Friday, January 27, 2023

[Botany • 2023] Commelina danxiaensis (Commelinaceae) • A New Species from Guangdong, China

 

 Commelina danxiaensis Q.Fan, Long Y.Wang & W.Guo, 

in Wang, Zhao, Chen, Huang, ... et Fan, 2023.
丹霞鸭跖草  ||  DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.218.91199

Abstract
Commelina danxiaensis (Commelinaceae), a remarkable new species from Mount Danxia, Guangdong Province, China, is described and illustrated. This species is similar to C. communis in inflorescences and flowers but readily distinguishable in its nearly erect stems, larger flowers, and different petal colouration.

Keywords: Commelinales, morphology, Mount Danxia, phylogeny, taxonomy

 Commelina danxiaensis Q.Fan, Long Y.Wang & W.Guo, sp. nov.
A habitat B involucral bract C inflorescence D flower E fertile, sterile stamens and pistil F fruit in transverse section G seed.


 Commelina danxiaensis Q.Fan, Long Y.Wang & W.Guo, sp. nov.
A habitat, growing on top of the Danxia landform B habit, plants ascending C–E leaf-blade, lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate F leaf-sheaths, with pubescence G–H flower I inflorescence J spathe K fruit in transverse section, 2 seeds per valve L seed.
 Scale bars: 1 cm (D, E, G, I, J); 3 mm (K, L).

 Commelina danxiaensis Q.Fan, Long Y.Wang & W.Guo, sp. nov.
Chinese name. 丹霞鸭跖草 [dān xiá yā zhǐ cǎo]
 
Diagnosis: Commelina danxiaensis is morphologically similar to C. communis due to their diffuse stems, lanceolate leaf-blades and approximate floral forms. However, it differs in its ascending stems (Fig. 4B), tomentose leaf-blades and sheaths (Fig. 4C–F), and sky-blue lateral petals with a white basal third (Fig. 4G).

Distribution and habitat: Commelina danxiaensis is only known from the type locality, Mount Danxia, Renhua County, Guangdong Province, China. Only two populations have been found, with several hundred individuals. It grows on dry mountaintops of the Danxia formation at elevations of 100–350 m.


 Long-Yuan Wang, Wan-Yi Zhao, Zai-Xiong Chen, Wei-Cheng Huang, Ming-Yan Ding, Jin-Chu Luo, Wen-Bo Liao, Wei Guo and Qiang Fan. 2023. Commelina danxiaensis (Commelinaceae), A New Species from Guangdong, China. PhytoKeys. 218: 117-126. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.218.91199

[Ichthyology • 2023] Horaglanis populiEvolution in the Dark: Unexpected Genetic Diversity and Morphological Stasis in the Blind, Aquifer-dwelling Catfish Horaglanis (Siluriformes: Clariidae)


Horaglanis populi
Raghavan, Sundar, Arjun, Britz & Dahanukar, 2023
 

Abstract
The lateritic aquifers of the southern Indian state of Kerala harbour a unique assemblage of enigmatic stygobitic fishes which are encountered very rarely, only when they surface during the digging and cleaning of homestead wells. Here, we focus on one of the most unusual members of this group, the catfish Horaglanis, a genus of rarely-collected, tiny, blind, pigment less, and strictly aquifer-residing species. A six-year exploratory and citizen-science backed survey supported by molecular phylogenetic analysis reveals novel insights into the diversity, distribution and population structure of Horaglanis. The genus is characterized by high levels of intraspecific and interspecific genetic divergence, with phylogenetically distinct species recovered above a 7.0% genetic-distance threshold in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene. Contrasting with this deep genetic divergence, however, is a remarkable stasis in external morphology. We identify and describe a new cryptic species, Horaglanis populi, a lineage that is the sister group of all currently known species. All four species are represented by multiple haplotypes. Mismatch distribution reveals that populations have not experienced recent expansions.

KeywordsCryptic species, groundwater, Kerala, molecular ecology, stygobitic, subterranean


Horaglanis populi in life. B Typical laterite rock showing tiny pores. C Homestead lateritic dug-out well in Kerala – habitat of Horaglanis.


Horaglanis populi holotype (KUFOS.F.2022.101, 32.5 mm standard length) in A life and B–F immediately after preservation.
A, B Lateral view; C ventral view; D dorsal view; E lateral view of head; F ventral view of head.

Horaglanis populi, sp. nov. 

Diagnosis: A species of Horaglanis as evidenced by the absence of eyes and pigment, a blood-red body in life, a highly reduced pectoral fin in which only a shortened spine is present, an elongate body with long dorsal and anal fins extending to the base of the caudal peduncle, and four pairs of well-developed barbels. Genetically, Horaglanis populi forms a distinct clade, the sister group to the other three congeners (Fig. 2), from which it differs by a genetic uncorrected p distance of 13.8–17.4% in the COI gene, and between 12.3–14.0% in the cyt b gene. Specifically, H. populi differs from all three known species in the barcoding gene (Supplementary Table S4) in positions 106 (C vs. T), 115 (T vs. C), 142 (T vs. C), 171 (G vs. A), 183 (T vs. C), 216 (A vs. C or T), 234 (C vs. T), 237 (G vs. A), 265 (T vs. G), 270 (C vs. A), 312 (A vs. C or T), 324 (A vs. C), 325 (T vs. C) 330 (G. vs. A or T), 350 (G vs. T), 363 (T vs. G), 421 (C vs. G), 448 (C vs. T), 481 (G vs. T), 489 (C vs. T), 496 (A vs. G), 517 (c vs. T), 528 (G vs. T), 533 (G vs. A), 538 (A vs. C), 539 (A vs. G), 542 (T vs. C), 565 (T vs. A), 576 (G vs. T or C), 597 (A vs. C), 618 (C vs. T), 633 (G vs. A) and 636 (C vs. T).

EtymologyThe species name populi, genitive of the Latin noun populus people, honours the invaluable contributions made by interested members of the public in the southern Indian state of Kerala, helping to document the biodiversity of subterranean and groundwater systems, including the discovery of this new species.


Rajeev Raghavan, Remya L. Sundar, C.P. Arjun, Ralf Britz and Neelesh Dahanukar. 2023. Evolution in the Dark: Unexpected Genetic Diversity and Morphological Stasis in the Blind, Aquifer-dwelling Catfish Horaglanis. Vertebrate Zoology. 73: 57-74. DOI: 10.3897/vz.73.e98367


[Botany • 2022] Mammillaria morentiniana (Cactaceae) • A New Endemic Species from San Luis Potosí, Mexico


Mammillaria morentiniana  Gonz.-Zam., D. Aquino, J. Mohl & Dan. Sánchez,

in González-Zamora, Aquino, Mohl & Sánchez, 2022.

Abstract  
We describe a new endemic densely spined Mammillaria from San Luis Potosí, Mexico. The new species, named M. morentiniana, is distinctive by the presence of a globose to shortly cylindric stem with several glabrous, reddish central spines, radial spines that protrude from the plant like white needle-bristles, and small flowers with pale yellow, lanceolate tepals. We compare it with similar and sympatric species of M. ser. Stylothelae. We include data about habitat and the preliminary status of conservation of the new taxon.

KEYWORDS: Cactaceae, Cacteae, Mammillaria, Mammillaria ser. Stylothelae, Mexico, morphology, multivariate statistics, new species, species delimitation

Morphology of Mammillaria morentiniana during dry and rainy seasons.
– A: plant flowering in habitat; B: stem and roots; C: stems during dry season covered by radial spines resembling white needle-bristles; D: stems during rainy season showing hydrated and expanded tubercles; E: close-up of tubercle and areole bearing six central spines; F: plant bearing red and claviform fruits; G: flower in longitudinal section, outside and inside views; H: seeds.
 – Scale bars: A = primary graduations of 1 cm, secondary graduations of 1 mm; B = 10 mm; E = graduations of 0.5 mm; G = 10 mm; H = 1 mm.

Mammillaria morentiniana Gonz.-Zam., D. Aquino, J. Mohl & Dan. Sánchez, sp. nov.  

Holotype: Mexico, San Luis Potosí, Santa María del Río, 2056 m, 28 Aug 2019, P. González-Zamora 11 (IBUG 215375; isotype: SLPM).

Diagnosis — Mammillaria morentiniana is distinguishable from M. bocasana, M. crinita and M. nana by the presence of more than 4 central spines (mean = 5), and differs from M. schwarzii, which presents, on average, 7 thinner central spines (Supplemental content online; Fig. 2). Mammillaria morentiniana bears fewer than 32 straight radial spines (mean = 24.49), whereas M. schwarzii bears more than 32 straight radial spines (mean = 38.98). Mammillaria morentiniana has completely red central spines and black, non-arillate seeds, whereas M. bocasana has red central spines with a yellow base and reddish brown, arillate seeds. Mammillaria morentiniana has glabrous spines and straight radial spines, whereas M. crinita has pubescent spines and tortuous or straight radial spines. Mammillaria morentiniana differs from the sympatric M. nana because the latter has tuberous roots and 0 or 1 pubescent central spines.
 
Etymology — The specific epithet is dedicated to the Morentín family from Colima, Mexico. Don Marco and Doña Laura spent their lives preserving the flora in W Mexico. They inspired the first author to observe and admire the local and xerophytic flora.

Comparison of the stem (left), areole, central and radial spines (right) in the populations of Mammillaria ser. Stylothelae included in the analysis.
– A: Mammillaria sp.; B: M. bocasana (bocasana_SLP); C: M. bocasana (bocasana_SLP2);
D: M. crinita (c_crinita_QRO); E: M. crinita (c_crinita_QRO2); F: M. crinita (c_crinita_GTO); G: M. crinita subsp. leucantha (c_leucantha); H: M. crinita subsp. wildii (c_wildii);
I: M. nana (nana); J: M. schwarzii (schwarzii).
– Scale bars: A–E, G, I, J = graduations of 1 mm; F, H = 10 mm.


Pedro González-Zamora, David Aquino, Jonathan Mohl and Daniel Sánchez. 2022. A New Endemic Species of Mammillaria (Cactaceae) from San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Willdenowia. 52 (3); 359-372. DOI: 10.3372/wi.52.52305 
 

[Herpetology • 2023] Cyrtodactylus thongphaphumensis • A New Species of the Cyrtodactylus brevipalmatus Group (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the uplands of western Thailand


Cyrtodactylus thongphaphumensis 
Grismer, Rujirawan, Chomdej, Suwannapoom, Yodthong, Aksornneam & Aowphol, 2023

ตุ๊กกายทองผาภูมิ  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1141.97624

Abstract
An integrative systematic analysis recovered a new species of the Cyrtodactylus brevipalmatus group from the uplands of Thong Pha Phum National Park, Kanchanaburi Province in western Thailand. Cyrtodactylus thongphaphumensis sp. nov. is deeply embedded within the brevipalmatus group, bearing an uncorrected pairwise sequence divergence of 7.6–22.3% from all other species based on a 1,386 base pair segment of the mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 gene (ND2) and adjacent tRNAs. It is diagnosable from all other species in the brevipalmatus group by statistically significant mean differences in meristic and normalized morphometric characters as well as differences in categorical morphology. A multiple factor analysis recovered its unique and non-overlapping placement in morphospace as statistically significantly different from that of all other species in the brevipalmatus group. The description of this new species contributes to a growing body of literature underscoring the high degree of herpetological diversity and endemism across the sky-island archipelagos of upland montane tropical forest habitats in Thailand, which like all other upland tropical landscapes, are becoming some of the most imperiled ecosystems on the planet.

Keywords: Bent-toed gecko, genetics, Indochina, integrative taxonomy, montane forests, morphology


Adult male holotype of Cyrtodactylus thongphaphumensis sp. nov. ZMKU R 00953 (field no. AA 06933) from Thong Pha Phum National Park, Pilok Subdistrict, Thong Pha Phum District, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand.
 A dorsal view B ventral view C dorsal view of head and ventral view of pelvic region D dorsal view of tail and E ventral view of tail in preservative F holotype in life.

 Cyrtodactylus thongphaphumensis sp. nov.
 Suggested Common Name: Thong Pha Phum Bent-toed Gecko, 
ตุ๊กกายทองผาภูมิ

DiagnosisCyrtodactylus thongphaphumensis sp. nov. can be separated from all other species of the brevipalmatus group by the combination of having 12–14 supralabials, 8–10 infralabials, 30–36 paravertebral tubercles, 19–21 rows of longitudinally arranged tubercles, 30–34 longitudinal rows of ventrals, 150–173 transverse rows of ventrals, 8–10 expanded subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe, 11–14 unexpanded subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe, 20–24 total subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; seven or eight expanded subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger, 10–12 unexpanded subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger, 18–20 total subdigital lamellae on the fourth finger; 12–16 total number of enlarged femoral scales, 12–16 total number of femoral pores in males; 15 precloacal pores in males; 15–17 enlarged precloacals; enlarged femorals and enlarged precloacals not continuous; proximal femorals smaller than distal femorals; small tubercles on forelimbs and flanks; large dorsolateral caudal tubercles and wide ventrolateral caudal fringe; ventrolateral caudal fringe composed scales of different size; tail square in cross-section; maximum SVL 76.6 mm; 3–5 dark transverse body bands (Table 5).
...


Distribution: Cyrtodactylus thongphaphumensis sp. nov. is currently known only from the type locality at Thong Pha Phum National Park, Pilok Subdistrict, Thong Pha Phum District, Kanchanaburi Province, Thailand (Fig. 1).

EtymologyThe specific epithet thongphaphumensis is in reference to the type locality of Thong Pha Phum National Park.


L. Lee Grismer, Attapol Rujirawan, Siriwadee Chomdej, Chatmongkon Suwannapoom, Siriporn Yodthong, Akrachai Aksornneam and Anchalee Aowphol. 2023. A New Species of the Cyrtodactylus brevipalmatus Group (Squamata, Gekkonidae) from the uplands of western Thailand.  ZooKeys. 1141: 93-118. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1141.97624

[Herpetology • 2023] Litoria hastula • A New Species of Torrent-breeding Treefrog (Anura: Pelodryadidae) from the mountains of Papua, Indonesia, with New Records and Observations of Litoria dorsivena (Tyler, 1968)


Litoria hastula 
Oliver, Iskandar & Richards, 2023

photographs by S.J. Richards.

Abstract
The mountains of New Guinea are home to species-rich but poorly understood communities of stream or torrent-breeding pelodryadid treefrogs. Here we describe a new species of moderately sized torrent-breeding Litoria from the mountains of Papua Province, Indonesia. The new species is most similar to Litoria dorsivena but differs from that species in aspects of body size, skin texture and especially the shape of the snout. Based on recent collections, we also present new data on the distribution and colour in life of L. dorsivena. Both species show marked sexual size dimorphism when compared to most other pelodryadid treefrogs, and the colour pattern of the new species may also vary between males and females. The torrent-breeding treefrogs of New Guinea remain poorly known and, given declines of ecologically similar pelodryadids in Australia, should be a priority group for taxonomic research and population monitoring.

Keywords: Cryptic extinction risk, New Guinea, sexual size dimorphism, taxonomy

Colouration of Litoria hastula sp. nov. in life:
A lateral view of adult male paratype SAMA R72334; B hidden coloration in thighs of male paratype SAMA R72335; C lateral view of adult female paratype MZB Amph.32872; D ventral view of adult female paratype MZB Amph.32872.
All photographs by S.J. Richards.


Litoria hastula sp. nov.

Diagnosis: A species of Litoria that can be distinguished from all congeners by the following unique combination of characters: moderate size and strong sexual size dimorphism (4 adult males 30.4–31.8 mm SVL, one adult female 48.9 mm SVL); snout moderately long (EN/IN 0.69–0.80), with sharply acuminate tip and with concave dorsal surface; canthus rostralis nearly straight, sharply defined; limbs moderately long (TL/SVL 0.55–0.60); finger webbing moderate, not extending beyond third phalanx between Finger 3 and Finger 4; toe webbing extensive, extending to penultimate phalanx between all digits except Toe 1 and Toe 2; dorsal skin relatively smooth with scattered small tubercles; heel with 2–3 distinct conical tubercles; vomeropalatines prominent; vocal slits present in males; dorsal colouration predominately light to mid-brown with scattered darker-brown spots and or blotches; venter largely buff with little to no pattern; and advertisement calls produced in series of 5–7 calls, each comprising a single short note that is unpulsed or slightly pulsatile but may become longer, with discrete pulses, in terminal calls of the series.

Etymology: Latin, “little spear’, combining spear hasta” with the diminutive suffix “-ula” in reference to the elongate and sharply pointed snout of the species.

Details of habitat at the type locality for Litoria hastula sp. nov.:
 A dense and very mossy mid-montane forest, and B small fast-flowing rocky stream. The type series was collected from low vegetation along this stream at night.
 All photographs by S.J. Richards.


Paul M. Oliver, Djoko T. Iskandar and Stephen J. Richards. 2023. A New Species of Torrent-breeding Treefrog (Pelodryadidae: Litoria) from the mountains of Papua, Indonesia, with New Records and Observations of Litoria dorsivena (Tyler, 1968). Vertebrate Zoology. 73: 127-139. DOI: 10.3897/vz.73.e91111

[Mollusca • 2023] Systematic Revision of the Snorkel Snail Genus Rhiostoma Benson, 1860 (Gastropoda: Caenogastropoda: Cyclophoridae) with Descriptions of New Species

 

Live snails of the species group I 
Rhiostoma haughtoni specimen CUMZ 10048/2 from Dhammathat Cave, Myanmar 
B–D Rhiostoma samuiense B specimen CUMZ 3989 from Samui Island, Surat Thani C specimen CUMZ 3996 from Perlis, Malaysia (topotype of Rhiostoma chupingense) D specimen CUMZ 4713 of “proboscis” morphotype from Surat Thani 
E, F copulation pair of Rhiostoma samuiense specimen CUMZ 4713 from Surat Thani shows unsuccessfully transferred spermatophore (female on the right in E and on the left in F)

Live snails of the species group II 
A Rhiostoma housei specimen CUMZ 3987 from Ao Manow, Prachuap Khiri Khan 
Rhiostoma hainesi from Khao Soi Dao, Chanthaburi B without breathing device  
Rhiostoma jalorensis specimen CUMZ 3994 from Wat Tham Sue, Krabi. 

in Tongkerd, Tumpeesuwan, Inkhavilay, Prasankok, ... et Sutcharit, 2023.
All figures are not to scale.

Abstract
The snorkel snail genus Rhiostoma Benson, 1860 is comprised of terrestrial cyclophorid snails with wide-ranging species diversity and radiation in Southeast Asia. The typical characters of the genus are a depressed shell, a detached and descending portion of the last whorl with a distinctive peristomal breathing device attached, and a calcareous cup-shaped operculum. Herein, we have revised the systematics of extant species based on shell morphology combined with COI barcoding. From these thirty recognised species, twelve are described as new to science: R. ? amarapuraense sp. nov., R. anceyi sp. nov., R. breviocollar sp. nov., R. ebenozostera sp. nov., R. cheliopegma sp. nov., R. furfurosum sp. nov., R. gnomus, sp. nov., R. lannaense sp. nov., R. laoense sp. nov., R. platymorpha sp. nov., R. rhothonotaphrosa sp. nov., and R. tigrina sp. nov. All conchological characters are provided via illustrations of type specimens and living snails, and descriptions of the shells and radulae. Phylogenetic analysis based on partial COI gene sequences strongly supports the designated morphospecies and a monophyletic Rhiostoma, confirming that all pterocyclinid snails with a calcareous, cup-shaped operculum belong to the same clade. A high intra-specific divergence was observed in R. jalorensis and R. housei populations from locations in close proximity, suggesting a lower dispersal and higher level of isolation. The low inter-specific divergence found in R. hainesi, R. samuiense, R. asiphon, and R. rhothonotaphrosa sp. nov. supports their recent diversification and local adaptation, and is congruent with their marked morphological differences. Finally, nine formerly Rhiostoma-placed species were reclassified into either the genus Cyclotus or the genus Opisthoporus.

Keywords: DNA barcoding, endemic, Indochina, limestones, operculum, Prosobranchia, taxonomy
 
Live snails of the species group I 
Rhiostoma haughtoni specimen CUMZ 10048/2 from Dhammathat Cave, Myanmar B–D Rhiostoma samuiense B specimen CUMZ 3989 from Samui Island, Surat Thani C specimen CUMZ 3996 from Perlis, Malaysia (topotype of Rhiostoma chupingense) D specimen CUMZ 4713 of “proboscis” morphotype from Surat Thani E, F copulation pair of Rhiostoma samuiense specimen CUMZ 4713 from Surat Thani shows unsuccessfully transferred spermatophore (female on the right in E and on the left in F), and the red arrows indicate a spermatophore illustrated in Fig. 7D.
All figures are not to scale.

Live snails of the species group II
A Rhiostoma housei specimen CUMZ 3987 from Ao Manow, Prachuap Khiri Khan B, C Rhiostoma hainesi from Khao Soi Dao, Chanthaburi B without breathing device and C with long breathing device D Rhiostoma jalorensis specimen CUMZ 3994 from Wat Tham Sue, Krabi. All figures are not to scale.
Photographs: P. Tongkerd (B, C).
 

Piyoros Tongkerd, Sakboworn Tumpeesuwan, Khamla Inkhavilay, Pongpun Prasankok, Ekgachai Jeratthitikul, Somsak Panha and Chirasak Sutcharit. 2023. Systematic Revision of the Snorkel Snail Genus Rhiostoma Benson, 1860 (Gastropoda, Caenogastropoda, Cyclophoridae) with Descriptions of New Species. ZooKeys. 1142: 1-144. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1142.90097

[Botany • 2023] Cryptocoryne esquerionii (Araceae) • A remarkable New Species discovered by A Citizen Scientist in Zamboanga Peninsula, southwestern Philippines


Cryptocoryne esquerionii Naive & Wongso, 

in Naive, Reagan, Wongso & Jacobsen, 2023. 

Abstract
A species new to science, Cryptocoryne esquerionii Naive & Wongso from the island of Mindanao is herein described and illustrated. It differs significantly from all other Cryptocoryne species by its yellow, colliculate spathe with a long acuminate apex. A detailed description, colour plates, phenology, geographical distribution information and a provisional conservation status are provided. The discovery of this new endemic species further highlights the importance of the citizen science in exploring and conserving the Philippine biodiversity.

Keywords: aroids, Cryptocoryne, Mindanao, Philippines, Zamboanga del Norte

 
Cryptocoryne esquerionii Naive & Wongso


Mark Arcebal K. Naive, Joseph T. Villanueva Reagan, Suwidji Wongso and Niels Jacobsen. 2023. Cryptocoryne esquerionii (Araceae), A remarkable New Species discovered by A Citizen Scientist in Zamboanga Peninsula, southwestern Philippines. Nordic Journal of Botany. e03892. DOI: 10.1111/njb.03892

[Entomology • 2023] Parampelomyia yukawai • Another New Gall Midge Genus (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) associated with Vitaceae, with Description of A New Species developing in Flower Buds of the Porcelain Berry in Japan


Parampelomyia yukawai Elsayed and Tokuda,

in Elsayed, Ichita & Tokuda, 2023.
photographs by A. K. Elsayed  twitter.com/Ayman77_77 

Abstract
We describe a gall midge Parampelomyia yukawai Elsayed and Tokuda gen. nov. sp. nov. belonging to the subtribe Schizomyiina (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae: Asphondyliini) based on an integrative taxonomic study. This species forms barely-swollen flower bud galls on the porcelain berry Ampelopsis brevipedunculata var. heterophylla (Vitaceae) in Japan. The new genus is distinguishable from all known schizomyiine genera by tarsomere I lacking a ventroapical extension, the bulbous base of the protrusible portion of the ovipositor, the fused and sclerotized female cerci, the bidentate gonostylus, and the larval terminal abdominal segment that bears two corniform, two asetose and six setose papillae. The new genus is compared with and separated from the similar genera Schizomyia and Ampelomyia morphologically and phylogenetically.

Keywords: Ampelopsis, Asphondyliini, grape, Schizomyiina, phylogeny, integrative taxonomy

Parampelomyia yukawai sp. nov. 
 A Flower bud gall on Ampelopsis brevipedunculata var. heterophylla (Vitaceae). B Mature larva in a cut-open flower bud. C Freshly emerged female. D Freshly emerged male.
(photographs by A. K. Elsayed)

Parampelomyia Elsayed and Tokuda, 2023, gen. nov.
 
Parampelomyia yukawai Elsayed and Tokuda, sp. nov.

Derivatio nominis: The generic name is composed of the Latinized Greek word, para, meaning near to, and the grape-associated gall midge genus name Ampelomyia.


Ayman Khamis Elsayed, Tadao Ichita and Makoto Tokuda. 2023. Parampelomyia, Another New Gall Midge Genus (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) associated with Vitaceae, with Description of A New Species developing in Flower Buds of the Porcelain Berry in Japan. Arthropod Systematics & Phylogeny. 81: 165-177. DOI: 10.3897/asp.81.e86898

[Herpetology • 2023] Sibon canopy, S. vieirai, Dipsas welborni, etc. • A Consolidated Phylogeny of Snail-eating Snakes (Serpentes, Dipsadini), with the Description of Five New Species from Colombia, Ecuador, and Panama


Photographs of some species of Sibon and Dipsas in life 
Sibon canopy sp. nov. from El Valle de Antón, Coclé province, Panama b S. irmelindicaprioae sp. nov. holotype from Puerto Indio, Darién province, Panama 
c S. marleyae sp. nov. from Verdecanandé, Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador d S. vieirai sp. nov. from Mashpi Amagusa Reserve, Pichincha province, Ecuador 
Dipsas sp. from Cerro Gaital, Coclé province, Panama f Dipsas welborni sp. nov. from Vía a Nuevo Paraíso, Zamora Chinchipe province, Ecuador.

Arteaga & Batista, 2023

Abstract
A molecular phylogeny of the Neotropical snail-eating snakes (tribe Dipsadini Bonaparte, 1838) is presented that includes 60 of the 133 species currently recognized. There is morphological and phylogenetic support for four new species of Sibon Fitzinger, 1826 and one of Dipsas Laurenti, 1768, which are described here based on their unique combination of molecular, meristic, and color pattern characteristics. Plesiodipsas Harvey et al., 2008 is designated as a junior synonym of Dipsas and additional evidence is presented to support the transfer of the genus Geophis Wagler, 1830 to the tribe Dipsadini. Two of the subspecies of S. nebulatus (Linnaeus, 1758) are elevated to full species status. Insight into additional undescribed cryptic diversity within the S. nebulatus species complex is provided. Evidence that supports the existence of an undescribed species previously confused with D. temporalis is provided, as well as the first country record of S. ayerbeorum Vera-Pérez, 2019 in Ecuador with a comment on the ontogenetic variation of the latter. Finally, photographs of Colombian, Ecuadorian, and Panamanian snail-eating snakes are provided.
 
Keywords: Caenophidia, Colubroidea, Dipsas, Plesiodipsas, Sibon, Squamata, systematics, taxonomy



Photographs of some species of Sibon in life
S. irmelindicaprioae sp. nov. MHCH 3269 from Chucantí Reserve, Darién province, Panama b S. irmelindicaprioae sp. nov. from Morromico Reserve, Chocó department, Colombia
 c Sibon canopy sp. nov. from Cerro Gaital, Coclé province, Panama
d, e S. annulatus from Centro Manu, Limón province, Costa Rica f S. ayerbeorum ZSFQ 5066 from Canandé Biological Reserve, Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador 
S. marleyae sp. nov. holotype ZSFQ 5065 h S. marleyae sp. nov. ZSFQ 5068 i S. marleyae sp. nov. neonate from Verdecanandé, Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador.

Photographs of some species of Sibon and Dipsas in life 
Sibon canopy sp. nov. from El Valle de Antón, Coclé province, Panama b S. irmelindicaprioae sp. nov. holotype MHCH 3143 from Puerto Indio, Darién province, Panama c S. marleyae sp. nov. from Verdecanandé, Esmeraldas Province, Ecuador d S. vieirai sp. nov. from Mashpi Amagusa Reserve, Pichincha province, Ecuador e Dipsas sp. from Cerro Gaital, Coclé province, Panama f Dipsas welborni sp. nov. ZSFQ 5060 from Vía a Nuevo Paraíso, Zamora Chinchipe province, Ecuador.
 

 Alejandro Arteaga and Abel Batista. 2023. A Consolidated Phylogeny of Snail-eating Snakes (Serpentes, Dipsadini), with the Description of Five New Species from Colombia, Ecuador, and Panama. ZooKeys. 1143: 1-49.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1143.93601
 khamai.bio/news/dicaprio_sheth_new_species_snakes.html
 twitter.com/ale_field_lab/status/1618348700304297984 


Thursday, January 26, 2023

[Paleontology • 2023] Funcusvermis gilmorei • Triassic Stem Caecilian (Lissamphibia: Gymnophionomorpha) supports dissorophoid Origin of Living Amphibians


Funcusvermis gilmorei
Kligman, Gee, Marsh, Nesbitt, Smith, Parker & Stocker, 2023 


Abstract
Living amphibians (Lissamphibia) include frogs and salamanders (Batrachia) and the limbless worm-like caecilians (Gymnophiona). The estimated Palaeozoic era gymnophionan–batrachian molecular divergence suggests a major gap in the record of crown lissamphibians prior to their earliest fossil occurrences in the Triassic period. Recent studies find a monophyletic Batrachia within dissorophoid temnospondyls, but the absence of pre-Jurassic period caecilian fossils has made their relationships to batrachians and affinities to Palaeozoic tetrapods controversial. Here we report the geologically oldest stem caecilian—a crown lissamphibian from the Late Triassic epoch of Arizona, USA—extending the caecilian record by around 35 million years. These fossils illuminate the tempo and mode of early caecilian morphological and functional evolution, demonstrating a delayed acquisition of musculoskeletal features associated with fossoriality in living caecilians, including the dual jaw closure mechanism, reduced orbits and the tentacular organ. The provenance of these fossils suggests a Pangaean equatorial origin for caecilians, implying that living caecilian biogeography reflects conserved aspects of caecilian function and physiology, in combination with vicariance patterns driven by plate tectonics. These fossils reveal a combination of features that is unique to caecilians alongside features that are shared with batrachian and dissorophoid temnospondyls, providing new and compelling evidence supporting a single origin of living amphibians within dissorophoid temnospondyls.


Digital renderings of holotype, paratype, and referred specimens of Funcusvermis gilmorei.
a–c, Composite reconstruction of craniomandibular elements in lateral (a), medial (b) and dorsal (c) views. d,e, Holotype right pseudodentary (PEFO 43891) in medial and ventral views. f, Paratype right pseudodentary (PEFO 46284) in medial view. g–i, Referred left maxillopalatine (PEFO 46481) in medial (g), ventral (h) and dorsal (i) views. j,k, Referred left pseudoangular (PEFO 46480) in medial and lateral views. l–o, Paratype right pseudodentary (PEFO 45800) in medial (l; expanded view in m) and dorsal (n; expanded view in o) views.
abcnV, alveolar branch cranial nerve V; adtr, adsymphyseal tooth row; af, adductor fossa; att, attachment tissue; bp, basal pore; cnV, cranial nerve V insertions; cp, coronoid process; dpaf, dorsal pseudoangular facet; dpdf, dorsal pseudodentary facet; dtr, dentary tooth row; dz, dividing zone; ebcnV, external branch cranial nerve V; fr, facial ramus; hp, hamate process; imf, intramandibular foramen; jas, jaw articulation surface; lcm, lateral choanal margin; lecnV, lateral exit cranial nerve V; mtr, maxillary tooth row; om, orbital margin; pap, posterior pseudoangular process; pc, pulp cavity; pd, pedicel; pgp, preglenoid process; ptr, palatal tooth row; rtl, replacement tooth locus; sf, symphyseal foramen; sp, symphyseal prongs; vpaf, ventral pseudoangular facet; vpdf, ventral pseudodentary facet. Arrows indicate anterior direction.
 
Systematic palaeontology
Lissamphibia Haeckel, 1866
Gymnophionomorpha Marjanović and Laurin, 2008

Funcusvermis gilmorei gen. et sp. nov.

Etymology. Funcus, Latinized form of the English word funky (funk is an upbeat, rhythmic form of dance music); vermisworm (Latin); in honour of the 1972 song Funky Worm from the album Pleasure by the Ohio Players. The species name honours N. Gilmore, collections manager at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University in Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Holotype. PEFO 43891, right pseudodentary, accessioned at Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, USA.

Life restoration of Funcusvermis gilmorei (bottom) and Acaenasuchus geoffreyi (top) in a paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Chinle Formation, Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, USA.
 
Ben T. Kligman, Bryan M. Gee, Adam D. Marsh, Sterling J. Nesbitt, Matthew E. Smith, William G. Parker and Michelle R. Stocker. 2023. Triassic Stem Caecilian supports dissorophoid Origin of Living Amphibians. Nature. DOI: 10.1038/s41586-022-05646-5
 

[Botany • 2023] Phylogeny based Generic Reclassification of Muscari sensu lato (Asparagaceae) using Plastid and Genomic DNA


Inflorescences of Muscari species incorporated in this study.
A–H, M. subg. Muscari: A, M. anatolicum; B, M. adilii; C, M. armeniacum; D, M. discolor; E, M. sivrihisardaghlarense; F, M. vuralii; G, M. neglectum; H, M. commutatum.
I, M. subg. Muscarimia: M. macrocarpum.
J–L, Muscari subg. Pulchella (subg. nov.): J, M. latifolium; K, M. pulchellum; L, M. bourgaei.
 — Names listed above follow the new classification here proposed. 

in Böhnert, Neumann, Quandt & Weigend, 2023.
Images: T. Böhnert. twitter.com/TimBoeh

Abstract
The grape hyacinth (Muscari) represents an important ornamental plant group in Asparagaceae subfamily Scilloideae, comprising some 80 species distributed mainly in the Mediterranean. However, genus delimitation has repeatedly shifted over the past two centuries and a general consensus has not been reached so far. The present study investigates the phylogeny of Muscari s.l. (i.e., including the disputed segregates Pseudomuscari and Leopoldia) with a broad sampling of about half the currently recognized species using both chloroplast markers (trnK(matK)-psbA, trnL-trnF, rpl16) and genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data generated by double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD). We perform concatenated maximum likelihood inference for both datasets as well as a coalescent-based approach and principal component analysis (PCA) on the ddRAD data. We find that the morphological characters traditionally used to distinguish different genera are not diagnostic for the clades here retrieved. Also, the segregates Pseudomuscari and Leopoldia are deeply nested in Muscari and we therefore propose a broadly defined Muscari with five subgenera. The subgenera roughly correspond to previously recognized entities, with the exception of the newly identified clade here proposed as M. subg. Pulchella subg. nov. We provide a provisional assignment of the 80 currently accepted taxa to these subgenera.

Keywords: ddRAD, geophyte, Leopoldia, Mediterranean, Pseudomuscari, Scilloideae

Inflorescences of 16 Muscari species incorporated in this study.
A–H, Msubg. Muscari: A, M. anatolicum; B, M. adilii; C, M. armeniacum; D, M. discolor; E, M. sivrihisardaghlarense; F, M. vuralii; G, M. neglectum; H, M. commutatum.
I, M. subg. MuscarimiaM. macrocarpum.
J–L, M. subg. Pulchella (subg. nov.): J, M. latifolium; K, M. pulchellum; L, M. bourgaei.
M–P, M. subg. Pseudomuscari: M, M. parviflorum; N, M. chalusicum; O, M. inconstrictum; P, Mcoeruleum.
 — Names listed above follow the new classification here proposed. 
Images: T. Böhnert.

CONCLUSION AND OUTLOOK: 
Muscari is a very natural group, best recognized as a single genus. The ddRAD data are able to reconstruct a highly resolved and highly supported phylogeny. Comprehensive sampling of the remaining ca. 45 species would be highly desirable to reach a comprehensive understanding of this important geophyte genus. Our data show evidence for lineage admixture and future analyses should be directed towards understanding the role of hybridization in the evolution of the genus by testing for introgression and possibly ongoing gene flow. It would also be expected that the evolution of Muscari is correlated to the geological and climatic history of the Mediterranean basin and this could be tested with a dated phylogeny of this genus. Beyond molecular data, additional and critical morphological analyses are required to hopefully provide a morphological characterization of the different subgenera.


Tim Böhnert, Michael Neumann, Dietmar Quandt and Maximilian Weigend. 2023. Phylogeny based Generic Reclassification of Muscari sensu lato (Asparagaceae) using Plastid and Genomic DNA. TAXON. DOI: 10.1002/tax.12864

[Botany • 2021] Androsace azizsancarii (Primulaceae) • A New Species from northeastern Anatolia, Turkey


 Androsace azizsancarii Sefalı

in Sefali, 2021. 

Abstract
Androsace azizsancarii (Primulaceae) is described and illustrated as a new species from Bayburt Province in northeastern Anatolia, Turkey. Diagnostic morphological characteristics, a full description and a distribution map are provided. The new species is morphologically closest to Androsace albana, A. multiscapa and A. villosa, but it is easily distinguished from these species by indumentum, leaf, flower and seed characters.

Keywords: Bayburt, Flora of Turkey, new species, taxonomy

 Androsace azizsancarii sp. nov.
 (A-D) habitus in flowering time, (E-F) indumentum of late period, (F) habitus in early fruiting time, (G-H) nonflowering rosettes, (I) basal leaves, (J) leaf indumentum, (K) habitat.

Androsace azizsancarii Sefalı sp. nov.

Etymology: Androsace azizsancarii was named in honor of Prof. Dr. Aziz Sancar, who is the Nobel Laureate in Chemistry 2015. The Turkish name of this species was chosen as ‘Sancarınca


Abdurrahman Sefali. 2021. Androsace azizsancarii sp. nov. (Primulaceae): A New Species from northeastern Anatolia, Turkey. Nordic Journal of Botany. DOI: 10.1111/njb.03208