Monday, June 18, 2018

[Entomology • 2018] Tonzidae fam. nov. • A New Family Group Name for the Genus Tonza (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutoidea), based on Immature Stages of Tonza citrorrhoa


Tonza citrorrhoa  Meyrick, 1905
Tonzidae 
Kobayashi & Sohn (2018) fam. nov.

in Kobayashi, Matsuoka, Kimura, et al., 2018.

Abstract

The systematic position of Tonza Walker, 1864 is re-evaluated, based on the characteristics of immature stages and DNA barcodes. Larvae and pupae of Tonza citrorrhoa Meyrick, 1905 are described and illustrated for the first time. Larvae of this species form a loose web among the leaves and branches of the host plant, Putranjiva matsumurae Koidz. (Putranjivaceae Endl.). The immature stages of Tonza exhibit four unique apomorphies including: in the larva, the prolegs on A5 and A6 absent, and the seta L2 on the A1–A8 very small; in the pupa, four minute knobs are positioned in the middle portion on abdominal segments V and VI; while its caudal processes possess a W-shaped spine with numerous minute spines. These characteristics clearly distinguish Tonza from other yponomeutoid families and hence, we propose a new family group name, Tonzidae Kobayashi & Sohn fam. nov., for the genus Tonza. Existing DNA barcode data suggest a relationship with Glyphipterigidae Stainton, 1854. The family level status of Tonzidae fam. nov. provides a hypothesis that needs to be tested with larger molecular data.

Keywords: Adenosma; Bedelliidae; DNA barcoding; Putranjiva matsumurae; leaf webber


Class Hexapoda Blainville, 1816 
Order Lepidoptera Linnaeus, 1758 

Superfamily Yponomeutoidea Stephens, 1829 

Family Tonzidae Kobayashi & Sohn fam. nov. 

Type genus: Tonza Walker, 1864. 

Fig. 1. Female adult of Tonza citrorrhoa Meyrick, 1905 (OPU-IN-LE 2018IV0005),
host: Putranjiva matsumurae Koidz., from Yonaguni Is., Okinawa Pref., Japan.
A. Adult specimen. B. Resting posture of adult, dorso-lateral view.
Scale bar: 2 mm.

Fig. 1. Female adult of Tonza citrorrhoa Meyrick, 1905 (OPU-IN-LE 2018IV0005), host: Putranjiva matsumurae Koidz., from Yonaguni Is., Okinawa Pref., Japan.  Scale bar: 2 mm.

Fig. 3. Larvae and pupae of Tonza citrorrhoa Meyrick, 1905 on Putranjiva matsumurae Koidz.
A. Tree of hostplant and larval webs. B. Later larva forming web on young leaves. C. Later larva, lateral view.

Diagnosis Adult. Maxillary palpi three-segmented; ocelli and chaetosema absent (Fig. 8C–D); antennae slightly longer than or same length as forewing (Fig. 1); forewings with slightly protruding apex and tornus; forewing termen oblique or concave; only two radial sector veins present, RS1 on apex and RS2 on termen (Kobayashi et al. 2015; Fig. 1F); in the male genitalia (Kobayashi et al. 2015; Fig. 2A–D), uncus small with a pair of long processes; socii with long terminal setae; valva elongate with several small spines and plate arising from middle to base of valva; in the female genitalia (Kobayashi et al. 2015; Fig. 2E), lamella antevaginalis sclerotized, covering sternite VIII; antrum slender; inception of ductus seminalis at the middle of corpus bursae (after Kobayashi et al. 2015).

....

Genus Tonza Walker, 1864 
Tonza Walker, 1864: 1011 – Kobayashi et al. (2015: 68–69) (redescription). 

Type species: T. purella Walker, 1864.


1. Tonza purella Walker, 1864
Distribution: Australia 

2. Tonza citrorrhoa Meyrick, 1905
Distribution: India; Sri Lanka; China (Taiwan); Japan (Kagoshima, Okinawa); Indonesia, identity not certain; Philippines, identity not certain


3. Tonza callicitra Meyrick, 1913
Distribution: Solomon Islands (Bougainville; type locality, types in NHMUK), New Guinea, New Ireland, New Britain, E. Sula: Mangole, Salomo Archipelago (Shortland I.).






Shigeki Kobayashi, Haruka Matsuoka, Masaaki Kimura, Jae-Cheon Sohn, Yutaka Yoshiyasu and David C. Lees. 2018. Designation of A New Family Group Name, Tonzidae fam. nov., for the Genus Tonza (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutoidea), based on Immature Stages of Tonza citrorrhoaEuropean Journal of Taxonomy. 443; 1–32. DOI:   10.5852/ejt.2018.443

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