Wednesday, December 7, 2022

[Herpetology • 2022] Odontophrynus toledoi • A New Species of Odontophrynus (Anura: Odontophrynidae) from the southern portion of the Mantiqueira Mountains, Brazil

Odontophrynus toledoi  
Moroti, Pedrozo, Severgnini, Augusto-Alves, Dena, Martins, Nunes & Muscat, 2022

Using an integrative approach (morphology of the adult and larvae, bioacoustics, osteology, karyotype, and molecular data), we described a new tetraploid species of Odontophrynus to the Mantiqueira mountain range, in southeastern Brazil. The data suggest that Odontophrynus toledoi sp. nov., O. juquinha and Odontophrynus sp. (aff. juquinha) comprise a clade with specimens distributed along three distinct mountain ranges in Brazil: Mantiqueira (O. toledoi sp. nov.) and Espinhaço (O. juquinha) mountains, both in southeastern Brazil, and Diamantina Plateau (O. aff. juquinha), in northeastern Brazil. The new species is morphologically similar and closely related to O. juquinha, but is distinguished in morphology (both adult and larval), karyotype (O. toledoi sp. nov. is tetraploid and O. juquinha is diploid), and corroborated by phylogenetic inferences. We also show that these species do not exchange haplotypes in the 16s gene. Furthermore, although the raw acoustic parameters of Odontophrynus toledoi sp. nov. and O. juquinha overlap at the limits of their ranges, we found a clear difference in the acoustic space structure. 

Keywords: Atlantic Forest, burrowing toad, integrative taxonomy, species delimitation, species description

Class Amphibia Linnaeus, 1758
Order Anura Fischer Von Waldheim, 1813

Family Odontophrynidae Lynch, 1969

Genus Odontophrynus Reinhardt & Lütken, 1862

Odontophrynus toledoi sp. nov.

Odontophrynus toledoi sp. nov., holotype, ♂ (ZUEC-AMP 24833), in life.
A. Lateral view. B. Dorsal view. Scale bar = 5 mm.

Odontophrynus toledoi sp. nov. in life. A. Tadpole. B. Metamorph.
Diagnosis: Odontophrynus toledoi sp. nov. is a medium-sized species belonging to the genus Odontophrynus based on the phylogenetic position and a combination of morphological characters: granular skin on the dorsum and venter, head wider than long, snout truncate in profile, tympanum hidden, first subarticular tubercle on toe I enlarged, inner metatarsal tubercle large, tarsal fold short (Savage & Cei 1965; Caramaschi & Napoli 2012). The new species belongs to the Odontophrynus americanus species group based on phylogenetic affinities and the combination of the following characters: absence of large dorsal, tibia and forearm glandular warts, with postorbital, temporal, and parotoid glandular warts not distinctly developed but with a series of small glandular warts of irregular size and shape, forming glandular ridges longitudinally oriented, on postorbital-parotoid regions (Caramaschi & Napoli 2012). Odontophrynus  toledoi  is  distinguished  from  the  remaining  species  belonging  to  the  O.  americanus group by the following combination of characters: (1) medium sized (SVL = 40.4–51.8 mm in males and 45.0–54.5 mm in females of O. toledoi; Table 1); (2) head wider than long (HW/HL = 1.31); (3) dorsal surface of head, arms, body and limbs dark brown with arms and limbs with light brown stripes; (4) light mid-dorsal stripe present or interrupted in most of the specimens; (5) yellowish stripe between the eyes, resembling a ‘)’ shape; (6) increased number of longitudinally oriented dorsal glandular ridges; (7) karyotype with 2n = 4X = 44, with fundamental number = 88; (8) advertisement call with dominant frequency of 775–1033 Hz; (9) pulse rate of 89–132 pulses/s; (10) large tadpoles (mean TL = 42.91–56.18 mm); (11) one–two submarginal papillae on the posterior labium of each side of the oral disc near the  posterior  emargination;  and  (12)  spiracle  sinistral,  short,  inner  wall  fused  to  the  body  with  small  distal portion free.

Etymology: The specific epithet honors Professor Luís Felipe Toledo for his contribution in solving the mysteries of the natural history of Neotropical amphibians, especially those from southeastern Brazil and mostly within the Atlantic Forest, where the new species resides.

Odontophrynus toledoi sp. nov. displaying defensive behaviors (A–B) of burrowing and (C) puffing up the body and stiff leg synergistically. D. The coloration of the species also provides crypsis by camouflage in the microhabitat where it lives.

Matheus de Toledo Moroti, Mariana Pedrozo, Marcos Rafael Severgnini, Guilherme Augusto-Alves, Simone Dena, Itamar Alves Martins, Ivan Nunes and Edelcio Muscat. 2022. A New Species of Odontophrynus (Anura, Odontophrynidae) from the southern portion of the Mantiqueira Mountains. European Journal of Taxonomy. 847(1), 160–193. DOI: 10.5852/ejt.2022.847.1991