Saturday, May 25, 2024

[Ichthyology • 2024] Synergistic Innovations enabled the Radiation of Anglerfishes (Lophiiformes) in the Deep Open Ocean


in Brownstein, Zapfe, Lott, Harrington, Ghezelayagh, Dornburg et Near, 2024. 
• Resolution of anglerfish phylogeny
• Anglerfishes radiated into the midnight zone during an ancient climate crisis
• Complex assembly of anglerfish sexual parasitism
• Complex innovations sculpted the ecological transition of bathypelagic anglerfishes

Major ecological transitions are thought to fuel diversification, but whether they are contingent on the evolution of certain traits called key innovations is unclear. Key innovations are routinely invoked to explain how lineages rapidly exploit new ecological opportunities. However, investigations of key innovations often focus on single traits rather than considering trait combinations that collectively produce effects of interest. Here, we investigate the evolution of synergistic trait interactions in anglerfishes, which include one of the most species-rich vertebrate clades in the bathypelagic, or “midnight,” zone of the deep sea: Ceratioidea. Ceratioids are the only vertebrates that possess sexual parasitism, wherein males temporarily attach or permanently fuse to females to mate. We show that the rapid transition of ancestrally benthic anglerfishes into pelagic habitats occurred during a period of major global warming 50–35 million years ago. This transition coincided with the origins of sexual parasitism, which is thought to increase the probability of successful reproduction once a mate is found in the midnight zone, Earth’s largest habitat. Our reconstruction of the evolutionary history of anglerfishes and the loss of immune genes support that permanently fusing clades have convergently degenerated their adaptive immunity. We find that degenerate adaptive immune genes and sexual body size dimorphism, both variably present in anglerfishes outside the ceratioid radiation, likely promoted their transition into the bathypelagic zone. These results show how traits from separate physiological, morphological, and reproductive systems can interact synergistically to drive major transitions and subsequent diversification in novel environments.


Chase D. Brownstein , Katerina L. Zapfe, Spencer Lott, Richard Harrington, Ava Ghezelayagh, Alex Dornburg and Thomas J. Near. 2024. Synergistic Innovations enabled the Radiation of Anglerfishes in the Deep Open Ocean. Current Biology. In Press, DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2024.04.066

[Botany • 2024] Psychotria pendens (Rubiaceae: Psychotrieae) • A New ultramafic Species from Central Palawan, Philippines

Psychotria pendens M. Bautista & R. Bustam.,

in Bautista, Chua-Mangussad, Cervancia et Bustamante, 2024.

Psychotria pendens from the lowland ultramafic forest of Mt. Victoria, Palawan Island, Philippines is herein described as a new species of Rubiaceae. The new species is morphologically similar to P. rubiginosa (Gitingensis species group) by having monochotomous inflorescence and oblanceolate to oblong-elliptic leaves but is distinguished by its large, leaf-like, valvate stipules with biattenuate to biacuminate tips, pendent inflorescence, glabrous abaxial leaf surface, narrowly triangular bracts, and glabrous calyx. Molecular analysis revealed that this newly discovered species belongs to the Pacific Psychotria clade, and is allied to the Philippine species P. luzoniensis and Hawaiian species P. mariniana. The species is assessed as Critically Endangered (CR) based on the IUCN Red List categories and criteria.

Psychotria, Malesia, Mt. Victoria, Palawan, Eudicots


Psychotria pendens M. Bautista & R. Bustam., sp. nov.

Mary Ann C. Bautista, Vernaluz Chua-Mangussad, Jehson Cervancia and Rene Alfred Anton Bustamante. 2024. Psychotria pendens (Rubiaceae, Psychotrieae), A New ultramafic Species from Central Palawan, Philippines.  Phytotaxa. 649(3); 252-260. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.649.3.2

[Ichthyology • 2024] Hyphessobrycon citrus • Redescription of Hyphessobrycon cachimbensis (Characiformes: Characidae) with the Description of A New congener from the Serra do Cachimbo, Brazil

Hyphessobrycon citrus
Marinho & Dagosta, 2024

The Serra do Cachimbo is a highland area at the southeastern portion of the Amazon Forest drained by the headwaters of tributaries of rios Xingu and Tapajós. It is known as an area of high level of endemism of fish, low species diversity, and very few taxa with broad distribution in the other parts of the Amazon. Despite its biogeographical importance, there are still many poorly sampled areas. Four expeditions to the region yielded in the rediscovery of a poorly known, endemic species, Hyphessobrycon cachimbensis, and the discovery of a similar, allopatric undescribed congener, frequently misidentified as H. cachimbensis. We provided the redescription of H. cachimbensis and the description of the new species. Both can be differentiated from most congeners by having a conspicuous longitudinal dark stripe on body and anal-fin base convex in males, due to thicker musculature insertion in the region. Other diagnostic features are mostly related to counts of scales and fin rays.

Keywords: Endemism; Ostariophysi; Rio Tapajós; Rio Xingu; Tetra

Hyphessobrycon citrus, Brazil, Pará State, rio Tapajós basin, rio Teles Pires drainage, tributary of rio Braço Norte. A. MZUSP 128236, holotype, 38.0 mm SL, male; B. MZUSP 101429, paratype, 39.4 mm SL, female.

Hyphessobrycon citrus, new species

Diagnosis. Hyphessobrycon citrus can be distinguished from its congeners, except H. cachimbensis, H. chiribiquete, H. comodoro, H. cyanotaenia, H. fernandezi, H. melanostichos, H. nigricinctus, H. paucilepis, H. petricolus, H. piranga, H. psittacus, H. scholzei, H. sovichthys, H. stegemanni, H. taphorni, H. tuyensis, and H. vilmae,by the presence of a well-defined, relatively narrow dark midlateral stripe on body, from immediately behind the opercular opening to the tip of middle caudal-fin rays (vs. longitudinal stripe absent, stripe starting approximately at vertical through the dorsal-fin origin, or midlateral dark stripe becoming blurred towards the caudal peduncle). It can be distinguished from the aforementioned species, except H. cachimbensis, H. chiribiquete, H. comodoro, H. cyanotaenia, H. melanostichos, H. nigricinctus, and H. petricolus, by the presence of a humeral spot (vs. absence). Hyphessobrycon citrus can be distinguished from H. cachimbensis, H. comodoro, H. cyanotaenia, and H. melanostichos by having the longitudinal black stripe starting immediately behind the opercle (vs. starting at the posterior margin of orbit), from H. chiribiquete, H. nigricinctus and from H. cachimbensis by having 14–17 anal-fin rays (vs. 18 or more), and from H. petricolus by having 14 horizontal scale rows around caudal peduncle (vs. 12) and non-symphyseal teeth of the premaxillary inner row with 7 to 9 cusps (vs. 3 to 5). The yellow citrus coloration and a vivid colored red eye in life also help distinguishing H. citrus from congeners.

Etymology. The specific epithet comes from the Latin “citrus”, referring to its bright yellow coloration similar to several citrus fruits. A noun in apposition.

Manoela Maria Ferreira Marinho and Fernando Cesar Paiva Dagosta. 2024. Redescription of Hyphessobrycon cachimbensis (Characiformes: Characidae) with the Description of A New congener from the Serra do Cachimbo, Brazil.  Neotrop. ichthyol. 22 (2); DOI: 10.1590/1982-0224-2023-0127   

[Ichthyology • 2024] Liobagrus chenhaojuni • A New Species of Liobagrus Hilgendorf, 1878 (Siluriformes: Amblycipitidae) from the lower Changjiang River basin in southeast China

Liobagrus chenhaojuni Chen, Guo & Wu,

in Chen, Guo, Dai, X.-C. Huang, J.-H. Huang, Jiang, Ouyang, Wen et Wu, 2024.
浙江䱀  ||  DOI: 10.3897/zse.100.122472

A new catfish species, Liobagrus chenhaojuni Chen, Guo & Wu, sp. nov., is described from the Tiaoxi River, a tributary of Taihu Lake, located in Zhejiang Province, China. This description is based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analysis. This species belongs to a group defined by the presence of a smooth posterior edge of the pectoral-fin spine and can be distinguished from other species in the group by a unique combination of characteristics, including: an upper jaw longer than the lower jaw; maxillary barbels reaching the middle of the pectoral fin; irregular blotches present on the lateral body; a rounded caudal-fin with a length ranging from 16.5% to 19.9% of the standard length; 39 to 41 post-Weberian vertebrae; and 15 to 17 anal-fin rays. The validity of this new species is further supported by the molecular phylogenetic analysis based on Cytb sequences.

Key Words: catfish, phylogeny, taxonomy, Zhejiang Province

Liobagrus chenhaojuni sp. nov. A–C. Dorsal, lateral, and ventral view of holotype (24_NCU_XPWU_Y01); D. Dorsal view of pectoral-fin spine of paratype (22_NCU_XPWU_Y31). Arrows show the anus.

Living specimens of Liobagrus chenhaojuni sp. nov. and its similar congeneric species. A, B. Liobagrus chenhaojuni sp. nov.; C. Liobagrus chenhaojuni sp. nov.  albino individual;
D. L. styani; E. L. anguillicauda; F. L. brevispina; G. dorsal view of pectoral-fin spine of L. brevispina.

 Liobagrus chenhaojuni Chen, Guo & Wu, sp. nov.
Diagnosis: Liobagrus chenhaojuni sp. nov. is a member of the group defined by the presence of a smooth posterior edge of the pectoral-fin spine (i.e., L. reinii, L. formosanus, L. styani, L. nantoensis, L. anguillicauda, L. marginatoides, and L. aequilabris). It can be distinguished from all other species in this group by the following characteristics: the upper jaw is longer than the lower jaw (vs. equal in L. aequilabris and L. formosanus; shorter in L. marginatoides); the maxillary barbels reach the middle of the pectoral fin (vs. reach the pectoral-fin insertion in L. styani, L. reinii, and L. nantoensis); presence of irregular blotches on the lateral body (vs. absence in L. formosanus, L. nantoensis, L. anguillicauda, L. marginatoides, and L. aequilabris); the caudal fin is rounded (vs. sub-truncate in L. marginatoides); the caudal fin length ranges from 16.5% to 19.9% standard length (vs. 13.1–16.2 in L. styani, 20.3–27.0 in L. anguillicauda and 20.1–26.9 in L. aequilabris); it possesses 39–41 post-Weberian vertebrae (vs. 35–37 in L. aequilabris), the anal-fin rays range from 15 to 17 (vs. 12 in L. nantoensis) (Table 3).

Etymology: This species is named after Mr. Hao-Jun Chen, who assisted in the field survey. 
Vernacular name: 浙江䱀 (Pinyin: zhe jiang yang).


 Zhong-Guang Chen, Yan-Shu Guo, Yu-Ting Dai, Xiao-Chen Huang, Jun-Hao Huang, Jiao Jiang, Shan Ouyang, An-Xiang Wen and Xiao-Ping Wu. 2024. A New Species of Liobagrus Hilgendorf, 1878 (Teleostei, Siluriformes, Amblycipitidae) from the lower Changjiang River basin in southeast China. Zoosystematics and Evolution. 100(2): 555-563. DOI: 10.3897/zse.100.122472

[Botany • 2023] Corydalis mianxianensis (Papaveraceae, sect. Cheilanthifoliae) • A New Species from limestone cliffs in central China, and Notes on the Shaanxi Record of C. saxicola

Corydalis mianxianensis D.Wang, 

in D. Wang, Xu, Li, Sun et L. Wang, 2023. 

Corydalis mianxianensis, a new species of C. sect. Cheilanthifoliae Lidén (Papaveracae), is described from Qinling-Daba mountains and adjacent Minshan mountains, central China. It is similar to C. moupinensis Franch., but it differs from the latter in racemes with 30–50(–70) flowers, spur being much shorter than limb of upper petal, and arcuate to strongly contorted fruits. These two species are also much different in stigma and ecology as well. In addition, we confirmed that the record of C. saxicola G.S.Bunting in Shaanxi Province as documented in the Chinese floras was a misidentification of this new species.

Eudicots, chasmophytes, Corydalis sect. Cheilanthifoliae, Minshan Mountains, Qinling-Daba mountains, taxonomy

 Habitat, habit and morphology of Corydalis mianxianensis (D. Wang et al. 210003).
A. habitat; B. inflorescence; C. fruits; D-G. flower showing the lateral view (D), front view (E), adaxial view of flower showing the apex of upper petal (F) and abaxial view of flower showing the apex of lower petal (G).

Corydalis mianxianensis D.Wang 

Dong Wang, Xiaodong Xu, Niya Li, Qian Sun and Liang Wang. 2023. Corydalis mianxianensis (Papaveraceae), A New Species from limestone cliffs in central China, and Notes on the Shaanxi Record of C. saxicola G.S.Bunting. Phytotaxa. 609(3); 233-239. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.609.3.6 

[Botany • 2022] Whytockia (Gesneriaceae), A New Generic Record for India, based on A New Species, Whytockia arunachalensis from Arunachal Pradesh, India

Whytockia arunachalensis Taram, D.Borah & Tag,

in Taram, Borah, Tag, Möller et Weber, 2022.

Based on recent collections from Arunachal Pradesh (Northeast India), a new species of Gesneriaceae, Whytockia arunachalensis, is described. It differs from the other species of Whytockia by its extensive, dense and uniform indumentum over the entire plant and is closely related to the white, but smaller-flowered congeners W. tsiangiana and W. sasakii. Up to now, Whytockia was only known from South and Central China and Taiwan and this is the first record of the genus for India. For that reason, some general information (including a key to the genus and genus description) and critical notes on the species and characters of Whytockia are provided.

Keywords: China, Didymocarpoideae, Epithemateae, Monophyllaeinae, Taiwan, Taxonomy

Whytockia arunachalensis Taram, D.Borah & Tag:
a. Habit and habitat; b. Flowering plant; c. Inflorescence; d. Two axillary inflorescences; e. Leaf indumentum–adaxial; f. Leaf indumentum–abaxial; g. Stem, peduncle and pedicel indumentum; h. Single flowering axillary inflorescence; i. Flowering inflorescence (photos by M. Taram)

Taram M., Borah D., Tag H., Möller M. and A. Weber. 2022. Whytockia (Gesneriaceae), A New Generic Record for India, based on A New Species, W. arunachalensis from Arunachal Pradesh, India.  Rheedea. 32(1); 30-45.
DOI: 10.22244/rheedea.2022.32.01.02

[Botany • 2024] Emblica chakrabartyi (Phyllanthaceae) • A striking Species from the southern Western Ghats, India

Emblica chakrabartyi   

in Sunil, Prabhukumar, Kumar, Sanilkumar, Simi et Balachandran, 2024. 
A new species of Emblica Gaertn. (Phyllanthaceae), E. chakrabartyi sp. nov. from the southern part of the Western Ghats, India is described here along with data on distribution, phenology and colour photographs. A key to the species of Emblica in India is also provided. The new species is allied to Emblica anamalayana, but differs in habit, urceolate staminate flowers with short pedicel, inner tepals of staminate flower larger than outer, short anthers which are equal in length to its column, three distinct deeply bifid styles, shape of capsule and its styles and black lineolate smooth seeds.

Keywords: India, Kerala, new species, Phyllanthaceae

Emblica chakrabartyi sp. nov. 

Chandrasseril Narayanan Sunil, Konickal Mambetta Prabhukumar, Vannaratta Veettil Naveen Kumar, Malayil Gopalan Sanilkumar, Mattappilly Sugathan Simi and Indira Balachandran. 2024. Emblica chakrabartyi sp. nov. (Phyllanthaceae), A striking Species from the southern Western Ghats, India. Nordic Journal of Botany. DOI: 10.1111/njb.04154

[Mollusca • 2024] Moellendorffia gulinensis, M. wuchaoi, & Moellendorffiella yifengi • New Species of Moellendorffia Ancey, 1887 and Moellendorffiella Pilsbry, 1905 (Gastropoda: Eupulmonata: Camaenidae) from China

A, B, Moellendorffia gulinensis sp. nov., living holotype and its type locality, Zhicaogou, Gulin, Sichuan.
 C, D, M. wuchaoi sp. nov., living snail from Jianfengling, Hainan (D was photographed under ultraviolet light to show the snail’s bristles).

 Moellendorffiella erdmanni and habitat at Wulong, Chongqing;
type locality of Moellendorffiella yifengi sp. nov., Kaihua, Wenshan, Yunnan.

 Lin & Qiu, 2024. Journal of Conchology. 45(1)
Photos by Lu Qiu, Chao Wu, Chen-Yu Fei and Yi-Feng Liu

Two new species of Moellendorffia Ancey, 1887 and one new species of Moellendorffiella Pilsbry, 1905 are described from China, namely Moellendorffia gulinensis sp. nov. from southeastern Sichuan Province, Moellendorffia wuchaoi sp. nov. from eastern Hainan Island, and Moellendorffiella yifengi sp. nov. from southeastern Yunnan Province. Shell characters and habitats are illustrated, and a distribution map of the new species is provided. Moellendorffia trisinuata trisinuata and Moellendorffiella erdmanni are re-examined and illustrated using newly collected specimens. The generic diagnosis of Moellendorffiella is supplemented.

 Key words. China, taxonomy, new species, systematics, snail

 Protoconch and apertural characters.
A, B, Moellendorffia gulinensis sp. nov., holotype MYNU-00034.
C, D, Moellendorffia wuchaoi sp. nov., holotype MYNU-00038.
E, F, Moellendorffiella yifengi sp. nov., holotype MYNU-00036.
Red dot: prominent nodule, green dot: columellar lamella, yellow dot: palatal lamella. Not to scale.

 Living snails and habitat of Moellendorffia species.
A, B, M. gulinensis sp. nov., living holotype and its type locality, Zhicaogou, Gulin, Sichuan. 
C, D, M. wuchaoi sp. nov., living snail from Jianfengling, Hainan (D was photographed under ultraviolet light to show the snail’s bristles).
Photo credit: Lu Qiu (A, B) and Chao Wu (C, D).

  Living snail and habitats of Moellendorffiella species.
A, B, Mo. erdmanni and habitat at Wulong, Chongqing. C, type locality of Mo. yifengi sp. nov., Kaihua, Wenshan, Yunnan.
Photo credit: Chen-Yu Fei (A, B) and Yi-Feng Liu (C).

Ran-Xi Lin and Lu Qiu. 2024. New Species of Moellendorffia Ancey, 1887 and Moellendorffiella Pilsbry, 1905 from China (Gastropoda: Eupulmonata: Camaenidae). Journal of Conchology. 45(1)

[Invertebrate • 2024] Clavelina ossipandae • A strange-looking New Species of Colonial Ascidians in the Genus Clavelina (Tunicata: Ascidiacea) off the coast of Kumejima Island, Japan

Clavelina ossipandae 
Hasegawa & Kajihara, 2024
An unidentified colonial ascidian called gaikotsu-panda-hoya in Japanese, literally meaning ‘skeleton panda ascidian,’ has been attracting SCUBA divers’ attention for the past few years since its strange appearance was introduced on the Internet by a diving shop in Kumejima Island, Japan. To confirm the taxonomic status of this species, fresh samples were collected from a diving point off the coast of Kumejima Island. Our morphological examination revealed that they represent a new species, herein described as Clavelina ossipandae sp. nov., which can be distinguished from 44 congeners in the genus Clavelina Savigny, 1816 by the combination of the following seven characteristics: i) colony consisting of completely free zooids, ii) zooids up to 20 mm in length, iii) in the living state, zooids transparent, with laterally elongated white patch between oral and atrial siphons, as well as four black markings, one between siphons, one mid-dorsally, and the other two situated laterally in a pair on the anterior part of the body, iv) transverse vessels white, v) endostyle black, vi) 10–14 stigmatal rows, and vii) two longitudinal muscular bands running from the abdomen to the endostyle on each side. Partial sequences (810 bp) of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene from the holotype and one of the paratypes differed at 10 sites from each other (1.26% K2P distance) but were the same when translated into amino acids. A phylogenetic tree supported that this species is included in the genus Clavelina.

Keywords: Aplousobranchia, Chordata, Clavelinidae, East China Sea, Enterogona, Okinawa Islands, subtropical, taxonomy

Clavelina ossipandae sp. nov., holotype, ICHUM 5837.
 A, In situ live colony with four zooids; B, a schematic depiction of the colony showing colony organization and zooid insertion; C, D, a single zooid detached from the colony, drawn from the right side (C) and the left side (D).

Clavelina ossipandae sp. nov.  
Diagnosis. Clavelina with colony consisting of zooids extending from basal mass; zooids completely free, mean 15mm long; in life, a white, laterally elongated white patch present between oral and atrial siphons; small black point present on anterior body wall between oral and atrial siphons; an elongated black band situated laterally to the small black point on each side, slightly curved along edge of the white patch; transverse vessels white; endostyle black; short mid-dorsal black line situated posterior to atrial siphon, spanning for about four transverse vessels; 10–14 stigmatal rows in pharynx; on each side of thorax, 10 or 11 very thin longitudinal muscle bands, of which two running to endostyle, 5–6 to branchial siphon, and 2–4 to dorsal side.

Etymology. The new specific name, ossipandae, is a noun in the genitive case, a composite derived from os (‘bone’ in Latin) and ‘Panda,’ the latter is meant to be the giant pandaAiluropoda melanoleuca David, 1869, and herein treated as a noun that is latinized. The species is so named because the white anterior portion of the zooid with the characteristic black markings resembles to the face of the giant panda and the white transverse vessels evoke the ribs of a skeleton.

Naohiro Hasegawa and Hiroshi Kajihara. 2024. Graveyards of Giant Pandas at the Bottom of the Sea? A strange-looking New Species of Colonial Ascidians in the Genus Clavelina (Tunicata: Ascidiacea). Species Diversity.  29(1); 53-64. DOI: 10.12782/specdiv.29.53

Friday, May 24, 2024

[Herpetology • 2024] Gephyromantis ampondo, G. bemiray, etc. • Four New Species of Forest-dwelling mantellid frogs from Madagascar allied to Gephyromantis moseri (Anura: Mantellidae)

Gephyromantis ampondo
Vences, Köhler, Scherz, Hutter, Rabe Maheritafika, Rafanoharana, Raherinjatovo, Rakotoarison, Andreone, Raselimanana & Glaw, 2024

The Gephyromantis moseri complex, classified in the mantellid subgenus Duboi­mantis, currently contains one species of frog, G. moseri (Glaw & Vences, 2002) from the Andasibe area in the Northern Central East of Madagascar, as well as several genetically divergent populations from the North East that have been provision -ally assigned to the species. We here analyse DNA sequences of one mitochondrial (16S rRNA) and one nuclear-encoded gene (RAG-1), morphology, and advertisement calls of newly collected material of this species complex from various localities in Madagascar. Based on this integrative evidence, in particular concordant nuclear gene differentiation between seven highly divergent (> 4 %) mitochondrial lineages, as well as differences in advertisement call structure, body size and head shape between some of these lineages, we conclude that the G. moseri complex contains several additional species of which four are formally named and described in this study: G. fuscus sp. nov., a rather small-sized species sister to G. moseri, occurring in two sites (Mahasoa and the western part of the Makira Reserve), G. ma­kira sp. nov., a species known from only one available voucher specimen from eastern Makira, G. bemiray sp. nov. from eastern Makira, Masoala, and Ambolokopatrika; and G. ampondo sp. nov. from Marojejy in the North East. Two further lineages for which voucher specimens were not available in the framework of this study are considered unconfirmed candidate species G. sp. Ca19 and G. sp. Ca33,pending the collection of further material. The revision of the G. moseri complex adds to the diversity of Duboimantis and once more demonstrates the existence of secretive or genuinely rare restricted-range species among the Malagasy frogs whose inventory can only be completed by further fieldwork and integrative taxonomic research. 

Gephyromantis ampondo
Gephyromantis bemiray
Gephyromantis fuscus
Gephyromantis makira

Vences M, Köhler J, Scherz MD, Hutter CR, Rabe Maheritafika HM, Rafanoharana JM, Raherinjatovo H, Rakotoarison A, Andreone F, Raselimanana AP, Glaw F. 2024. Four New Species of Forest-dwelling mantellid frogs from Madagascar allied to Gephyromantis moseri (Amphibia, Anura). Spixiana. 46: 297–319. 

[Mollusca • 2024] Symmetromphalus mithril, Symmetriapelta becki, & Symmetriapelta radiata • Integrative Taxonomy of New neomphaloidean Gastropods (Gastropoda: Neomphaloidea) from Deep-sea Hot Vents of the southwestern Pacific

Symmetromphalus mithril sp. nov.
Symmetriapelta becki sp. nov. &
 Symmetriapelta radiata sp. nov. 

Chen, Poitrimol & Matabos, 2024

Neomphaloidean gastropods are endemic to chemosynthesis-based ecosystems ranging from hot vents to organic falls, and their diversity and evolutionary history remain poorly understood. In the southwestern Pacific, deep-sea hydrothermal vents on back-arc basins and volcanic arcs are found in three geographically secluded regions: a western region around Manus Basin, an eastern region around North Fiji and Lau Basins, and the intermediate Woodlark Basin where active venting was confirmed only recently, on the 2019 R/V L’Atalante CHUBACARC expedition. Although various lineages of neomphaloidean snails have been detected, typically restricted to one of the three regions, some of these have remained without names. Here, we use integrative taxonomy to describe three of these species: the neomphalid Symmetromphalus mithril sp. nov. from Woodlark Basin and the peltospirids Symmetriapelta becki sp. nov. from the eastern region and Symmetriapelta radiata sp. nov. from Woodlark Basin. A combination of shell sculpture and radular characters allow the morphological separation of these new species from their described congeners. A molecular phylogeny reconstructed from 570 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene confirmed the placement of the three new species in their respective genera and the superfamily Neomphaloidea. The finding of these new gastropods, particularly the ones from the Woodlark Basin, provides insights and implications on the historical role of Woodlark as a dispersing centre, in addition to highlighting the uniqueness of the Woodlark faunal community.

COI, deep-sea vents, Gastropoda, Indo-West Pacific, mitochondrial DNA, Mollusca, morphology, new species, phylogeny, taxonomy

Symmetromphalus mithril sp. nov.
Symmetriapelta becki sp. nov.,
Symmetriapelta radiata sp. nov. 

Chong Chen, Camille Poitrimol and Marjolaine Matabos. 2024. Integrative Taxonomy of New neomphaloidean Gastropods from Deep-sea Hot Vents of the southwestern Pacific. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. zlae064. DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlae064

[Botany • 2024] Melanoseris penghuana (Asteraceae: Cichorieae: Lactucinae) • A New Species from North-central Yunnan, China

 Melanoseris penghuana Ze H.Wang & H.J.Dong,

in Xu, Wang, Dong, Tian, Chen et Zhong, 2024. 
Photographed by Qin Tian.
In this paper, we describe a new species, Melanoseris penghuana, from Mt. Jiaozi Xueshan located in North-central Yunnan, China. Despite its morphological similarities to M. likiangensis, M. penghuana exhibits distinct differences in leaf texture, shape of terminal lobes, indumentum of leaves, peduncles, and involucres, as well as the length of the achenes. Additionally, the conservation status of this species is classified as Vulnerable through data analysis from two field surveys.

Key words: Melanoseris likiangensis, morphology, Mt. Jiaozi Xueshan, new taxon, taxonomy

Melanoseris penghuana sp. nov.
A habitat B, C plants D root E trichomes on the peduncle under an anatomy microscope F trichomes on the peduncle under a light microscope (simple filiform hairs) G, H basal leaves I capitulum J involucre K achene L pappus.
Photographed by Qin Tian.

 Melanoseris penghuana Ze H.Wang & H.J.Dong, sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Melanoseris penghuana is most similar to M. likiangensis, but differs from the latter primarily in the following characteristics: leaves thick papery (vs. papery), clearly hairy (vs. glabrous or sparsely hairy), terminal lobes of basal and lower leaves elongated triangular (vs. broad triangular), the length 3–4 times (vs. 1–1.5 times) that of the width; peduncles covered with simple filiform hairs (vs. multiseriate capitate glandular hairs), involucres glabrous (vs. glandular hispid), achenes ca. 9.5 mm (vs. ca. 7 mm).

Jia-Ju Xu, Ze-Huan Wang, Hong-Jin Dong, Qin Tian, Li Chen and Qian-Qian Zhong. 2024. Melanoseris penghuana (Lactucinae, Cichorieae, Asteraceae), A New Species from North-central Yunnan, China. PhytoKeys. 238: 1-10. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.238.116343