Thursday, July 18, 2024

[Botany • 2024] Phlogacanthus sudhansusekharii (Acanthaceae) • A New Species from India

Phlogacanthus sudhansusekharii 

in Goswami et Maity, 2024.

Phlogacanthus sudhansusekharii, a new species is described here from the state of Arunachal Pradesh, India. This newly described species is closely allied to Phlogacanthus guttatus (Wall.) Nees, but can be differentiated by its strikingly different yellowish-cream colored corolla with yellow patches and brown maculation, ratio of calyx lobes and tube length being ~1:1 and deltoid staminodes (vs. greenish-cream to white corolla with red-maroon maculation, ratio of calyx lobes and tube length ~2:1 and subulate-ensiform staminodes in the latter).

Keywords: Andrographideae, Arunachal Pradesh, Phlogacanthus sudhansusekharii

Phlogacanthus sudhansusekharii

Samrat Goswami and Rohan Maity. 2024. A New Species of Phlogacanthus (Acanthaceae) from India. Indian Journal of Forestry. 46(4); 200-204. DOI: 

Wednesday, July 17, 2024

[Botany • 2024] Cattleya attenboroughiana (Orchidaceae: Laeliinae) • A New Species from the Diamantina Plateau, Minas Gerais, Brazil

Cattleya attenboroughiana E.L.F.Menezes, Giordani & R.A.Pinheiro, 

in Menezes, Giordani, Pinheiro et Gonella. 2024. 

A new species of Cattleya ser. Parviflorae (Orchidaceae) is here described from the campos rupestres of the Diamantina Plateau, part of the Espinhaço Range, Minas Gerais, SE Brazil. The new species is named Cattleya attenboroughiana and it is here compared to the most similar taxa and illustrated with photographs. The new species is likely a microendemic but the available data is insufficient for a precise conservation status assessment, so we consider it Data Deficient (DD), reinforcing the need for further exploration in the Diamantina Plateau.

Key Words: Campos rupestres, endemism, Espinhaço Range, orchid

Cattleya attenboroughiana E.L.F.Menezes, Giordani & R.A.Pinheiro sp. nov.  

ETYMOLOGY. The specific epithet is dedicated to Sir David Frederick Attenborough, a British anthropologist, naturalist, and documentary filmmaker who is an inspiration for new generations of scientists dedicated to the Natural Sciences, such as the authors of this work.

Euler L. F. Menezes, Samuel C. O. Giordani, Rodrigo A. Pinheiro and Paulo M. Gonella. 2024. Cattleya attenboroughiana (Orchidaceae: Laeliinae): A New Species from the Diamantina Plateau, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Kew Bulletin. DOI: 10.1007/s12225-024-10198-0

[Mollusca • 2024] Pupinidius pulchellus • A New Species of Pupinidius Möllendorff, 1901 (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora: Enidae) from Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan, China


 Pupinidius pulchellus Chen, Dai, Wu & Ouyang, 

in Chen, Dai, Wu, Jiang et Ouyang, 2024.
 丽纹蛹巢螺  ||  DOI: 10.3897/BDJ.12.e123920

Background: The genus Pupinidius Möllendorff, 1901 is endemic in China and Nepal and consists of 15 species. China is the distribution centre of it with 12 species being recorded.

New information: A new species, Pupinidius pulchellus Chen, Dai, Wu & Ouyang sp. nov. is described from Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan, China. It can be distinguished from congeneric species by the shell with wide and distinct radial stripes; the thin, slightly reflexed and reddish-brown peristome; the unpointed apex; the unfused A-1 and A-2; the sub-globular and well defined bursa copulatrix; the unexpanded diverticle and the presence of epiphallic caecum.

Keywords: conchology, taxonomy, land snail, Sichuan

Environment of the type locaity and living specimens.
A Ancient Cliff Roadway; B juvenile; C dormant adults; D crawling adult.

 Pupinidius pulchellus sp. nov., holotype;

Pupinidius pulchellus Chen, Dai, Wu & Ouyang sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Shell with wide and distinct radial stripes; peristome thin, slightly reflexed and reddish-brown; A-1 not fused with A-2; bursa copulatrix sub-globular and well defined; diverticle unexpanded; epiphallic caecum present.

Etymology: The specific name is made from the Latin pulchellus for pretty, alluding to the pretty stripes on the shell of this species. Vernacular name: 丽纹蛹巢螺 (Pinyin: li wen yong chao luo).

 Zhong-Guang Chen, Yu-Ting Dai, Xiao-Ping Wu, Jiao Jiang and Shan Ouyang. 2024. A New Species of Pupinidius Möllendorff, 1901 (Gastropoda, Stylommatophora, Enidae) from Jiuzhaigou, Sichuan, China. Biodiversity Data Journal. 12: e123920. DOI:


[Crustacea • 2024] Alpheus schubarti • A New alpheid Shrimp (Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheus) from the tropical western Atlantic

Alpheus schubarti 
Anker, 2024

A new shallow-water species of the alpheid shrimp genus Alpheus Fabricius, 1798 is described based on five specimens from Maceió, Alagoas, northeastern Brazil. Alpheus schubarti sp. nov., belongs to the A. paracrinitus Miers, 1881 species complex and is most closely related to the eastern Pacific A. rostratus Kim & Abele, 1988, from which it can be separated by several morphological differences and the colour pattern of the major and minor chelae.

Keywords: Decapod crustaceans, Alpheidae, Snapping shrimp, Transisthmian speciation, New taxon, West Atlantic

Alpheus schubarti sp. nov.

Arthur Anker. 2024. Description of A New alpheid Shrimp from the tropical western Atlantic (Decapoda: Caridea: Alpheus). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia (São Paulo). 64: e202464022. DOI:  

[Ichthyology • 2024] Hypostomus cari • Integrative taxonomy clarifies the armoured catfish Hypostomus pusarum (Starks) species complex (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) and reveals A New Species in the drainages of Northeastern Brazil

Hypostomus cari
Lustosa-Costa, Ramos, Zawadzki, Jacobina & Lima, 2024

Hypostomus is the most species-rich genus within the family Loricariidae and is widely distributed throughout the Neotropical region. Nonetheless, the diversity and distribution of these species have still large knowledge gaps. This scenario is more significant in some regions, such as the northeast of Brazil. In this region, the first species of the genus, H. pusarum, was described in the Northeast Caatinga and Costal Drainages ecoregion. Six congeners were subsequently described in the same ecoregion, all sharing the same colour pattern making them difficult to distinguish. All of them are collectively referred to as the H. pusarum complex. The present work seeks to clarify the diversity that constitutes the H. pusarum complex through an integrative study using molecular and morphological data. The results indicate that H. carvalhoi, H. jaguribensis, H. nudiventris, H. papariae, and H. salgadae are all junior synonyms of H. pusarum. However, one of the morphotypes that occurs in the Parnaíba River is a new species that differs from the others by the absence of a developed medial buccal papilla and the presence of a pre-anal plate. The data provided here highlight the importance of integrative taxonomy for assessing diversity in complex and diverse groups in the Neotropics.

cascudos, DNA barcode, Neotropical fish, new species, Parnaíba River

Hypostomus cari sp. nov.

Silvia Yasmin Lustosa-Costa, Telton Pedro Anselmo Ramos, Cláudio Henrique Zawadzki, Uedson Pereira Jacobina and Sergio Maia Queiroz Lima. 2024. Integrative taxonomy clarifies the armoured catfish Hypostomus pusarum (Starks) species complex (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) and reveals A New Species in the drainages of Northeastern Brazil. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 201(3); zlae059, DOI:

[Botany • 2024] Didymocarpus pingyuanensis (Gesneriaceae) • A New Species endemic to Danxia Landscape from Guangdong Province, China, and two new combinations in Didymocarpus

Didymocarpus pingyuanensis  Ling H.Yang, Q.Fan & F.Wen,

in Yang, Dai, Wen, Liu,  Lan et Fan, 2024. 
平远长蒴苣苔  ||  DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.244.126137

Didymocarpus pingyuanensis, endemic to the Danxia landscape in Pingyuan County, Guangdong, China, is described and illustrated here. This species can be distinguished from other members of Didymocarpus sect. Heteroboea by its calyx deeply 5-lobed to about three quarters of its length. The phylogenetic position of the new species within Didymocarpus was examined using nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Based on phylogenetics analysis and morphological evidence, we propose two new combinations, elevating the two varieties to species level, namely D. yinzhengii and D. gamosepalus.

Key words: Didymocarpus heucherifolius var. gamosepalus, Didymocarpus heucherifolius var. yinzhengii, flora of Danxia, taxonomy

Didymocarpus pingyuanensis
A habitat in flowering B adaxial surface view of leaf blade C abaxial surface view of leaf blade D capsule E front view of corolla F lateral view of corolla, showing calyx deeply 5-lobed to about a quarter of the calyx length from the base G bracts H opened corolla I staminodes J pistil K stamens
(Photographers: A–K by Qiang Fan).

Morphological differences between Didymocarpus pingyuanensis, D. heucherifolius var. heucherifolius, D. heucherifolius var. gamosepalus, and D. salviiflorus
Didymocarpus pingyuanensis B D. heucherifolius var. heucherifolius C D. heucherifolius var. gamosepalus D D. salviiflorus; 1. front view of corolla; 2. lateral view of corolla, showing calyx and bracts
 (Photographers: A–C by Qiang Fan D by Ling-Han Yang).

 Didymocarpus pingyuanensis Ling H.Yang, Q.Fan & F.Wen, sp. nov.
Diagnosis: Didymocarpus pingyuanensis is similar to D. heucherifolius var. gamosepalus and D. salviiflorus in having a similar zygomorphic corolla and pink to pinkish-purple funnel-shaped to tubular corolla tube, but can be distinguished from D. heucherifolius var. gamosepalus by its corolla size 1.8–3.8 cm long (vs. 3.6–4.3 cm long), calyx deeply 5-lobed to about three quarters of the calyx length, apex rounded, rarely cuspidate, overlapping at margin (vs. 5–lobed from middle to above middle); from D. salviiflorus, it differs by having calyx 5-lobed to about three quarters of the calyx length (vs. 5-lobed to about half of the calyx length from the base), bracts free, elliptic (vs. bracts free to connate, semiorbicular), and corolla glabrous outside (vs. puberulent outside).

Etymology: The specific epithet refers to the type locality, Pingyuan County, Guangdong Province, China. The Chinese name of the new species is here given as 平远长蒴苣苔 (Píng Yuǎn Cháng Shuò Jù Tái).

Ling-Han Yang, Jing-Min Dai, Fang Wen, Jian-Hui Liu, Xue-Zheng Lan and Qiang Fan. 2024. Didymocarpus pingyuanensis (Gesneriaceae), A New Species endemic to Danxia Landscape from Guangdong Province, China, and two new combinations in DidymocarpusPhytoKeys. 244: 213-224. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.244.126137

[Ichthyology • 2022] Sciadonus alphacrucis • A New Species of the rare deep-sea Genus Sciadonus Garman, 1899 (Ophidiiformes: Bythitidae) from off Brazil, with a discussion of the evolution of troglomorphism and miniaturization in the aphyonid clade

Sciadonus alphacrucis  
  Melo, Gomes, Møller & Nielsen, 2022

• A new species of the rare genus Sciadonus is discovered from Brazilian waters.
• Highly specialized reproductive apparatus enables internal fertilization and viviparity in a deep-sea fish.
• The depletion of sunlight resulted on convergent evolution of troglomorphic traits in deep-sea fishes and cave fishes.
• Human activities of oil and natural gas exploration, fisheries and littering may be impacting rare deep-sea species.

A new species of the rare, deep-sea genus Sciadonus Garman, 1899 (Bythitidae) is described based on two specimens obtained by the Brazilian R/V Alpha Crucis on the continental slope off São Paulo State, Southeastern Brazil, western South Atlantic. It differs from its congeners by the combination of the following characters: body pale lacking dark pigmentation except for on female claspers; a pair of dermal tissue flaps anteriorly on lower jaw; pelvic-fin rays present; precaudal vertebrae 39 or 40 and total vertebrae 74 or 75. The key to the species of Sciadonus is updated. A discussion of the presence and differentiation between troglomorphic and miniature characteristics among the species in the aphyonid clade is provided and compared with other bythitids.
Keywords: Aphyonid clade, Continental slope, Western South Atlantic, R/V Alpha Crucis

 Sciadonus alphacrucis sp. n. ; western South Atlantic, São Paulo State, off Ilhabela, 794 m depth
 MZUSP 125949, holotype, female, 82.7 mm SL
 MZUSP 125950, paratype, male, 60.3 mm SL.

Order Ophidiiformes Berg, 1937.

Family Bythitidae Gill, 1861.
 Sciadonus alphacrucis n. sp.  

Etymology: The specific name honors the Brazilian R/V Alpha Crucis. A noun in apposition.

Marcelo Roberto Souto de Melo, Amand Alves Gomes, Peter Rask Møller and Jørgen G. Nielsen. 2022. A New Species of the rare deep-sea Genus Sciadonus Garman, 1899 (Teleostei, Bythitidae) from off Brazil, with a discussion of the evolution of troglomorphism and miniaturization in the aphyonid clade. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers. 180, 103684. DOI: 10.1016/j.dsr.2021.103684

[Botany • 2024] Dalbergia calcarea (Fabaceae: Dalbergieae) • A New Species from Lao PDR

Dalbergia calcarea Lanors., Mattapha & Lamxay, 

in Mattapha, Lanorsavanh, Lamxay; Souvannakhoummane et Chanthavongsa, 2024. 
 ຄໍາພີ້ເຫຼືອງ  ||  DOI: 10.20531/tfb.2024.52.2.08

Dalbergia calcarea, a new species currently only known from the limestone mountains of Khammouan Province, central Laos, is described and illustrated. The key characters such as habit, colour and limb of standard, and number of ovules of the new species are discussed and compared with its closest relatives. A detailed description along with etymology, conservation status, illustrations and colour photographs are provided for a new species. This discovery increases the number of Laotian species in the genus Dalbergia to seventeen taxa.

Keywords: Faboideae, Indo-China, Laos, new taxon, taxonomy

Dalbergia calcarea Lanors., Mattapha & Lamxay: 
A. Leaves and inflorescences; B. Leaf; C. Leaflet; D. Flower; E. Standard, outer surface (left) & inner surface (right); F. Wing petals; G. Keel petals; H. Stamens & calyx; I. Ovary; J. Fruits bearing one seed; K. Fruit bearing 4 seeds.
 A–I: S. Lanorsavanh & V. Lamxay SL1641; J & K: S. Lanorsavanh & K. Souvannakhoummane SL1721. 
Drawn by Keooudone Souvannakhoummane.

Dalbergia calcarea Lanors., Mattapha & Lamxay:
 A. Leaves and inflorescences; B. Close up of flowers; C. Flowers (front view, left; side view, right); D. Wing petals; E. Keel petals; F. Stamens enclosing the ovary, inside the calyx; G. Fruits.
Photos by Soulivanh Lanorsavanh.

Dalbergia calcarea Lanors., Mattapha & Lamxay, sp. nov.

This species is characterised by being a tree, leaves with 9–33 leaflets with equal-sided lateral bases, the limb of the standard petal 7–8 mm long, monadelphous stamens (5+5), a pubescent ovary with 3–6 ovules and glabrous fruits. It resembles Dalbergia pinnata (Lour.) Prain in having a similar shape and size of the leaflets, however, it is distinct by the equal-sided bases of the lateral leaflets (vs strongly unequal-sided in D. pinnata), leaflets pubescent on both sides (pubescent only on lower surface in D. pinnata), longer inflorescences (4–6.5 cm long vs 2–3 cm long in D. pinnata), larger bracts (2–)4–6 × 2–2.5 mm vs ca 0.5 × 0.2 mm in D. pinnata),the limb of the standard petal broadly obovate, 7–8 mm long (vs orbicular, 1–2 mm long in D. pinnata) and ten stamens (vs 9 stamens in D. pinnata). 

Type: Lao PDR, Khammouan Province, Khounkham Distr., Phou Pha Man Hill, mixed deciduous forests on limestone mountains, ca 325 m, ...

Etymology.— The specific epithet refers to the habitat of the species where it grows on the range of karst
Vernacular.— ຄໍາພີ້ເຫຼືອງ (Kham pee lueang).

Sawai Mattapha, Soulivanh Lanorsavanh, Vichith Lamxay; Keooudone Souvannakhoummane and Khamfa Chanthavongsa. 2024. Dalbergia calcarea, A New Species of Dalbergia (Fabaceae: Dalbergieae) from Lao PDR. Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany). 52(2), 62–67. DOI:

Tuesday, July 16, 2024

[Paleontology • 2024] Electroscincus zedi • Compound Osteoderms preserved in Amber reveal the Oldest Known Skink

Electroscincus zedi
Daza, Stanley, Heinicke, Leah, Doucet, Fenner, Arias, Smith, Peretti, Aung & Bauer, 2024 

Scincidae is one of the most species-rich and cosmopolitan clades of squamate reptiles. Abundant disarticulated fossil material has also been attributed to this group, however, no complete pre-Cenozoic crown-scincid specimens have been found. A specimen in Burmite (99 MYA) is the first fossil that can be unambiguously referred to this clade. Our analyses place it as nested within extant skinks, supported by the presence of compound osteoderms formed by articulated small ostedermites. The specimen has a combination of dorsal and ventral compound osteoderms and overlapping cycloid scales that is limited to skinks. We propose that this type of osteoderm evolved as a response to an increased overlap of scales, and to reduced stiffness of the dermal armour. Compound osteoderms could be a key innovation that facilitated diversification in this megadiverse family.

Electroscincus zedi. Fossil in ventral (a) and dorsal (b) views. Detail of the right foot (c, e) and osteoderms (d). X-ray of the whole specimen showing the skeletal remains, and several articulated and scattered osteoderms (f). Scale bar applies to the entire amber piece.
Electroscincus zedi, pectoral and pelvic girdle in ventral view (a, b). Numbers indicate digit number.

Systematic Paleontology.

Squamata Oppel, 1811.
Scincoidea Oppel, 1811.
Scincidae Gray, 1825.

Electroscincus zedi, gen. et sp. nov.

A small lizard with an estimated snout vent length (SVL) of 30 mm. Electroscincus zedi differs from all other known squamates from the Mesozoic by the presence of imbricate, compound osteoderms arranged in a staggered pattern around the body, supporting its placement in Scincidae (Figs. 2, 3). Its inclusion within Scincidae is also supported by its possession of cycloid scales around the body28 overlying compound osteoderms (in some Cordyliformes compound osteoderms are present in scales of the ventral surface only49,50). The osteoderms are very different from rectangular and imbricated paramacellodid osteoderms.

Holotype: Peretti Museum Foundation/ GRS GemResearch Swisslab AG (GRS-Ref-51036).

Type locality. Specimen comes from mid-Cretaceous (Late Albian/early Cenomanian) outcrops in the Myitkyina District, Hukawng Valley, Kachin Province, northern Myanmar, approximately 100 km west of the town of Myitkyina. Precise location of these mines, history of excavations, and stratigraphy of the Burmese amber deposits are summarized elsewhere51.

Etymology. The generic name is a combination of the Latin word for amber (electrum) and skink (scincus). The species epithet zedi refers to the bell-shaped stupas that house relics at Burmese Buddhist temples, referencing the smooth-sided amber housing the fossil remains, while also honoring David Temple, Curator of Paleontology at the Houston Museum of Natural Sciences (HMNS), for his contributions to palaeontology and public awareness of Burmite fossils (including the social conflict associated with its mining in Myanmar) by developing the exhibit “Amber Secrets, Feathers from the Age of Dinosaurs”.

Life reconstruction of Electroscincus zedi. Areas of the lizard not represented in the material available are depicted as blurred. Illustration by Stephanie Abramowicz.

Juan D. Daza, Edward L. Stanley, Matthew P. Heinicke, Chuck Leah, Daniel S. Doucet, Kelsey L. Fenner, J. Salvador Arias, Ru D. A. Smith, Adolf M. Peretti, Nyi Nyi Aung and Aaron M. Bauer. 2024. Compound Osteoderms preserved in Amber reveal the Oldest Known Skink. Scientific Reports. 14, 15662. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-024-66451-w

[Botany • 2024] Polygala qii (Polygalaceae) • A New Species from Limestone Landform in Southern Hunan, China

Polygala qii   X.L.Yu, J.J.Zhou & A.Liu, 

in Liu, Zhou, Li, Yu et Wu, 2024. 
石山远志  ||  DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.244.121759
Polygala qii, a new species, is described and illustrated from limestone landform in southern Hunan, China. The new species resembles P. fallax and P. arillata in flower structure of the plants, but readily differs from the latter two in having erect and shorter inflorescences (0.2–1cm VS 10–15cm VS 7–10cm), and fewer flowers (1–5 flowers VS 10–30 flowers VS 10–20 flowers), and the latter two have a later flowering period (late March to mid-April VS May to August VS May to October). And it is an extremely unique new species that will hibernate in the hot summer of July and August. Following the IUCN Red List Criteria, P. qii is assessed as ‘Data Deficient (DD)’.

Key words: Hunan province, limestone landform, new species, Polygala, taxonomy

Polygala qii sp. nov. 
A branches with flowers B top view of flower C side view of flower D anatomical structure of flower, sepals, petals and pistil E longitudinal section of flower F infructescence G capsule H seed.
Drawn by PhD Jing Tian.

Polygala qii sp. nov. 
A habit B plant C plant D branch with flowers E inflorescence F front view of flowers G infructescence H capsules and Seeds.
Photographed by Ang Liu.

 Polygala qii X.L.Yu, J.J.Zhou & A.Liu, sp. nov.
Diagnosis: This new species is similar to P. fallax Hemsl. and P. arillata Buch.-Ham. & D. Don, but it differs from the latter two in having erect and shorter inflorescences (0.2–1cm VS 10–15cm VS 7–10cm) and fewer flowers (1–5 flowers VS 10–30 flowers VS 10–20 flowers). Its caruncle is foam, and the latter two are helmeted in shape. Please refer to Fig. 3 and Table 1.

Etymology: The new species is named after Professor Cheng-jing QI (CSUFT&CSFI), who has made great contributions to the study of Hunan flora (Qi & Yu, 2002).

Vernacular name: The Chinese name of the new species is ‘石山远志’,and the pronunciation of the Chinese Pinyin is ‘shí shān yuǎn zhì’.

Ang Liu, Jian-jun Zhou, Xiong Li, Xun-lin Yu, Lei Wu. 2024. Polygala qii, A New Species of Polygalaceae from Limestone Landform in Southern Hunan, China. PhytoKeys. 244: 77-87. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.244.121759

[Entomology • 2024] Panorpa dimaluo, P. maershana, P. sicaura, P. vajra, ... • Taxonomy of the Panorpa issikiana Species Group (Mecoptera: Panorpidae), with Descriptions of Twenty New Species


Panorpa sp.

in Wang et Zhao, 2024. 

Twenty undescribed species of Panorpa Linnaeus, 1758 from southwestern China share some morphological similarities such as basally constricted male abdominal segment VII, loss of median process in male gonostyli, and greatly developed female laterotergites IX with the little-known species Panorpa issikiana Byers, 1970. Therefore, the P. issikiana species group is established to include these species, with descriptions of the new species, a checklist, keys to the species, and a distributional map provided. These new species are: P. chenyandongi Wang sp. nov.P. dalangba Wang sp. nov., P. dimaluo Wang sp. nov., P. huadianba Wang & Zhao sp. nov., P. jinfo Wang sp. nov., P. jizushana Wang sp. nov., P. leiqilongi Wang sp. nov., P. luojishana Wang sp. nov., P. maershana Wang sp. nov., P. meihuashana Wang sp. nov., P. niaodiaoshana Wang sp. nov., P. shengyingfeng Wang & Zhao sp. nov., P. shimianensis Wang sp. nov., P. sicaura Wang sp. nov., P. vajra Wang sp. nov., P. vajroides Wang & Zhao sp. nov., P. weixiensis Wang sp. nov., P. wenhai Wang sp. nov., P. wolongensis Wang sp. nov., and P. yucheni Wang sp. nov. All of them are distributed in southwestern China, including Chongqing, Guizhou, Sichuan and Yunnan. In addition, their systematic positions are briefly discussed. The historical problems of P. issikiana, the systematic position of this group in the genus Panorpa, and the relationships among its members are also discussed.

P. vajroides Wang & Zhao sp. nov., male

 P. shengyingfeng Wang & Zhao sp. nov., male

Panorpa huadianba Wang & Zhao sp. nov., male

 Panorpa issikiana

Ji-Shen Wang, Can-Jun Zhao. 2024. Taxonomy of the Panorpa issikiana Species Group, with Descriptions of Twenty New Species (Mecoptera: Panorpidae). Acta Entomologica Musei Nationalis Pragae. 64(1); 79-106. 

[Paleontology • 2024] Harenadraco prima • The first troodontid (Theropoda: Troodontidae) from the Upper Cretaceous Baruungoyot Formation of Mongolia


Harenadraco prima
S. Lee, Y.-N. Lee, Park, Kim, Badamkhatan, Idersaikhan & Tsogtbaatar, 2024
artwork by Yusik Choi

Among non-avian dinosaurs, troodontids are relatively rare but diverse. The Nemegt Basin in the Mongolian Gobi Desert, which incorporates three of the most fossiliferous beds in the world, is one such region with high troodontid diversity and has also produced eight troodontid taxa until now. The diversity of troodontids is biased towards the two formations, Nemegt and Djadochta. Despite its rich vertebrate fossil record, no troodontids have been described from the Baruungoyot Formation. This faunal absence is perplexing as the Baruungoyot Formation has often been considered intermediate between the other two units in stratigraphy and paleoenvironment, but there are no definite troodontid materials that could fill this ‘gap.’ Here, we report a new troodontid, Harenadraco prima gen. et sp. nov., from the Baruungoyot Formation in Hermiin Tsav, Mongolia. It is represented by an incomplete skeleton that mainly consists of partially articulated left hind limb elements. Harenadraco is small and lightly built like other troodontids, but its tarsometatarsus exhibits extreme slenderness comparable only to Philovenator among cursorial non-avian maniraptorans. It also implies high cursoriality that could be an adaptation of Harenadraco to its environment where potential prey animals like mammals and predators such as eudromaeosaurs were likely to be agile. The discovery of Harenadraco confirms the presence of troodontids in all three formations in the Nemegt Basin.

 Left pedal phalanges and the skeletal reconstruction of the preserved parts in Harenadraco prima (MPC-D 110/119, holotype). A, left pedal digits II–IV in lateral view. 
 M, skeletal reconstruction of Harenadraco prima (MPC-D 110/119, holotype) with missing parts in gray.
Abbreviations: II-3, pedal phalanx II-3; III-3, pedal phalanx III-3; IV-2, pedal phalanx IV-2.

 Life reconstruction of Harenadraco prima 
(artwork by Yusik Choi).

THEROPODA Marsh, 1881

TROODONTIDAE Gilmore, 1924

HARENADRACO PRIMA, gen. et sp. nov.

Diagnosis—A small-sized troodontid diagnosed by the following unique combination of characters (autapomorphies indicated with an asterisk): tall S-shaped medial margin of medial condyle of astragalocalcaneum in anterior view*, poorly developed flexor sulcus on the distal articular end of metatarsal II, which also lacks collateral ligament fossae*, metatarsal III excluded from the proximal end of the metatarsus in dorsal view (shared with Tochisaurus, Zanabazar, and Philovenator), metatarsal IV only slightly more robust than metatarsal II at the proximal end in ventral view (shared with Daliansaurus and Philovenator), pronounced ventral protrusion near the proximal end of metatarsal IV (shared with Liaoningvenator), extremely narrow proximal shaft of metatarsal IV*, greatly elongated flexor tubercle of pedal phalanx II-3 that reaches the shaft of the preceding phalanx when in articulation*, and the distal articular surface of pedal phalanx III-3 not ginglymoid*.

Etymology—The name of the genus is a composition of the Latin words harena (sand) and draco (dragon). The species name “prima” means first in Latin, referring to the taxon being the first troodontid from the Baruungoyot Formation.

Sungjin Lee, Yuong-Nam Lee, Jin-Young Park, Su-Hwan Kim, Zorigt Badamkhatan, Damdinsuren Idersaikhan and Khishigjav Tsogtbaatar. 2024. The first troodontid (Dinosauria: Theropoda) from the Upper Cretaceous Baruungoyot Formation of Mongolia. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. e2364746. DOI:  

[Botany • 2024] Sonerila quangnamensis (Melastomataceae: Sonerileae) • A New Species from the Truong Son Mountain Range, Vietnam

Sonerila quangnamensis K.S.Nguyen, H.H. Truong, Aver. & C.W.Lin, 

in Nguyen, Truong, Tran, Averyanov et Lin, 2024.
Sơn linh quảng nam  || 

Sonerila quangnamensis, a new species from Truong Son Mountain Range, Vietnam, is described and illustrated here. Like S. plagiocardia, S. quangnamensis has obliquely ovate leaves, which are unequal in size within each pair. However, S. quangnamensis is obviously distinct in several characters: the cross-section of its stems and petioles is terete (vs. 4-winged), the adaxial surface of its leaves is covered with hispidulous-pilose (vs. puberulous), the hypanthium is unribbed (vs. 6-ribbed), and its anthers are uniformly yellow (vs. purple to purplish-pink, yellow-tinged towards the base).

Keyword: biodiversity, endemism, Indochina, Sonerila plagiocardia, Sonerila montana, taxonomy


Sonerila quangnamensis K.S.Nguyen, H.H. Truong, Aver. & C.W.Lin.
A. Habit; B, B'. Portion of leaf, abaxial and adaxial surfaces; C, C'. Flower, front and side views; D. Bract; D'. Leaf-like bract; E. Longitudinal section of ovary; F, F'. Stamens, ventral and lateral views; G. Style and stigma.

Sonerila quangnamensis K.S.Nguyen, H.H. Truong, Aver. & C.W.Lin.
A, B. Habits; C. Stem, also showing petioles; D. Petiole; E, F. Portion of leaf, adaxial surface; G, H. Portion of leaf, abaxial surface; I. Inflorescence (flowers fall off), showing leaf-like bract; J. Inflorescence, also showing longitudinal section of ovary; K. Flower; L. Longitudinal section of ovary, also showing bracts (pointed out by the red arrow); M. Longitudinal section of an immature fruit; N. Infructescence; O. Mature fruit, top view, P. same, lateral view.
Photo A by H.H. Truong.

Sonerila quangnamensis K.S.Nguyen, H.H.Truong, Aver. & C.W.Lin, sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Resembling S. plagiocardia in its obliquely ovate foliage, S. quangnamensis clearly differs in several key characteristics. It has terete (vs. 4-winged) stems and petioles, hispidulous-pilose (vs. puberulous) adaxial leaf surface, unribbed (vs. 6-ribbed) hypanthium, and uniformly yellow (vs. purple to purplish-pink, yellow-tinged towards the base) anthers.

Etymology: The specific epithet refers to its type locality, Quang Nam province. The Vietnamese name “Sơn linh quảng nam” is proposed.

Khang Sinh Nguyen, Hoang Hap Truong, Van Tien Tran, Leonid V. Averyanov and Che Wei Lin. 2024. Sonerila quangnamensis (Tribe Sonerileae, Melastomataceae), A New Species from the Truong Son Mountain Range, Vietnam. Taiwania.  69(3); 288-293. DOI: 10.6165/tai.2024.69.288