Sunday, July 7, 2024

[Botany • 2024] Pinguicula tlahuica (Lentibulariaceae) • A New endemic Species and Species Richness Distribution of the Genus Pinguicula in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Mexico

Pinguicula tlahuica López-Pérez & Zamudio, 

in López-Pérez, Zamudio, Munguía-Lino et Rodríguez, 2024. 
 Artwork by Fatima Bracamontes 

Background: The genus Pinguicula harbors 110 species, of which 53 are distributed in Mexico. The formation of the Mexican mountains has favored the Pinguicula diversification. Pinguicula specimens collected in the State of México, along the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) do not correspond with any known species.

Questions: Do the collected specimens belong to a new species? What is its conservation status? How many Pinguicula species are there along the TMVB and how do they differentiate? How is the Pinguicula species richness distributed?

Studied species: Pinguicula.

Study site and dates: TMVB, 2005-2023.

Methods: Based on herbarium specimens and recently collected material, a morphological analysis and description were made. Conservation status was assessed following IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria. Herbarium specimens and digital records of Pinguicula from the TMVB were examined to generate a list and key. We analyzed the richness distribution of Pinguicula by states, vegetation types, elevation ranges, and grid cells.

Results: Pinguicula tlahuica is proposed as a new species. It is distinguished by the linear-spatulate summer leaves. The new species falls into the Endangered (EN) category. Along the TMVB, 16 species of Pinguicula are distributed. The State of México, Hidalgo and Michoacán, and the pine-oak forest were the richest. Pinguicula appeared between 759-3,427 m asl. The grid cell analyses revealed different areas with high richness.

Conclusions: Along the TMVB, the Pinguicula species richness centered on the Eastern and Western sectors. Pinguicula crassifolia, P. michoacana, P. tlahuica, and P. zamudioana are endemic to the TMVB.

Keywords: butterworts, carnivorous plants, diversification, Mexican Transition Zone, Pinguicula section Orcheosanthus

Pinguicula tlahuica.
A) Summer rosette. B) Flowering winter rosette. C) Summer leaves. D) Winter leaves. E) Stipitate glands on the leaf. F) Flower frontal view. G) Flower lateral view. H) Fruit.
 Illustrated by Fatima Bracamontes 
based on type material (J. López-Pérez & G. Munguía-Lino 641).

Pinguicula tlahuica.
A) Habitat. B) Flower frontal view. C-D) Winter rosette with flowers. E) Sterile winter rosette. F) Summer rosette. G) Transition among winter and summer leaves.
 A-G by Jorge López-Pérez.

Pinguicula tlahuica López-Pérez & Zamudio, sp. nov. 

Diagnosis. Pinguicula tlahuica is morphologically similar to P. moranensis Kunth in the form and size of the flow-ers, but it is distinguished from it by: the oblong to oblong-spathulate winter leaves; linear-spatulate summer leaves, 7.0-14.5 × 0.5-1.7 cm; blooming with winter rosette.

Etymology. The specific epithet honors the Tlahuica ethnical people. The tlahuicas inhabit some villages in Ocuilan de Arteaga, State of México (Álvarez Fabela 2006).

Mexico Jorge David López-Pérez, Sergio Zamudio, Guadalupe Munguía-Lino, Aarón Rodríguez. 2024. A New endemic Species and Species Richness Distribution of the Genus Pinguicula (Lentibulariaceae) in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Mexico. Botanical Sciences. 102(3), 995-1008. DOI: 10.17129/botsci.3485