Saturday, April 17, 2021

[Herpetology • 2021] Philautus nepenthophilus Out of the Trap: A New Phytothelm‐breeding Species of Philautus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) and An Updated Phylogeny of Bornean Bush Frogs

Philautus nepenthophilus 
Etter, Haas, Lee, Pui, Das & Hertwig, 2021

photo: Chien C. Lee 
Bush frogs of the genus Philautus are a species‐rich group of the Asian tree frogs Rhacophoridae, which are known for their diverse reproductive biology. Within Philautus, reproduction has been described via endotrophic tadpoles and by direct terrestrial development. Here, we provide results of phylogenetic analyses based on the most comprehensive sampling of Bornean Philautus to date. As a result of an integrative taxonomic study using mitochondrial and nuclear markers, along with morphological and bioacoustic data, we describe a spectacular new species of this genus from the island of Borneo. The ecology of the new species of Philautus is closely associated with the carnivorous pitcher plant, Nepenthes mollis. The unusually large eggs are laid in the fluid of the pitcher and the endotrophic tadpoles, characterized by reduced mouthparts, small oral orifice and large intestinal yolk mass, complete their development in this environment. Molecular data and synapomorphic larval characters support the sister group relationship of the new species to P. macroscelis: both belong to the early diverged lineages in the Philautus tree, whose phylogenetic relationships could not be fully resolved. The new record of endotrophic tadpoles challenges again the hypothesis that terrestrial direct development is the plesiomorphic mode in this genus. Further, we discuss the nature of the frog‐plant interaction that could represent a new case of mutualism. The frog provides the plant with a source of nitrogen by depositing yolk‐rich eggs in the liquid of the pitcher. The plant, on the other hand, offers an exclusively protected space for the development of tadpoles in a habitat that otherwise has few permanent bodies of water and many competing frog species.

Keywords: direct development, endotrophy, evolution, mutualism, Nepenthes

Philautus nepenthophilus sp. nov. 

Etymology: The name nepenthophilus is composed of two words which refer to the close ecological relationship of this species to the carnivorous plant Nepenthes mollis. “Nepentho” stands for Nepenthes and “philus” is derived from the ancient Greek word “φίλος” [phílos] that means “which is loved or important.” The name is masculine.

 Type locality: ...., at 2,115 m a.s.l., about 3.7 km straight line north‐east of the summit of Gunung Murud, within the Pulong Tau National Park, Sarawak, Malaysia (Borneo).

Laurence Etter, Alexander Haas, Chien C. Lee, Pui Yong Min, Indraneil Das and Stefan T. Hertwig. 2021. Out of the Trap: A New Phytothelm‐breeding Species of Philautus and An Updated Phylogeny of Bornean Bush Frogs (Anura: Rhacophoridae). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research. DOI: 10.1111/jzs.12465

This phylogenetic study of Bush frogs of the genus Philautus (Anura, Rhacophoridae) is based on the most comprehensive sampling from Borneo examined so far. As an important outcome of our integrative taxonomic analysis using genetic, morphological, and bioacoustic data, we describe a new phytothelm‐breeding species of Philautus and discuss its mutualistic relationship with the pitcher plants Nepenthes mollis.

[Botany • 2020] Sciaphila atra (Triuridaceae) • A New Mycoheterotrophic Species from Borneo

Sciaphila atra   

in Dančák, Hroneš & Sochor, 2020.

Sciaphila atra (Triuridaceae) from northern Borneo is described and illustrated. This species is similar to Sciaphila thaidanica from northern Thailand, but differs in distinctly darker stem and flowers, lower number of flowers, larger female flowers which usually have more tepals and wider tepals of male flowers. Taxonomy of Sciaphila secundiflora species complex is discussed in the paper. Key to currently accepted species of Sciaphila in Borneo is included.

Keywords: Malesia, rainforest, Sarawak, Sciaphila secundiflora complex, taxonomy, Monocots

Martin Dančák, Michal Hroneš and Michal Sochor. 2020. Sciaphila atra (Triuridaceae), A New Mycoheterotrophic Species from Borneo. Phytotaxa. 472(3); 277–282. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.472.3.6

[Chilopoda • 2021] Scolopendra alcyona • A New Amphibious Species of the Genus Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758 (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae) from the Ryukyu Archipelago and Taiwan

Scolopendra alcyona Tsukamoto & Shimano 

in Tsukamoto, Hiruta, Eguchi, Liao & Shimano, 2021. 
Halcyon Giant Centipede | 琉神大百足 ||
In Japan and Taiwan, five valid species of the genus Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758 have been described: S. morsitans Linnaeus, 1758, S. subspinipes Leach, 1816, S. mutilans Koch, 1878, S. japonica Koch, 1878, and S. multidens Newport, 1844. Recently, an undetermined species was found in the Ryukyu Archipelago and Taiwan. Using molecular phylogenetic analyses with mitochondrial COI and 16S rRNA and nuclear 28S rRNA and 18S rRNA genes as well as conventional morphological examination, we successfully discriminated this sixth species as an independent lineage from S. subspinipes, S. mutilans, and other named congeners from East and Southeast Asia. Therefore, the species was described as Scolopendra alcyona Tsukamoto & Shimano, sp. nov. Several situational evidences suggest that this species prefers streamside environments and exhibits amphibious behavior.

Keywords: Myriapoda, Chilopoda, molecular phylogeny, morphology, semi-aquatic

Scolopendra alcyona Tsukamoto & Shimano, sp. nov., found underwater at the upper reach of ... River, Kume-jima Island (by H. Sato; specimen not collected).


Scolopendra alcyona Tsukamoto & Shimano, sp. nov.

[New Japanese name: Ryûjin-ômukade (琉神大百足); 
new English name: Halcyon Giant Centipede]

Etymology. This epithet “alcyona” derived from the name of a Greek mythological figure, “Alcyone”. In one version of the story, Alcyone was turned into a common kingfisher (halcyon bird) by Zeus ( Gresseth 1964). This epithet is a metaphor for halcyon bird-like jade green legs seen in the Okinawa-jima Island population, and its amphibious behavior.

 Habitat of Scolopendra alcyona Tsukamoto & Shimano, sp. nov. in Kume-jima Island

Sho Tsukamoto, Shimpei F. Hiruta, Katsuyuki Eguchi, Jhih-Rong Liao and Satoshi Shimano. 2021. A New Amphibious Species of the Genus Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758 (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae) from the Ryukyu Archipelago and Taiwan. Zootaxa. 4952(3); 465–494. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4952.3.3


[Botany • 2020] Vaccinium hamiguitanense (Ericaceae) • A New Species from the Philippines

Vaccinium hamiguitanense P.W. Fritsch

in Fritsch, Amoroso, Coritico & Penneys, 2020.

Vaccinium hamiguitanense, a new species from the Philippines, is described and illustrated. The new species is most similar to V. gitingense Hook. f. but differs by having smaller leaf blades, leaf blade margins with 2 to 4 impressed more or less evenly distributed crenations (glands) per side, inflorescences with fewer flowers, shorter pedicels that are puberulent and muriculate, and a glabrous floral disk. The new species is endemic to Mt. Hamiguitan Range Wildlife Sanctuary in Davao Oriental Province of Mindanao Island in Tropical Upper Montane Rain Forest and low (“bonsai”) forest on clay derived from ultramafic rock. We assign an IUCN Red List preliminary status as Data Deficient.

Keywords: Endemic, IUCN Red List, Mindanao, new species, Philippines, Vaccinium

Fig. 1. Vaccinium hamiguitanense P.W. Fritsch.
A. Flowering branchlet. B. Leaf, abaxial view. C. Pedicel and flower. D. Distal portion of pedicel, hypanthium, calyx, and style. E. Ovary in cross section showing axile placentation and five locules, each locule with incomplete false partition emanating from ovary wall and two locules shown in each of four of the locules. F. Distal portion of filament, and anther, oblique-lateral view. G. Stamen, ventral view. H. Infructescence showing bracts, bracteoles, and fruit. A foliaceous bract subtends each pedicel, and the bracteoles can be seen as minute narrowly deltoid structures at the bases of the two proximal pedicels.
A-G based on P.W. Fritsch 2027 (BRIT, CAS) and images of the living plants; H based on P.W. Fritsch 1984 (BRIT, CAS) and images of the living plants. Illustration by Samantha Peters.

Fig. 2. Images of living Vaccinium hamiguitanense and its habitat.
A. Habitat at peak of Mt. Hamiguitan of low ("bonsai") forest. B. Habit with leaves predominantly in abaxial view. C. Branchlet with inflorescence. D. Inflorescence with flowers in bud and (in apical view) at anthesis. E. Immature fruit with persistent bracts. F. Submature fruit, apical view. Note small glands at apex of appressed persistent calyx lobes.
B, C, P.W. Fritsch 2027; photographs by P.W. Fritsch. D-F, Plants and Lichens of the Southern Philippines Survey 725; photographs by J.G. Opiso.

Vaccinium hamiguitanense P.W. Fritsch, sp. nov. 
Haec species Vaccinio gitingensi Elmer simillima, sed ab eo foliis parvioribus ad margine crenulatis, floribus inflorescentiae paucioribus, pedicellis brevioribus puberulis muriculatis, disco glabro differt.

Etymology.— The specific epithet refers to Mt. Hamiguitan, to which the species is endemic.

 Peter W. Fritsch, Victor B. Amoroso, Fulgent P. Coritico and Darin S. Penneys. 2020. Vaccinium hamiguitanense (Ericaceae), A New Species from the Philippines. Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas. 14(2); 281-287. DOI: 10.17348/jbrit.v14.i2.1009

[Ichthyology • 2021] A Revision of the Gobiid fish Genus Pseudogobius (Gobiidae, Tridentigerinae), with Description of Seven New Species from Australia and South-east Asia

Pseudogobius eos
 Larson & Hammer, 2021


The tridentigerine genus Pseudogobius is widespread, from temperate to tropical areas of the Indo-west Pacific. A morphological review of the genus was carried out, with the initial focus on South-east Asian and Australian species. There are about 21 nominal species in the genus; however, the type specimens for some nominal species are missing. Our work recognises 15 valid species so far, including seven new species, which are described herein: Pseudogobius aquilonius n. sp., P. cinctus n. sp., P. eos n. sp., P. hoesei n. sp., P. jeffi n. sp., P. rhizophora n. sp. and P. verticalis n. sp. We also conclude that P. poicilosoma (Bleeker, 1849) is the senior synonym of P. javanicus (Bleeker, 1856). Pseudogobius poicilosoma, P. gastrospilos (Bleeker, 1853) and P. javanicus are accepted here as conspecific, although the types are in poor condition (note that all three names were given to specimens collected within close proximity to each other in coastal Java, Indonesia). A key to valid species is presented. The revision benefited from an adaptive feedback loop with companion genetic analyses, with the most comprehensive data available for the Australian region. Broader preliminary genetic data suggest the potential for recognition of additional cryptic species, with the current study providing a platform for future systematic work. Pseudogobius are a prominent part of estuarine biodiversity in the Indo-west Pacific, and this study helps to highlight the need to better understand the taxonomy and conservation requirements of cryptobenthic fishes.

Keywords: Pisces, Indo-west Pacific, morphology, estuarine, biodiversity

 Helen K. Larson and Michael P. Hammer. 2021. A Revision of the Gobiid fish Genus Pseudogobius (Teleostei, Gobiidae, Tridentigerinae), with Description of Seven New Species from Australia and South-east Asia. Zootaxa. 4961(1); 1-85. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4961.1.1

[Botany • 2021] Meiogyne oligocarpa (Annonaceae) • A New Species from Yunnan, China

Meiogyne oligocarpa B.Xue & Y.H.Tan

in Xue, Shao, Xiao, ... et Tan, 2021. 
Meiogyne oligocarpa sp. nov. (Annonaceae) is described from Yunnan Province in Southwest China. It is easily distinguished from all previously described Meiogyne species by the possession of up to four carpels per flower, its bilobed, sparsely hairy stigma, biseriate ovules and cylindrical monocarps with a beaked apex. A phylogenetic analysis was conducted to confirm the placement of this new species within Meiogyne. Meiogyne oligocarpa represents the second species of Meiogyne in China: a key to the species of Meiogyne in China is provided to distinguish it from Meiogyne hainanensis. Paraffin sectioning was undertaken to study the anatomy of the corrugations on the inner petals of Meiogyne oligocarpa to verify whether they are glandular.
Figure 4: Line drawing of Meiogyne oligocarpa sp. nov.
(A) Flowering branch. (B) Flower, lateral view. (C) Sepals, ad- and abaxial view. (D) Outer petals, ad- and abaxial view. (E) Inner petals, ad- and abaxial view; adaxial view showing the corrugations at the base. (F) Innermost stamen, ad- and abaxial view; adaxial view showing the elongated tongue-shaped apical prolongation. (G) Outer stamen, ad- and abaxial view. (H) Carpel, showing bilobed stigma. (I) Carpel, longitudinal section, showing the biseriate ovule arrangement. (J) Fresh fruit. (K) Dried fruit, showing monocarp shallowly transversely constricted between seed. (L) Seed.
 Drawn by Ding-Han Cui, from C. F. Xiao C400733 (IBSC).

Figure 2: Flower and fruit morphology of Meiogyne oligocarpa sp. nov.
 (A) Lateral view of the flower. (B) Abaxial view of the flower. (C) Adaxial view of the flower, showing corrugated structure at the base of the inner petals, and the bilobed stigma. (D) Adaxial and abaxial surface of the inner petals, showing the corrugated structure at the base of the adaxail surface of the inner petals, and the pubescent indumentum at the abaxial surface. (E) Flower with the petals removed, showing the sepals, stamens and stigmas. (F) Fruit with three monocarps. (G) Fruit with one monocarp. (H) Fruit with the pericarp removed, showing the biseriate seed arrangement. (I) Fresh Seed. (J) Dried seeds, showing the raised raphe; and the longitudinal section of the seed, showing the lamelliform endosperm ruminations (B. Yang XTBG0181, HITBC).
(A, C, G by Yun-Yun Shao; B, D–F, J by Yun-Hong Tan; H–I by Chun-Fen Xiao).

Meiogyne oligocarpa B.Xue & Y.H.Tan, sp. nov.  

Diagnosis. Meiogyne oligocarpa is distinct among Meiogyne species in having a combination of characters, including up to four carpels per flower, bilobed sparsely hairy stigmas, cylindrical monocarps with a beaked apex, and seeds in two series. It is most similar to Meiogyne kanthanensis, but differs in having smaller leaves with more secondary veins, shorter pedicels, stigmas that are bilobed and distinctly less hairy, and cylindrical monocarps with a beaked apex.

Etymology. The specific epithet reflects that the flower has few carpels (1–4) and hence the fruit has few monocarps (1–3).

Bine Xue, Yun-Yun Shao, Chun-Fen Xiao, Ming-Fai Liu, Yongquan Li​ and Yun-Hong Tan. 2021. Meiogyne oligocarpa (Annonaceae), A New Species from Yunnan, China. PeerJ. 9:e10999. DOI:10.7717/peerj.10999

[PaleoEntomology • 2021] Pelretes vivificus • Angiosperm Pollinivory in A Cretaceous Beetle

Ecological reconstruction of Pelretes vivificus vesting angiosperm flowers in the Burmese amber forest (~99 Ma).  
Tihelka, Li, Fu, Su, Huang & Cai, 2021

Artwork by Jie Sun

Despite the crucial importance of flower-visiting insects in modern ecosystems, there is little fossil evidence on the origins of angiosperm pollination. Most reports of pollination in the Mesozoic fossil record have been based on the co-occurrence of the purported pollinators with pollen grains and assumed morphological adaptations for vectoring pollen. Here, we describe an exceptionally preserved short-winged flower beetle (Cucujoidea: Kateretidae) from mid-Cretaceous amber, Pelretes vivificus gen. et sp. nov., associated with pollen aggregations and coprolites consisting mainly of pollen, providing direct evidence of pollen-feeding in a Cretaceous beetle and confirming that diverse beetle lineages visited early angiosperms in the Cretaceous. The exquisite preservation of our fossil permits the identification of the pollen grains as Tricolpopollenites (Asteridae or Rosidae), representing a record of flower beetle pollination of a group of derived angiosperms in the Mesozoic and suggesting that potentially diverse beetle lineages visited early angiosperms by the mid-Cretaceous.

Dorsal view of Pelretes vivificus, a Cretaceous short-winged flower beetle (Kateretidae) from Burmese amber (~99 Ma). Scale bar: 200 μm.  

Aggregations of eudicot pollen and pollen-containing coprolites associated with Pelretes vivificus.
a, Amber piece with P. vivificus, showing coprolites and one pollen aggregation. b-e, details of pollen under visible light (d) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (b, c, e).
 Scale bars: 1 mm (a), 50 μm in (b, e), 100 μm (c, d).  

 Pelretes vivificus gen. et sp. nov.

Ecological reconstruction of Pelretes vivificus vesting angiosperm flowers in the Burmese amber forest (~99 Ma). 
 Artwork by Mr. Jie Sun

Erik Tihelka, Liqin Li, Yanzhe Fu, Yitong Su, Diying Huang and Chenyang Cai. 2021. Angiosperm Pollinivory in A Cretaceous Beetle. Nature Plants. DOI: 10.1038/s41477-021-00893-2 

Unusual fossil reveals last meal of prehistoric pollinator

Friday, April 16, 2021

[Botany • 2020] Rediscovery of Globba andersonii and Three New Synonymies in Indian Zingiberaceae

Based on detailed studies of the protologues, types, herbarium and comparison with live specimens, Caulokaempferia dinabandhuensis Biseshwori & Bipin, Globba teesta S. Nirola & A.P. Das and Zingiber sianginensis Tatum & A.K. Das are reduced under Monolophus suksathanii S. Dey, Langhu & Bhaumik, G. andersonii C.B. Clarke ex Baker and Z. officinale Roscoe, respectively. In addition, Globba andersonii is rediscovered after a gap of 136 years. A detailed description and color photographs of G. andersonii are provided for ease of understanding.

KEYWORDS: Caulokaempferia dinabandhuensisGlobba teesta, rediscovery, synonym, taxonomy, Zingiberaceae, Zingiber sianginensis


Globba andersonii C.B.Clarke ex Baker, in Hook. f., Fl. Brit. India 6: 202 (1890)

Jayakrishnan Thachat, Sachin A. Punekar, Vadakkoot Sankaran Hareesh and Mamiyil Sabu. 2020. Rediscovery of Globba andersonii and Three New Synonymies in Indian Zingiberaceae. Botany Letters. 167(3); 373-377. DOI: 10.1080/23818107.2020.1770626

'Globa andersonnii'- critically endangered species from Sikkim Himalaya was rediscovered after a gap of 136 years.

[Paleontology • 2021] Absolute Abundance and Preservation Rate of Tyrannosaurus rex

 Tyrannosaurus rex

in Marshall, Latorre, Wilson, ... et Poust, 2021. 
Illustration: JuliusCsotonyi 

Although much can be deduced from fossils alone, estimating abundance and preservation rates of extinct species requires data from living species. Here, we use the relationship between population density and body mass among living species combined with our substantial knowledge of Tyrannosaurus rex to calculate population variables and preservation rates for postjuvenile T. rex. We estimate that its abundance at any one time was ~20,000 individuals, that it persisted for ~127,000 generations, and that the total number of T. rex that ever lived was ~2.5 billion individuals, with a fossil recovery rate of 1 per ~80 million individuals or 1 per 16,000 individuals where its fossils are most abundant. The uncertainties in these values span more than two orders of magnitude, largely because of the variance in the density–body mass relationship rather than variance in the paleobiological input variables.

 Charles R. Marshall, Daniel V. Latorre, Connor J. Wilson, Tanner M. Frank, Katherine M. Magoulick, Joshua B. Zimmt and Ashley W. Poust. 2021. Absolute Abundance and Preservation Rate of Tyrannosaurus rexScience. 372, 6539; 284-287. DOI: 10.1126/science.abc8300 

COVER: Tyrannosaurus rex prowl a Cretaceous coast. 
By using the rich fossil record of T. rex, including its body mass, growth and survivorship curves, geographic range, and geologic longevity, together with the relationship between population density and body mass among living animals, it is possible to ascertain how many T. rex ever roamed the planet and to estimate the fossil recovery rate for this species.
 Illustration: Julius Csotonyi

Estimating dinosaur abundance
Estimating the abundance of a species is a common practice for extant species and can reveal many aspects of its ecology, evolution, and threat level. Estimating abundance for species that are extinct, especially those long extinct, is a much trickier endeavor. Marshall et al. used a relationship established between body size and population density in extant species to estimate traits such as density, distribution, total biomass, and species persistence for one of the best-known dinosaurs, Tyrannosaurus rex, revealing previously hidden aspects of its population ecology.

[Herpetology • 2021] Xylophis deepaki • A New Species of Xylophis Beddome, 1878 (Serpentes: Pareidae) from the southern Western Ghats of India

Xylophis deepaki 
Narayanan, Mohapatra, Balan, Das & Gower, 2021

We reassess the taxonomy of the Indian endemic snake Xylophis captaini and describe a new species of Xylophis based on a type series of three specimens from the southernmost part of mainland India. Xylophis deepaki sp. nov. is most similar phenotypically to X. captaini, with which it was previously confused. The new species differs from X. captaini by having a broader, more regular and ventrally extensive off-white collar, more ventral scales (117–125 versus 102–113), and by lack of flounces on the body and proximal lobes of the hemipenis. Phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial 16S DNA sequences strongly indicates that the new species is most closely related to X. captaini, differing from it by an uncorrected pairwise genetic distance of 4.2%. A revised key to the species of Xylophis is provided.

Keywords: Hemipenis, Kanyakumari, molecular phylogeny, snakes, taxonomy, Xylophiinae

Figure 5. Xylophis deepaki sp. nov. showing colour in life.
A. Holotype ZSI-CZRC-V-7218, B. Paratype ZSI-SRC-VRS-287.

Xylophis deepaki sp. nov.
Xylophis perroteti – Rajendran (1985). [Chresonym]
Xylophis captaini – Gower and Winkler, 2007 [in part]; Ganesh (2010); Ganesh et al. 2012; Bhupathy et al. 2016 [in part] [Chresonym]

Diagnosis: The new species is assigned to the genus Xylophis based on the anterior-most (three) pairs of infralabial shields reduced to narrow strips, together much smaller than large pair of anterior chin (genial) shields. Xylophis deepaki sp. nov. is small (maximum known total length 199 mm), with 15 dorsal scale rows at midbody, 117–125 ventrals (n=6), 13–23 subcaudals (n=6), internasal length almost equal to the prefrontal length, a thick and ventrally near-complete off-white collar, and mostly smooth hemipenial body and lobes.

Etymology: This species is named in honour of the Indian herpetologist Dr Deepak Veerappan, in recognition of his substantial, 21st Century contributions to herpetology, including work on Xylophis systematics. We suggest the common name Deepak’s wood snake (English).

Figure 2. Distribution of Xylophis captaini and Xylophis deepaki sp. nov. in the Western Ghats based on specimens examined in this study and observations of uncollected animals reported in the text.

Figure 8. Habitat of Xylophis deepaki sp. nov. in Melpuram, Kanyakumari Dist., Tamil Nadu, showing some banana and coconut within rubber plantation.

 Surya Narayanan, Pratyush P. Mohapatra, Amirtha Balan, Sandeep Das and David J. Gower. 2021. A New Species of Xylophis Beddome, 1878 (Serpentes: Pareidae) from the southern Western Ghats of India. Vertebrate Zoology. 71: 219-230. DOI: 10.3897/vz.71.e63986

[Botany • 2021] Begonia bangsamoro (Begoniaceae, section Petermannia) • A New Species from Mindanao Island, the Philippines


 Begonia bangsamoro D.P.Buenavista, Pranada & Y.P. Ang

in Buenavista, Ang, Pranada, ... et McDonald, 2021.

Begonia bangsamoro, a new Philippine Begonia species from the section Petermannia is described and illustrated. The new species was discovered in the fragmented riparian forest of Lanao del Sur, along the Ginapukan river in Wao, Mindanao island, Philippines. The previous collections also revealed that it occurs in the nearby province of Bukidnon. Begonia bangsamoro is distinguished from other Philippine Begonia by its lacerate leaf margins, terminal inflorescences, 4-tepaled staminate flowers, and sparsely hirsute ovaries. The new species is compared with the phenetically similar B. quercifolia. Based on IUCN Red List criteria, B. bangsamoro is designated as Endangered (EN).

Keywords: Eudicots, endemic, Begonia quercifolia, eudicots, Cucurbitales, Lanao del Sur, Malesia, taxonomy

 Begonia bangsamoro D.P.Buenavista, Pranada & Y.P. Ang 


Dave P. Buenavista, Yu Pin Ang, Mc Andrew Pranada, Daryl S. Salas, Eefke Mollee and Morag McDonald. 2021. Begonia bangsamoro (Begoniaceae, section Petermannia), A New Species from Mindanao Island, the Philippines. Phytotaxa. 497(1); 39–48. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.497.1.4

[Entomology • 2021] Aporia chunhaoi • A New Species of Aporia (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) from Northwest Yunnan, China with Taxonomic Notes on Its Similar Sympatric Taxa

 [A–C] Aporia chunhaoi Hu, Zhang & Yang, 2021
 [E–G] Aporia lhamo (Oberthür, 1893)

The northwest corner of Yunnan Province, China is the world-class diversity centre of the genus Aporia Hübner, 1819 (Lepidoptera: Pieridae). During our expeditions to this area in 2019 and 2020, a new species of Aporia was discovered from the upper Yangtze River valley in northwest Yunnan, China. The new taxon, A. chunhaoi sp. nov., is similar to A. lhamo (Oberthür, 1893) but can be easily identified by larger size, much paler (creamy) male hindwing, as well as different genitalic structures. Our field surveys and comparative studies also confirmed a new range of A. lhamo in the upper Yangtze River valley, and the morphological variation of this species is discussed herein.

Keywords: Aporia lhamo; genitalic structure; upper Yangtze River valley; upper Lancang-Mekong River valley; subalpine habitats

A–D: Types of Aporia chunhaoi Hu, Zhang & Yang sp. nov.
A: ♂, HOLOTYPE, Tacheng, Yulong County; B: ♂, PARATYPE, the same locality as the holotype; C: ♂, PARATYPE, Shiba, Deqen County; D: ♀, PARATYPE, the same locality as the holotype.

 E–L: Aporia lhamo (Oberthür, 1893).
E and F: ♂, Zha’an, Deqen County; G: ♀, near Yubeng, Deqen County; H: ♀, Badi, Weixi County; I and J: ♂, Xiao Xueshan, Zhongdian County; K and L, ♀, the same locality. Scale bar = 10 mm.

Aporia chunhaoi Hu, Zhang & Yang sp. nov.

 Aporia lhamo (Oberthür, 1893); in Wu & Hsu (eds.). 
2017. Butterflies of China, 1: 375 (text), 376 (plate), figs. 2–4.

Deravitio nominis: The name of this new species is dedicated to Mr. Chun-Hao Wang (Beijing, China), a Chinese butterfly expert who has great enthusiasm for genus Aporia. The specific name is a noun in apposition.

Distribution map of  Aporia chunhaoi Hu, Zhang & Yang sp. nov. and sympatric taxa in N.W. Yunnan, China.


Shao-Ji Hu, Hui-Hong Zhang and Yang Yang. 2021. A New Species of Aporia (Lepidoptera: Pieridae) from Northwest Yunnan, China with Taxonomic Notes on Its Similar Sympatric Taxa. Zootaxa. 4963(5); 1–10. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4963.1.1


[Entomology • 2021] Pycnogaster ribesiglesiasii • A New Species of Ephippigerini (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Bradyporinae) from Catalonia (northeast of the Iberian Peninsula)

Pycnogaster ribesiglesiasii  
Olmo-Vidal, 2021


A new species of the genus Pycnogaster Graells, 1851 is described from Catalonia (Northeast of the Iberian Peninsula). Pycnogaster ribesiglesiasii n. sp. was collected in the Plana d’Ancosa in a calcicolous stepic scrub dominated mainly by thyme (Thymus vulgaris). L. ribesiglesiasii is compared to P. sanchezgomezi Bolívar, 1897 from which it can be separated mainly by the shape of the male cerci, the titillators and the male calling song. In addition, in the females by the protuberance of the seventh (7th) sclerite and the shape of subgenital plate.

Keywords: Mediterranean area, isolation, stepic ecosystems, Catalonia

Josep Maria Olmo-Vidal. 2021. Pycnogaster ribesiglesiasii, A New Species of Ephippigerini (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Bradyporinae) from Catalonia (northeast of the Iberian Peninsula). Zootaxa. 4963(5); 173–180. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4963.1.9

[Diplopoda • 2021] A Revision of the minor Species Group in the Millipede Genus Nannaria Chamberlin, 1918 (Polydesmida, Xystodesmidae)

Nannaria spp.

in Means, Hennen & Marek, 2021.

Millipedes in the family Xystodesmidae (Polydesmida) are often referred to as “colorful, flat-backed millipedes” for their bright aposematic coloration and tendency to form Müllerian mimicry rings in the Appalachian region. However, there are many species of Xystodesmidae that do not display colorful warning patterns, and instead have more cryptic appearances. Perhaps for this reason, groups such as the genus Nannaria have remained understudied, despite containing a large number of undescribed species. Before his death in 2012, R. L. Hoffman worked on a revision of the genus Nannaria, and synthesized material and drawings since 1949. Here the work is continued, inferring a molecular phylogeny of the Nannariini (Nannaria + Oenomaea pulchella), and revealing two clades within the genus. One clade is named the minor species group, and the second is the wilsoni species group. This revision, using a molecular phylogenetic framework, is the basis for descriptions of 35 new species in the minor species group. A multi-gene molecular phylogeny is used to make taxonomic changes in the taxon. Eleven putative species of Nannaria are also illustrated and discussed. Additionally, detailed collection, natural history and habitat notes, distribution maps, and a key to species of the Nannaria minor species group are provided. These items are synthesized as a basis for a revision of the genus, which hopefully will aid conservation and evolutionary investigations of this cryptic and understudied group.

Keywords: Appalachia, gonopod, micro-range endemic, short-range endemic, spatulate, twisted-claw

Nannaria piccolia sp. nov. coloration,
A holotype ♂ (VTEC, MPE03809) orange paranotal spots
B paratype ♂ (VTEC, MPE03812) white paranotal spots
C paratype ♀ (VTEC, MPE03811) orange paranotal spots with orange stripes.
Scale bar: 4.0 mm.

  Jackson C. Means, Derek A. Hennen and Paul E. Marek. 2021. A Revision of the minor Species Group in the Millipede Genus Nannaria Chamberlin, 1918 (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Xystodesmidae). ZooKeys. 1030: 1-180. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1030.62544