EBS also exhibit exceptionally preserved soft-part anatomy, particularly the antennae and biramous appendages. Here, appendages (antenniform and biramous) and digestive structures are described, and biramous appendage reconstructions of R. rex sp. nov. are presented, which show a striking resemblance to some early Cambrian trilobites from South China. In particular, R. rex has a tripartite exopodite, as well as a dorsoventrally deep protopodite with gnathobasic spines used to shred or crush food items. Based on recent phylogenetic analyses, it is possible that an exopodite with tripartite subdivisions represents the plesiomorphic condition for Artiopoda (trilobites and kin). The digestive system of R. takooensis exhibits a series of paired digestive glands in the cephalon and anterior thorax, similar to those described for a number of other Cambrian and Ordovician trilobites.

Keywords: Arthropoda; Artiopoda; Redlichiida; geometric morphometrics; biramous appendage; antennae

Order Redlichiida Richter, 1932
Suborder Redlichiina Richter, 1932

Superfamily Redlichioidea Poulsen, 1927
Family Redlichiidae Poulsen, 1927

Genus Redlichia Cossmann, 1902

Type species. Hoeferia noetlingi Redlich, 1899 
from the early Cambrian of the Salt Range, Pakistan. 

Redlichia takooensis Lu, 1950

Redlichia rex sp. nov.

Derivation of name. Latin for ‘king’, in reference to the remarkable size of this species, the largest for the genus and the biggest Cambrian trilobite in Australia.

Redlichia rex sp. nov. [SAM P54286] from the Emu Bay Shale.  

Biramous appendage reconstructions for Redlichia rex sp. nov. illustrating the tripartite structure of the exopodite and the elongate protopodite.

James D. Holmes, John R. Paterson and Diego C. García-Bellido. 2019. The Trilobite Redlichia from the lower Cambrian Emu Bay Shale Konservat-Lagerstätte of South Australia: Systematics, Ontogeny and Soft-part Anatomy. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology. DOI: 10.1080/14772019.2019.1605411


[Paleontology • 2019] Prenatal Development in Pterosaurs and its Implications for their Postnatal Locomotory Ability

Unwin & Deeming, 2019.
  DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2019.0409 
James Brown

Recent fossil finds in China and Argentina have provided startling new insights into the reproductive biology and embryology of pterosaurs, Mesozoic flying reptiles. Nineteen embryos distributed among four species representing three distinct clades have been described and all are assumed to be at, or near, term. We show here how the application of four contrasting quantitative approaches allows a more precise identification of the developmental status of embryos revealing, for the first time to our knowledge, the presence of middle and late developmental stages as well as individuals that were at term. We also identify a predicted relationship between egg size and shape and the developmental stage of embryos contained within. Small elongate eggs contain embryos at an earlier stage of development than larger rounder eggs which contain more fully developed embryos. Changes in egg shape and size probably reflect the uptake of water, consistent with a pliable shell reported for several pterosaurs. Early ossification of the vertebral column, limb girdles and principal limb bones involved some heterochronic shifts in appearance times, most notably of manus digit IV, and facilitated full development of the flight apparatus prior to hatching. This is consistent with a super-precocial flight ability and, while not excluding the possibility of parental care in pterosaurs, suggests that it was not an absolute requirement.

Keywords: mesozoic, pterosaur, egg, embryology, locomotion, heterochrony

David Michael Unwin  and D. Charles Deeming. 2019. Prenatal Development in Pterosaurs and its Implications for their Postnatal Locomotory Ability. Proc. R. Soc. B. 286: 20190409. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2019.0409

Baby pterodactyls could fly from birth via @physorg_com

Thursday, June 13, 2019

[Crustacea • 2019] Cristimenes brucei • A New Species of the Genus Cristimenes Ďuriš & Horká, 2017 (Decapoda, Caridea, Palaemonidae)

 Cristimenes brucei 
Park, De Grave & Kim, 2019

A new species of crinoid-associated shrimp, Cristimenes brucei sp. nov., is described based on specimens from Korea, although the species also occurs in Hong Kong and is likely more widespread. The new species is morphologically very similar to C. commensalis, but can be distinguished by the reduced supraorbital tooth on the carapace. Cristimenes brucei sp. nov. is clearly recovered as a monophyletic species through COI barcode and molecular phylogenetic analyses based on four genetic markers (COI, 16S, H3, 18S).

Keywords: Cristimenes brucei sp. nov., crinoid associate, Indo-West Pacific, Hong Kong, Korea, phylogeny

Infraorder Caridea Dana, 1852
Family Palaemonidae Rafinesque, 1815

Genus Cristimenes Ďuriš & Horká, 2017

Figure 8. Colour pattern of three species of Cristimenes.
  Cristimenes brucei sp. nov. from Korea (MADBK 120532_017) B same, with host crinoid species
C Cristimenes commensalis (Borradaile, 1915) from Vietnam (SNU VI VI305) D Cristimenes cristimanus (Bruce, 1965) from Vietnam (SNU VI VI297).

Cristimenes brucei sp. nov.
 Periclimenes commensalis l: Bruce 1982a: 236–238, fig. 2.

Diagnosis: Rostrum well developed, with dorsal and ventral teeth. Carapace smooth, without epigastric tooth; lateral carinae feebly developed; supraorbital tooth reduced, blunt; inferior orbital angle pointed; antennal and hepatic teeth well developed. Fourth thoracic sternite without median process. Abdomen with rounded pleura. Telson with two pairs of small dorsal spiniform setae, and with three pairs of posterior spiniform setae. Eyes with hemispherical cornea. Basal antennular segment with two acute distolateral teeth. Antennal basicerite with sharp distoventral tooth; scaphocerite with large distolateral tooth, not reaching distal end of lamella. Epistome rounded. Mandible without palp; molar process robust; incisor process with four or five terminal teeth. Maxillula with bilobed palp. Maxilla with blunt palp, basal endite well developed, bilobed. First maxilliped with simple palp; basal and coxal endites fused; exopod with developed caridean lobe; epipod bilobed. Second maxilliped with subquadrate epipod, without podobranch. Third maxilliped with slender exopod; arthrobranch rudimentary. First pereiopods slender, fingers subspatulate with entire cutting edges. Second pereiopods equal in shape and subequal in size; palm articulated subproximally; cutting edges of fingers feebly dentate proximally, serrated distally. Dactyli of ambulatory pereiopods biunguiculate; corpus with two or three acute dorsodistal spinules, with acute preterminal accessory tooth. Uropodal exopod with distolateral tooth and movable acute spine.

Etymology: The new species is named in honour of Dr AJ (Sandy) Bruce, in recognition of his considerable contribution to the systematics of Palaemonidae.

Ecology: The specimens were collected from the crinoids Anneissia japonica, A. solaster and Catoptometra rubroflava at a depth of 15 – 27 m. Bruce (1982a) reported that the Hong Kong specimens were collected from Tropiometra afra (Hartlaub, 1890).

Distribution: Presently only known from the type locality, Jeju Special Self-Governing Province, Korea as well as Hong Kong (Bruce 1982a).

 Jin-Ho Park, Sammy De Grave and Won Kim. 2019. A New Species of the Genus Cristimenes Ďuriš & Horká, 2017 (Decapoda, Caridea, Palaemonidae). ZooKeys. 852: 53-71. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.852.34959

[Botany • 2019] Natural Hybridization – Recombination – An ever-ongoing Process

Figure 5. Spathe limbs of the Cryptocoryne crispatula Engl. complex. – A. C. crispatula var. yunnanensis (H.Li) H.Li & N.Jacobsen, Ban Phon Gun Nam Ken, central Laos; B. C. crispatula var. crispatula (albida like), Nam Cheng, central Laos;  M. C. crispatula var. flaccidifolia N.Jacobsen, Khao Sok River, PEN Thailand;  Q. C. albida (crispatula like), 3 Pagoda Pass, SW Thailand.  Scale 2 cm.
Figure 1. Cryptocoryne albida Parker on a sandbank and C. crispatula Engl. var. flaccidifolia N.Jacobsen submerged in the river; Khao Sok River, S Thailand.
in Jacobsen & Ørgaard, 2019. 

Exemplified by studies of the SE Asian genus Cryptocoryne (Araceae) we provide evidence that: 1) interspecific hybridization is an everongoing process, and introgression and gene exchange takes place whenever physically possible throughout the region; 2) artificial hybridization experiments confirm that wide crosses are possible in a large number of cases; 3) rivers and streams provide numerous, diverse habitats for Cryptocoryne diaspores to settle in; 4) the changes in habitats caused by recurrent glaciations resulting in numerous splitting and merging of populations facilitates hybridization and segregation of subsequent generations; 5) hybridization is a major driving element in speciation; 6) populations are the units and stepping stones in evolution – not the species.

KEYWORDS:  Araceae, Chromosome numbers, Cryptocoryne, hybridization, evolution

Figure 3. Spathe limbs of different Cryptocoryne species.
 A. C. usteriana Engl., Philippines; B. C. nevillii Hook.f., Sri Lanka; C. C. walkeri Schott, Sri Lanka;  D. C. matakensis Bastm. et al., Anambas Islands; E. C. bangkaensis Bastm., South Sumatera Province and the Islands Bangka and Belitung; F. C. alba De Wit, Sri Lanka; G. C. griffithii Schott, southern Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore, Riau Islands and southern Central Kalimantan; H. C. idei Budianto, Central Kalimantan. Scale bar 2 cm.

Figure 5. Spathe limbs of the Cryptocoryne crispatula Engl. complex. – A. C. crispatula var. yunnanensis (H.Li) H.Li & N.Jacobsen, Ban Phon Gun Nam Ken, central Laos; B. C. crispatula var. crispatula (albida like), Nam Cheng, central Laos;  M. C. crispatula var. flaccidifolia N.Jacobsen, Khao Sok River, PEN Thailand;  Q. C. albida (crispatula like), 3 Pagoda Pass, SW Thailand.  Scale 2 cm.
Figure 1. Cryptocoryne albida Parker on a sandbank and C. crispatula Engl. var. flaccidifolia N.Jacobsen submerged in the river; Khao Sok River, S Thailand.

Niels Jacobsen and Marian Ørgaard. 2019. Natural Hybridization – Recombination – An ever-ongoing Process. Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany). 47(1); 19-28.  DOI: 10.20531/tfb.2019.47.1.05

[Crustacea • 2019] Periclimenaeus gorgonidarum (Balss, 1913) • On the Systematic Status of Isopericlimenaeus Marin, 2012 (Decapoda: Palaemonidae)

 Periclimenaeus gorgonidarum (Balss, 1913)

in Park, De Grave & Kim, 2019. 

The palaemonid genus Isopericlimenaeus is currently comprised of only the type species, Isopericlimenaeus gorgonidarum, with the diagnostic character of the genus being the presence of a molar and fossa structure on both second chelipeds. Periclimenaeus uropodialis is a closely related species, which has either been considered a synonym of I. gorgonidarum or placed as a valid species in the related genus, Periclimenaeus. During fieldwork in the Philippines, Taiwan and Korea, several species of Periclimenaeus and other sponge associated shrimps belonging to the family Palaemonidae were collected, including I. gorgonidarum and P. uropodialis. Based on a morphological and molecular comparison, it is demonstrated that both taxa are conspecific and that Isopericlimenaeus is a junior synonym of Periclimenaeus.

Keywords: Palaemonidae, Isopericlimenaeus gorgonidarumPericlimenaeus uropodialis, phylogeny

Figure 2. Periclimenaeus gorgonidarum (Balss, 1913)
from Callyspongia cf. confoederata (sensu Ridley, 1884). Male (MADBK 120519_019, pocl 4.2 mm) from Jejudo Island, Korea
 (photograph by JH Park).

Figure 7. Two sponge-dwelling species and host sponge from Jejudo Island, Korea:
A, female of Periclimenaeus gorgonidarum (SNU KR JH131, pocl 3.5 mm) in the spongocoel of host species (photograph by JH Park); B, ovigerous female of Onycocaris callyspongiae (SNU KR JH454) inside a channel of the sponge wall of same host species (photograph by JH Park); C, Host species, C. cf. confoederata (photograph by JH Park).

Jin-Ho Park, Sammy De Grave and Won Kim. 2019. On the Systematic Status of Isopericlimenaeus Marin, 2012 and its Type Species, Periclimenaeus gorgonidarum (Balss, 1913) (Crustacea: Decapoda: Palaemonidae). Zootaxa. 4614(2); 353–367. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4614.2.5

Wednesday, June 12, 2019

[Ichthyology • 2019] Pomacentrus vatosoa • A New Species of Damselfish (Teleostei: Pomacentridae: Pomacentrus) from Nosy Faho, Madagascar

Pomacentrus vatosoa
 Frable & Tea, 2019

Pomacentrus vatosoa, new species, is described on the basis of four specimens collected from Nosy Faho, Madagascar. The new species is distinctive in having a pearlescent-white body with a large black spot midlaterally behind the pectoral fin, a black saddle of similar size on the dorsal edge of the caudal peduncle, and a black recurved band from the orbit to origin of dorsal fin. Aside from details in live coloration, the new species is readily diagnosed from congeners in having the following combination of characters: dorsal-fin rays XIV, 13–14; anal-fin rays II, 14; pectoral-fin rays 18–19; tubed lateral scales 19–20; gill rakers 5–6+17–18 = 22–24; infraorbitals naked; teeth on lower jaw partly biserial; no distinct notch between infraorbitals 1 and 2; and a crescent opening of the supraorbital canal above the eye. The new species appears to be most closely related to Pomacentrus atriaxillaris on the basis of meristic data, though comparative molecular sequences for P. atriaxillaris are lacking. Assignment of the new species to the genus Pomacentrus is accompanied with a brief discussion of the systematic contention within the Pomacentridae.

Fig. 3. Pomacentrus vatosoa, new species, ZRC 60713, 47.0 mm SL, paratype in life, Nosy Faho, Madagascar. Right facing side, image reversed.
Photo by Y. K. Tea. 
Fig. 2. Head details of Pomacentrus vatosoa, new species, ZRC 60713, 43.6 mm SL, paratype, Nosy Faho, Madagascar. Specimen stained temporarily with cyanine blue.
AN, anterior nostril; CSO, crescent opening of supraorbital canal; IO1, infraorbital 1; IO2, infraorbital 2. Arrow indicates posterior extent of free margin of infraorbital 2.

 Photo by Y. K. Tea.

Pomacentrus vatosoa, new species  
 Corazon’s Damsel

Etymology.— The specific epithet is a compound word meaning ‘‘beautiful stone’’ in Malagasy, in reference to the opalescent or pearlescent qualities of the new species in life. The common name is given in honor of Corazon Sibayan Shutman, wife of Barnett Shutman, who provided us with specimens used in this study.

Benjamin W. Frable and Yi-Kai Tea. 2019. A New Species of Damselfish (Teleostei: Pomacentridae: Pomacentrus) from Nosy Faho, Madagascar. Copeia. 107(2); 323-331. DOI: 10.1643/CI-19-221