Sunday, June 6, 2021

[Botany • 2021] Curcuma phrayawan, C. puangpeniae, C. chantaranothaii, et al. • Six New Species and A New Record of Curcuma L. (Zingiberaceae) from Thailand

Curcuma phrayawan Boonma & Saensouk

in Saensouk, Boonma & Saensouk, 2021.
พญาว่าน ||  DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d220410
 Photographed by Thawatphong Boonma
All six new species and a new record of Curcuma were described with detailed illustrations, photographs, summaries for their distribution, ecology, IUCN conservation status, and followed by a new record and key to 63 species of Curcuma revised and present in Thailand. The study surveyed six new species and a new record of Curcuma to collect, describe, measure, and illustrate the living and spirit specimens under a stereoscopic microscope. Plant materials and photographs were collected in the field from 2018 to 2019. The results of the study described six new species, including Curcuma chantaranothaii Boonma & Saensouk sp. nov.C. charanii Boonma & Saensouk sp. nov., C. rangsimae Boonma & Saensouk sp. nov., C. phrayawan Boonma & Saensouk sp. nov., C. puangpeniae Boonma & Saensouk sp. nov., C. purpurata Boonma & Saensouk sp. nov., and a first new record of C. peramoena. All six new species were recognized to be endemic to Thailand.


Curcuma phrayawan Boonma & Saensouk sp. nov.:
A, top view of inflorescence; B, front view of stamen with anther and spurs; C, flower with calyx, ovary and bracteole; D, side view of stamen with anther and spurs; E, inflorescence with flowers; F, rhizomes with fibrous roots.
Photographed by Thawatphong Boonma

Curcuma phrayawan Boonma & Saensouk sp. nov.
  subgenus Curcuma

 Curcuma phrayawan is similar to C. ferruginea in having red tones of leaf-sheaths and some morphology characters but differ in producing inflorescence terminal, appears between the leaf-sheaths; pedun clered, minutely pubescent and having rhizome deep yellow internally, branches rhizome with 2 layers, outer layer yellow, innermost darker yellow; leaf-sheaths brownish red; leaves oblanceolate, upper surface green with red along the midrib almost to the apex, lower surface pale green with red along the midrib almost to the apex; coma bracts white with pink at the apex; bracts pale green with pale pink in the middle and at the apex, minutely pubescent on both surfaces; corolla lobes dorsal white with pale pink at tip, lateral light pale pink with light pale yellow at base; staminodes pale yellow, apex rounded, outer glabrous, inner hairy at the mid lobes; labellum pale yellow with yellow patch in the middle, apex emarginate, each lobe obtuse, outer glabrous, inner hairy on mid-band, whereas C. ferruginea producing inflorescence lateral, apart from the earlier formed leaves and has rhizome pale yellow internally, branches rhizome pale yellow internally; leaf-sheaths ferruginous-red; leave broadly lanceolate; bright green with a faint reddish tinge down the middle of the upper surface of the leaves; peduncle with rusty-reddish sheaths; coma bracts bright crimson red; bracts ferruginous or tinge with rusty-red; corolla lobes reddish; staminodes and labellum deep yellow (Table 4).

Etymology. The specific epithet “phrayawan” is derived from its vernacular name in the Thai language.

Common name. The vernacular name of the species is "พญาว่าน - Phraya Wan"in Thai language means “The Prince of Herbs”; “Phraya” means “Prince” and “Wan” means“Herbs”.


Curcuma chantaranothaii Boonma & Saensouk sp. nov.
  subgenus Ecomatae

Curcuma chantaranothaii is the most similar to C. newmanii having a similar color of the flower and some characters but differ in produced terminal inflorescence enclosed by leaf-sheaths; leaves narrowly, 4–6 cm wide, upper surface puberulous; staminodes rhomboid; labellum with unique two paler yellow curves like a crescent moon from the apex parallel along with each side of the embossed yellow patch to half of the labellum; epigynous glands apex blunt, 4 mm long (whereas C. newmanii produces lateral inflorescence before the new leaves; leaves broader than 6 cm wide, upper surface glabrous; staminodes obovate; labellum with a bright yellow median band without paler yellow curves; epigynous gland apex sharp and longer than C. chantaranothaii) (Table 1).

Etymology. The specific epithet “chantaranothaii” in honors Professor Dr. Pranom Chantaranothai who is a special Thai Plant Taxonomist, and an outstanding botanist of the Thai Flora.


Curcuma rangsimae Boonma & Saensouk sp. nov.
A, Front and side view of stamen; B, Lateral staminodes; C, lateral corolla lobes; D, Floral tube with ovary, calyx and stamen; E, Labellum; F. Dorsal corolla lobe; G, Ovary with epigynous glands; H, Habit; I, Front view of flower; J, Inflorescence. 
 Drawn by Thawatphong Boonma.

Curcuma rangsimae Boonma & Saensouk sp. nov.
subgenus Ecomatae 

Curcuma rangsimaeis very similar to C. vetellina but differs in having leave narrowly elliptic to oblanceolate, 12–20 cm wide, 40–70 cm long, base attenuate-slightly oblique; spike 12–20 cm long, 7.8–9.5 cm in diam. at the middle; calyx glabrous; lateral staminodes asymmetrical trullate to ovate; anther spurs conical, 2.8–3.4 mm long; ovary 3.5–4.0 × 2.5–3.0 mm, prolate spheroids, glabrous (whereas C. vetellina has leave elliptic to elliptic-ovate 8–15 cm wide, 20–45 cm long, base rounded; spike 8–15 cm long, 4–5 cm diam. at the middle; calyx sparsely hairy on the three main veins leading from the tooth to the base; lateral staminodes obovate; anther spurs filamentous, c. 0.5 mm long; ovary c. 3 × 2 mm, trilocular, hairy, hairs c. 0.2 mm long) (Table 2).

Etymology. The specific epithet “rangsimae” is named in honor of “Rungsima Tantalakha” who is a supporter and backup plant taxonomists in Thailand.


Curcuma charanii Boonma & Saensouk;
A, dorsal corolla lobe; B, lateral corolla lobes; C, staminodes; D, labellum with different tip; E, bracteole; F, habit; G, Stamen–front and side view; H, calyx with ovary; I, flower.
 Drawn by Thawatphong Boonma

Curcuma charanii Boonma & Saensouk sp. nov.
 subgenus Hitcheniopsis

 Curcuma charaniiis similar to C. prasina (based on Škorničková et al. 2017) in many characters but differ in having rhizome ovoid with white internally; bladeless sheaths glabrous except for a few hairs at tip; ligule triangular, bilobed, apex acute; leaves-apex acute to acuminate; bracteole slarger; flowers exserted from bracts; calyx pale purple; dorsal corolla lobe ovate, white with pale yellow at the tip, apexacute, hooded; lateral staminodes narrowly obovate to oblanceolate, pale pinkish-purple to pale purple with white at base; labellum apex bilobed, deep incision up to 5 mm, each lobe apex rounded or retuse, pale pinkish purpleto purple, with a small white line (sometimes very pale yellowish-white) in the middle from sinus almost to the base, flanked by very small purple dots on both sides, very pale pinkish purple to purplish-white lines like a herringbone pattern interspersedwith purple, two dark yellow spots at base, finely glandular hairs in the middle; antherwhite, very fine pubescent at back; anther crestvery pale purple; filament light pale purple; ovarypale yellow (Table 3).

Etymology. The specific epithet “charanii” name in honors Dr. Charan Maknoi who is an outstanding botanist of the genus Curcuma in Thailand.

 Curcuma puangpeniae Boonma & Saensouk sp. nov.
 subgenus Hitcheniopsis

 Curcuma puangpeniae is similar to C. prasinain some characters but differ in having rhizome ovoid with creeping branches; root tubers placed far from the rhizome; bladeless sheaths reddish-brown with green tip and white at base, glabrous, except the tip has a few hairs; leaves asymmetrical lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, base attenuate-oblique, margin slightly undulate; fertile bracts broadly obovate, apex acute, curved outward, green with dark green veins and pale green at base; bracteoles ovate, half-folded, translucent white with pale green at tip, apex acute, glabrous on both surfaces except for the tip at the ridge-folds has a few hairs; flowers exerted from the bract; calyx 3.8–4.2 cm long, apex trilobed with unilateral deepest incision up to 2.5 mm; floral tube longer; dorsal corolla lobe ovate, apex obtuse with slightly mucronate, hooded, glabrous except for a few hairy at tip; lateral corolla lobes ovate, 6.5–6.8 mm long and 3.5–3.7 mm wide, apex obtuse, slightly hooded; lateral staminodes white; labellum lilac with lilac veins gradually fade to white at base, white in the mid lobe without yellow, two short lilac dashes along both margin from the base 2.5–3 mm long and two short yellow dashes along each side about half of the incision margin; filament white; anther crest white(Table 5).

Etymology: The specific epithet “puangpeniae” is named in honors Professor Puangpen Sirirugsa, an outstanding botanist of the Thai Flora and she is also the first Thai to study the family Zingiberaceae in Thailand.


Curcuma purpurata Boonma & Saensouk sp. nov.
subgenus Hitcheniopsis 

Curcuma purpurata is similar to C. prasina in some characters but differ in having leaf-sheaths sparsely pubescent; petiole minutely pubescent; leaves narrowly ovate, minutely pubescent on both sides, apex acuminate, base oblique–acute, margin undulate; bracts green, pubescent; coma bracts green, 2–3, lanceolate, apex narrowly obtuse, minutely pubescent; bracteoles white with pale green at tip; corolla tube 3 cm long, longer than bracts, distinctive protruding from the inflorescence; staminodes oblanceolate, white, apex obtuse to acute; labellum broadly obovate, bilobed, deeply divided almost half of length up to 5 mm long, purple at base gradually fades to pale purple at the tip of both lobes, with the yellow bands in the middle continuously reaching 2/3 length of the incision of the labellum, flanked on both sides of the middle yellow bands by white stripes about 2/3 of the length of the yellow bands and white hairy on the middle of the labellum (Table 6).

Etymology. The specific epithet “purpurata” is derived from the Latin words “purpuratus” which means “purple” to refers to its purple labellum.

Surapon Saensouk, Thawatphong Boonma and Piyaporn Saensouk. 2021. Six New Species and A New Record of Curcuma L. (Zingiberaceae) from Thailand.   Biodiversitas. 22(4); 1658-1685. DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d220410

นักวิชาการไทย ค้นพบพืชวงศ์ขิง 8 ชนิดใหม่ของโลก​ และรายงานครั้งแรกในไทยอีก 1 ชนิด บ่งชี้ความหลากหลายทางชีวภาพของไทย

 แบ่งเป็น 2 สกุล สกุลขมิ้นหรือกระเจียว (Curcuma)  6 ชนิด และสกุลเปราะ (Kaempferia) 2 ชนิด 

พญาว่าน Curcuma phrayawan Boonma & Saensouk พบกระจายพันธุ์บริเวณจังหวัดนครนายก และปลูกใช้เป็นพืชสมุนไพรทั่วประเทศ ได้ตั้งชื่อวิทยาศาสตร์ ตามชื่อพื้นเมืองที่ใช้กันอย่างแพร่หลายคือ “พญาว่าน”

  ขมิ้นน้อย Curcuma chantaranothaii Boonma & Saensouk กระจายพันธุ์ในพื้นที่ป่าบริเวณจังหวัดนครนายก นำมาปลูกเป็นไม้ประดับทั่วประเทศไทย 
ตั้งชื่อวิทยาศาสตร์เป็นเกียรติแก่ ศาสตราจารย์ ดร.ประนอม จันทรโณทัย นักพฤกษศาสตร์ ที่เป็นที่ยอมรับทั้งในประเทศไทยและระดับนานาชาติ 

  กระเจียวรังสิมา หรือ “บุษราคัม” Curcuma rangsimae Boonma & Saensouk พบกระจายพันธุ์บริเวณจังหวัดนครนายก สระบุรี ปราจีนบุรี ฉะเชิงเทรา และนครราชสีมา 
ตั้งชื่อวิทยาศาสตร์เป็นเกียรติแก่ คุณรังสิมา ตัณฑเลขา ผู้อำนวยการโปรแกรมอาวุโส โปรแกรมการบริหารจัดการความหลากหลายทางชีวภาพและการใช้ประโยชน์ สำนักงานพัฒนาวิทยาศาสตร์และเทคโนโลยีแห่งชาติ ท่านเป็นบุคคลที่อยู่เบื้องหลังและสนับสนุนงานวิจัยด้านความหลากหลายทางชีวภาพของประเทศไทยมาอย่างยาวนาน
กระเจียวจรัญ Curcuma charanii Boonma & Saensouk พบกระจายพันธุ์บริเวณจังหวัดลพบุรี ตั้งชื่อวิทยาศาสตร์เป็นเกียรติแก่ ดร.จรัญ มากน้อย นักพฤกษศาสตร์ องค์การสวนพฤกษศาสตร์ ผู้เชี่ยวชาญพืชวงศ์ขิง โดยเฉพาะสกุล Curcuma ในประเทศไทย

 ขมิ้นพวงเพ็ญ Curcuma puangpeniae Boonma & Saensouk พบกระจายพันธุ์บริเวณจังหวัดราชบุรี ตั้งชื่อวิทยาศาสตร์พืชชนิดนี้เป็นเกียรติแก่ ศาสตราจารย์พวงเพ็ญ ศิริรักษ์ ซึ่งเป็นคนไทยคนแรกที่บุกเบิกการศึกษาพืชวงศ์ขิงในประเทศไทย

 กระเจียวม่วง Curcuma purpurata Boonma & Saensouk พบกระจายพันธุ์บริเวณจังหวัดศรีสะเกษ ตั้งชื่อวิทยาศาสตร์ ตามสีดอกของพืชชนิดนี้คือมีสีม่วง