Sunday, April 30, 2023

[Fungi • 2020] Entoloma lushanense (Basidiomycota: Entolomataceae) • A New Species of Entoloma subgenus Nolanea from Jiangxi Province, China

Entoloma lushanense  J. Wang, J.Q. Yan & G.H. Huo, 

in Wang, Yan, Huo, Cui et Zhang, 2020. 

A new species, Entoloma lushanense, is described and illustrated from the Jiangxi Province of China. It is characterized by a small brownish grey pileus with obtuse umbo, heterodiametric spores, a pileipellis as a cutis with a subpellis, and the absence of cystidia and clamp-connections. These morphological characteristics and the phylogenetic analyses (Bayesian Inference and Maximum Likelihood) supported the uniqueness of the species and its taxonomic status within the subgenus Nolanea.

Keywords: Agaricales, phylogenetic analysis, taxonomy, Fungi

 Entoloma lushanense (holotype, HFJAU0737) in the field.
Bars: 10 mm. Photo by Jun-Qing Yan.
Entoloma lushanense J. Wang, J.Q. Yan & G.H. Huo, sp. nov.

Jun Wang, Jun-Qing Yan, Guang-Hua Huo, Chao-Yu Cui and Lin-Ping Zhang. 2020. Entoloma lushanense (Entolomataceae, Basidiomycota), A New Species of Entoloma subgenus Nolanea from Jiangxi Province, China. Phytotaxa. 464(1); 93-101. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.464.1.8  

[Ornithology • 2023] Evolutionary History of New World Crakes (Aves: Rallidae) with Emphasis on the Tribe Laterallini


in Depino, Pérez-Emán, Bonaccorso et Areta, 2023.   

New World crakes are intriguing, poorly known birds with cursorial cryptic habits; they belong to two unrelated tribes: Laterallini and Pardirallini. Recent genetic studies contributed to the phylogenetic knowledge of these tribes, but a complete phylogenetic reconstruction is still missing. Here, we present the most taxonomically complete dated gene-based phylogeny of New World crakes, with an emphasis on the Laterallini, including for the first time sequences of Coturnicops notatus, Laterallus levraudi, L. jamaicensis tuerosi and L. xenopterus. We used multilocus (mtDNA + nucDNA) phylogenetic analyses and interpreted our results in light of the natural history of the group. Our novel results show that: (1) L. xenopterus is sister to L. leucopyrrhus; (2) L. j. tuerosi is sister to L. spilonota; (3) C. notatus is sister to the clade that groups the remaining New World black crakes (L. jamaicensis, L. j. tuerosi, L. rogersi, L. spilonota and L. spilopterus); and (4) L. levraudi and L. melanophaius conform a recently diverged clade. Thus, our results indicate polyphyly in this group, particularly for Laterallus and, for the first time, for Coturnicops. We show that some discrepancies with previous studies stem from misidentified samples or sequences of L. leucopyrrhus and Anurolimnas fasciatus. Finally, we provide new preliminary insights into species limits of some taxa, specifically for L. levraudi, L. melanophaius and L. j. tuerosi. Our results set the stage for integrative taxonomic assessments at the generic level in the Laterallini by incorporating phylogenetic (gene-based) and natural history data.

Keywords: Coturnicops notatus, Laterallus jamaicensis tuerosi, Laterallus levraudi, Laterallus xenopterus,natural history, rails, systematics 

 Emiliano A. Depino, Jorge L. Pérez-Emán, Elisa Bonaccorso and Juan I. Areta. 2023. Evolutionary History of New World Crakes (Aves: Rallidae) with Emphasis on the Tribe Laterallini. 
Zoologica Scripta. DOI: 10.1111/zsc.12595  


[Botany • 2023] Syagrus carvalhoi (Arecaceae) • A New Bluish-leaved Syagrus from an overlooked OCBIL in the Espinhaço Range (Brazil)


Syagrus carvalhoi  B.F.Sant’Anna-Santos,

in Sant'Anna-Santos, Micheli, Carvalho et Soffiatti, 2023. 

Background and aims – This study is part of ongoing research on the Arecaceae Flora of the Serra do Cabral, an isolated massif in the southwest of the Espinhaço Range in Minas Gerais State. Because of the isolation of the massif, the area has a rich biodiversity and a high level of endemism. While searching for populations of the rare and critically endangered Syagrus cabraliensis, a new bluish-leaved palm species was discovered and it is described here.

Material and methods – The new species’ morphology is described based on field collections. The pinnae were analysed using SEM and LM cross- and longitudinal sections following default methodology. In addition, we compared the species to S. cabraliensis and provided ecological notes and a conservation status assessment.

Key results – Syagrus carvalhoi resembles S. cabraliensis but they can easily be distinguished by morphoanatomical characters. Both species occur non-sympatrically in the Serra do Cabral, in contrasting microhabitats: S. carvalhoi in the southern quartzitic campos rupestres and S. cabraliensis in the northern ferruginous campos rupestres. A key to the known grass-like Syagrus species from the massif is provided. Based on the restricted area of occurrence and the anthropogenic threats, Syagrus carvalhoi is assessed as critically endangered.

Conclusion – Syagrus carvalhoi is the second grass-like endemic Syagrus species from the Serra do Cabral and presents rare characters within the genus (grass-like aspect, colonial habit, flowers in tetrads, and the stem forking at or below the ground). This discovery corroborates that this isolated OCBIL (old, climatically-buffered, infertile landscape) is a home for endemic and rare palm species. The Serra do Cabral massif has proved a source of morphological and anatomical novelties in Arecaceae, affecting the taxonomy and understanding of the evolution and ecology of palms. Our results reinforce the notion that it is important to conserve this area with rich and rare biodiversity but under alarming and unprecedented threats.

Keywords: campos rupestres, grass-like leaf, Minas Gerais State, new species, Palmae, plant anatomy, Serra do Cabral, taxonomy

Syagrus carvalhoi  B.F.Sant’Anna-Santos 
A. Straight leaves. B. Spicate inflorescences and infructescences. C. Close-up to a symmetrical pinnae tip. D. Branched inflorescence. E. Staminate flowers at anthesis. F. Tetrad. G. Triad. H. Staminate flower. I. Filaments connate. J. Petal. K. Stamens: ventral view. L. Pistillode. M. Stamens: dorsal view. N. Transversal-section: valvate petals. O. Pistillate flower. P. Sepal keeled. Q. Petal obscurely nerved. R. Petal: trichomes. S. Pistil. T. Infructescence. U. Endocarp pores. A, C–U from Sant’Anna-Santos 377 (UPCB, holotype), spicate inflorescences and infructescences of B added from habitat photographs.
Illustration by Gustavo Surlo.

Reproductive morphological aspects of Syagrus carvalhoi.
A. Dried inflorescence: inflorescence peduncle (pe) surrounded by prophyll (pr) and peduncular bract (pb). B. Bifurcate prophyll (white arrowhead). C. Base of a peduncle (pe) and peduncular bract (pb), tomentose (white arrowhead). D. Dorsal surface of the peduncular bract, deeply grooved (white arrowhead). E. Ventral surface of the peduncular bract, deeply grooved (white arrowhead). F. Tetrad after the fall of the staminate flower, bracteoles (br). G. Fruits (fr) with persistent perianth (pp), mostly covered by a brown lepidote indumentum (in) contrasting the green glabrous tip (gt).
 Photographs by Bruno F. Sant’Anna-Santos.

Vegetative morphological aspects of Syagrus carvalhoi  .
A. Colonial habit near a rock outcrop (black arrowheads). B. Detail of A: straight and ascending leaves. C. Prostrated stem (white arrowhead). D. Roots (white arrowhead). E. Unbranched stem (white arrowhead). F. Forked stem (white arrowhead). G. Acaulescent specimen: without aerial stem (white arrowhead).
Photographs by Bruno F. Sant’Anna-Santos.

Syagrus carvalhoi B.F.Sant’Anna-Santos, sp. nov.
Diagnosis: Syagrus carvalhoi is similar to Syagrus cabraliensis (Noblick & Lorenzi) B.F.Sant’Anna-Santos, from which it differs by larger, taller clumps (sometimes with colonial habit); taller plants; leaves bluish and straight (vs dark green and slightly arched); pinnae inserted at various angles near the base but otherwise regularly arranged on the upper part of the leaf towards the tip (vs inserted at various angles throughout the entire rachis); pinnae with symmetric tip (vs asymmetric tip); pinnae glaucous on adaxial surface (vs pinnae glossy on adaxial surface); the presence of inconspicuous ramenta (vs without ramenta); rachillae of different sizes throughout the rachis (vs similar-sized rachillae); staminate flowers briefly pedicellate and filaments briefly connate at the base (vs staminate flowers long pedicellate and stamens with free filaments).

Etymology: The specific epithet carvalhoi is named in honour of Wellington Geraldo Oliveira Carvalho Júnior, a palm enthusiast who discovered this species. Mr Carvalho and his family have provided financial and logistical support to our research in recent years. So, our team’s discoveries were only possible thanks to his support and motivation. 

Bruno Francisco Sant'Anna-Santos, Rafael Micheli, Luiz Fernando Lima Carvalho and Patrícia Soffiatti. 2023. A New Bluish-leaved Syagrus (Arecaceae) from an overlooked OCBIL in the Espinhaço Range (Brazil). Plant Ecology and Evolution. 156(2): 129-145. DOI: 10.5091/plecevo.101027


[Botany • 2023] Silene ophioglossa (Caryophyllaceae: Sileneae) • A New Species from southwest China

Silene ophioglossa Huan C. Wang & Feng Yang,  

in Yang, Wang, Wang et Wang, 2023. 

Silene ophioglossa Huan C. Wang & Feng Yang, a new species of Caryophyllaceae, is here described and illustrated based on morphological and molecular evidence. The new species was found in Sichuan and Yunnan provinces, southwest China. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS sequences showed this new species belongs to section Cucubaloides. Morphologically, it resembles S. phoenicodonta and S. viscidula, which were also found in the southwest China, but clearly differs from the latter two species by having 5–7 mm long calyces with sparsely hirtellous and short glandular hairs, white petals, linear limbs and lobes, and absent or oblong-linear coronal scales. A distribution map and a table with morphological diagnostic characters of new species and its closest relatives are provided, as well as a preliminary conservation assessment of S. ophioglossa under the IUCN criteria.

Keywords: Conservation assessment, endemism, ITS sequence, Silene phoenicodonta, Silene sect. Cucubaloides

Silene ophioglossa sp. nov.
A habit B abaxial surface of leaf C adaxial surface of leaf D roots E dichasial cymes F flower (side view, showing the calyx) G flower (front view) H dissected flower (showing the androgynophore and claws) I pistil and androgynophore J petal (showing the claw, auricles and coronal scales) K immature capsule L seeds.
(Photographed by F. Yang) 

Silene ophioglossa sp. nov.
A habit B flower (front view) C adaxial surface of leaf D petal E pistil and androgynophore F seed.
 (Drawn by Tingting Wang) 

 Silene ophioglossa Huan C. Wang & Feng Yang, sp. nov.
Diagnosis: Silene ophioglossa is morphologically similar to S. phoenicodonta (Fig. 3), but clearly differs from the latter in having 5–7 mm (vs. 6–8 mm) long calyces sparsely hirtellous and short glandular hairs (vs. densely hirtellous and with short glandular hairs), white (vs. dark violet) petals, linear (vs. obovate) limbs and linear (vs. ovate or nearly band-shaped) lobes, absent or oblong-linear (vs. orbicular-linear) coronal scales.

Etymology: The specific epithet “ophioglossa” is derived from the Greek words “ophis” (meaning snake) and “glossa” (meaning tongue), which refer to the petal lobes of this new species which resemble the tongue of a snake.

 Feng Yang, Ting-Ting Wang, Yue-Hua Wang and Huan-Chong Wang. 2023. Silene ophioglossa (Caryophyllaceae, Sileneae), A New Species from southwest China. PhytoKeys. 225: 99-113. DOI: 0.3897/phytokeys.225.98247

[PaleoEntomology • 2023] Korehelorus jinjuensis • The First Heloridae (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea) from the Albian of the Republic of Korea: Inferences about the Relict Diversity of the Family


Korehelorus jinjuensis
Rosse-Guillevic, Rasnitsyn, Nam et Jouault, 2023

Korehelorus jinjuensis gen. et sp. nov., a new genus and species of the family Heloridae, is described and figured from a specimen preserved in the dark grey shales of the lower Albian Jinju Formation (Republic of Korea). This description further increases the diversity of the family Heloridae in the Mesozoic and provides additional evidence for a rapid decline of the latter in the Cretaceous. To date, no explanations nor hypotheses have been proposed to explain this particular pattern but we assume and hypothesize that the species and genus diversities of helorid wasps are linked with the diversity of their hypothetical hosts (i.e., Chrysopidae or closely related extinct lineages). We show that the Cretaceous chrysopoid diversity is dominated by the Mesochrysopidae and stem-chrysopid subfamily (Limaiinae), which declined and/or die out through the Cretaceous. We find a peak of diversity for the Heloridae, synchronous with that of the Mesochrysopidae and Limaiinae, leading us to suggest that the decline of these clades in the Cretaceous consequently triggered a decline in the Heloridae.


Korehelorus jinjuensis

Simon Rosse-Guillevic, Alexandr P. Rasnitsyn, Gi-Soo Nam and Corentin Jouault. 2023. The First Heloridae (Hymenoptera: Proctotrupoidea) from the Albian of the Republic of Korea: Inferences about the Relict Diversity of the Family. Cretaceous Research. In Press, 105564. DOI: 10.1016/j.cretres.2023.105564

Saturday, April 29, 2023

[Herpetology • 2023] Eleutherodactylus franzi • A Novel Species of Piping Frog Eleutherodactylus (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae) from southern Mexico

Eleutherodactylus franzi
Grünwald, Montaño-Ruvalcaba, Jones, Ahumada-Carrillo, Grünwald, Zheng, Strickland & Reyes-Velasco, 2023

We describe a new species of Eleutherodactylus (subgenus Syrrhophus) from Guerrero, Mexico, based on morphological and molecular data, as well as advertisement call analysis. Eleutherodactylus franzi sp. nov. has unique features including widely expanded fingertips, indistinct, but visible lumbo-inguinal glands, an immaculate white venter and dark reticulations on a cream dorsal background colouration. The new species belongs to the Eleutherodactylus nitidus species group. Eleutherodactylus franzi sp. nov. is micro-endemic, restricted to a small range in karstic hillsides on the southern extreme of the Mexican Transverse Ranges. We discuss conservation needs of this species, which we provisionally classify as Critically Endangered.

Key Words: amphibians, Anura, conservation, Guerrero, Mexican Transverse Ranges, taxonomy

Holotype of Eleutherodactylus franzi, sp. nov., INIRENA 2900 (CIG 01725), El Cucharillo, Municipio de Ixcateopan de Cuauhtémoc, Guerrero, Mexico
in life (A–C) and in preservative (D, E).
 Eleutherodactylus franzi sp. nov .

Diagnosis: Based on our phylogenetic analysis, this is a member of the genus Eleutherodactylus, subgenus Syrrhophus, as defined by Hedges et al. (2008). In the Eleutherodactylus (Syrrhophus) nitidus species series and the Eleutherodactylus (Syrrhophus) nitidus species group as defined by Grünwald et al. (2018), based on the condition of the tympanic annuli, ventral epidermis and visceral peritoneum. A small frog, but relatively large Syrrhophus, adult males measure 25.6–29.5 mm SVL; vocal slits are present in males, readily visible under partially translucent ventral epidermis; digital tips are widely expanded, 1.8–2.6 times the width of the narrowest part of the finger on the third and fourth fingers; fingers moderately long, finger lengths are I-II-IV-III with third finger length ranging from 15–18% of SVL; compact lumbo-inguinal gland above the inguinal region present, raised, indistinct, but visible in live specimen; ventral epidermis is partially translucent and visceral peritoneum is clear, not white, thus abdominal vein is not clearly visible against a white background on the venter of live specimens and viscera is partially visible through translucent dark grey ventral epidermis; limbs moderate, TL/SVL ratio is 0.40–0.50, FeL/SVL ratio is 0.31–0.38 and TotFL/ SVL ratio is 0.50–0.60; snout relatively short, END/ SVL ratio is 0.08–0.11; tympanum small, indistinct and round, tympanic annuli not visible in live specimen; TW/ED ratio is 0.40–0.60. The dorsal and lateral skin is slightly shagreened, whereas the ventral skin is smooth. Dorsal colouration cream or tan, with darker brown reticulations on dorsal and lateral portions of head and back; loreal and region dark brown, from snout to behind tympanum, with some pale spots and speckling present on labial region same colour as pale dorsal colouration; pale interorbital bar variable, may be present or absent, when present same colour as pale dorsal colouration of head and body; distinct irregular-edged dark brown transverse bands present on legs; upper arms same colouration and pattern as forearms; no pale mid-dorsal stripe; upper flanks same colour as dorsum, lower flanks whitish with some grey marbling; venter pale lavender with some sparse white spotting and pale grey on throat. No inguinal flash colours present on thighs and groin. The mating call of adult males is a short low-pitched pipe (see below; Fig. 4).

Etymology: This species is named after Héctor Franz-Chávez, Mexican herpetologist and avid field collector who collected the type material and who helped collect an extensive sampling of the Eleutherodactylus specimens to be used in our succession of studies.
Some of the paratypes of Eleutherodactylus franzi, sp. nov., in life.
A–C. INIRENA 2902 (CIG 01717) El Cucharillo, Municipio de Ixcateopan de Cuauhtémoc, Guerrero, Mexico;
D–F. INIRENA 2910 (CIG 01726) El Cucharillo, Municipio de Ixcateopan de Cuauhtémoc, Guerrero, Mexico;
G–I. INIRENA 2895 (CIG 01727), 3 km E of Ixcateopan de Cuauhtémoc, Municipio de Ixcateopan de Cuauhtémoc, Guerrero, Mexico;
J–L. INIRENA 2896 (CIG 01728), 3 km E of Ixcateopan de Cuauhtémoc, Municipio de Ixcateopan de Cuauhtémoc, Guerrero, Mexico;
M–O. INIRENA 2898 (CIG 01731), between El Cucharillo and Chichila, Municipio de Taxco de Alarcón, Guerrero, Mexico.

 Christoph I. Grünwald, Carlos Montaño-Ruvalcaba, Jason M. Jones, Iván Ahumada-Carrillo, André J. Grünwald, Jiacheng Zheng, Jason L. Strickland and Jacobo Reyes-Velasco. 2023. A Novel Species of Piping Frog Eleutherodactylus (Anura, Eleutherodactylidae) from southern Mexico. Herpetozoa. 36: 95-111. DOI: 10.3897/herpetozoa.36.e104707

Resumen: Describimos una especie nueva de Eleutherodactylus (subgénero Syrrhophus) de Guerrero, México basado en datos morfológicos y moleculares, así como análisis de llamadas de apareamiento. Eleutherodactylus franzi sp. nov. tiene características únicas, incluyendo puntas de los dedos ampliamente expandidas, glándulas lumbo-inguinales indistintas pero visibles, un vientre blanco inmaculado y una coloración dorsal de reticulaciones oscuras sobre un fondo crema. La especie nueva pertenece al grupo de especies de Eleutherodactylus nitidus. Eleutherodactylu. franzi sp. nov. es micro-endémica, restringida a un pequeño rango en laderas kársticas en el extremo sur del Eje Neovolcánico. Presentamos mapas de distribución y gráficos de llamadas de apareamiento de los machos de la nueva especie y sus parientes más cercanos, así como recomendaciones de conservación.
Palabras clave: anfibios, Anura, conservación, Eje Neovólcanico, Guerrero, taxonomía

Thursday, April 27, 2023

[Paleontology • 2023] Ursactis comosa • First Record of Growth Patterns in A Cambrian Annelid

Ursactis comosa
Osawa, Caron & Gaines, 2023

drawing by Danielle Dufault / Royal Ontario Museum.
Early annelid evolution is mostly known from 13 described species from Cambrian Burgess Shale-type Lagerstätten. We introduce a new exceptionally well-preserved polychaete, Ursactis comosa gen. et sp. nov., from the Burgess Shale (Wuliuan Stage). This small species (3–15 mm) is the most abundant Cambrian polychaete known to date. Most specimens come from Tokumm Creek, a new Burgess Shale locality in northern Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, Canada. Ursactis has a pair of large palps, thin peristomial neurochaetae and biramous parapodia bearing similarly sized capillary neurochaetae and notochaetae, except for segments six to nine, which also have longer notochaetae. The number of segments in this polychaete range between 8 and 10 with larger individuals having 10 segments. This number of segments in Ursactis is remarkably small compared with other polychaetes, including modern forms. Specimens with 10 segments show significant size variations, and the length of each segment increases with the body length, indicating that body growth was primarily achieved by increasing the size of existing segments rather than adding new ones. This contrasts with most modern polychaetes, which typically have a larger number of segments through additions of segments throughout life. The inferred growth pattern in Ursactis suggests that annelids had evolved control over segment addition by the mid-Cambrian.

Keywords: Burgess Shale, polychaete, development, stem-group annelid, gregarious behaviour, body tagmatization

 Photos of the holotype, ROMIP 66770.1, of Ursactis comosa gen. et sp. nov. from the lower quarried interval of the Tokumm Creek locality. The specimen has 10 chaetigerous segments and stout palps, peristomial neurochaetae, and longer notochaetae on the sixth to ninth segments. It is presumably preserved dorsally.
(a) Composite image of part and counterpart. Squares with dashed lines indicate the area shown in (b–d). (b) Close-up of the first four segments in the part. (c) Close-up of segments 8–10 and the pygidium in the counterpart. (d) Close-up of the head in the counterpart, showing dark patches within the head. Acronyms: ch, chaetae; chP, peristomial chaetae; mo, mouth; pal, palp; pr, parapodium; py, pygidium; numbers following the acronyms denote segments, counting from anterior, excluding peristomium. Scale bars: (a): 5 mm; (b–d): 1 mm.

Distribution of Ursactis comosa gen. et sp. nov. 
 (a) Maps with localities yielding Ursactis indicated by stars. The detailed map comes from the grey area in the general map. (b) Generalized stratigraphic column for the Burgess Shale Formation at the Tokumm Creek locality. The stars and the adjacent numbers represent the locations of two quarried intervals that yielded specimens of Ursactis and the number of specimens collected at each interval, respectively. (c) Outcrop photo of the lower quarried interval; the quarried interval is marked with dashed lines.
 (d–f) Specimens collected from the Collins Quarry on Mt. Stephen (d), the upper interval of the Tokumm Creek locality (e) and the lower interval of the Tokumm Creek locality (f). (d) Ursactis sp., ROMIP 66882. (e) Ursactis comosa, ROMIP 66873. (f) U. comosa, ROMIP 66874.1. Scale bars: (d): 1 mm; (e,f): 5 mm.

Ursactis comosa gen. et sp. nov.  from the lower quarried interval of the Tokumm Creek locality.
 (a) Overview of one of the multiple slabs of ROMIP 66771B, preserving specimens ROMIP 66771.28–48,74,119–121. Squares with dashed lines indicate areas shown in close-up in (b–d). (b) ROMIP 66771.33–42. A cluster of at least 10 specimens. Counterpart to figure 3d. (c) ROMIP 66771.120. A ventrally preserved specimen showing the biramous state of parapodia, posterior longer notochaetae and the mouth. Close-up image of the head and parapodia is in figure 5k. (d) ROMIP 66771.48. An enrolled specimen.
Acronym: ch, chaetae, with numbers denoting the segments, counting from the anterior, except for the peristomium. Scale bars: (a): 5 cm; (b–d): 5 mm.

Systematic palaeontology
Phylum: Annelida Lamarck, 1809.

Ursactis comosa gen. et sp. nov.
 Etymology: Ursa for the constellation Ursa Major, and actis, a Greek word for a ray, referring to the species' starry appearance and the clustered occurrence of fossils; comos, a Latin word meaning ‘having long hair,’ for its long capillary chaetae, in particular some notochaetae on segments six to nine.

Locality and stratigraphy: One specimen of Ursactis sp. (figure 1d) comes from the Collins Quarry on Mt. Stephen, Yoho National Park, Kicking Horse Shale Member. All the specimens of U. comosa come from two stratigraphic intervals within the upper part of the Burgess Shale Formation, Cambrian (Miaolingian Series, Wuliuan Stage), Ehmaniella biozone, at the Tokumm Creek locality of the Marble Canyon area, northern Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, Canada.

  Diagnosis for genus and species: Polychaete worm possessing maximum 10 chaetigers, excluding the peristomium, with biramous parapodia yielding simple capillary chaetae. Approximately 8–12 chaetae on each neuropodium and notopodium, and among chaetigers one to eight. The last two chaetigers have approximately five and two chaetae, respectively. Up to five notochaetae on chaetigers six to nine, double the length of other chaetae on the same chaetigers.

The known disparity and ecological diversity of Cambrian annelids have expanded in recent years thanks to the discovery of new species, including tube-dwelling forms [Chen, et al., 2020; Nanglu & Caron, 2021] and forms living in symbiosis with other taxa [Nanglu & Caron, 2021]. The clustering behaviour of Ursactis also implies that some polychaetes probably occupied substantial space and resources in some areas, suggesting a greater ecological role in local ecosystems.

The morphology of Ursactis may provide important clues to understanding the developmental patterns of the ancestral annelid. First, the occurrence of longer chaetae on specific segments suggests an early example of simple body tagmatization in annelids. Second, the surprisingly small number of segments and minor variation in segment number in this new polychaete implies that the addition of segments was terminated earlier in ontogeny than in modern polychaetes. Continued study of the modes of growth in fossilized annelids and of post-larval development of extant polychaetes would provide important clues to understanding the evolution of developmental patterns in the Annelida.

  life reconstruction of Ursactis comosa gen. et sp. nov.  
  drawing by Danielle Dufault / Royal Ontario Museum.  

Hatena Osawa, Jean-Bernard Caron and Robert R. Gaines. 2023. First Record of Growth Patterns in A Cambrian Annelid. Royal Society Open Science. DOI: 10.1098/rsos.221400

[Herpetology • 2023] Selvasaura candesi • A New Species of Microteiid Lizard (Gymnophthalmidae: Cercosaurini) from A Remote Area in the Peruvian Andes

Selvasaura candesi
Chávez, García-Ayachi & Catenazzi, 2023

We describe a new species of Selvasaura lizard from the western slopes of the eastern Andes of central Peru. Among other characters, the new species differs from congeners in having keeled dorsal scales and more transverse rows of scales on dorsum. We present a phylogeny as additional evidence supporting delimitation of the new species.

Key Words: New species, eastern Andes, central Peru, phylogeny

Selvasaura candesi sp. nov.
Dorsal (left) and ventral (right) views of
(A, B) the male holotype (CORBIDI 21865, SVL = 49.5 mm),
(C, D) male paratype (CORBIDI 21866, SVL = 49.1 mm), and
(E, F) juvenile paratype (CORBIDI 21867, SVL = 28.3 mm).

 Selvasaura candesi sp. nov.
Diagnosis: A medium sized lizard (adult males SVL 28.3–49.5 mm, n=2) characterized by the following combination of morphological features: 1) body slender, dorsoventrally depressed in males, females unknown; 2) head slightly short, pointed, about 1.6 times longer than wide; 3) ear opening distinct, moderately recessed; 4) nasals separated by an undivided frontonasal; 5) prefrontals, frontal, frontoparietals, parietals, interparietal, and postparietals present; 6) parietals polygonal, slightly longer than wide; 7) supraoculars four, anteriormost fused (2 individuals) or not (1 individual) with anteriormost superciliary; 8) superciliary series complete, consisting in four scales; 9) nasal plate divided posterior to nostril; 10) loreal present, in contact with second supralabial; 11) supralabials seven; 12) genials in four pairs, first and second pairs in contact; 13) collar present, containing 9–10 enlarged scales; 14) dorsals in 40–41 transverse rows, rectangular, nearly twice as long as wide, subimbricate, keeled; 15) ventrals in 24–25 transverse rows; square to rectangular, juxtaposed, smooth; 17) scales around midbody 38–43; 18) lateral scales at midbody reduced in size, in 8–9 rows; 19) limbs pentadactyl, all digits clawed;20) forelimb reaching anteriorly the third supralabial; 21) subdigital lamellae under Finger IV 14–16; 22) subdigital lamellae under Toe IV 19–21; 23) femoral pores per thigh 9–10 in males; 24) rectangular preanal scales large, four in number; 25) tail about 0.4 times longer than body; 26) caudals larger than wide, subimbricate, rugose dorsally, smooth ventrally; 27) lower palpebral disc transparent, undivided; 28) dorsal surface of head, body and limbs brown with black speckling, dorsal surface of tail pale brown to reddish brown; a thick yellowish brown vertebral stripe on dorsum, a row of 1–2 faded black rings on each flank; throat creamy white with minute black spots or blotches within each scale; belly yellow (creamy white in juveniles) with minute black spots within each scale; ventral surfaces of limbs yellow or yellowish orange; anal area saffron yellow or reddish yellow; tail red or reddish orange in males (pale red in juveniles) with fine black speckling; iris pale orange in males.

Etymology: The specific epithet “candesi” refers to the acronym CANDES (Consultores Asociados en Naturaleza y Desarrollo) in recognition of their efforts supporting the herpetological research in Peruvian territory.

 Germán Chávez, Luis A. García-Ayachi and Alessandro Catenazzi. 2023. A New Species of Microteiid Lizard (Gymnophthalmidae, Cercosaurini, Selvasaura) from A Remote Area in the Peruvian Andes. Evolutionary Systematics. 7(1): 123-132. DOI: 10.3897/evolsyst.7.99118

Wednesday, April 26, 2023

[Herpetology • 2023] A Taxonomic Revision of Boiga multomaculata (Boie, 1827) and B. ochracea (Theobald, 1868), with the Description of A New Subspecies (Serpentes: Colubridae)

Boiga multomaculata septentrionalis
 Köhler, Thammachoti, Mogk, Than, Kurniawan, Kadafi, Das, Tillack et O'Shea, 2023

(A-D) Boiga multomaculata ochracea (Theobald, 1868)
The analyses of molecular genetic data (mtDNA markers 16S, ND4, CYTB, and the nuclear marker c-mos) provided evidence that the Asian cat snake taxa Boiga multomaculata and B. ochracea actually represent a single species. They form mixed clades of low intraclade genetic differentiation. This evidence for conspecificy is supported by the lack of differentiation in all examined pholidotic and morphometric characters. Therefore, we formally place Dipsas ochracea Theobald, 1868 in the synonymy of Dipsas multomaculata Boie, 1827. We provide a summary of the tangled taxonomic history of the taxa involved in this study. Also, we resurrect Dipsadomorphus stoliczkae Wall, 1909 from synonymy of B. ochracea, for specimens exhibiting 21 midbody dorsal scale rows. Boiga stoliczkae is found in the Himalayas north and west of the Brahmaputra valley. Finally, based on the detection of historical genetic lineages within the newly defined species Boiga multomaculata we recognize three subspecies: Boiga multomaculata multomaculata (Boie, 1827), Boiga multomaculata ochracea (Theobald, 1868), and Boiga multomaculata septentrionalis n. ssp. which is distributed in northern Myanmar and Assam and Nagaland, India. We designate BMNH 1946.1.2.60 (1) as neotype of Dipsas ochracea Theobald, (2) as lectotype of D. ochraceus Günther, and (3) as lectotype of Boiga ochracea walli Smith, thereby making these names objective synonyms. Finally, we designate BMNH as lectotype of Dipsadomorphus stoliczkae Wall.

Keywords: Asian cat snakes, Boiga stoliczkae, Boiga ochracea walli, color morphs, mimicry, Himalayas, Southeast Asia

Boiga multomaculata multomaculata (Boie, 1827)

Boiga multomaculata ochracea (Theobald, 1868)

 Boiga multomaculata
 Polymorphic Asian Cat Snake 
 Boiga m. multomaculata
Ocellated Asian Cat Snake งูแม่ตะงาวรังนก
 Boiga m.​ ochracea comb. nov.
 Tawny Asian Cat Snake งูแม่ตะงาวรังนกเหนือ

Boiga m. septentrionalis ssp. nov.
Northern Polymorphic Asian Cat Snake

Boiga multomaculata septentrionalis 

Boiga stoliczkae (Wall, 1909)
Stoliczka's Asian Cat Snake

Gunther Köhler, Panupong Thammachoti Charunrochana, Linda Mogk, Ni Lar Than, Nia  Kurniawan, Ahmad Muammar Kadafi, Abhijit Das, Frank Tillack and Mark O'Shea. 2023. A Taxonomic Revision of Boiga multomaculata (Boie, 1827) and B. ochracea (Theobald, 1868), with the Description of A New Subspecies (Squamata, Serpentes, Colubridae). Zootaxa. 5270(2); 151-193. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.5270.2.1

[Herpetology • 2023] Caecilia yaigoje • A New Caecilia (Gymnophiona: Caeciliidae) from the Colombian Amazon

Caecilia yaigoje 
 Fernández-Roldán; Medina-Rangel & Lynch, 2023

We here describe a new Caecilia from Parque Nacional Natural Yaigojé Apaporis, Taraira, Vaupés, Colombia, near the Brazilian border. Although this new species is only represented in collections by three specimens, it is recognizable from all other congeners by virtue of its head shape, its dentition, its counts of primary and secondary grooves, its oval dermal scales, and its small terminal shield. Although its phylogenetic relationships are unknown, it seems most similar to C. museugoeldi from French Guyana.

Holotype of Caecilia yaigoje (IAvH 5114).
 (A–B) General view of the body in dorsal and ventral view; scale bar equals 6 mm. (C, E, G) Head, collars, and first primary grooves in lateral, dorsal, and ventral view. (D, F, H) Terminus, last grooves, and vent in lateral, dorsal, and ventral view.
Scale bar equals 3.5 mm.

Caecilia yaigoje, new species 

Etymology.—This species is named after Parque Nacional Natural Yaigojé Apaporis, the first P.N.N. to be entirely designated as a protected area in response to the wishes and petitions of its native human inhabitants who believe in the conservation of the Amazon jungle and oppose any mining activities carried out in this region of Colombia. The specific epithet is used as a noun in apposition.

 Juan David Fernández-Roldán; Guido Fabian Medina-Rangel and John D. Lynch. 2023. A New Caecilia (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Caeciliidae) from the Colombian Amazon. Ichthyology & Herpetology. 111(2); 241–247. DOI: 10.1643/h2021107

[Herpetology • 2023] Nymphargus pijao • A Multidisciplinary Approach reveals A New Species of Glassfrog (Anura: Centrolenidae) from Colombia

Nymphargus pijao
Montilla, Arcila-Pérez, Toro-Gómez, Vargas-Salinas &  Rada, 2023

Anurans of the family Centrolenidae are a highly diverse clade of Neotropical treefrogs. In the last two decades, glassfrogs have become a model system for studies in ecology and evolutionary biology, in part because their taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships are considered relatively well established. However, there are still many gaps in our knowledge, for example, which morphological characters are important for species delimitation. Consequently, several species complexes in Centrolenidae remain unresolved. Using data on external and internal morphology of adult individuals, tadpoles, advertisement call traits and genetic sequences, we describe a new species of glassfrog (Nymphargus pijao sp. nov.) endemic to Colombia that has been previously missasigned to Nymphargus griffithsi. We include in this description data of three phenotypic characters related to pectoral musculature and testis size, which have been traditionally overlooked in studies about the taxonomy and systematics of glassfrogs. In addition, we present details of a low-cost method implemented in the field to rear tadpoles of the new species. This methodology can solve common problems during the management and care of glassfrogs egg masses and tadpoles, and hence, promotes their description for more species and a better knowledge of the anuran biodiversity in Neotropics.

Keywords: Amphibia, anurans, Colombian biodiversity, diversity, morphology, species complex, tadpole rearing, taxonomy

Nymphargus pijao sp. nov.

Sebastián O. Montilla, Luisa F. Arcila-Pérez, María Paula Toro-Gómez, Fernando Vargas-Salinas and Marco Rada. 2023. A Multidisciplinary Approach reveals A New Species of Glassfrog from Colombia (Anura: Centrolenidae: Nymphargus). Zootaxa5271(1); 1-48. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.5271.1.1