Saturday, March 18, 2023

[Herpetology • 2023] Phrynopus apumantarum • A New Species of Frog (Anura: Terrarana: Strabomantidae) from the Peruvian Andean Grasslands

Phrynopus apumantarum
Chávez, García-Ayachi & Catenazzi, 2023 

We describe a new terrestrial frog from the puna grasslands adjacent to the Mantaro dry valley in southern Peru. Phrynopus apumantarum sp. nov. is similar in appearence to P. bufoides but is differentiable by lacking discoidal fold and enlarged warts on dorsum, lacking a prominent post ocular fold and having canthal and post ocular stripe. Lastly, we propose to place the new species under the Vulnerable (VU) category of the IUCN Red List, due its small distribution and habitat loss recorded at the type locality.

Key Words: new terrestrial frog, southern Peru, Phrynopus apumantarum sp. nov., Vulnerable, Red List, habitat loss

Type series of Phrynopus apumantarum sp. nov.
 Dorsal (left column) and ventral (right column) view of the type series 
A, B. Female CORBIDI 20432; C, D. Female CORBIDI 20553 (holotype);
E, F. Male CORBIDI 20438; G, H. Male CORBIDI 20439.

 Phrynopus apumantarum sp. nov. 

Diagnosis: A species of Phrynopus having the following combination of characters:1) Skin on dorsum coarsely tuberculate, some tubercles enlarged and arranged longitudinally in paravertebral and dorsolateral rows, skin on venter coarsely areolate; discoidal fold absent, thoracic fold absent; postocular fold present, uncomplete dorsolateral ridges present; 2) tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus absent; 3) snout rounded in dorsal and lateral views; 4) upper eyelid with small rounded tubercles; narrower than IOD, cranial crests absent; 5) dentigerous process of vomers absent; 6) vocal slits and nuptial pads absent; 7) Finger I slightly shorter than finger II; tips of digit bulbous, rounded; 8) fingers without lateral fringes; 9) ulnar and tarsal tubercles absent; 10) heels without tubercles; 11) inner metatarsal tubercle rounded, about 1.5 times as large as ovoid outer metatarsal tubercle; supernumerary plantar tubercles absent; 12) toes without lateral fringes, basal webbing absent, toe V slightly longer than toe III, toe tips bulbous; 13) in life, dorsum grayish yellow with black or dark brown mottling and bluish-black or brown blotches, throat pinkish yellow, yellow or yellowish brown, venter grayish yellow with brown mottling and bluish-black blotches, groins grayish white with brown blotches; iris ash gray with black blotches and reticulations; (14) SVL 23.9–25.7 mm in males (n = 4), and 28.4–35.7 mm in females (n=4).

 Etymology: The epithet apumantarum derives from the Quechua word apu (= mountain spirit), and from the name Mantaro which is the main river of the Valley where the new species was discovered. This name means the spirit of the Mantaro Mountains because the occurrence of the new species in the upper areas of that mountain ridge reminds the authors of the Inca legend that says Apus are always taking care of the Andes from the top of every valley in the region.

Landscape at the type locality of Phrynopus apumantarum sp. nov.

Germán Chávez, Luis A. García-Ayachi and Alessandro Catenazzi. 2023. A New Species of Frog (Terrarana, Strabomantidae, Phrynopus) from the Peruvian Andean Grasslands. Evolutionary Systematics. 7(1): 105-116. DOI: 10.3897/evolsyst.7.96258