|Proceratophrys korekore |
Santana, da Silva, Sant’Anna, Shepard & Mângia, 2021
Based on concordant differences in morphology, male advertisement call, and 16S mtDNA barcode distance, we describe a new species of Proceratophrys from southern Amazonia, in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará, Brazil. The new species is most similar to P. concavitympanum and P. ararype but differs from these species by its proportionally larger eyes and features of the advertisement call. Additionally, genetic distance between the new species and its congeners is 3.0–10.4% based on a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene, which is greater than the threshold typically characterizing distinct species of anurans. Using an integrative approach (molecular, bioacoustics, and adult morphology), we were able to distinguish the new species from other congeneric species. The new species is known only from the type locality where it is threatened by illegal logging and gold mining as well as hydroelectric dams.
|Figure 1: Holotype of Proceratophrys korekore sp. nov. (ZUFMS-AMP08100). (Left) Dorsal view of the body; and (right) ventral view of the body.|
Proceratophrys korekore sp. nov.
Diagnosis. The new species can be distinguished by the following combination of traits: (1) medium size (39.8–44.1 mm SVL in adult males; 43.8–57.6 mm SVL in adult females); (2) upper eyelid border with fused and small pointed warts; (3) proportional measurements ED/END 1.1–1.3; (4) presence of a single row of tubercles of different sizes bordered with some sparse tubercles on the forearm; (5) call duration of 0.162–0.332 s; 18–31 pulses/call; pulse rate of 96.4–111.1 pulses/s.
Etymology. The specific epithet “korekore” is a noun in apposition that means frog in the language of the Mundurukus, an indigenous group that inhabits the southwestern parts of Pará state and the northern region of Mato Grosso state, Brazil. We suggest the following Portuguese vernacular names “sapo-korekore” or “sapo-de-chifre-dos- mundurukus”.
Natural History. Proceratophrys korekore sp. nov. was found inhabiting only dense ombrophilous forest formations on both banks of the Teles Pires River. During nocturnal surveys between 18:00 and 21:00 h in the rainy season (from October to June), we observed males of P. korekore sp. nov. calling from the leaflitter on the banks of temporary streams. Some males were also found calling on bare soil near the edges of waterbodies. Additionally, individuals of the new species were observed during surveys (both diurnal and nocturnal) moving through the forest or captured using pitfall traps, even far from water bodies. Sympatric species include Ameerega munduruku, Ceratophrys cornuta, and Lithodytes lineatus. The main anthropogenic threats to the type locality are illegal logging and the often-subsequent deforestation for cattle grazing. Furthermore, illegal gold mining inside the forests (locally called “garimpo”) was observed during fieldwork. The activity of these illegal miners consists of clearing all vegetation of a target area and then destroying entire sections of stream bank to extract gold using mercury, a heavy metal that pollutes water supplies and poisons fish stocks (Silva et al., 2018). Finally, the Teles Pires River has also been dammed by multiple hydroelectric power plants, which have caused considerable natural habitat losses and fragmentation.
Diego J. Santana, Leandro Alves da Silva, Anathielle Caroline Sant’Anna, Donald B. Shepard and Sarah Mângia. 2021. A New Species of Proceratophrys Miranda-Ribeiro, 1920 (Anura, Odontophrynidae) from Southern Amazonia, Brazil. PeerJ. 9:e12012 . DOI: 10.7717/peerj.12012