Tuesday, March 8, 2022

[Herpetology • 2022] Allobates paleci • A New Amazonian Species of Allobates Zimmermann & Zimmermann, 1988 (Anura: Aromobatidae) with A Trilled Advertisement Call

 Allobates paleci
Silva,  Marques, Folly & Santana, 2022

sapinho-foguete-dos-paleci | DOI: 10.7717/peerj.13026

Currently, 58 species are assigned to the genus Allobates, with 70% of its diversity described just in the last two decades, with many additional species likely unnamed. The continuous description of these new species represents a fundamental step for resolving the taxonomy and ensuring the future conservation of the genus.

Using molecular, acoustic, and morphological evidences, we describe a new species of Allobates from Teles Pires River region, southern Amazonia, and provide accounts on the population of A. tapajos found sympatrically with the new species.

The new species is distinguished from its congeners by the coloration of thighs, venter, dorsum, and dark lateral stripe. It has four types of calls, with advertisement calls formed by relatively long trills with a mean duration of 2.29 s ± 0.65, mean of 39.93 notes ± 11.18 emitted at a mean rate of 17.49 ± 0.68 notes per second, and mean dominant frequency of 5,717 Hz ± 220.81. The genetic distance between the new species and its congeners in a fragment of the 16S mitochondrial fragment ranged between 13.2% (A. carajas) to 21.3% (A. niputidea). The sympatric Allobates population fits its morphology and acoustic with the nominal A. tapajos, but presents a relatively high genetic distance of nearly 6.5%, raising questions on the current taxonomy of this species.

 Allobates paleci sp. nov. in life (CHUFPB 30252), Jacareacanga municipality, Pará state, Brazil.

Allobates paleci sp. nov.

Diagnosis. Allobates paleci sp. nov. can be distinguished from the other species of the genus by the following combination of characters: (1) small size (males SVL 13.4–16.2 mm (15.1 ± 1.0), female SVL 16.07 mm); (2) dorsal surface of thighs light brown lacking dark brown transversal bars, abdomen immaculate yellowish in life; (3) dorsum light brown with dark brown hourglass mark ranging from the interorbital level to the urostyle region; (4) gular region of males yellowish in life, lacking obvious melanophores; (5) interrupted dark lateral stripe, more conspicuous anteriorly; (6) advertisement calls formed by trills with a duration of 0.97–3.57 s (2.29 ± 0.65), 17–61 notes (39.93 ± 11.18) emitted at a rate of 16.32–19.10 notes per second (17.49 ± 0.68), and dominant frequency ranging between 5,168 and 6,202 Hz (5,717 ± 220.81).

Etymology. Indigenous populations of the Apiaká ethnic group historically inhabited areas along the major tributaries of the Tapajós, Juruena, Teles Pires, and Arinos rivers. Different familial groups of the Apiaká are called according to their residence regions, and families inhabiting the middle Teles Pires River are known as Paleci. The specific epithet “paleci” is a noun in apposition referring to these families, who live on the vicinities of the new species’ type locality. We also suggest the following Portuguese vernacular name for the new species: “sapinho-foguete-dos-paleci”.

Geographic distribution and natural history. Allobates paleci sp. nov. is known only from the type locality, in the right bank of the Teles Pires River, Jacareacanga municipality, southern Pará state, Brazil. In this locality, the new species was only recorded inside dense ombrophilous forests. During the rainy season (specially between November and February), several males of the new species were found calling from the moist leaf litter. The calling behavior was mainly concentrated in rainy days between 06:00–10:00 am and 04:00–06:00 pm. Despite being recorded in very close sites and after a considerable sampling effort, Allobates paleci sp. nov. and A. tapajos were never found calling syntopically. Furthermore, A. paleci sp. nov. was less abundant at the type locality when compared to the sympatric A. tapajos. More details on reproductive behavior, oviposition, and tadpoles of Allobates paleci sp. nov. remain unknown.

Leandro A. Silva, Ricardo Marques, Henrique Folly and Diego J. Santana. 2022. A New Amazonian Species of Allobates Zimmermann & Zimmermann, 1988 (Aromobatidae) with A Trilled Advertisement Call.  PeerJ. 10:e13026. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.13026