Thursday, August 11, 2022

[Botany • 2022] Amana hejiaqingii (Liliaceae) • A New Species from the Dabie Mountains, Central China

Amana hejiaqingii M.Z. Wang & P. Li,

in Wang, Zhang, ... et Li, 2022. 
大别老鸦瓣  ||  DOI: 10.3390/taxonomy2030022

In this paper, a new species from Central China, Amana hejiaqingii (Liliaceae), is described and illustrated. It resembles A. anhuiensis and A. tianmuensis but differs from A. anhuiensis as it has one white vein on its lower leaf and yellow anthers. It also differs from A. tianmuensis by possessing solitary pink flowers with longer and wider tepals. The principal coordinates analysis separated the three species based on morphological data. Cytological observation showed that A. hejiaqingii is diploid (2n = 2x = 24). Molecular phylogenetic analyses further supported its species delimitation.

Keywords: Amana anhuiensis; Amana tianmuensis; phylogeny; taxonomy

 Illustration of Amana hejiaqingii 
(A1,A2) Flowering plants, (B1) Flower, (B2) Abaxial surface of outer tepal, (B3) Abaxial surface of inner tepal, (B4) Adaxial surface of outer tepal, (B5) Adaxial surface of inner tepal, (B6) Outer stamen, (B7) Inner stamen, (C1) Fruit, (C2) Longitudinal section of ovary, (C3) Immature capsule and bracts, (C4) Transverse section of ovary, (C5) Seed, (D) Bulb.
 Drawn by Xin-Jie Jin.

Amana hejiaqingii M.Z. Wang & P. Li:
 (A) Habitat, (B) Population with flowers, (C) Population with fruits, (D) Whole plant, (E) The front view of the flower, (F) The side view of the flower, (G) Anatomy of flower, (H) Bulb, (I) Leaves, (J) Fruits. The white line segment represents a length of 1 cm.


Amana hejiaqingii M.Z. Wang & P. Li, sp. nov.
 (Chinese name: 大别老鸦瓣)

Diagnosis: This new species resembles Amana tianmuensis P. Li & M.Z. Wang in possessing yellowish-brown, thinly papery bulb tunics, oblanceolate leaves and three verticillate linear bracts, but differs from it as it has solitary pink flower (vs. solitary, sometimes two, white) with longer wider tepals.
Distribution and habitat: Up to now, Amana hejiaqingii is found in eight localities across 233.7 km in the Dabie Mountains bordering Henan and Hubei provinces. It grows in moist deciduous broad-leaf forests on mountain slopes at elevations of 70–530 m. In future investigations, we think that more populations will be found in the area in and around these localities.

Etymology: The specific epithet is named in memory of Professor Jia-Qing He, a Chinese botanist who was dedicated to plant investigation in the Dabie Mountains. He walked about 12,684 km and collected nearly 10,000 specimens during a 255-day fieldtrip in the Dabie Mountains, becoming the first person ever to make a comprehensive wild plant investigation of the Dabie Mountains.

 Meizhen Wang, Shenglu Zhang, Jing Wu, Xinxin Zhu, Zongcai Liu, Gengyu Lu and Pan Li. 2022. Amana hejiaqingii (Liliaceae), A New Species from the Dabie Mountains, China. Taxonomy. 2(3); 279-290. DOI: 10.3390/taxonomy2030022

Wednesday, August 10, 2022

[Paleontology • 2022] Reappraisal of the largest ctenochasmatid Moganopterus zhuiana et al. 2012 (Pterosauria: Ctenochasmatidae)

Moganopterus zhuiana Lü et al., 2012 

in Gao, Jiang, Xu, et al., 2022. 

Moganopterus zhuiana Lü et al., 2012 was erected as a member of the Boreopteridae, which was questioned by different researchers shortly after the publication. Although the new assignment to the Ctenochasmatidae is widely accepted by pterosaur researchers, some characteristics still require a detailed description. Here, the holotype of this taxon is restudied, and some ambiguous characteristics are re-identified. The diagnosis of this taxon has been revised as the following: a large ctenochasmatid pterosaur, which can be distinguished from other members of this clade by a single autapomorphy: an elongated rod-like parietal crest that extends posterodorsally, forming an angle of about 15° with the ventral margin of the skull. This taxon can be further distinguished from other ctenochasmatids on the basis of the following combination of characteristics: straight occlusal surfaces of the upper and low jaws; presence of a low premaxillary crest confined anterior to the nasoantorbital fenestra; rostrum about two thirds of the skull length; nasoantorbital fenestra occupying slightly more than 20% of the skull length; about 100 slender teeth; and a mid-cervical length/width ratio of about 7. The wingspan of M. zhuiana has been re-estimated according to a simple regression equation for wingspan versus skull length in ctenochasmatids. It confirms that M. zhuiana, although smaller than previous thought, is still the largest known ctenochasmatid. When comparing the sizes of ctenochasmatids in the Jurassic and Cretaceous, ctenochasmatids showed a rough tendency to increase their sizes.

Key words: Liaoning, Jiufotang Formation, Moganopterus zhuiana, largest ctenochasmatid

Photographs and reconstruction of the holotype of Moganopterus zhuiana (HGM 41HIII-0419) from Jianchang, Liaoning
A. slab A; B. slab B; C. the reconstruction of the upper and lower jaws.

GAO Dian-Song, JIANG Shun-Xing, XU Li, CHENG Xin, YANG Li-Li, JIA Song-Hai and WANG Xiao-Lin. 2022. Reappraisal of the largest ctenochasmatid Moganopterus zhuiana Lü et al., 2012. VERTEBRATA PALASIATICA. 60(3); 197-211.
 DOI: 10.19615/j.cnki.2096-9899.220111


摘要:朱氏莫干翼龙(Moganopterus zhuiana)由吕君昌等于2012年建立,并将其归入北方翼龙科(Boreopteridae), 这一分类在发表后不久就受到了不同研究者的质疑。之后,尽管关于莫干翼龙归入梳颌翼龙科(Ctenochasmatidae)的观点已被大部分翼龙研究者所接受,但是很多特征还需要详细的描述。通过对朱氏莫干翼龙的正型标本进行详细观察,对一些较为模糊的特征进行了重新确认。将其鉴定特征修改为:一种大型的梳颌翼龙类成员,具有一个与其他成员不同的自有裔征——一长棍状额骨嵴向后背侧延伸,并与头骨腹面形成15°夹角。同时莫干翼龙还具有以下的特征组合可以区别于其他梳颌翼龙类成员:平直的上下颌咬合面;低矮的前上颌骨嵴位于鼻眶前孔之前;吻端约占头骨长度的2/3; 鼻眶前孔占头骨长度略大于20%; 100枚细长的牙齿;中部颈椎的长宽比约为7。依据梳颌翼龙类翼展和头骨长度的线性关系,重新推测了莫干翼龙的翼展。新的推测结果证实,虽然比最初推测的小了很多,但莫干翼龙仍然是已知的个体最大的梳颌翼龙类成员。对比侏罗纪和白垩纪的梳颌翼龙类,这一种类的体型大致存在一个增大的趋势。

关键词: 辽宁, 九佛堂组, 朱氏莫干翼龙, 最大的梳颌翼龙类

Lü Junchang; Pu Hanyong; Xu Li; Wu Yanhua; Wei Xuefang (2012). "Largest Toothed Pterosaur Skull from the Early Cretaceous Yixian Formation of Western Liaoning, China, with Comments On the Family Boreopteridae". Acta Geologica Sinica. 86 (2): 287–293. DOI: 10.1111/j.1755-6724.2012.00658.x

[Entomology • 2022] Druon laceyi Discovery through iNaturalist: New Species and New Records of Oak Gall Wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) from Texas, USA

Druon laceyi Zhang, Sasan & O’Kennon, 

in Zhang, Sasan, O'Kennon & Kranz, 2022. 

A new species of the genus Druon Kinsey, 1937, Druon laceyi Zhang, Sasan & O’Kennon sp. nov. is described on host plant Quercus laceyi Small from central Texas. We also re-establish Andricus lustrans Beutenmüller, 1913 comb.rev., and transfer Striatoandricus aciculatus (Beutenmüller, 1909) comb. nov. from Andricus. Finally, we report a new state and host record for Druon gregori Melika, Nicholls & Stone, 2022. All observations were first shared on the social platform iNaturalist, highlighting the potential of cybertaxonomy in uncovering overlooked biodiversity.

Keywords: Hymenoptera, Citizen Science, cybertaxonomy, DruonStriatoandricusAndricus

Y. Miles Zhang, Kimberlie Sasan,  Robert J. O'Kennon and Adam J. Kranz. 2022. Discovery through iNaturalist: New Species and New Records of Oak Gall Wasps (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae: Cynipini) from Texas, USA. Zootaxa. 5168(1); 63-74. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.5168.1.5

Citizen Science Leads to Discovery of New Wasp Species on Garden Grounds

[Crustacea • 2022] Bathynomus yucatanensis • A New Species of Bathynomus Milne-Edwards, 1879 (Isopoda: Cirolanidae) from the southern Gulf of Mexico with A Redescription of Bathynomus jamesi from off Pratas Island, Taiwan

Bathynomus yucatanensis
Huang, Kawai & Bruce, 2022

Bathynomus jamesi Kou, Chen and Li, 2017 from Zhengbin fishing port in Keelung, Taiwan, was identified by the shape of the distolateral corner of the uropodal endopod, the shape of the clypeus, and the nucleotide sequences of the COI (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1) and 16S rRNA genes. Only two species of Bathynomus have previously been recorded from Taiwan, B. doederleini Ortmann, 1894 and B. decemspinosus Shih, 1972. Bathynomus kensleyi, previously known from the South China Sea as well as the south-east Swain Reefs, Coral Sea, was primarily differentiated by the elongate and upturned pleotelson spines, but that character is now shown to also occur in mature Bathynomus jamesi. Two specimens from the Gulf of Mexico (obtained from the Enoshima Aquarium in Japan) were compared to species of Bathynomus from the western North Atlantic. Sequence data showed that one of two samples was not B. giganteus Milne-Edwards, 1879, as had been assumed, and it did not match any other species of Bathynomus. That specimen was collected off the Yucatán Peninsula and is morphologically distinct from both B. giganteus (in the relative length of the antennal flagellum and the length:width ratio of the pleotelson) and B. maxeyorum Shipley, Brooks, and Bruce in Shipley et al., 2016 (the number of pleotelson spines is seven and the distolateral corner is produced on the uropodal exopod). Therefore, it is here described as Bathynomus yucatanensis sp. nov. Bathynomus is currently a very minor fisheries resource in Taiwan and Japan, but this find demonstrates the continuing importance of the fishing industry to marine biological exploration.
KEYWORDS: Cirolanidae, South China Sea, Taiwan, Bathynomus kensleyi, Bathynomus yucatanensis sp. nov

Order Isopoda Latreille, 1817

Family Cirolanidae Dana, 1852

Genus Bathynomus Milne-Edwards (1879)

Bathynomus yucatanensis (voucher no. TMCD003335). Body length 260 mm.
 Dorsal view and ventral view.  

Bathynomus yucatanensis sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Clypeus with straight lateral margins. Antennal flagellum extending to within pereonite 3. The distal part of the coxa of pereopod 7 is broad. Uropodal exopod not extending beyond pleotelson: endopod with distolateral corners slightly produced. Length:width ratio of pleotelson approximately 0.8:1; number of pleotelsonic spines 11 or 13, short, or straight.

Habitat: Captured with B. giganteus, presumably similar to B. giganteus.

Distribution: Off the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico, and in the Gulf of Mexico; approximate depth range 600–800 metres.

Etymology: The epithet is an adjective derived from the name of the nearest land mass to its common locality, the Yucatán Peninsula. The Japanese name: Enosuigusokumushi.

Ming-Chih Huang, Tadashi Kawai and Niel L. Bruce. 2022. A New Species of Bathynomus Milne-Edwards, 1879 (Isopoda: Cirolanidae) from the southern Gulf of Mexico with A Redescription of Bathynomus jamesi Kou, Chen and Li, 2017 from off Pratas Island, Taiwan. Journal of Natural History. 56(13-16);885-921. DOI: 10.1080/00222933.2022.2086835

[Botany • 2022] Aspidistra mokokchungensis (Asparagaceae: Nolinoideae) • A New Species from Nagaland, northeastern India


Aspidistra mokokchungensis D.K. Roy, N. Odyuo, R. Lytan, D.L. Biate & A.A. Mao, 

in Roy, Lytan, Biate, ... et Mao, 2022.  

New species of Aspidistra (Asparagaceae; subfamily Nolinoideae), A. mokokchungensis D.K. Roy, N. Odyuo, R. Lytan, D.L. Biate & A.A. Mao, is described and illustrated from the state of Nagaland in northeastern India

Keywords: floristic diversity; Asia; plant taxonomy; Aspidistra longifolia; monocots

Dilip Kumar Roy, Rikertre Lytan, David L. Biate, Nripemo Odyuo, Tiatemsu Punatemjen and Ashiho A. Mao. 2022. Aspidistra mokokchungensis (Asparagaceae: Nolinoideae), A New Species from India. NELUMBO. 64(1); DOI: 10.20324/nelumbo/v64/2022/168341

[Botany • 2022] Selaginella wuyishanensis (Selaginellaceae) • A New Species from East China and its Phylogenetic Position based on Molecular Data

Selaginella wuyishanensis K.W.Xu, X.M.Zhou & Y.F.Duan, 

in Xu, Chen, Song, ... et Duan, 2022.
A new spikemoss species, Selaginella wuyishanensis, is described and illustrated based on materials collected from Fujian Province, East China. The new species can be distinguished from S. lutchuensis Koidzumi and S. albociliata P. S. Wang by its leaves with extremely long cilia (up to 8 mm) and distinctly white margins, ovate ventral sporophylls, and sporophyll-pteryx completely inverted on dorsal sporophylls. In the present work, a molecular phylogeny, taxonomic description, distribution information, line drawing, and photographs of this new species are presented. A morphological comparison is also given to distinguish it from morphologically similar species in Selaginella sect. Tetragonostachyae (Hook. & Grev.) Hieron. & Sadeb.

Keywords: Danxia landform, Selaginella albociliata, Selaginella subg. Heterostachys, species diversity

Illustration of Selaginella wuyishanensis K.W.Xu, X.M.Zhou & Y.F.Duan. 
A habit B adaxial view of branch C abaxial view of branch with rhizophore D axillary leaf E ventral leaf F dorsal leaf G strobili H ventral sporophyll I dorsal sporophyll
(A–F drawn by Sun YB based on the isotype at NF 
G–I drawn by Wei HJ based on the paratype at CSH).

Selaginella wuyishanensis K.W.Xu, X.M.Zhou & Y.F.Duan 
A, B habit C abaxial view of portion of branch D portion of branch showing the dorsal leaves E portion of branch showing the ventral and axillary leaves F, G strobili H axillary leave I axillary leave J dorsal leave K ventral sporophyll L dorsal sporophyll M proximal surface of megaspores N detail of megaspore surface O microscopic structures of microspore surface P proximal surface of microspore.
 Selaginella wuyishanensis K.W.Xu, X.M.Zhou & Y.F.Duan, sp. nov.
Diagnosis: The new species is most similar to Selaginella albociliata and S. lutchuensis in the habit, sterile leaves, and spores. However, S. wuyishanensis can be distinguished from the latter two species by its long leaf cilia (up to 0.6 mm), ovate ventral sporophylls, and the smooth perispore surface of the megaspores (Figs 2, 3).

Distribution and habitat: Selaginella wuyishanensis is known only from Fujian Province, East China. Three populations were observed to grow on rocks of the Danxia landform in evergreen broad-leaved forests at elevations of ca. 200–800 m.
Etymology: The species epithet is based on the name of the famous mount Wuyishan, referring to the type locality of the new species.

Ke-Wang Xu, Shui-Fei Chen, Qiang Song, Xiao Zheng, Meng Li, Yan-Ming Fang, Hong-Jin Wei, Hui Ding, Xin-Mao Zhou and Yi-Fan Duan. 2022. Selaginella wuyishanensis (sect. Tetragonostachyae, Selaginellaceae), A New Species from East China and its Phylogenetic Position based on Molecular Data. PhytoKeys. 202: 107-119.  DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.202.85410

[Botany • 2022] Tridimeris huatuscoanaFog and Coffee: A New Species of Tridimeris (Annonaceae) endemic to the Mountain Cloud Forest of Mexico

Tridimeris huatuscoana Marinero-Sobal & Ortiz-Rodr.,  

in Rodríguez & Marinero-Sobal, 2022. 

Tridimeris is the only genus of Annonaceae endemic to Mexico. Despite this, the genus has been largely ignored and very little is known about it; specifically its diversity and distribution in Mexico are not well studied. Here a new species of TridimerisT. huatuscoana, is described and illustrated. The most general characteristics of the new species confirm that dimerous flowers (two sepals and four petals) and the large, and fleshy fruits are the most obvious synapomorphies for the Mexican genus Tridimeris. With respect to the other two species described so far (Tridimeris hahniana and T. chiapensis), the new species can be easily distinguished by the unique combination of 2-flowered inflorescences, large petals pubescent outside, food bodies present at the base of its inner petals, setose leaf domatia, and fruits shortly pedunculate and stipitate. The new species expands the richness of the genus to three species, all endemic to Mexico and restricted to montane cloud forests.

Keywords: dimerous flowers, Huatusco, Miliuseae, morphology, Neotropical 

Tridimeris huatuscoana.
 A) Habit. B) Branchlet with inflorescences.
C) Dimerous flower, note the white triangular patch at base of inner petals (food bodies). D) Monocarps.
 (Photographs by Esteban Marinero-Sobal).

Tridimeris huatuscoana.
E) Branchlet with inflorescences, note the color of the flowers and the pollination chamber.
G) Close-up of the flower, note the two carpels surrounded by numerous stamens.
H) Small plant of Tridimeris huatuscoana.
 (Photographs by Esteban Marinero-Sobal).

Tridimeris huatuscoana Marinero-Sobal & Ortiz-Rodr. sp. nov.

Similar to Tridimeris chiapensis in its glabrous fruit surface and flowers with food bodies at the base of the inner petals, but differing from this species by its setose leaf domatia, longer and pubescent cream-white petals, greater number of flowers per inflorescence, fewer carpels per flower, and by its shorter pedicels.

Distribution range of Tridimeris huatuscoana (black star), Tridimeris hahniana (blue squares) and Tridimeris chiapensis (purple dots). 

Etymology:— The specific epithet is in honor of the municipality of Huatusco, in Veracruz, Mexico, one of the most important regions for coffee production, full of history and culture, and an obligatory path for many botanical explorers.

Andrés Ernesto Ortiz Rodríguez and Esteban José Marinero-Sobal. 2022. Fog and Coffee: A New Species of Tridimeris (Annonaceae) endemic to the Mountain Cloud Forest of Mexico. Phytotaxa. 548(2); 146-152. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.548.2.2

[Botany • 2018] Psoralea forbesiae (Fabaceae: Psoraleeae) • A New Species from the Swartberg Mountains of South Africa


  Psoralea forbesiae C.H.Stirt., A.Bello & Muasya, 

in Stirton, Bello & Muasya, 2018.

Psoralea forbesiae C.H.Stirt., A.Bello & Muasya is a new species of Psoraleeae, Fabaceae. Psoralea forbesiae is endemic to the Swartberg Mountains and is a tall densely branched re-sprouting shrub up to 2.5 m, with bluish-green stems and with most parts covered in small crater-like glands, leaves pinnately 3-foliolate, linear-oblong, pale bluish-green, semi-conduplicate, somewhat succulent, glabrous, crowded at the end of bare branches on older stems or distributed along short branches on young shoots, petiolate. A description of P. forbesiae, together with photographs and a distribution map are presented.

Keywords: Leguminosae , New species, Endemic, Psoralea , Psoraleeae , South Africa, Taxonomy

  Psoralea forbesiae C.H.Stirt., A.Bello & Muasya:
A front view of flower B Fruiting calyces C Side view of flower D Habit E Back of standard F Stipule G Fruiting calyx H Leaf I Stem.
Photographs by Charles Stirton and Abubakar Bello. 
Voucher Stirton & Muasya 13279 (BOL).

 Psoralea forbesiae C.H.Stirt., A.Bello & Muasya, sp. nov.
 Psoralea sp. 15, Stirton & Schutte 
in Manning & Goldblatt, Strelitzia 29: 574 (2012).

Diagnosis: Similar to P. axillaris L., but differs in being a resprouter with numerous shoots emerging from a woody rootstock; older plants producing a cluster of shoots (burst-branching) at the ends of the previous seasons’ terminal shoots giving an untidy habit (versus a much-branched reseeder with single stem, never with burst branching); stems coarsely fissured and greyish with age (versus furrowed, heavily lenticelled and brownish); leaves 3-foliolate; leaflets partially conduplicate, linear-oblong, with raised crater-like glands and scarcely visible veins (versus leaves 3–5-foliolate; flat, lanceolate, distinctly veined with small sunken glands); lateral leaflets symmetrical, 2–3 mm broad (versus lateral leaflets asymmetrical, 3–8 mm. broad); flowers well exerted from leaves, mauve to pale lavender, wings white (versus mostly hidden within leaves, mauve to purple with purple veins, wings mauve); standard white to pale mauve and with a single purple vertical flash plus a few shorter darker veins towards base of standard, apex greenish on front and back (versus mauve with strongly purple veins and violet basal patch, apex not greenish on front and back); wing petals flared outwards (versus wing petals held vertically).

Distribution, habitat and ecology: Psoralea forbesiae is a locally common species known only from the mid- to upper altitudes on the southern slopes and plateau of the Swartberg Mountains of the Western Cape Province (Fig. 2). It occurs in seepages, gulleys and along streams in mountain fynbos between 1200–1700 m (a.s.l.). It is restricted to the South Swartberg Sandstone Fynbos and North Swartberg Sandstone Fynbos vegetation types (FFs 23 & FFs 24) (Mucina and Rutherford 2006). It forms part of an introgressive hybrid swarm with P. sordida on the flanks of the road leading up the southern slopes of the Swartberg Pass (Bello et al. 2018). The flowers are visited by black Megachilid and Xylocopid bees.
Etymology: The specific epithet forbesiae honours Scottish born Helena Madelain Lamond Forbes (1900–1959) who immigrated to South Africa with her parents when young. She worked at the National Herbarium in Pretoria, visited Kew Gardens for one year and ended up as the Curator of the Natal Herbarium (NH). She wrote local floras of Isipingo and Malvern districts in Natal but is best known for her revisions of Tephrosia and Psoralea in South Africa (see Gunn and Codd 1981, Glen and Germishuizen 2010).

 Charles H. Stirton, Abubakar Bello and A. Muthama Muasya. 2018. Psoralea forbesiae (Psoraleeae, Fabaceae), A New Species from the Swartberg Mountains of South Africa. PhytoKeys. 99: 93-98. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.99.24765

[Entomology • 2022] Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Genus Symbrenthia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) correlates with the past Geography of the Oriental Region

in Fric, Martinkova, Rindos, ... et Maresova, 2022. 

• Symbrenthia is monophyletic and sister to Araschnia.
• A new genus is described for Mynbrenthia hippalus.
• The ancestral area reconstruction pointed out the origin in the Oriental region approximately 35 Mya.
• The genus Symbrenthia colonised the area of Sahul from Sundaland by multiple west-east dispersal events.

Jesters, butterflies of the genus Symbrenthia Hübner, 1819, comprise 14 species mainly distributed in the Oriental region. Although this genus has attracted the attention of many researchers in the past, its taxonomy and biogeographic history remain unclear. In this study, we investigate phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships based on one mitochondrial (COI) and two nuclear genes (ArgKin, wingless), using both likelihood and Bayesian approaches. With the exception of Shippalus, which we find to be either sister to Mynes Boisduval, 1832 or sister to Symbrenthia+Mynes+Araschnia, all species of Symbrenthia form together a single monophyletic group. We describe a new genus Mynbrenthia Fric & Rindos gen. nov. to accommodate the taxon hippalus. The genus Symbrenthia splits into four sub-groups, “Brensymthia” (with S. niphanda and S. sinoides), “hypselis” (with S. hypselis, S. brabira, S. leoparda and S. doni), “intricata” (with S. intricata and S. hypatia) and “hippoclus” group (including S. platena and a complex of S. hippoclus and S. lilaea). The genus probably originated in the Eocene with Sundaland and continental Asia as the areas of ancestral distribution. The history of the genus Symbrenthia was more influenced by dispersal events and then by subsequent vicariances. Whereas the “hypselis” group colonised the Indo-Australian Archipelago from the Asian continent, the “hippoclus” group dispersed to continental Asia from the Indo-Australian Archipelago.

Keywords: Arginine Kinase, Butterflies, COI, Insect, Jesters, Nymphalini, Systematics, Wingless, Zoogeography


Zdenek F. Fric, Barbora Martinkova, Michal Rindos, Alena Suchackova Bartonova, Niklas Wahlberg and Jana Papp Maresova. 2022. Molecular Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Genus Symbrenthia (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) correlates with the past Geography of the Oriental Region. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. In Press, 107605. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2022.107605 

Tuesday, August 9, 2022

[Entomology • 2022] Scarlata gen. nov. & Malayomelittia gen. nov. Hidden Jewels of Malaysia: Two New Genera and Species of remarkable Clearwing Moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae: Osminiini)

 Scarlata nirvana 
Skowron Volponi, 2022

A stunning scarlet-coloured clearwing moth was found mud-puddling on a rainforest river bank in Malaysia and is described herein as a new genus and species, Scarlata nirvana gen. et sp. nov.. This sesiid seems to be a rare case of a mimic of an assassin bug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) in a family otherwise known for hymenopteran mimicry. A high-quality video of the moth’s behaviour in its habitat is provided. Studies of the collections of the Natural History Museum in London revealed another member of the new genus, S. guichardii sp. nov. A third species, S. ignisquamulata Kallies, 2018 comb. nov. is transferred to Scarlata gen. nov. from the genus Aschistophleps Hampson, 1892. The second new lineage from Malaysia described here, Malayomelittia gen. nov., includes two species, Malayomelittia pahangensis Skowron, 2015 comb. nov. and Mruficrista Rothschild, 1912 comb. nov. Additionally, Heterosphecia bantanakai Arita & Gorbunov, 2000 is placed as a junior synonym of Hhyaloptera Hampson, 1919 syn. nov. Morphological descriptions, remarks on behaviour, conditions of occurrence and a discussion about potential mimicry models are included. All new taxa are figured, including images of male genitalia.
Keywords: Assassin bug, mimicry, Malaysia, puddling, new taxa

(a)  Scarlata nirvana gen. et sp. nov. holotype male; (b) S. guichardii gen. et sp. nov. holotype male;
 (c) Malayomelittia ruficrista comb. nov. holotype female; (d). M. ruficrista male NHMUK10605228.

Details of the head and outline of the eye of:
 (a) Malayomelittia pahangensis comb. nov.; (b)  Scarlata nirvana gen. et sp. nov. 
Note differences in the shape of the eye and in scaling of labial palp apically.

Malayomelittia Skowron Volponi gen. nov.

Type species: Heterosphecia pahangensis Skowron, 2015.

Composition: Only two known species belong to this newly described genus: 
Malayomelittia pahangensis (Skowron, 2015), comb. nov. 
and Malayomelittia ruficrista (Rothschild, 1912), comb. nov.

Etymology. The name derives from Malaysia, the country of origin of representatives of this genus, and the Greek “melitta” (bee), due to the type species’ splendid mimicry of Trigona bees. The gender is feminine.

 Scarlata nirvana gen. et sp. nov. exposing its hind leg tufts in a common feeding position of this species.

 Scarlata nirvana gen. et sp. nov. in a typical resting position.  

Scarlata Skowron Volponi gen. nov.

Type species: Scarlata nirvana Skowron Volponi sp. nov.

Small (wingspan 14–17 mm) and slender clearwing moths with scarlet coloured, conspicuous hindleg tufts of elongated scales. Antennae simple and clavate, frons covered with smooth scales, labial palpi mostly smooth-scaled with narrow elongated scales at tip and wide, slightly erected scales at base. Thorax and abdomen covered with smooth scales, either scarlet or black. Wings mostly transparent with broad black fore- and hindwing discal spots and margins. Male genitalia morphology distinct from other Osminiini: uncus with very short sclerotized setae on margins, similar setae forming a small patch or row at tip of valva, valva folded inwards subapically on coastal margin.

Differential diagnosis: 
Superficially similar to Malayomelittia and Aschistophleps but can be differentiated by the morphology of the male genitalia, the shape of the eye, scaling of labial palps (more hair-like scales apically in Malayomelittia), broader hindwing discal spot and the structure of the hindleg tuft: in Scarlata, the hair-like scales are strongly elongated on the inner margin, moving towards the dorsal side there is a narrow groove covered with shorter scales followed by a ridge of elongated scales dorsally, the tuft of elongated scales continues onto the proximal half of the 1st tarsomere only on the inner margin, on the hindleg outer side the scales are elongated only on the tibia, the 1st tarsomere is dorsally and externally smooth-scaled. Scarlata does not have a tuft of hair-scales on the midleg. In Malayomelittia the hindleg tuft is made of almost equally elongated scales dorsally and on both inner and outer sides of tibia and entire 1st tarsomere. Aschistophleps has a tuft of hairs on the midleg tibia and two small tufts on the hind leg which allows for the immediate differentiation from closely related genera. Overall, the hindleg tufts of the genera Scarlata, Malayomelittia and Heterosphecia are very conspicuous, made of dense, elongated scales. In the slender-bodied species of Pyrophleps, these tufts are much less impressive and scales less elongated.

In the field, representatives of the genus Scarlata can be differentiated from Malayomelittia and Aschistophleps by their posture, especially different ways of exposing the hind leg tufts. Scarlata species often spread out their wings (Figure 2; Suppl. video TC 02:50–03:05), showing the bright red hind legs with tarsi curled up, not using them much to move around. Malayomelittia, when puddling, always keeps its wings folded back against the body and rises the hind legs upwards, often moving them slightly to expose the conspicuous tufts (see Suppl. video in Skowron et al. 2015), but never uses them to walk, whereas Aschistophleps, keeping its wings folded against its body and hind legs on the outer side of the wings, uses the hind legs actively for locomotion. Pyrophleps species do not expose hindleg tufts significantly but keep the hind legs close to their slender abdomens and most of the time concealed beneath the wings.

From the similarly-coloured species of Akaisphecia Gorbunov and Arita (1995), Scarlata can be distinguished by the absence of a filiform appendix on the abdomen, structure of hind leg tufts, well-developed forewing transparent areas and morphology of male genitalia.

Composition: This genus consists of three species: 
S. ignisquamulata Kallies, 2018 comb. nov.; 
S. nirvana Skowron Volponi sp. nov. 
and S. guichardii Skowron Volponi sp. nov.

Scarlata nirvana sp. nov. 

Etymology: This species is named after the Nirvana Asia Group, who co-financed the expedition to Malaysia during which this new species was discovered.

Marta Skowron Volponi. 2022. Hidden Jewels of Malaysia: Two New Genera and Species of remarkable Clearwing Moths (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae: Osminiini). The European Zoological Journal.  89(1); 579-589. DOI: 10.1080/24750263.2022.2061613  

[Botany • 2022] Spiradiclis liboensis (Rubiaceae: Ophiorrhizeae) • A New Species from Limestone Mountain Areas in Guizhou, China

Spiradiclis liboensis L. Wu & W. J. Liu,

in Song, Liu, Chen, ... et Wu, 2022. 
荔波螺序草  ||  DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.204.84397

Spiradiclis liboensis L. Wu & W. J. Liu, a new species in tribe Ophiorrhizeae of Rubiaceae from limestone mountain areas of Guizhou, south-western China, is described and illustrated. It is similar to S. guangdongensis and S. jingxiensis, but differs from the latter two by the following traits: stipule triangular, inflorescence sessile or with peduncle up to 0.5 mm long, pedicel 0.8–2.2 mm long, corolla white, salverform, corolla tube 1.6–2.2 cm long, corolla tube of long-styled morph inside with a villous ring and stigmas positioned at the throat of the corolla tube. The conservation status is assessed as “Vulnerable” (VU) according to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria.

Keywords: China, limestone, Rubiaceae, Spiradiclis, taxonomy

Spiradiclis liboensis L. Wu & W. J. Liu.
A habit B leaf blade, adaxial and abaxial views C short-styled flower D long-styled flower E infructescence F calyx and disc in face view G stipules.
Drawn by X.Y. Zeng.

Spiradiclis liboensis L. Wu & W. J. Liu.
A habitat (the arrow shows the place of growth) B habit C leaves showing variation range D inflorescence, side view E–F dissected short-styled flower and long-styled flower showing floral parts G long-styled flower, frontal view H young capsules I discs in face view.
S. jingxiensis J habit.
 (Designed by Lei Wu and Xiao-Fei Song).

 Spiradiclis liboensis L. Wu & W. J. Liu, sp. nov.
Diagnosis: The new species is similar to S. guangdongensis and S. jingxiensis, but differs from the former by the triangular (vs. linear), ca. 0.8 (vs. 1–3.5) mm long stipule, 1.6–2.2 (vs. 0.8–1) cm long corolla tube and stigma and anthers positioned at (vs. exserted 5 mm above) the throat of the corolla tube in the long-styled form and short-styled form, respectively, and from the latter by its green (vs. purple) stem, 0.8–2.2 mm (vs. 3–5 mm) long pedicels, white (vs. pink) corolla with tube ca. 1.2 mm wide at the lower part, enlarged at the upper part and ca. 4.8 mm wide at the throat (vs. ca. 2 mm).

Distribution and habitat: Spiradiclis liboensis is currently only known from limestone hills in the Maolan National Nature Reserve, Libo County, Guizhou Province, south-western China. It grows on humid slopes or within crevices under the evergreen broad-leaved forest, at an altitude of 850–950 m. The forest here is dominated by trees of Fagaceae (e.g. Cyclobalanopsis glauca (Thunb.) Oerst.), Lauraceae (e.g. Phoebe calcarea S. K. Lee et F. N. Wei and Lindera megaphylla Hemsl.) and Sapindaceae (e.g. Handeliodendron bodinieri (H. Lév.) Rehder).

Etymology: The specific epithet is derived from the type locality, Libo County, southern China. The Chinese name is given as “荔波螺序草” (lì bō luó xù cǎo).

 Xiao-Fei Song, Wen-Jian Liu, Ao-Xue Chen, Zheng-Ming Yao, Hong-Bo Lan and Lei Wu. 2022. Spiradiclis liboensis (Rubiaceae), A New Species from Limestone Mountain Areas in Guizhou, China. PhytoKeys. 204: 73-81. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.204.84397

Monday, August 8, 2022

[Herpetology • 2022] Onychodactylus sillanus Dwindling in the Mountains: Description of A Critically Endangered and Microendemic Onychodactylus Species (Amphibia: Hynobiidae) from the Korean Peninsula

Onychodactylus sillanus Min, Borzée, & Poyarkov, 

in Borzée, Shin, Poyarkov, Jeon, ... et Min, 2022. 

Species that are not formally described are generally not targets for conservation, regardless of their threatened status. While habitat degradation has increased over the past several decades in the Republic of Korea, taxonomic and conservation efforts continue to lag. For instance, a clade of Onychodactylus clawed salamanders from the extreme southeastern tip of the Korean Peninsula, which diverged ca. 6.82 million years ago from its sister species O. koreanus, is under intense anthropogenic pressure due to its extremely restricted range, despite its candidate species status. Here, using genetics, morphometrics, and landscape modeling, we confirmed the species status of the southeast Korean Onychodactylus population, and formally described it as Onychodactylus sillanus sp. nov. We also determined threats, habitat loss, and risk of extinction based on climatic models under different Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) and following the IUCN Red List categories and criteria. Based on several climate change scenarios, we estimated a decline in suitable habitat between 87.6% and 97.3% within the next three generations, sufficient to be considered Critically Endangered according to Category A3 of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. These findings should help enable the development of conservation programs and civic activities to protect the population. Conservation action plans are a priority to coordinate the activities required to protect this species.

Onychodactylus sillanus Republic of Korea, in life.
A: adult male from North Gyeongsang Province, Yangsan-si;
B: subadult paratype (CGRB 15907) from North Gyeongsang Province, Unmun Mountain.

  Paratype of Onychodactylus sillanus sp. nov. (CGRB 15907, subadult) from North Gyeongsang Province, Unmun Mountain, Republic of Korea, in life.
 A: Dorsal view; B: Ventral view; C: Head, dorsal view; D: Head, ventral view; E: Head, lateral view; F: Volar view of left hand; G: Plantar view of left foot; H: Ventral view of cloacal area.
 Photos by Nikolay A. Poyarkov.

Range, suitable habitat, and phylogenetic relationships of Onychodactylus sillanus sp. nov.
A: Georeferenced occurrence points of Onychodactylus koreanus and Onychodactylus sillanus sp. nov. Collected occurrence points are based on our survey data as well as the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), VertNet, EcoBank platform, and voucher specimens deposited in the Ewha Woman’s University Natural History Museum (EWNHM). Genetic samples and specimens originate from a selection of sites, and all datapoints were used to generate ecological niche models after spatial distance thinning. The same general data collection methodology and resulting occurrence dataset for O. koreanus are provided in Shin et al. (2021). B: Estimated area of Onychodactylus sillanus sp. nov. presence based on Minimum Convex Polygon (MCP) and binary presence area of Maxent output. Note: Maxent binary output (792.7 km2) estimated significantly broader area of presence than MCP (258.3 km2). Maxent output largely fell within higher elevation area of South Gyeongsang Province. Map generated in QGIS v3.10. *: Maxent ranges are binary encoded for presence and absence based on the threshold determined in the Supplementary Materials. C: Maximum-likelihood consensus tree of the genus Onychodactylus derived from analysis of 1 153 bp cyt b, 654 bp COI, and 532 bp 16S rRNA gene fragments. Corresponding voucher specimen information, locality data, and GenBank accession numbers are given in Supplementary Table S3. Black circles indicate strongly supported nodes, empty circles indicate nodes with moderate support levels, no circles correspond to no node support. Numbers at tree nodes correspond to ML ultrafast-bootstrap (UFBS)/BI posterior probability (PP) support values. D, E:
Onychodactylus sillanus sp. nov. in life: adult male from North Gyeongsang Province, Yangsan-si, Republic of Korea (D); larva from South Gyeongsang Province, Yangsan-si, Dong-myeon, Republic of Korea (E). F: Natural habitat of species in North Gyeongsang Province, Yangsan-si, Dong-myeon, Republic of Korea.
 Photos by Amaël Borzée (D) and Nikolay A. Poyarkov (E, F).

Onychodactylus sillanus sp. nov.
Onychodactylus sillanus sp. nov. in life: adult male from North Gyeongsang Province, Yangsan-si, Republic of Korea (D);
 larva from South Gyeongsang Province, Yangsan-si, Dong-myeon, Republic of Korea (E).
F: Natural habitat of species in North Gyeongsang Province, Yangsan-si, Dong-myeon, Republic of Korea.
 Photos by Amaël Borzée (D) and Nikolay A. Poyarkov (E, F).

Onychodactylus sillanus sp. nov. Min, Borzée, & Poyarkov
Diagnosis: A slender, medium-sized hynobiid salamander and member of the genus Onychodactylus based on a combination of the following morphological features: lungs absent; black claw-like keratinous structures present on both fore- and hindlimbs in larvae and breeding adults; tail longer than sum of head and body lengths, tail in adults almost cylindrical at base, slightly compressed laterally at distal end; vomerine teeth in transverse row of short arch-shaped series in contact with each other; larvae with skinfolds on posterior edges of both fore- and hindlimbs; breeding males with dermal flaps on posterior edges of hindlimbs; other typical features of genus. The new species can be diagnosed from other members of the genus by the following combination of adult characters: 11–12 costal grooves; vomerine teeth in two comparatively shallow, slightly curved series with 18–22 teeth in each, in contact medially; outer branches of vomerine tooth series slightly longer than inner branches and outer ends of series located more posteriorly than anterior ends; dark ground dorsum, head and tail (slate-black to brown) with numerous, medium-sized (size<SVL/20) yellowish to reddish-orange confluent elongated spots and ocelli, ventral side purplish gray; light dorsal band always absent; juveniles with dark ventral trunk, large yellowish blotches on dorsum and tail.
Etymology: The specific name “sillanus” is a toponymic adjective in the nominative singular, masculine gender, referring to the historical Korean Kingdom of Silla (57 BC–935 AC) located on the southeastern parts of the Korean Peninsula, coinciding with the geographic distribution of the new species.

Common names: We suggest “Yangsan Clawed Salamander” as the common name in English and “Yangsan Ggorichire Dorongnyong” (Kkorichire Dorongnyong) (양산꼬리치레도롱뇽) as the common name in Korean, in reference to its distribution.

Amaël Borzée, Yucheol Shin, Nikolay A. Poyarkov, Jong Yoon Jeon, Hae Jun Baek, Chang Hoon Lee, Junghwa An, Yoon Jee Hong and Mi-Sook Min. 2022. Dwindling in the Mountains: Description of A Critically Endangered and Microendemic Onychodactylus Species (Amphibia, Hynobiidae) from the Korean Peninsula. Zoological Research. 43(5); 750-755. DOI: 10.24272/j.issn.2095-8137.2022.048