Sunday, August 4, 2019

[Mammalogy • 2019] Mico munduruku • The Munduruku Marmoset: A New Monkey Species from southern Amazonia

Mico munduruku Costa-Araújo, Farias & Hrbek

in Costa-Araújo, de Melo, Canale, Hernández-Rangel, Rezende et al​,. 2019. 
Illustrations: Stephen Nash

Although the Atlantic Forest marmosets (Callithrix spp.) are among the best studied Neotropical primates, the Amazonian marmosets (Callibella humilisCebuella spp. and Mico spp.) are much less well-known. Even species diversity and distributions are yet to be properly determined because field data and materials currently available in scientific collections do not allow comprehensive taxonomic studies of Amazonian marmosets. From 2015 to 2018, we conducted 10 expeditions in key-areas within southern Amazonia where little or no information on marmosets was available. In one such region—the Tapajós–Jamanxim interfluve—we recorded marmosets with a distinctive pelage pigmentation pattern suggesting they could represent a new species. We tested this hypothesis using an integrative taxonomic framework that included phylogenomic data (ddRAD sequences), pelage pigmentation characters, and distribution records. We found that the marmosets of the northern Tapajós–Jamanxim interfluve have unique states in pelage pigmentation characters, form a clade (100% support) in our Bayesian and Maximum-Likelihood phylogenies, and occur in an area isolated from other taxa by rivers. The integration of these lines of evidence leads us to describe a new marmoset species in the genus Mico, named after the Munduruku Amerindians of the Tapajós–Jamanxim interfluve, southwest of Pará State, Brazil.

Figure 2: Bayesian phylogeny of the genus Mico. Gray-scale bars represent the main species lineages in genus Mico, black bar represent the outgroups. Clade posterior probabilities are given above nodes. Asterisk (*) indicates low (<70%) bootstrap support in the Maximum Likelihood phylogeny which otherwise was identical to the Bayesian inference phylogeny. Illustrations: Stephen Nash.

One of the four lineages of the genus Mico.
Left to right: Mico munduruku sp. n., M. leucippe, M. emiliae, M. argentatus, M. rondoni, M. intermedius.
 Illustration: Stephen Nash.

Order Primates Linnaeus, 1758
Family Callitrichidae Gray, 1821

Genus Mico Lesson, 1840

Mico munduruku sp. n. 
R Costa-Araújo, IP Farias & T Hrbek, 2019

Type locality. Boca do Crepori community, right margin of the mouth of the Crepori River, Itaituba municipality, Pará State, Brazil.

Diagnosis. The new species is unambiguously diagnosable from all other species of Mico by the possession of a white tail, feet and hands, white forearms with a beige-yellowish spot on the elbow, and beige-yellowish saddle.

Etymology. The specific epithet is a noun in apposition and honors the Munduruku Amerindians of the Tapajós–Jamanxim interfluve.

Suggested vernacular names. “sagui-dos-Munduruku” (Portuguese),
 “Munduruku marmoset” (English).

Geographic Distribution. Mico munduruku sp. n. is endemic to the Amazonian forest of the southwest of Pará State, Brazil, occurring from the left margin of the Jamanxim River, below the mouth of Novo River, possibly up to the right margin of the upper Tapajós River, below the mouth of Cururú River.

Habitat. Lowland primary and secondary terra firme forests.


Rodrigo Costa-Araújo, Fabiano R. de Melo, Gustavo Rodrigues Canale, Sandra M. Hernández-Rangel, Mariluce Rezende Messias, Rogério Vieira Rossi, Felipe E. Silva, Maria Nazareth Ferreira da Silva, Stephen D. Nash, Jean P. Boubli, Izeni Pires Farias and Tomas Hrbek​. 2019. The Munduruku Marmoset: A New Monkey Species from southern Amazonia. PeerJ. 7:e7019. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.7019