Amphibian defence mechanisms commonly rely on cutaneous toxins produced in either isolated or clustered glands, such as toad parotoid macroglands. In contrast to the passive mechanism of poison liberation in other amphibians, we discovered that the Amazonian toad Rhaebo guttatus is unique because it can voluntarily squirt jets of poison from its parotoids.
Keywords: Amphibia, Anura, Bufonidae, defence, granular glands, poison glands.
|Figure 1. R. guttatus. (a) Note the parotoid macrogland, which is full of glandular pores (arrow). (b) The typical defensive posture the toad assumes when expelling poison jets from the parotoid.|
2011. The Amazonian toad Rhaebo guttatus is able to voluntarily squirt poison from the paratoid macroglands. Amphibia-Reptilia. 32 (2011): 546-549