Monday, January 25, 2021

[Paleontology • 2021] Karutia fortunata • A New Reptile from the lower Permian of Brazil and the Interrelationships of Parareptilia

Karutia fortunata 
 Cisneros, Kammerer, Angielczyk, Fröbisch, Marsicano, Smith & Richter, 2021

A new parareptile from the Cisuralian Pedra de Fogo Formation of north-eastern Brazil is described. Karutia fortunata gen. et sp. nov. is the first Gondwanan member of Acleistorhinidae, a clade previously known only from North America but thought to be closely related to the Russian Lanthanosuchidae. A re-examination of parareptile phylogeny indicates that lanthanosuchids are not closely related to acleistorhinids. These results are more congruent both stratigraphically and biogeographically than the previous ‘lanthanosuchoid’ position for acleistorhinids, as they eliminate a 15 Ma ghost lineage within parareptiles, leaving Acleistorhinidae as an exclusively Pennsylvanian/Cisuralian clade from western Pangaea. Karutia fortunata contributes to our knowledge of the early Permian diversity of Parareptilia in Gondwana, a clade previously represented only by the mesosaurid inhabitants of the Irati-Whitehill epicontinental sea in the southern portion of the supercontinent. The new parareptile joins captorhinids in the amniote record of the Pedra de Fogo Formation, improving our picture of the inland tetrapod fauna of the southern hemisphere during the Cisuralian.
Keywords: Reptilia, Parareptilia, Acleistorhinidae, Gondwana, Cisuralian, Pedra de Fogo Formation, Parnaíba Basin


 Karutia fortunata gen. et sp. nov. 

Juan Carlos Cisneros, Christian F. Kammerer, Kenneth D. Angielczyk, Jörg Fröbisch, Claudia Marsicano, Roger M. H. Smith and Martha Richter. 2021. A New Reptile from the lower Permian of Brazil (Karutia fortunata gen. et sp. nov.) and the Interrelationships of Parareptilia. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology.  DOI: 10.1080/14772019.2020.1863487


[Herpetology • 2021] Liolaemus kunza & L. salitrosusIncreasing Knowledge of the Denizens of Saline Environments through Integrative Taxonomy: New Argentinian Endemic Taxa of Liolaemus (Iguania: Liolaemidae) and their Evolutionary Relationships


Liolaemus kunza Abdala, Semhan & Paz sp. nov. &
 Liolaemus salitrosus Abdala & Paz sp. nov.

in Abdala, Paz, Semhan, ... et Langstroth, 2021.
Photographs: C.S. Abdala.
The known diversity of the genus Liolaemus continues to increase, principally due to its great degree of endemism, the increasing number of researchers working on it, and advances in the taxonomic and phylogenetic knowledge of the genus. This diversity positions Liolaemus as the second most species-rich tetrapod genus. The present work adds to evidence for the great diversity of Liolaemus through the description of two new species, endemic to saline environments in the Argentinian Puna. Both species are members of the Liolaemus montanus group within the subgenus Eulaemus. To determine the taxonomic status of these lizards, we used integrative taxonomy as a tool, incorporating phylogenetic, morphological, and molecular genetic evidence, as well as the anatomy of hemipenes, statistical morphological analysis, and ecological characteristics. Our analyses supported the conclusion that both sampled populations of lizards are species new to science. One of these is found along the margins of the Antofalla salt flats in the Catamarca Province and the Hombre Muerto salt flats in the Salta Province. The other new species inhabits saline habitats vegetated by Lycium humile, principally between the salt crusts of the Antofalla salt flats. Both species are small to medium sized and can be distinguished from all other species of the L. montanus group by unique combinations of morphological characters, primarily pholidosis and dorsal and ventral colour patterns.

Key words: Argentine, ecology, hemipenis, lizard, morphology, phylogeny, principal components analysis, puna, taxonomy, total evidence

Fig. 1. Specimens of Liolaemus kunza sp. nov.
Holotype (FML 30359), dorso-lateral and ventral view (a, b), yellow morph (FML 30422) (c), brown morph (FML 30464) (d), orange morph (FML 30460) (e), red morph (FML 30466) (f), female specimen from the type locality in dorso-lateral and ventral view (FML 30488) (g, h), difference of habitats that Liolaemus kunza sp. nov. use around the Antofalla and Hombre Muerto salt flats, Ojos de Campo (i), Loro Huasi (j).
Photographs: C. S. Abdala.
Liolaemus kunza Abdala, Semhan & Paz sp. nov.

Etymology. We dedicate the scientific name of this species to the extinct Kunza language, which was spoken until the XIX century by peoples of the Altiplano of Argentina, Plurinational State of Bolivia, and Chile.  

Fig. 5. Specimens of Liolaemus salitrosus sp. nov.
Holotype, dorso-lateral and ventral view (FML 30363) (a, b). Variation in dorsum colouration of males (FML 30379-80) (c, d). Female specimen from the type locality in dorso-lateral and ventral view (FML 30372) (e, f). Different habitats that Liolaemus salitrosus sp. nov. use around the lagoons of Antofalla salt flats, Pozo Bravo (g), Laguna Verde (h).
Photographs: C.S. Abdala.

Liolaemus salitrosus Abdala & Paz sp. nov.

 Etymology: The specific epithet salitrosus refers to the peculiar habitat of this species, closely associated with the salt flat, an extreme environment characterized by a hypersaline soil covered with thick saltpetre crusts. 

Cristian S. Abdala, Marcos M. Paz, Romina V. Semhan, Noelia García, Alvaro J. Aguilar-Kirigin, María E. Farías, Pablo Valladares, Roberto Gutiérrez Poblete, Matías A. Quipildor, Julián Valdes and Robert Langstroth. 2021. Increasing Knowledge of the Denizens of Saline Environments through Integrative Taxonomy: New Argentinian Endemic Taxa of Liolaemus (Iguania: Liolaemidae) and their Evolutionary Relationships. Systematics and Biodiversity.  19(2); 135-167. 10.1080/14772000.2020.1844818  


[Fungi • 2020] Cora timucua (Hygrophoraceae) • A New and Potentially Extinct, previously Misidentified Basidiolichen of Florida Inland Scrub Documented from Historical Collections

Cora timucua  

in Lücking, Kaminsky, Perlmutter, et al., 2020. 

The known collections of the genus Cora in continental North America north of Mexico, all restricted to Florida, are shown to belong to a single species, representing a previously unrecognized taxon formally described herein as Cora timucua. Based on data of the fungal ITS barcoding marker, obtained through Sanger and Illumina sequencing from two historical collections, the new species is phylogenetically most closely related to C. casanarensis from Colombia and C. itabaiana from Brazil, although it is morphologically most similar to the only distantly related C. hymenocarpa from Costa Rica. Based on data from the Consortium of North American Lichen Herbaria (CNALH) and from the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), most of the collections of C. timucua originate from around the turn of the 19th century, while a few were made in the second half of the 20th century, all between 1968 and 1985. Almost all collections originate from Florida sand pine scrub, apparently the preferred habitat of this taxon. Neither modern collections nor extant localities are known. Based on these findings and the substantial degree of land use change in Florida in the past decades, we assessed the conservation status of C. timucua using the IUCN Red List criteria and found that it should be classified as critically endangered (CR), in line with the status of another Florida endemic, Cladonia perforata, which was the first federally red-listed lichen in the United States. The most likely location where C. timucua may still be extant is Ocala National Forest in the north-central portion of the Florida peninsula, although recent macrolichen surveys in that area did not encounter this species.

Cora timucua 

Robert Lücking, Laurel Kaminsky, Gary B. Perlmutter, James D. Lawrey and Manuela Dal Forno. 2020. Cora timucua (Hygrophoraceae), A New and Potentially Extinct, previously Misidentified Basidiolichen of Florida Inland Scrub Documented from Historical Collections. The Bryologist 123(4); 657-673. DOI: 10.1639/0007-2745-123.4.657

Rare lichen unique to Florida discovered in museum collections, may be extinct

[Herpetology • 2021] Discovery of the first Mascarene Giant Tortoise (Testudinidae: Cylindraspis) Nesting Site on Rodrigues Island, Indian Ocean

 Rodrigues giant tortoises on the Plaine Corail, 
based on a unique stuffed Saddleback Tortoise Cylindraspis vosmaeri male (MNHN 1883.558; centre left) and a complete carapace of Domed Tortoise C. peltastes (MNHN 7831; front). The Rodrigues rail Erythromachus leguati, a predator of tortoise eggs and young, forages amongst the tortoises. 
in Hume, Griffiths, ... et Bour, 2021. 
Illustration: Julian Pender Hume

Five species of giant tortoise (genus Cylindraspis) once occurred in huge abundance on the Mascarene Islands of Mauritius, Réunion, and Rodrigues. They disappeared after colonisation of the island by humans in the 17th and 18th centuries, primarily due to over-hunting and predation of eggs and young by introduced pigs and cats. So rapid was their extinction that virtually nothing is known about their life history, especially nesting and egg-laying behaviour. Here we report the discovery on Rodrigues of the first Mascarene tortoise-nesting site, which contained intact nesting chambers, complete egg clutches and fossil remains of a known native predator of tortoise eggs. We further compare the nesting behaviour with the giant tortoises of Aldabra Atoll in the Seychelles and the Galapagos Archipelago in Ecuador and provide details of the decline and extinction of Mascarene tortoises, most notably those of Rodrigues, for which good historical records exist. 

Keywords: Mauritius, Réunion, Aldabrachelys giganteaChelonoidis, egg chamber, clutches, extinction 

A complete clutch of Cylindraspis vosmaeri eggs removed intact from PB4 on Rodrigues Island. The clutch contains 13 eggs. 
Scale bar = 100 mm.

A reconstruction of Rodrigues giant tortoises on the Plaine Corail, based on a unique stuffed Saddleback Tortoise Cylindraspis vosmaeri male (MNHN 1883.558; centre left) and a complete carapace of Domed Tortoise C. peltastes (MNHN 7831; front) (see Bour et al. 2014a). The Rodrigues rail Erythromachus leguati, a predator of tortoise eggs and young, forages amongst the tortoises. 
Illustration by Julian Pender Hume.

Two species of extinct giant tortoises, Cylindraspis vosmaeri (larger, saddlebacked) and C. peltastes (smaller, domed) in their native habitat on Rodrigues Island in the late 1600s when accounts indicate the herds of tortoises were so large and dense that it was possible to walk for long distances on their backs without touching the ground (Leguat 1707). 
Painting by Julian Pender Hume (from Griffiths et al. 2013).

Julian Pender Hume, Owen Griffiths, Aurèle Anquetil Andre, Arnaud Meunier and Roger Bour. 2021. Discovery of the first Mascarene Giant Tortoise Nesting Site on Rodrigues Island, Indian Ocean (Testudinidae: Cylindraspis). Herpetology Notes. 14; 103-116.



[Crustacea • 2021] First Record of the Rare Stenopodidean Shrimp Odontozona spongicola (Alcock & Anderson, 1899) (Decapoda: Stenopodidea: Stenopodidae) from Indonesia

Odontozona spongicola (Alcock & Anderson, 1899)

in Chen & Chan, 2021. 

The stenopodidean shrimp Odontozona spongicola (Alcock & Anderson, 1899) collected by the South Java Deep-Sea Biodiversity Expedition 2018 (SJADES 2018) is a new record from Indonesia. The specimen of O. spongicola recently listed from the South China Sea is also formally reported here in. The characteristcs and coloration of this rare species are described and illustrated.

Keywords: Crustacea, Deep-sea, Odontozona, new record, Indonesia, South China Sea

 Odontozona spongicola (Alcock & Anderson, 1899) 

Chien-Lin Chen and Tin-Yam Chan. 2021. First Record of the Rare Stenopodidean Shrimp Odontozona spongicola (Alcock & Anderson, 1899) (Decapoda: Stenopodidea: Stenopodidae) from Indonesia. Zootaxa. 4915(4); 575–584. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4915.4.8

[Botany • 2020] Allium shahinii (Amaryllidaceae) • A New Species of Allium sect. Scorodon from Eastern Turkey

Allium shahinii  
in Ekşi & Duman, 2020. 

Allium shahinii, a new species of Allium sect. Scorodon, is described and illustrated from Erzincan Province, Eastern Turkey. It is a narrowly distributed geophyte growing on siliceous screes of warm exposure in mountain ranges of the nemoral and thermophilous deciduous woodland zone, showing close morphological relationships mainly with A. moschatum, A. stocksianum, A. spirophyllum, A. circumflexum but it is clearly differentiated due to perigon, outer tunic, indumentum, leaf and scape characteristics. In this study, diagnostic characters, description, taxonomic comments, photographs, distribution map, detailed illustration, the conservation status of A. shahinii and identification key are provided for A. shahinii and related taxa. According to IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria, A. shahinii is assessed here as a Critically Endangered (CR) species.

Keywords: A. moschatum, A. stocksianum, A. spirophyllum, A. circumflexum, morphology, taxonomy, Turkey, Monocots

Gülnur Ekşi and Hayri Duman. 2020. Allium shahinii: A New Species of A. sect. Scorodon (Amaryllidaceae) from Turkey.  Phytotaxa. 461(3); 195–203. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.461.3.6

[Ichthyology • 2020] Schistura hiranyakeshi • A New Loach (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae) from Maharashtra, Northern Western Ghats, India

Schistura hiranyakeshi
Praveenraj, Thackeray & Balasubramanian 2020  

Schistura hiranyakeshi, a new species of loach is described from Hiranyakeshi River, Amboli, Sindhudurg district, Maharashtra. It is unique among congeners from peninsular, northeastern, and central India, and Sri Lanka in having an incomplete lateral line with 6-7 pores and ending at a point vertical at half the length of the adpressed pectoral fin; dorsal fin and caudal fin devoid of spots or blotches; body with 9-10 bars that are wider or almost equal in width to the interspaces; dorsal fin, anal fin and sub-dorsal bars with a unique crimson color in adult males; lower lip with a black mark on each side of the median interruption in live and preserved specimens; and no suborbital flap or axillary pelvic lobe. 

Schistura hiranyakeshi 

  named after the Hiranyakeshi River drainage in Sindhudurg District of Maharashtra, India, where type locality (a temple pond fed by a natural spring from a laterite cave system) is situated; also, in Sanskrit, hiranyakeshi means “golden hair,” alluding to the golden-yellow coloration and body of adult specimens

  Jayasimhan Praveenraj, Tejas Thackeray and Shankar Balasubramanian. 2020. Schistura hiranyakeshi A New Loach (Cypriniformes: Nemacheilidae) from Maharashtra, Northern Western Ghats, India. aqua - Int. Journal Ichthyol. 26(2)

[Entomology • 2020] Beyond Wallace: A New Lineage of Chrysorthenches (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea: Glyphipterigidae) reveals A Journey Tracking Its Host-plants, Podocarpus (Pinopsida: Podocarpaceae)

Chrysorthenches muraseae Sohn & Kobayashi, 

in Sohn, Kobayashi & Yoshiyasu, 2020

A northward trans-Wallacean radiation is demonstrated for Chrysorthenches, a member of the Orthenches group. Here we review Chrysorthenches and allied genera resulting in a generic transfer of Diathryptica callibrya to Chrysorthenches and two new congeners: C. muraseae Sohn & Kobayashi sp. nov. from Japan and C. smaragdina Sohnsp. nov. from Thailand. We review morphological characters of Chrysorthenches and allied genera, and find polyphyly of Diathryptica and the association of the Orthenches-group with Glyphipterigidae. These findings were supported in a maximum likelihood phylogeny of DNA barcodes from ten yponomeutoids. We analysed 30 morphological characters for 12 species of Chrysorthenches, plus one outgroup, via a cladistic approach. The resulting cladogram redefined two pre-existing Chrysorthenches species-groups and identified one novel lineage: the C. callibrya species-group. We review the host associations between Chrysorthenches and Podocarpaceae, based on mapping the working phylogenies. Our review suggests that ancestral Chrysorthenches colonized Podocarpus and later shifted to other podocarp genera. Biogeographical patterns of Chrysorthenches show that they evolved long after the Podocarpaceae radiation. Disjunctive trans-Wallacean distribution of the C. callibrya species-group is possibly related to the tracking of their host-plants and the complicated geological history of the island-arc system connecting Australia and East Asia.

Keywords: Gondwana, Lepidoptera, phylogenetics, plant/insect interaction, taxonomy, Wallace’s Line

Superfamily Yponomeutoidea Stephens, 1829 
Famly Glyphipterigidae Stainton, 1854 

Genus Chrysorthenches Dugale, 1996 

Chrysorthenches Dugdale, 1996: 34. 
Type species: Orthenches porphyritis Meyrick, 1886, by original designation.

Chrysorthenches callibrya (Turner, 1923), comb. nov.

Distribution: Australia (New South Wales, Queensland). 
Host-plants: Possibly Podocarpus lawrencei Hook.f., Podocarpaceae (adult association).

resting adults of Chrysorthenches muraseae.
F–H, resting posture of adult (F, H, lateral view; G, dorsal view). I, close-up of adult head, lateral view.

Chrysorthenches muraseae Sohn & Kobayashi, sp. nov.

Etymology: The species epithet is dedicated to Ms Masumi Murase, who provided valuable information, collected specimens of this species and donated them to us. 

Distribution: Japan (Honshu, Shikoku). 
Host-plants: Podocarpus macrophyllus (Thunb.) Sweet., Podocarpaceae.

Chrysorthenches smaragdina Sohn, sp. nov.

Distribution: Thailand. 

Etymology: The epithet is derived from the Greek σμαράγδι, ‘smarágdi’, Chrysorthenches muraseae , referring to the broad green patch on the forewing of this new species. 

Jae-Cheon Sohn, Shigeki Kobayashi and Yutaka Yoshiyasu. 2020. Beyond Wallace: A New Lineage of Chrysorthenches (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea: Glyphipterigidae) reveals A Journey Tracking Its Host-plants, Podocarpus (Pinopsida: Podocarpaceae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 190(2); 709–736. DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlaa009

[Entomology • 2021] Three New Species of the Genus Mata Distant, 1906 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadinae: Oncotympanini) with Notes on Their Natural History from Meghalaya, India

Mata lenonia 
Sarkar, Mahapatra, Mohapatra, Nair & Kunte, 2021 Vivek Sarkar 

Three new species of the Asian genus Mata Distant, 1906 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) viz. Mata lenonia sp.nov.; Mata ruffordii sp.nov. and Mata meghalayana sp.nov. are described from Indian state of Meghalaya. Keys and taxonomic descriptions of these species are provided with detailed accounts of their natural history and acoustics.

Keywords: Hemiptera, Indo-Burma Biodiversity Hotspot, Cicada, Mata, Species Discovery, Natural History, Meghalaya

Mata lenonia 

Vivek Sarkar, Cuckoo Mahapatra, Pratyush P. Mohapatra, Manoj V. Nair and Krushnamegh Kunte. 2021. Description of Three New Species of the Genus Mata Distant, 1906 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadinae: Oncotympanini) with Notes on Their Natural History from Indian State of Meghalaya, India. Zootaxa. 4908(1); 1–28. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4908.1.1

Saturday, January 23, 2021

[Herpetology • 2021] Naultinus flavirictus • A New Species of Naultinus (Gekkota: Diplodactylidae) from the Te Paki Area, northern New Zealand

 Naultinus flavirictus
Hitchmough, Nielsen, Lysaght & Bauer, 2021

We describe a new species of the New Zealand diplodactylid gecko genus Naultinus. Molecular phylogenetics and distinctive morphological features support taxonomic separation of the populations on the northern half of Aupori Peninsula in the far north of the North Island as a new species, Naultinus flavirictus sp. nov. The specific epithet refers to the diagnostic yellow colour at the corners of the mouth. We discuss the conservation status of and threats to this novel taxon and to Te Paki, Northland—the unique area of New Zealand where it is found. We further discuss the distribution and possible function of bright mouth colour within Naultinus.

Keywords: Reptilia, New Zealand, gecko, Diplodactylidae, taxonomy, new species, Naultinus flavirictus sp. nov.

 Rodney A. Hitchmough, Stuart V. Nielsen, Judith A. Lysaght and Aaron M. Bauer. 2021. A New Species of Naultinus from the Te Paki Area, northern New Zealand. Zootaxa. 4915(3); 389–400. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4915.3.7

[Herpetology • 2021] Myanophis thanlyinensis • A New Genus and Species of Mud Snake (Serpentes, Homalopsidae) from Myanmar

Myanophis thanlyinensis
Köhler, Khaing, Than, Baranski, Schell, Greve, Janke & Pauls, 2021

Based on two male and two female individuals, we describe a new genus and species of mud snake, Myanophis thanlyinensis gen. nov., sp. nov., from the vicinity of the campus of East Yangon University, Yangon, Thanlyin, Myanmar. This species differs from every other homalopsid species by the following combination of characters: (1) dorsal scales smooth, row formula 21–21–19 or 21–21–17; (2) tail short, ratio tail length/SVL 0.185–0.204 in males, 0.160–0.167 in females; (3) nasal scales separated; (4) 125–126 ventral scales in males, 120–122 in females; (5) 38–39 subcaudal scales in males, 32–34 in females; and (6) hemipenis bilobed. Its matrilineal genealogy (based on analyses of 16S and cytochrome b sequences), associates Myanophis thanlyinensis gen. nov., sp. nov. most closely with species of the genera Myrrophis and Gyiophis. The new taxon differs from the species of Myrrophis and Gyiophis by having a bilobed hemipenis (vs. unilobed). Myanophis thanlyinensis gen. nov., sp. nov. differs further from the species of Myrrophis by having 125–126 ventral scales in males and 120–122 in females (vs. 137–162 and 137–164, respectively), and 38–39 subcaudal scales in males and 32–34 in females (vs. 39–55 and 37–52, respectively). Myanophis thanlyinensis gen. nov., sp. nov. differs further from the species of Gyiophis by lacking dark blotches along flank (vs. present), and by having 21 dorsal scales rows at midbody (vs. 25). We provide an identification key to the homalopsid species known to occur in Myanmar. As a novelty to the classic holotype description and characterization, the individual has been genome sequenced by Illumina short-read technology and its genome has been assembled into a draft nuclear genome and a complete, annotated mitochondrial genome. This innovative approach comprehensively and permanently characterizes the genomic variation of the holotype.

Keywords: Reptilia, Cryptic diversity, DNA barcoding; genome, Myanophis thanlyinensis gen. nov. sp. nov.

 Gunther Köhler, Khin Pa Pa Khaing, Ni Lar Than, Damian Baranski, Tilman Schell, Carola Greve, Axel Janke and Steffen U. Pauls. 2021. A New Genus and Species of Mud Snake from Myanmar (Reptilia, Squamata, Homalopsidae). Zootaxa. 4915(3); 301–325. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4915.3.1

[Crustacea • 2021] Arachnothelphusa sarang • A New Species of the Genus Arachnothelphusa Ng, 1991 (Decapoda: Gecarcinucidae) from A Limestone Cave in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo)

Arachnothelphusa sarang
Grinang & Ng, 2021

Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 69 
 Photographs: Tan Heok Hui.

 A new species of cavernicolous gecarcinucid crab, Arachnothelphusa sarang, is described from a limestone cave in northern Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. This increases the number of Arachnothelphusa species to six. It is the second member in the genus that is known to primarily occupy limestone caves, the other being A. rhadamanthysi Ng & Goh, 1987, from Gomantong in Sabah. Both species appear to be cavernicolous species with pale body colouration in life. 

Key words: Brachyura, taxonomy, Oriental region, freshwater crab, cavernicolous crab

Fig. 1. Arachnothelphusa sarang, new species
A, male (12.1 × 9.9 mm) (ZRC 2020.0351), Batu Rusa cave, Bukit Sarang, Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia; B, female (12.9 × 10.4 mm) (ZRC 2020.0351), Batu Kelelut, Bukit Sarang, Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia, specimen; 
C–E, paratype male (18.7 × 15.3 mm) (ZRC 2020.0099), Bukit Sarang, Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia;
F, paratype female (15.8 × 11.8 mm) (ZRC 2020.0099), Bukit Sarang, Bintulu, Sarawak, Malaysia.

 A, B, photographed in situ; C, F, overall dorsal habitus; D, ventral view of cephalothorax; E, frontal view of cephalothorax and chelae.
 Photographs: Tan Heok Hui.

Family Gecarcinucidae Rathbun, 1904 
Arachnothelphusa Ng, 1991 
Type species. Potamon (Potamon) melanippe De Man, 1899, by original designation. 

Arachnothelphusa sarang, new species

Diagnosis. Carapace surface convex, rugose, finely granular; anterolateral margins convex, serrated; antero- and posterolateral regions prominently rugose, covered with numerous coarse granules; epibranchial tooth very low or indistinct; external orbital tooth very low, broadly triangular, outer margin slightly concave, distinctly serrated; epigastric and postorbital cristae distinct; cervical and H-grooves deep, not confluent (Fig. 2A, C); ambulatory legs long, merus of fourth ambulatory legs subequal to length of carapace (Fig. 2A, B, E); carpus of chelipeds rugose, with fine granules, inner angle with broadly triangular tooth (Fig. 2A, D); chela relatively short, fingers as long as palm, cutting teeth on pollex not prominent (Fig. 2D). Male pleon T-shaped, somite 6 subequal to length of telson (Fig. 2B). G1 slender, sinuous, gently curving outwards; terminal segment cylindrical, tapering, about one third length of subterminal segment (Fig. 3A–D). G2 with short distal segment, less than a quarter length of basal segment (Fig. 3E).

Etymology. The species is named after the locality where the holotype was collected. The name is used as a noun in apposition.

Fig. 6. Live colours of Arachnothelphusa rhadamanthysi from Gomantong limestone cave in Sabah, specimen not collected.
A, male, from outside of the cave; B, inside of cave.
Photographs: Keith Christenson.

Jongkar Grinang and Peter K. L. Ng. 2021. A New Species of the Genus Arachnothelphusa Ng, 1991 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Gecarcinucidae) from A Limestone Cave in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo). Raffles Bulletin of Zoology. 69; 1–7.