The Phanaeus endymion species group is defined as a lineage of dung beetles distributed from Mexico to Ecuador. The current arrangement of the P. endymion species group includes 18 species (five newly described and three revalidated herein): P. arletteae Arnaud, 2018; P. bravoensis Moctezuma, Sánchez-Huerta & Halffter, 2017; P. chiapanecus sp. nov.; P. edmondsi Moctezuma, Deloya & Halffter, 2019; P. endymion Harold, 1863; P. funereus Balthasar, 1939 stat. rev.; P. halffterorum Edmonds, 1979; P. huichol Moctezuma, Sánchez-Huerta & Halffter, 2017; P. jackenioi sp. nov.; P. malyi Arnaud, 2002; P. olsoufieffi Balthasar, 1939 stat. rev.; P. pacificus sp. nov.; P. panamensis sp. nov.; P. porioni Arnaud, 2001 stat. rev.; P. pyrois Bates, 1887; P. rzedowskii sp. nov.; P. zapotecus Edmonds, 2006; and P. zoque Moctezuma & Halffter, 2017. Phanaeus dionysius Kohlmann, Arriaga-Jiménez & Rös, 2018 syn. nov. is considered as a new junior subjective synonymy of P. zapotecus Edmonds, 2006. Phanaeus blanchardi Olsoufieff, 1924 and P. bothrus Blackwelder, 1944 are junior objective synonyms of P. olsoufieffi Balthasar, 1939 stat. rev.
Keywords: Phanaeini, rainbow scarab dung beetles, genital diversification, mandible evolution, symbiotic interactions
Phylum Arthropoda von Siebold, 1848
Subphylum Hexapoda Blainville, 1816
Class Insecta Linnaeus, 1758
Order Coleoptera Linnaeus, 1758
Suborder Polyphaga Emery, 1886
Superfamily Scarabaeoidea Latreille, 1802
Family Scarabaeidae Latreille, 1802
Subfamily Scarabaeinae Latreille, 1802
Genus Phanaeus Macleay, 1819
Phanaeus chiapanecus sp. nov.
Etymology: The specific epithet of the new species refers to Chiapas, where the type series was collected.
Phanaeus jackenioi sp. nov.
Etymology: We are honoured to dedicate this new species to Jack Schuster and Enio Cano. They have significantly contributed to the knowledge of the Guatemalan scarab beetles, particularly of the family Passalidae.
Phanaeus pacificus sp. nov.
Etymology: The specific epithet refers to the Pacific slope, where the new species occurs.
Phanaeus panamensis sp. nov.
Etymology: The specific epithet refers to Panama, where a majority of the type series was collected.
Phanaeus rzedowskii sp. nov.
Etymology: We are honoured to name the new species after Jerzy Rzedowski, to recognise his outstanding contribution to the knowledge of the Mexican biodiversity, particularly to the flora from El Bajío region.
Victor Moctezuma and Gonzalo Halffter. 2021. Taxonomic Revision of the Phanaeus endymion species Group (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), with the Descriptions of Five New Species. European Journal of Taxonomy. 747(1); 1-71. DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2021.747.1333