Saturday, September 22, 2018

[Herpetology • 2018] Adelophryne michelin • Diversity of Miniaturized Frogs of the Genus Adelophryne (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae: Phyzelaphryninae): A New Species from the Atlantic Forest of northeast Brazil.

Adelophryne michelin  
Lourenço-de-Moraes, Dias, Mira-Mendes, Oliveira, Barth, Ruas, Vences, Solé & Bastos, 2018

The number of species of frogs in the South American genus Adelophryne has increased in recent years, and it has become apparent that this group contains a substantial amount of undescribed diversity. Currently the genus contains nine described species and five candidate species. Here we describe the tenth species of the genus Adelophryne from the municipality of Igrapiúna, southern Bahia state, Brazil. The new species is characterized by its small body size, indistinct tympanum, and two phalanges in the finger IV. The species of the genus are distributed in three groups, Northern Amazonia Clade, Northern Atlantic Forest Clade and Southern Atlantic Forest Clade. The new species is phylogenetically related to species of the Northern Atlantic Forest Clade of Adelophryne and restricted to forested habitat, as typical for other Adelophryne. The species is restricted to the pristine forests in the type locality, and we consider its conservation status as Near Threatened. New morphological and molecular data of other Adelophryne species are presented, extending the distribution of Adelophryne sp. 2, Adelophryne sp. 4, Adelophryne mucronata and Adelophryne glandulata. However, a more comprehensive revision of the diversity and phylogenetic position of most Adelophryne species is needed, and the evolutionary relationships of A. meridionalis and A. pachydactyla remain unknown.

Adelophryne michelin sp. nov.
Adelophryne sp. (Mira-Mendes et al. [2018])

Etymology: The name “michelin” honors the Reserva Ecológica Michelin that has been supporting our researches for more than 10 years in the municipality of Igrapiúna, Bahia. The name is used as an invariable noun in apposition to the generic name.

Common name: Michelin Flea Frog or rãzinha-pulga-da-Michelin (in Portuguese).

Diagnosis: The new species is included in the subfamily Phyzelaphryninae because of the molecular evidence and by the presence of apically pointed digits; its leaf litter habitat; its terminal digits either barely or not expanded, and the SVL not exceeding 23 mm in SVL. In addition to the results of molecular analysis, the generic assignment of Adelophryne michelin sp. nov. is based on the possession of a head narrower than body, cranial crests absent, small size, with subdigital pad and mucronate tip on the fingers and toes, toes III and IV with discs and mucronate tips, and terminal phalanges of toes and fingers T-shaped.

The new species can be distinguished from species in the genus Phyzelaphryne by the absence of subarticular tubercles on fingers, for presenting indistinct tympanum, and reduction of the phalanges in the Finger IV. Phyzelaphryne has subarticular tubercles, distinct tympanum and no reduction of the phalanges.

The new taxon is diagnosed by the following combination of character states: (1) snout–vent length smaller than 11.5 mm (males 7.6–9.1 mm, N = 7; females 10.0–11.4 mm, N = 12); (2) tympanum indistinct without visible membrane; (3) tympanic annulus absent; (4) dentigerous processes of vomers present; (5) fingers without terminal discs, with mucronate tips, terminal phalanges T-shaped; (6) toes with terminal discs or circumferential grooves and mucronate tips; (7) terminal phalanges of toes T-shaped and sharply reduced; (8) Finger I shorter than Finger II; (9) Finger IV with two phalanges; (10) Toe III longer than Toe V; (11) subarticular tubercles absent on the fingers and toes (subdigital pads present); (12) belly skin smooth; (13) dorsum skin smooth; (14) anal flap absent.

Fig 4. Adult individuals of Adelophryne michelin sp. nov. in life (A) female paratype MBML 10498 and (B) paratype but not identified. Individual (A) showing an unusual bluish coloration and (B) showing common coloration.

Fig 5. Phylogenetic relationship of genus Adelophryne through 16S mitochondrial rRNA fragment gene (798 bp). Bayesian Posterior Probabilities and Maximum Likehood Bootstrap values are indicated above and below the branches. Asterisk = ≥ 0.99 and values below 0.50 are not shown (see methods for analysis details).
Abbreviations are: NAFC = Northern Atlantic Forest Clade; NAMC = Northern Amazonia Clade and SAFC = Southern Atlantic Forest Clade representing the clades proposed by Fouquet et al. [9]. The paratype of Adelophryne glandulata (MZUESC 12180) has number MH304347 in the tree. Photos not to scale.

Geographic distribution: Adelophryne michelin sp. nov. is known only from the type locality, at the Reserva Ecológica Michelin (REM), municipality of Igrapiúna, Bahia—Brazil (Fig 6).

Natural history, ecology and status conservation: Adelophryne michelin sp. nov. occurs in the leaf litter of primary forest. Two large ovarian eggs (2.0 mm) were found in one female of Adelophryne michelin sp. nov. (ZUFG 10697). We dissected five specimens of Adelophryne michelin sp. nov. one specimens there was nothing (ZUFG 10696) and four specimens revealed ants in their stomachs (ZUFG 10695 and 10697, MZUESC 17506, MBML10498). Beetles were found in stomachs of A. glandulata and ants were also found in A. glandulata [8] in A. gutturosa [5] and in A. mucronata [6]. We recorded a new population of A. mucronata and A. sp. 2 (sensu Fouquet et al. [9]), both species living sympatrically and syntopically with A. michelin sp. nov. in the REM.

Adelophryne michelin sp. nov has only been recorded at the type locality, in the Atlantic Forest biome of southeast Bahia, being restricted to well preserved forests. Based on the forest remnants size of landscape its area of occupancy is <500 km². As such, this new species can be included under criterion B2a of IUCN Red List [28]. Because we do not have data on habitat decline [11] or population data, we felt unable to fit the species into a threat category given that at least two of three conditions of criterion "B" need to be fulfilled for including a species into a threat category. Thus, we suggest that Adelophryne michelin sp. nov. should be listed as Near Threatened (NT) under the criterion B2a.

 Ricardo Lourenço-de-Moraes, Iuri R. Dias, Caio V. Mira-Mendes, Renan M. de Oliveira, Adriane Barth, Danilo S. Ruas, Miguel Vences, Mirco Solé and Rogério P. Bastos. 2018. Diversity of Miniaturized Frogs of the Genus Adelophryne (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae): A New Species from the Atlantic Forest of northeast Brazil.   PLoS ONE. 13(9): e0201781.  DOI:  10.1371/journal.pone.0201781

[Entomology • 2018] A Contribution to the Systematics of the Genus Manota Williston (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) in Brazil

Manota sp.

Kurina, Hippa & Souza Amorim, 2018. 

A total of 286 male specimens of Manota from 38 different collecting sites in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest were analysed. They belong to 32 different species, including 20 described as new to science and 12 recognized as previously described species. The new species are Manota abbreviata sp. n., M. atlantica sp. n., M. carioca sp. n., M. cavata sp. n., M. hirta sp. n., M. lamasi sp. n., M. lanei sp. n., M. nordestina sp. n., M. oliveirai sp. n., M. paniculata sp. n., M. papaveroi sp. n., M. periotoi sp. n., M. perparva sp. n., M. pseudoiota sp. n., M. rostrata sp. n., M. sanctavirginae sp. n., M. securiculata sp.n., M. silvai sp. n., M. tavaresi sp. n. and M. unispinata sp. n. The taxonomic context of the newly described species is discussed. Manota palpalis Lane, 1948, the type of which is considered lost, is redescribed and discussed, based on the original description, the original illustrations, and the type-locality. Our specimens of the previously described species belong to M. aligera Hippa, Kurina & Sääksjärvi, 2017, M. anfracta Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. appendiculata Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. caribica Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. diversiseta Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. micula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. panda Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. pustulosa Hippa, Kurina & Sääksjärvi, 2017, M. quantula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. serrulata Hippa, Kurina & Sääksjärvi, 2017 and M. subaristata Kurina, Hippa & Amorim, 2017. Among the species dealt with here, ten have a wide distribution in South America or the Neotropics, six are known from only a single site, nine are widespread along the Atlantic Forest, and seven are known only from southern Brazil/northwestern Argentina. A discrepancy between the distribution patterns of Manota species and the general areas of endemism known for flies in the Atlantic Forest is discussed, and a non-destructive sequencing reverse workflow protocol for Manota specimens proposed.

        Including the species described here, the Neotropical region closely approaches the Oriental region in terms of the number of described species (92 and 102, respectively), while the genus now includes 300 species worldwide.

Keywords: Diptera, Sciaroidea, Neotropical region, Atlantic Forests, taxonomy, new species

Olavi Kurina, Heikki Hippa and Dalton de Souza Amorim. 2018. A Contribution to the Systematics of the Genus Manota Williston (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) in Brazil. Zootaxa. 4472(1); 1–59.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4472.1.1
Scientists discovered 20 new gnat species in Brazil via @EurekAlert

 Olavi Kurina, Heikki Hippa and Dalton de Souza Amorim. 2017. New species and new records of Manota Williston from Colombia, Brazilian Amazonia, and Costa Rica (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). ZooKeys. 668: 83-105.  DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.668.11350

[Botany • 2018] Scleria aureovillosa (Cyperaceae) • A New Species of Scleria P.J.Bergius from North-Eastern Thailand

Scleria aureovillosa Kiaosanthie & K.Wangwasit

in Kiaosanthie, Wangwasit & Chaisongkram, 2018. 
กกลูกขนทอง  || DOI: 10.20531/tfb.2018.46.2.01 

Scleria aureovillosa Kiaosanthie & K.Wangwasit, a new species of Cyperaceae from North-Eastern Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is closely related to S. benthamii C.B.Clarke but differs in the leaf and culm surfaces, culm shape, the absence of wings at the leaf sheath, contraligule features, nutlet morphology and micromorphology, and leaf and culm anatomy. An emended section of the key to the species in the Flora of Thailand account of Scleria is provided.

KEYWORDS:  anatomy, nutlet, Scleria aureovillosa, taxonomy, Thailand

Figure 2. Scleria aureovillosa Kiaosanthie & K.Wangwasit.
A‒B. part of inflorescence; C. nutlet; D. disk 3-lobed; E. rhizome; F. habitat.

Scleria aureovillosa Kiaosanthie & K.Wangwasit, sp. nov.

Similar to Scleria benthamii C.B.Clarke but differs in having trigonous culms (vs triquetrous in S. benthamii), an obtuse contraligule (vs rounded to truncate) and nutlets 2.1‒2.5 mm long (vs 2.6‒2.9 mmlong), subglobose to globose, terete, with a black, apiculate apex (vs ovoid, subterete to trigonous and obtuse apex) (Fig. 3 & Table 1). 
Type: Thailand, Loei, Phu Rua, 1,155 m, 12 Nov. 2012, Kiaosanthie WK 0152012 (holotype BKF [194620!]; isotypes KKU!, QBG!) (Figs. 1, 2 & 3A‒C).

Ecology.― Growing in seasonally wet, open grassy places on hillsides and on sandy soil; 100‒1155 m alt.

Vernacular.― Kok luk khon thong (กกลูกขนทอง).The Thai name translates as ‘sedge with golden hairs on the nutlet surface’.

Etymology.― The specific epithet of this new species is taken from the Latin aureus and villus, which refers to the distinctive feature of the species having golden villous hairs on the mature nutlet surface.

Wipawan Kiaosanthie, Kamolhathai Wangwasit and Wanwipha Chaisongkram. 2018. A New Species of Scleria P.J.Bergius (Cyperaceae) from North-Eastern Thailand. THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY). 46(2); 113–122.  DOI: 10.20531/tfb.2018.46.2.01


Friday, September 21, 2018

[Herpetology • 2018] Hemiphyllodactylus ywanganensis & H. uga • Two More New Species of Hemiphyllodactylus Bleeker (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Shan Hills of eastern Myanmar

 (A) Hemiphyllodactylus ywanganensis &  (B and C) H. uga

Grismer, Wood, Zug, Thura, Grismer, Murdoch, Quah & Lin, 2018

An integrative phylogenetic analysis recovers two new species of the gekkonid genus Hemiphyllodactylus (Bleeker) from the Shan Hills of eastern Myanmar. Hemiphyllodactylus ywanganensis sp. nov. and H. uga sp. nov. are nested within the eastern Myanmar clade of a previous genus-wide phylogenetic analysis and form a more exclusive monophyletic group with H. linnwayensis. These species differ from each other and all other Hemiphyllodactylus in having unique combinations of character states involving postmental and subcaudal scale morphology; maximum SVL; digital formulae; numbers of chin scales, circumnasals, intersupranasals (=postrostrals), labials, longitudinally arranged dorsal and ventral scales, and pore-bearing femoroprecloacal scales; as well as subtle differences in coloration and pattern. The phylogenetic affinities of the eastern Myanmar clade are similar to those of an endemic clade of Cyrtodactylus from the Shan Hills in that both are more closely related to Indochinese taxa east of Myanmar as opposed to other Indo-Burmese species. The discovery of these new species underscores the underappreciated herpetological diversity of limestone ecosystems as well as the remote nature of the rugged uplands of the Shan Hills and emphasizes the need for continued field work in this region. 

Key words: Indochina, systematics, new species, Gekkonidae, Burma

FIGURE 4. A. Adult female paratype (LSUHC 13138) of Hemiphyllodactylus ywanganensis sp. nov. from 2.7 km southwest of Ywangan, Ywangan Township, Taunggyi District, Shan State, Myanmar
(Photo by L. L. Grismer).
 B and C: Adult male holotype (USNM 570733) and adult female paratype (USNM 570734) of Hemiphyllodactylus uga sp. nov., respectively, from the Pyin Oo Lwin, Kandawgyi National Gardens, Pyin Oo Lwin, Mandalay Region, Myanmar
(Photos by G. R. Zug). 

Hemiphyllodactylus ywanganensis sp. nov. 
Ywangan Slender Gecko

Etymology. The specific epithet, ywanganensis, is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality being near the town of Ywangan, Shan State.

Hemiphyllodactylus uga sp. nov. 
Uga’s Slender Gecko  
Hemphyllodactylus sp. nov. 8. Grismer et al. 2013:872, Grismer et al. 2014a:67, Grismer et al. 2014b:490, Ngo et al. 2014:541, Grismer et al. 2015:861
Hemiphyllodatylus cf. linnwayensis. Grismer et al. 2017b:31

Etymology. The specific name recognizes and honors the late U Uga. He was a conservationist and a former director of the Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division (NWCD), Myanmar Forestry Department. He encouraged Joseph B. Slowinski and George R. Zug to do an all-country herpetofaunal survey and established the administrative protocol to establish and support survey teams of NWCD wildlife rangers. These teams working independently and with CAS and USNM collaborators were the essential factor for the high productivity and success of the Myanmar Herpetological Survey (MHS).

 L. L. Grismer, Perry L. Wood, Jr., George R. Zug, Myint K. Thura, Marta S. Grismer, M. L. Murdoch, Evan S. H. Quah and Aung Lin. 2018. Two More New Species of Hemiphyllodactylus Bleeker (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Shan Hills of eastern Myanmar (Burma). Zootaxa. 4483(2); 295–316. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4483.2.4

[Ichthyology • 2018] Phylogenetic Classification of Extant Genera of Fishes of the Order Cypriniformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi)

 Fishes of the Order Cypriniformes 

Tan & Armbruster, 2018. 

The order Cypriniformes is the most diverse order of freshwater fishes. Recent phylogenetic studies have approached a consensus on the phylogenetic relationships of Cypriniformes and proposed a new phylogenetic classification of family-level groupings in Cypriniformes. The lack of a reference for the placement of genera amongst families has hampered the adoption of this phylogenetic classification more widely. We herein provide an updated compilation of the membership of genera to suprageneric taxa based on the latest phylogenetic classifications. We propose a new taxon: subfamily Esominae within Danionidae, for the genus Esomus.

Keywords: Pisces, Cyprinidae, Cobitoidei, Cyprinoidei, carps, minnows

Milton Tan and Jonathan W. Armbruster. 2018. Phylogenetic Classification of Extant Genera of Fishes of the Order Cypriniformes (Teleostei: Ostariophysi). Zootaxa. 4476(1); 6–39.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4476.1.4  

[Crustacea • 2018] Karstarma malang • A New Sesarmid Crab of the Genus Karstarma (Decapoda: Brachyura) Associated with Limestone Formations in East Java, Indonesia

Karstarma malang
Wowor & Ng, 2018

  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4482.2.7  

A new stygobitic sesarmid crab species is described from underground freshwater cave streams in the southern Malang karst range on the south coast of East Java Province, Indonesia. Karstarma malang n. sp. is morphologically most similar to K. jacobsoni (Ihle, 1912) from an underground river cave system in the southern coast of the Special Region of Yogyakarta Province in central Java, but differs in having a relatively larger cornea, less swollen ocular peduncle which lacks a ridge along the median part, proportionately shorter ambulatory legs and a more slender male first gonopod. This paper increases the number of the species of Karstarma Davie & Ng, 2007, to 16; the new species being the eighth of the genus from Indonesia. It is also the third species which has a distinctly reduced cornea.

Keywords: Crustacea, Sesarmidae, Karstarma malang, new species, karst, caves, Java, Indonesia

Daisy Wowor and Peter K. L. Ng. 2018. A New Sesarmid Crab of the Genus Karstarma (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura) Associated with Limestone Formations in East Java, Indonesia.  Zootaxa. 4482(2); 355–366.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4482.2.7

[Invertebrate • 2018] Ceratotarsonemus amazonicus • Review of the Genus Ceratotarsonemus De Leon, 1956 (Acari: Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae), with Description of A New Species from the Amazon Forest

Ceratotarsonemus amazonicus 
Rezende, Lofego, Gulbronson,  Bauchan &  Ochoa, 2018

The genus Ceratotarsonemus De Leon (Acari: Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae) is reviewed here, with the addition of an updated key for the genus. Ceratotarsonemus amazonicus, sp. nov., found in the Brazilian Amazon rainforest, is described. Phase contrast (PC), differential interference contrast (DIC), low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM) and confocal microscopy (CLSM) micrographs are provided. Biological and ecological aspects about the role of this species in its ecosystem are also discussed.

Keywords: Acari, diversity, fauna, Heterostigmatina, mite, taxonomy

José Marcos Rezende, Antonio Carlos Lofego, Connor J. Gulbronson, Gary Bauchan and Ronald Ochoa. 2018. Review of the Genus Ceratotarsonemus De Leon, 1956 (Acari: Prostigmata: Tarsonemidae), with Description of A New Species from the Amazon Forest. Zootaxa. 4483(2); 271–294. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4483.2.3

Thursday, September 20, 2018

[Mammalogy • 2018] Diversity, Morphological Phylogeny, and Distribution of Bats of the Genus Molossus E. Geoffroy, 1805 (Chiroptera, Molossidae) in Brazil

Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1766) 
[Velvety Free-tailed Bat] in Rio Doce State Park, Brazil

in Loureiro, Gregorin & Perini, 2018
 Photo: Marco A. R. Mello. 

Tenuous descriptions of many species and subspecies of mastiff bats make the taxonomy of Molossus E. Geoffroy, 1805 confusing and unstable. Molossus is one of the most diverse genera of free tailed bats in the pantropical family Molossidae Gervais, 1856. Given their impressive variation due to geography, sex, and ontogeny, and incomplete knowledge about species boundaries, a comprehensive taxonomic revision of the genus is needed. In addition, the level of genetic divergence, even among morphologically well-characterized species is low, often making diagnosis of groups difficult and likely resulting in an underestimation of the number of species. Brazil has a wide territory harboring many different physiognomies, but with no study focusing on the morphological variation and taxonomy of Molossus available. Therefore, we have analyzed qualitative and quantitative characters from 493 specimens belonging to nine species of Molossus, and conducted a wide comparative morphological analysis of the species occurring in Brazil. In addition, we propose a hypothesis of phylogenetic relationships within Molossus based on morphology, establishing the morphological characters for diagnosis and identification of species, and update the geographic distribution of Molossus species in Brazil, with range extensions for four taxa. Six species, Molossus rufus E. Geoffroy, 1805, Molossus molossus (Pallas, 1776), Molossus coibensis Allen, 1904, Molossus aztecus Saussure, 1860, Molossus currentium Thomas, 1901, and Molossus pretiosus Miller, 1902 occur in Brazil. We bring support for the synonymy of Molossus bondae Allen, 1904 with M. currentium, as suggested by several authors.

KEYWORDS: Brazil, Mastiff bats, morphology, identification key, phylogenetic relationships.

Livia Oliveira Loureiro, Renato Gregorin and Fernando Araujo Perini. 2018. Diversity, Morphological Phylogeny, and Distribution of Bats of the Genus Molossus E. Geoffroy, 1805 (Chiroptera, Molossidae) in Brazil. ZOOSYSTEMA. 40(18); 425-452.  

[Herpetology • 2018] A Phylogenetic Taxonomy of the Cyrtodactylus peguensis Group (Squamata: Gekkonidae) with Descriptions of Two New Species from Myanmar; Cyrtodactylus meersi & C. myintkyawthurai

Cyrtodactylus meersi  &  C. myintkyawthurai
Grismer​, Wood, Quah, Murdoch, Grismer, Herr, Espinoza, Brown & Lin, 2018

A phylogenetic taxonomy of species in the Cyrtodactylus peguensis group from the Ayeyarwady Basin of Myanmar is constructed based on color pattern, morphology, and molecular systematic analyses using the mitochondrial gene NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2. Newly collected samples from the type locality of C. peguensis and other localities indicate that this clade is endemic to central Myanmar and contains at least seven species, four of which are undescribed. Three species, including C. peguensis occur in the low hills of the Bago Yoma Range within the central portion of the Ayeyarwady Basin. Two of these, Cyrtodactylus myintkyawthurai sp. nov. from the northern and central Bago Yoma and Cmeersi sp. nov. which is syntopic with Cpeguensis in the southern Bago Yoma are described herein. As more lowland hilly areas bordering, and within the Ayeyarwady Basin are surveyed, more new species of this group are likely to be discovered. These discoveries continue the recent surge of descriptions of new species of Cyrtodactylus that are being discovered in Myanmar.


Figure 1: Distribution map of the Cyrtodactylus peguensis group. Distribution of the species of the Cyrtodactylus peguensis group in the Ayeyarwady Basin and the adjacent foothills of the Chin Hills and Shan Hills in Myanmar.

Figure 5: Type specimens and additional specimen of Cyrtodactylus peguensis.
(A) Boulenger’s (1893) illustration of the lost syntype from the type locality of Hpa Lon, Bago Region Myanmar. (B) Syntype BM 946.8.23.10 from the type locality. (C) LSUHC 13454 from the Myin Mo Shwe Taung Pagoda, 9.5 km east of Hpa Lon, Bago Region Myanmar.
Photos by L. Lee Grismer.

Cyrtodactylus peguensis (Boulenger, 1893)
Pegu Bent-toed Gecko
Gymnodactylus peguensis Smith, 1921:29; 1935:52 in part. Wermuth, 1965:63 in part.
Cyrtodactyuls peguensis Taylor, 1963:728 in part; Denzer & Manthey, 1991:314 in part; Cox, Van Dijk & Nabhitabhata, 1998:87 in part; Pianka & Vitt, 2003:175 in part; Manthey & Grossmann, 1997:225 in part; Das, 2010:213 in part; Grismer et al., 2017a:91 in part; Brennan et al., 2017:3, in part.
Cyrtodactylus (Cyrtodactylyspeguensis Rösler, 2000:66 in part.

Syntype. Adult male BM 1946.8.23.10 collected in 1887 by Signor L. Fea from “Palon” (Hpa Lon), “Pegu” (Bago Region), Taikkyi Township, Yangon (north) District, Myanmar. Hpa-Lon is a small village in the Ayeyarwady Basin 9.5 km west of the western foothills of the southern portion of the Bago Yoma Range where Fea reported making zoological collections (Fea, 1897). Being that foothills are the closest suitable habitat for C. peguensis east of Pa-Lon, we restrict the type locality to the Myin Mo Swhe Taung Pagoda, Bago Region, Taikkyi Township, Yangon (north) District, Myanmar (..., elevation 162 m) situated within these foothills where we collected an additional specimen (LSUHC 13454). The other syntype could not be located.

Diagnosis. Cyrtodactylus peguensis differs from other species of the peguensis group by having the unique combination of seven supralabial and infralabial scales; 31 or 32 paravertebral tubercles; 17–19 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; 36 or 37 ventral scales; 19 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; 17–19 femoral pores in males; eight precloacal pores in males; three rows of post-precloacal scales; and domed to weakly conical and weakly keeled body tubercles; and a maximum SVL of 70 mm (Table 7).

Figure 7: Holotype of Cyrtodactylus meersi sp. nov. (LSUHC 13455) from the type locality of the Myin Mo Shwe Taung Pagoda, Bago Division, Myanmar.
Photo by L. Lee Grismer.

Cyrtodactylus meersi sp. nov.
Bago Yoma Bent-toed Gecko

Diagnosis. Cyrtodactylus meersi sp. nov. differs from other species of the peguensis group by having the unique combination of seven supralabials and eight infralabials; 32 paravertebral tubercles; 13 longitudinal rows of body tubercles; 32 ventral scales; 17 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; 12 femoral pores; eight precloacal pores; two rows of post-precloacal scales; and domed to weakly conical and weakly keeled body tubercles (Table 7). We note, however, that this diagnosis is not robust due to having only a sample size of one juvenile and will be subject to adjustment if additional specimens are ever collected and analyzed. Nonetheless, the placement of this individual near the base of the phylogeny (Fig. 2) and it having an uncorrected percent sequence divergence of 10.0–13.7% from all other species in the phylogeny (Table 3) is strong evidence of its species status.

Distribution. Cyrtodactylus meersi sp. nov. is known only from the type locality of Myin Mo Shwe Taung Pagoda, 9.5 km east of the village of Hpa Lon, Bago Region, Taikkyi Township, Yangon (north) District Myanmar (Fig. 1).

Etymology. The specific epithet, meersi, is named in honor of Mr. John Meers whose generous private donations to Fauna & Flora International’s in the name of karst conservation have resulted in the continuation of karst biology research in Indochina.

Natural History. The holotype was collected in a region composed of low foothills and highly disturbed forest (Fig. 6). The specimen was encountered at 2,000 h as it was sitting in the middle of an ant trail, presumably preying on the ants. The fact that the specimen is a juvenile suggests the reproductive season is prior to May.

Cyrtodactylus myintkyawthurai sp. nov.
Mt. Popa Bent-toed Gecko
Cyrtodactylus fea Wood et al., 2012:995; 
Agarwal et al., 2014:147; Brennan et al., 2017:3.

Figure 8: Type specimens of Cyrtodactylus myintkyawthurai sp. nov. from the type locality of Taung Twin Chaung camp, Mt. Popa, Kyauk-pa-taung Township, Mandalay Region, Myanmar.
 (A) Adult male holotype LSUHC 13808. (B) Adult male paratype LSUHC 13807. (C) Subadult male paratype 13806. (D) Juvenile male paratype LSUHC 13809.
Photos by L. Lee Grismer.

Diagnosis. Cyrtodactylus myintkyawthurai sp. nov. differs from other species in the peguensis group by having the unique combination of six or seven supralabials and six or seven infralabials; 28–33 paravertebral tubercles; 17–23 longitudinal rows of body tubercles; 32–36 ventral scales; 17–19 subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; 12–20 femoral pores in males; 7–9 precloacal pores in males; two rows of post-precloacal scales; raised, moderately to strongly keeled body tubercles; and a maximum SVL of 75.1 mm.

Distribution. Cmyintkyawthurai sp. nov. ranges throughout Mt. Popa, Mandalay Region and the central section of the Bago Yoma Range, Bago Region (Fig. 2).

Etymology. The specific epithet, myintkyawthurai, is a patronym honoring Myint Kyaw Thura for his contributions to the study of herpetology in Myanmar, his discovery of several new species, and his collaboration with foreign researchers.

Natural History. At both Mt. Popa and in the central Bago Yoma Range, C. myintkyawthurai sp. nov. occurs in hilly regions covered in deciduous dipterocarp forest up to 978 m in elevation (Fig. 9). The Mt. Popa specimens were collected at night from 0.05 to 1 m above the ground on rocks, the trunks of small trees, on leaves or on the ground amongst small rocks.

A phylogenetic taxonomy of species in the Cyrtodactylus peguensis species group from the Ayeyarwady Basin of Myanmar recovers at least seven species, four of which are undescribed. Three species, including C. peguensis occur in the low hills of the Bago Yoma mountain range one of which, C. meersi sp. nov., is syntopic with C. peguensis. As more lowland hilly areas associated with the Ayeyarwady Basin are surveyed, more new species of this group are likely to be discovered. These discoveries continue the recent surge of descriptions of new species of Cyrtodactylus that are being discovered in Myanmar.

L. Lee Grismer​, Perry L. Wood Jr, Evan S.H. Quah, Matthew L. Murdoch, Marta S. Grismer, Mark W. Herr, Robert E. Espinoza, Rafe M. Brown and Aung Lin. 2018.  A Phylogenetic Taxonomy of the Cyrtodactylus peguensis Group (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkonidae) with Descriptions of Two New Species from Myanmar.  PeerJ. 6:e5575. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.5575

[Botany • 2018] Miliusa chantaburiana (Annonaceae) • A New Species from southeastern Thailand

Miliusa chantaburiana Damthongdee & Chaowasku

in Damthongdee & Chaowasku, 2018.
ระฆังจันท์  ||  DOI:  10.3372/wi.48.48208 

Miliusa chantaburiana Damthongdee & Chaowasku, a new species of Annonaceae from SE Thailand, is described and illustrated. It belongs to a clade with campanulate flowers and inner petals that are generally tightly appressed from the base to more or less the midpoint at anthesis. The new species is remarkable in possessing a strongly recurved apex of the inner petals at anthesis and can be principally differentiated from its morphologically closest species, M. pumila Chaowasku and M. filipes Ridl., both from Peninsular Thailand, by the higher number of stamens and carpels per flower and horseshoe-shaped stigmas. Miliusa chantaburiana is also unique in having a 6-base-pair insertion in the plastid matK sequence. A revised key to species in the campanulate-flowered clade in Thailand is given.

Keywords: Annonaceae, Chantaburi, matK, Miliusa, Miliuseae, new species, systematics, taxonomy, Thailand

Fig. 2. Leaf and flower of Miliusa chantaburiana 
A: abaxial (lower) leaf surface; B: adaxial (upper) leaf surface; C: flower, apical view showing stamens, carpels, inner petal discolouration and translucent window-like structures; D: flower, oblique view showing strongly recurved apical part of inner petals.

 – Scale bars: A = 2 cm; B = 10 cm; E = 1 mm; F = 0.5 mm. 
– A, B from cultivated material; C–F from Nakorn-Thiemchan NTC 29 (CMUB – spirit material).

Miliusa chantaburiana Damthongdee & Chaowasku, sp. nov.  

Holotype: Thailand, cultivated in Bangkok [sapling originally from Khiri Than Dam, Chantaburi Province], 7 Feb 2015 [in flower], Nakorn-Thiemchan NTC 29 (CMUB!; isotypes: B!, P!).

Diagnosis — Miliusa chantaburiana is morphologically close to M. pumila and M. filipes, both occurring in Peninsular Thailand (Chaowasku 2014). The new species differs mainly from M. pumila by having generally larger leaf blades ([9.2–] 12.2–18[–19.5] x [2.8–]3.3–6 cm vs 5.4–10.5 x 2–4.1 cm), generally longer pedicels ([11–] 14–22[–30] mm vs 5–11 mm), more stamens per flower (48–50 vs 38–39), and many more carpels per flower (49–71 vs 12–13). The new species primarily differs from M. filipes by possessing considerably more stamens (48–50 vs c. 22) and carpels (49–71 vs c. 16) per flower. In addition, M. chantaburiana exhibits horseshoe-shaped stigmas, whereas they are subglobose to ellipsoid(-obovoid) in M. pumila (Chaowasku 2014) and capitate in M. filipes.

Fig. 1. Holotype of Miliusa chantaburiana Damthongdee & Chaowasku, Nakorn-Thiemchan NTC 29 (CMUB).

Fig. 2. Leaf and flower of Miliusa chantaburiana – 
A: abaxial (lower) leaf surface; B: adaxial (upper) leaf surface; C: flower, apical view showing stamens, carpels, inner petal discolouration and translucent window-like structures; D: flower, oblique view showing strongly recurved apical part of inner petals; E: stamens attached to torus; F: carpel.
 – Scale bars: A = 2 cm; B = 10 cm; E = 1 mm; F = 0.5 mm. 
– A, B from cultivated material; C–F from Nakorn-Thiemchan NTC 29 (CMUB – spirit material).

Fig. 3. Flower, fruit and seed of Miliusa chantaburiana 
A: abaxial surface (outside) of an inner petal; B: adaxial surface (inside) of an inner petal; C: flower, basal view showing sepals and outer petals; D: fruit with five monocarps; E: flower with one inner petal pulled apart from others showing a mass of stamens and carpels; F: seed.
 – Scale bars: A, B, E, F = 5 mm; C = 3 mm; D = 2 cm.
 – A, B, E from Chaowasku 170 (CMUB – spirit material); C from Nakorn-Thiemchan NTC 29 (CMUB – spirit material); D from Chaowasku 171 (CMUB – spirit material); F from Nakorn-Thiemchan NTC 28 (CMUB – spirit material).

Distribution and ecology (at original locality) — Chantaburi Province, SE Thailand (Fig. 4); occurring in partially disturbed evergreen forests around a constructed dam; at an elevation of c. 205 m.

Conservation status — This species is known only from a very restricted area, i.e. around Khiri Than Dam of Chantaburi Province, SE Thailand (Fig. 4). Fewer than 10 individuals were observed in the area, some of which occur adjacent to the reservoir and could be submerged in the near future, and it is believed that many more individuals have been submerged during dam construction. Further, this species has never been reported to occur in nearby areas (e.g. Khao Khitchakut National Park, Khao Soidao Wildlife Sanctuary, Namtok Phliu National Park and Namtok Khlongkaew National Park) and no specimens have been collected prior to the present study. Based on this information, Miliusa chantaburiana is undoubtedly a rare species; however, we believe that more exploratory data, especially from Cambodia (which is merely c. 20 km away from the dam), are required prior to the assessment of the conservation status of this species. Therefore, it is considered here as Data Deficient (DD) (IUCN 2012).

Etymology — The epithet refers to Chantaburi, the SE Thai province where this species is endemic.

Anissara Damthongdee and Tanawat Chaowasku. 2018. Miliusa chantaburiana (Annonaceae), A New Species from SE Thailand. Willdenowia. 48(2); 293-301. DOI:  10.3372/wi.48.48208



[Crustacea • 2018] Identity of the Tree-Spider Crab, Parasesarma leptosoma (Hilgendorf, 1869) (Decapoda: Brachyura: Sesarmidae), with Descriptions of Seven New Species from the Western Pacific

Parasesarma macaco
 Li, Rahayu & Ng, 2018

The identity of the tree-spider crab, Parasesarma leptosoma (Hilgendorf, 1869) (family Sesarmidae), which is believed to be widely distributed in the Indo-West Pacific, is reassessed and shown to be a species-complex with nine species, seven of which are here described as new. Parasesarma leptosoma sensu stricto is now restricted to South and East Africa; and P. limbense (Rathbun, 1914) from Sulawesi, which had been regarded as a junior synonym, is here recognized as a valid species. The following species are described as newP. gecko n. sp. from Vanuatu, Fiji, Guam and Japan; P. macaco n. sp. from Taiwan and the Philippines; P. kui n. sp. from Taiwan; P. parvulum n. sp. from the Philippines; P. gracilipes n. sp. from Indonesian Papua; P. purpureum n. sp. from Malaysia; and P. tarantula n. sp. from Sulawesi, Indonesia. The nine species of the Parasesarma leptosoma species-complex can be separated by the different shapes of their carapaces, the form of the dactylar tubercles on the male chelipeds, proportions of their ambulatory legs and the structure of the male first gonopod.

Keywords: Crustacea, Parasesarma, tree-climbing, species-complex, new species, taxonomy


Superfamily Grapsoidea MacLeay, 1838
Family Sesarmidae Dana, 1851
Genus Parasesarma De Man, 1895

Parasesarma leptosoma (Hilgendorf, 1869)

Parasesarma limbense (Rathbun, 1914)

Parasesarma gecko n. sp. 

Etymology. The specific epithet alludes to the new species’ quick movements on vertical surfaces and its tendency to autotomise its appendages when handled, as also observed in the eponymous lizard. The name is used here as a noun in apposition.

 Parasesarma macaco n. sp. Pingtung (Paoli River), Taiwan

Parasesarma macaco n. sp.

Etymology. Derived from the Portuguese "macaco" meaning “monkey”. It alludes to the agility of this treeclimbing species and its habit of jumping around branches. The name is used as a noun in apposition.

Parasesarma kui n. sp. 

Etymology. Named for Mr. Ching-Fang Ku, a ranger in the Kenting National Park and specialist of land crab conservation. The type locality of P. kui n. sp., Kangkou River, is found in his home village of Kangkou.

Parasesarma gracilipes n. sp. 

Etymology. The name is derived from the Latin "gracilis" (slender) and "pes" (legs), referring to the slender ambulatory legs of the species.

Parasesarma purpureum n. sp. 

Etymology. From the Latin purpureum for “purple” with reference to the general colour of the new species.

Parasesarma parvulum n. sp. 

Etymology. The name parvulum derives from the Latin word, meaning young or small, alluding to the relative small size of the present species.

Parasesarma tarantula n. sp. 
Etymology. The name is from the old Italian common name for large spiders, tarantula. The use of the name here alludes to the tree-climbing habits of the new species, similar to many species of tarantula, some of which are also found in Sulawesi. Used as a noun in apposition.

 Jheng-Jhang Li, Dwi Listyo Rahayu and Peter K. L. Ng. 2018. Identity of the Tree-Spider Crab, Parasesarma leptosoma (Hilgendorf, 1869) (Decapoda: Brachyura: Sesarmidae), with Descriptions of Seven New Species from the Western Pacific. Zootaxa. 4482(3); 451–490. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4482.3.2

[Ichthyology • 2018] Speolabeo hokhanhi • A New Cavefish (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Central Vietnam

Speolabeo hokhanhi
Tao, Cao, Deng & Zhang, 2018

Hokhanh’s Blind-cavefish  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4476.1.10 

Speolabeo hokhanhi, new species, is here described from Hang Va Cave in Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park (Son River basin) in Central Vietnam. It can be distinguished from S. musaei by having no papillae on the lower lip, no hump immediately behind the head, a duckbilled snout, a shorter caudal peduncle (length 16.8–18.6% SL), and the pelvic fin inserted closer to the snout tip than to the caudal-fin base.

Keywords: Pisces, Speolabeo, new species, cavefish, Central Vietnam

FIGURE 2. Speolabeo hokhanhi sp. nov., fresh individual immediately after capture. Lateral view.

Speolabeo hokhanhi sp. nov.

Diagnosis. Speolabeo hokhanhi can be easily distinguished from S. musaei by having a lower lip without papillae (vs. with a band of papillae along its anterior margin), no hump immediately behind the head (vs. present), a duckbilled (vs. pyramidal) snout, the pelvic fin inserted closer to the snout tip than to the caudal-fin base (vs. midway between the snout tip and caudal-fin base) and a shorter (vs. longer) caudal peduncle (length 16.8–18.6% SL vs. 19.6–22.7). All data here used for S. musaei are from Kottelat and Steiner (2011).

Etymology. The specific epithet is named in honor of Mr. Ho Khanh who discovered many caves in Phong Nha–Ke Bang National Park. He was a local guide of the cavefish survey conducted by the first author during 2014 into the cave where the type specimens were collected and provided detailed information about the collection site.
 As common names, we suggest Hokhanh’s Blind-cavefish (English) 
and cá mù hang va hồ-khanh (Vietnamese).

 FIGURE 4. Distribution of Speolabeo hokhanhi (▲).

Distribution and habitat. Speolabeo hokhanhi is known only from the type locality (Fig. 4). Hang Va Cave is roughly 35 km south of Phong Nha village, rather close to Hang Son Doong, the world’s largest known cave that is 5 km long, 200 m high and 150 m wide. A 24 km southward drive along the West Ho–Chi–Minh highway starting from the tourism center of the Phong Nha–Ke Bang National Park leads to the point closest to the cave site of the Hang Son Doong. From there, roughly 1.5 hours’ northward walk following a narrow stony track through thick forest arrives at Hang Va Cave. Its entrance is about 30 meters above the ground. A descent of 15 m from the entrance reaches a cave passage containing a subterraneous stream. Downstream for approximately 200 meters, there is a shallow water pool with many stalagmites, usually 2–3 m tall (Fig. 5), where the type specimens of the new species were collected during the dry season. At this time, the pool had a muddy substrate and was 0.5–1.5 m in depth, 10 m wide, and 25 m long. More than 30 individuals of about the same size were observed in the pool; only six were captured using a hand-net. The fishes were swimming slowly and haphazardly, rather close to the water surface; when disturbed, they swam deeper, but did not seek shelter. A new shrimp species was found to sympatrically occur with the cavefish (Do & Nguyen 2014).

Nguyen Dinh Tao, Liang Cao, Shuqing Deng and E Zhang. 2018. Speolabeo hokhanhi, A New Cavefish from Central Vietnam (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Zootaxa. 4476(1); 109–117.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4476.1.10