Friday, April 23, 2021

[Botany • 2021] Rediscovery of Parahyparrhenia bellariensis (Poaceae: Andropogoneae): A Presumed Extinct Grass from Andhra Pradesh, India

Parahyparrhenia bellariensis  (Hackel) Clayton

in Landge & Shinde, 2021. 
Photography by: Mohammad Yusuf Mujawar & Shahid Nawaz)

Parahyparrhenia bellariensis, an extremely rare and highly narrow endemic grass, has been rediscovered after almost 184 years from Cuddapah [Kadapa] district, Andhra Pradesh. The first description of its complete habit, basal portion and other features of the spikelets are provided along with new locality of its occurrence. In addition, photographs of the habitats, live plants, and a key to distinguish two Indian endemic species, distribution map and illustration are provided. As per the IUCN Red List Criteria this species is assessed here as Critically Endangered (CR). In order to facilitate the prospective conservation of this grass, we have discussed about the peculiarity of its habitat.

Keywords: Monocots, Eastern Ghats, Endemic, Gandikota fort hill, Gooty fort hill, Peninsular India, Robert Wight.

Illustration of the spikelets of Parahyparrhenia bellariensis.
A. Portion of spiciform-raceme. B–L: Sessile spikelet and its parts. B. Sessile spikelet. C1. Lower glume (dorsal). C2. Lower glume (ventral). C3. Apex of lower glume. C4. T.S. of lower glume. D1. Upper glume (ventral). D2. Upper glume (lateral). D3. Apex of upper glume. E. Lower lemma. F. Upper lemma. G1. Upper palea. G2. Apex of upper palea. G3. Apex of upper palea. H. Anthers. I. Lodicules. J. Pistil. K1. Caryopsis. K2. T.S. of caryopsis. L. Callus of sessile spikelet. M. Rhachis internode. N. Pedicel. O–W: Pedicelled spikelet and its parts. O. Callus. P. Pedicelled spikelet. Q1. Lower glume (dorsal). Q2. Lower glume (ventral). R. Upper glume. S. Lower lemma. T. Upper lemma. U. Upper palea. V. Anthers. W. Lodicules.
(Illustrated by Shahid Nawaz from “Shahid Nawaz GK-302”)

Parahyparrhenia bellariensis in Gandikota Fort Hill.
A. Habit. B. Inflorescence. C. Basal portion. D. Magnified lowest bulged sheath. E. Ligule. F. Raceme. G. Heterogamous spikelets.
 (Photography by: Shahid Nawaz)

Parahyparrhenia bellariensis (Hackel) Clayton (1934: 1744) (Figs 3–4)

Habitats of Parahyparrhenia bellariensis.
A & B: Gandikota Fort Hill. C. Gooty Fort Hill.
(Photography by: Mohammad Yusuf Mujawar & Shahid Nawaz)

Shahid Nawaz Landge and Rajendra D. Shinde. 2021. Rediscovery of Parahyparrhenia bellariensis (Poaceae: Andropogoneae): A Presumed Extinct Grass from Andhra Pradesh, India.  Phytotaxa. 497(2); 147–156. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.497.2.7