Mincarone, Plachetzki, McCord, ... et Fudge, 2021
Hagfishes are an ancient group of benthic marine craniates that are found in deep or cold waters around the world. Among the 83 valid species, four are described from the Galapagos Islands: Eptatretus bobwisneri, E. grouseri, E. mccoskeri and Rubicundus lakeside. During a recent expedition to the archipelago, six species of hagfishes were collected, including four undescribed species of the genera Eptatretus (Eptatretus goslinei sp. nov.) and Myxine (Myxine greggi sp. nov., M. martinii sp. nov. and M. phantasma sp. nov.). In this paper, we provide a review of the eight species of hagfishes from the Galapagos Islands, including new diagnoses and an identification key for all species. Myxine phantasma is remarkable in that it is the only species of Myxine known to completely lack melanin-based pigments. Our species delineations were based on both morphological and molecular analyses. A phylogenetic hypothesis based on molecular data suggests that Galapagos hagfishes arose from multiple independent colonisations of the islands from as many as five different ancestral lineages. The large number of endemic hagfishes in the geologically young Galapagos Islands suggests that there is much global hagfish diversity yet to be discovered.
Ecuador, Eptatretus, Myxine, Myxiniformes, systematics
Eptatretus goslinei sp. nov.
Myxine greggi sp. nov.
Myxine martinii sp. nov.,
Myxine phantasma sp. nov.,
M. M. Mincarone, D. Plachetzki, C. L. McCord, T. M. Winegard, B. Fernholm, C. J. Gonzalez, and D. S. Fudge. 2021. Review of the Hagfishes (Myxinidae) from the Galapagos Islands, with Descriptions of Four New Species and Their Phylogenetic Relationships. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. zlaa178. DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlaa178