Wednesday, February 12, 2020

[Entomology • 2019] A Proposal Towards Classification of the Raspy Crickets (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatoidea: Gryllacrididae) with Zoogeographical Comments: An Initial Contribution to the Higher Classification of the Gryllacridines

Habitus to a typical Hyperbaeninae.
in Cadena-Castañeda, 2019.

In this contribution to the study of gryllacridines or raspy crickets (Orthoptera: Gryllacrididae), a new proposal for classification of this family is provided, dividing it into two subfamilies and ten tribes that includes most of the 114 known genera to date (including the new genera described here). 

It describes and redefines two subfamilies: Hyperbaeninae n. subf. and Gryllacridinae n. sensu, ten tribes: Phryganogryllacridini n. trib., Capnogryllacridini n. trib., Asarcogryllacridini n. trib., Hyperbaenini n. trib., Paragryllacridini n. trib., Ametrini n. trib., Ametroidini n. trib., Gryllacridini n. sensu., Eremini n. trib. and Progryllacridini n. trib.

ten genera: Claudiagryllacris n. gen., Griffinigryllacris n. gen., Gorochovgryllacris n. gen., Ingrishgryllacris n. gen., Rentzgryllacris n. gen., Willemsegryllacris n. gen., Karnygryllacris n. gen., Brunnergryllacris n. gen., Bianigryllacris n. gen. and Hugelgryllacris n. gen.; 

seven genera groups: Gryllacrae n. group. (placed under Gryllacridini n. trib. comprising ten genera: Caustogryllacris, Eugryllacris, Gryllacris, Lyperogryllacris, Nesogryllacris, Ocellarnaca, Phlebogryllacris, Prosopogryllacris, Willemsegryllacris n. gen. and Xanthogryllacris), Metriogryllacrae n. group. (under Gryllacridini grouped Metriogryllacris, Homogryllacris, Pseudasarca n. stat. and Furcilarnaca), Anancistrogerae (Anancistrogera, Ancistrogera, Angustogryllacris, Aphanogryllacris, Celebogryllacris), Triaenogryllacrae n. group. (under Gryllacridinae only comprising Triaenogryllacris) the next groups under Ametrini n. trib.: Ametrae n. group. (comprising two genera: Ametrus and Pareremus), Apotrechae n. group. (including three genera: Apotrechus, Apterolarnaca and Bianigryllacris n. gen.) and Apteronomae n. group. (comprising two genera: Ametrosomus and Apteronomus).

 The status of Dictogryllacris reinst. stat., was restored, previously transferred by Gorochov 2003 as subgenus of Capnogryllacris and to Pseudasarca n. stat. as full genus status is proposed. One genera, one subgenus and one fossil species are synonymized: Xiphogryllacris n. syn. (under Hyalogryllacris) and †Gryllacris brevippennis n. syn. (under †Macrelcana ungeri). The subgenus Glolarnaca n. stat. (included under Zalarnaca), is considered as full genus in Gryllacridinae (Gryllacridini). 57 new combinations are proposed, with particular emphasis on Niphetogryllacris, placing 36 of the 43 existing species of the genus: Pissodogryllacris tesellata n. comb., Willemsegryllacris barnesi n. comb. (previously placed under Gryllacris), Afrogryllacris nigripceps n. comb. (previously placed under in Barombogryllacris), Anancistrogera nigroscutata n. comb., A. cornualis n. comb. and A. genualis n. comb. (included by Karny in Caustogryllacris and by Gorochov in the subgenus Pseudolarnaca, here transfered to Anancistrogera), Hugelgryllacris tchancha n. comb. (before in Psilogryllacris), Diaphanogryllacris annandalei n. comb., D. barkudensis n. comb., D. dravida n. comb., D. gravelyi n. comb., Claudiagryllacris finoti n. comb. C. stigmata n. comb., C. lemur n. comb., C. fryeri n. comb., Stictogrtllacris pungens n. comb., S. madagassa n. comb., S. genufuscata n. comb., S. vosseleri n. comb., S. difficilis n. comb., S. paulani n. comb., Stictogryllacris signoreti n. comb., S. indecisa n. comb., S. conspersa n. comb., S. pittarellii n. comb., S. ametroides n. comb., S. jacobi n. comb., S. kilimandjarica n. comb., S. meruensis n. comb.; S. neglecta n. comb.; S. submutica n. comb., Griffinigryllacris reunionis n. comb., G. adelungi n. comb., G. mauritiana n. comb., Karnygryllacris occipitalis n. comb., K. atriceps n. comb., K. brevipennis n. comb., K. humilis n. comb., K. scurra n. comb., K. triocellata n. comb., K. pittarellii n. comb., K. grylloides n. comb., Brunnergryllacris testaceus n. comb. and B. eximia n. comb (previously placed under Niphetogryllacris), Rentzgryllacris sechellensis n. comb. (before in Prosopogryllacris and the three subspecies are treated as full species), Gorochovgryllacris navicula n. comb. (transferred from Brachybaenus), Bianigryllacris trilobus n. comb., B. bilobus n. comb., B. digitatus n. comb., B. fallax n. comb., B. nigrigeniculatus n. comb., B. parvospinus n. comb., B. quadratus n. comb. and B. transversus n. comb. (previously placed under Apotrechus), Hyalogryllacris orthoxipha n. comb. (previously placed under Xiphogryllacris), Afroneanias glauningi n. comb., A. sphinix n. comb. and Ingrishgryllacris brevifalcatus n. comb. (previously placed under Ametroides and Glomeremus respectively). A key to the identification of the subfamilies and tribes is provided, plus historical background of the major taxonomic works on the group and the few contributions on ecology, morphology, and behavior is also done. It also discusses the status of fossil taxa thought to belong to the family. A preliminary analysis of the zoogeography of the family from the parameters of richness, diversity and distribution patterns of different groups studied, and also, some final comments on what has been achieved in this contribution are give, what is missing to the study of gryllacridines to the future and some problems that still affect the taxonomy to genera and species level. Finally, a check list in which all family taxa are included with the new classification is provided, with some comments on their distribution and taxonomic status if necessary.

Keywords: Orthoptera, New classification, new subfamilies, new tribes, new genera, new combinations, new synonyms, Zoogeography, morphological convergence, Niphetogryllacris

Habitus to a typical Hyperbaeninae.

Oscar J. Cadena-Castañeda. 2019. A Proposal Towards Classification of the Raspy Crickets (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatoidea: Gryllacrididae) with Zoogeographical Comments: An Initial Contribution to the Higher Classification of the Gryllacridines. Zootaxa. 4605(1); 1-100. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4605.1.1