Saturday, June 25, 2022

[Mollusca • 2022] Limax pseudocinereoniger • A New Giant Keelback Slug of the Genus Limax (Gastropoda: Stylommatophora) from the Balkans, described by Citizen Scientists

 Limax pseudocinereoniger from Durmitor National Park, Montenegro. 

Schilthuizen, Thompson, de Vries, van Peursen, Reisinger, Paterno, Maestri, Marcolungo, Esposti, Delledonne & Njunjić, 2022

Photos by P. Escoubas.

Background: Despite their large size, striking colouration and genital extravagance, the taxonomy of the European giant keelback slugs of the genus Limax is still poorly understood. Preliminary morphological and molecular data suggest that many unnamed or unrecognised species exist, especially in the Alps, the Mediterranean and the Balkans.

New information: We organised a citizen science expedition to Durmitor National Park in Montenegro and discovered a new species, genetically distinct, but morphologically similar to the sympatric L. cinereoniger Wolf 1803 and describe it as Limax pseudocinereoniger.

Keywords: malacology, Limacidae, slugs, taxonomy, The Balkans, genitalia

Dorsal (top), lateral (centre) and ventral (bottom) views of a living (and subsequently preserved) paratype specimen of Limax pseudocinereoniger from Durmitor National Park, Montenegro (TxEx-DU0122).
 Photos by P. Escoubas.

Limax pseudocinereoniger Schilthuizen, Thompson, de Vries, van Peursen, Reisinger, Paterno, Maestri, Marcolungo, Esposti, Delledonne & Njunjić, 2022, sp. n.

Suborder Stylommatophora A. Schmidt, 1855
Superfamily Limacoidea Lamarck, 1801

Family Limacidae Lamarck, 1801

Genus Limax Linnaeus, 1758

Type species: Limax maximus Linnaeus, 1758

synonyms: Limax pseudocinereoniger” Nitz (2013)

Etymology: The specific epithet pseudocinereoniger refers to its similarity with L. cinereoniger. This name was first applied as a "working name" by Nitz (2013) and is here adopted as the formal name. It is used as a masculine adjective.

The taxonomic authority for this species is attributed to all authors of this publication. In line with ICZN Recommendation 51C (Zoological Nomenclature 1999), the species may be referred to as Limax pseudocinereoniger Schilthuizen et al., 2022, provided the full citation of this publication appears in the bibliography or elsewhere in the referring work.

 Menno Schilthuizen, Cameron Graham Thompson, Rick de Vries, Anthonie D. P. van Peursen, Marta Paterno, Simone Maestri, Luca Marcolongo, Chiara Degli Esposti, Massimo Delledonne and Iva Njunjić. 2022. A New Giant Keelback Slug of the Genus Limax from the Balkans, described by Citizen Scientists. Biodiversity Data Journal. 10: e69685. DOI: 10.3897/BDJ.10.e69685

[Botany • 2022] Pteris pseudoamoena (Pteridaceae) • A New Species from Guangxi, China and Vietnam

Pteris pseudoamoena D. M. Yang & R. Guo,
in Guo, Wang, Zhang, ... et Yang, 2022. 
拟红杆凤尾蕨  ||  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.550.3.1 
A new species of fern, Pteris pseudoamoena (Pteridaceae), was identified and characterized. It is currently found in Guangxi Province, China, and Vietnam. Pteris pseudoamoena shares similar morphological characters with P. amoena and P. mcclurei, but can be distinguished by spores with echinate-tuberculate and auriculate ornamentation, straw-colored stipes, rachises and costae, and mostly free, occasionally interlinked veins. In addition, molecular evidence indicated that the new species is sister to a clade consisting of P. amoena, P. nakasimae and P. mcclurei.

Keywords: morphology characters, phylogeny, Pteris, taxonomy, Pteridophytes 

 The habitat and morphology of Pteris pseudoamoena.
 A. An individual with long apices of pinnae growing in a jungle on a calcareous hill; B. An individual with short apices of pinnae growing in a jungle on a calcareous hill; C. An individual growing in a calcareous rock crevice; D. An individual with two pairs of basiscopic pinnules at basal pinnae (J. M. Wang 20150131-4 A7); E. The abaxial side of a fertile frond; F. Segments of a fertile frond with interlinked veins indicated by arrows; G. Stipes with scales at base; H. Calcareous hills in Xialei Town, Daxin County, Guangxi Province, China.
 (photographed by Hong-Jin Wei except D)

 Line drawing of Pteris pseudoamoena D. M. Yang & R. Guo.
A. Sterile frond; B. Fertile frond; C. Sterile segment; D. Fertile segment showing occasional interlinking of veins.
Drawn by Yun-Xiao Liu 
based on the holotype J. M. Wang 20150130-2 (IBSC). 

Pteris pseudoamoena D. M. Yang & R. Guo, sp. nov. 
Diagnosis:— Morphological features of the new species are similar to those of P. amoena Blume (1828: 210) and P. mcclurei Ching (1933: 28) with tripinnatifid laminae, but differ by having spores with echinate-tuberculate and auriculate ornamentation, strawcolored stipes, rachises and costae, free veins but occasionally interlinked veins, while P. amoena having spores with tuberculate and verrucate ornamentation, castaneous-brown to sorrel-red stipes, rachises and costae, and free veins, and P. mcclurei having spores with rugulate ornamentation, castaneous-brown to lightly brown stipes, rachises and costae, and interlinked veins ( Table 2, Figs. 2 & 3).
Distribution and Habitat:— Pteris pseudoamoena is currently found in Longzhou County and Daxin County of Guangxi Province, China, and in Kim Hy Nature Reserve of Bac Kan, Vietnam. It grows in calcareous hills with elevation 216– 600 m.

Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to the most similar species Pteris amoena of the new species.

Common name (assigned here):— Ni Hong Gan Feng Wei Jue 
(拟红杆凤尾蕨; Chinese name).

Rui Guo, Jia-Mei Wang, Wen Zhang, Dan He, Jing Yu and Dong-Mei Yang. 2022. Pteris pseudoamoena (Pteridaceae), A New Species from Guangxi, China and Vietnam. Phytotaxa. 550(3); 215-223. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.550.3.1 [2022-06-16]


[Botany • 2022] Vanilla andina (Orchidaceae: Vanilloideae) • A New Species of the Membranaceous-leaved Group from Peru and Ecuador

Vanilla andina Damián & H. Garzón,

in Damián, Garzón, Baquero, ... et Cameron, 2022. 

Vanilla andina, a new species belonging to subgen. Vanilla, is described and illustrated based on living material from Peru and Ecuador. The new species is similar to V. armoriquensis but can be easily distinguished by the prominent parallel callus, longitudinal narrow keels that extend above the middle of the lip and broadly obtuse to emarginate midlobe with crispate margins.

Keywords: Vanilla subgenus VanillaVanilla armoriquensisVanilla costaricensis, Andes, Monocots

  Line drawing of Vanilla andina based on the Peruvian holotype.
 A. Habit, B. Inflorescence, C. Flower in lateral view, D. Dissected perianth. E. Lip and column, lateral view. F. Column, ventral (right) and lateral view (left). G. Anther cap in dorsal (left) and ventral (right) view.
Drawing by N. Mitidieri.

 Lankester Composite Dissection Plate (LCDP) of Vanilla andina.
 A. Habit. B. Flower. C. Dissected perianth. D. Lip and column (left) and in longitudinal section (right). E. Column, ventral (left), lateral (center) and dorsal (right) view. F. Anther cap in dorsal. (above left), ventral (above right), lateral (below, left) view, with pollinarium (below right).
Photographs by Henry X. Garzón based on M. Jiménez & H. Garzón 1274.

Vanilla andina Damián & H. Garzón, sp. nov. 

Etymology:—The specific epithet of the new taxon is a reference to the Andean mountain range, where the species is found.

Alexander Damián, Henry X. Garzón, Luis Baquero, Marco M. Jiménez, Leisberth Vélez-Abarca, Gabriel A. Iturralde, Nicole Mitidieri, Sergio Olortegui and Kenneth M. Cameron. 2022. Vanilla andina (Vanilloideae, Orchidaceae), A New Species of the Membranaceous-leaved Group from Peru and Ecuador. Phytotaxa. 552(1); 63-72. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.552.1.5 

Resumen: Vanilla andina, una nueva especie del subgen. Vanilla, se describe e ilustra con base en material vivo de Perú y Ecuador. Lanueva especie es similar a V. armoriquensis pero puede distinguirse fácilmente por el prominente callo paralelo, las quillas longitudinales estrechas que se extienden por encima de la mitad del labelo y por el lóbulo medio del labelo ampliamenteobtuso a emarginado con márgenes crispados.

Alexander Damian and Nicole Mitidieri. 2020. Living in the Clouds: A New High-elevation Species of Vanilla (Orchidaceae, Vanilloideae) from Perú. Phytotaxa. 451(2); 154–160. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.451.2.5   

[Botany • 2021] Peperomia callejasii (Piperaceae) • A New Species from the Eastern Slopes of the Andes, northern South America

  Piper callejasii W. Trujillo & M. A. Jaram., 

in W. Trujillo, E.T. Trujillo & Jaramillo, 2021. 

A new species of Piper L. (Piperaceae) from the eastern slopes of the Andes in Colombia and Peru, P. callejasii W. Trujillo & M. A. Jaram., is described and illustrated, and morphological comparisons with similar species are discussed. Piper callejasii is distinguished by its stigmas being sessile, rather than on a long style as in four similar species. Its conservation status is suggested to be Endangered.

Keywords: Colombia, Peru, Piperaceae

  Piper callejasii W. Trujillo & M. A. Jaram.
A. Sympodial branch; lower and upper leaf surfaces and spikes. -B. Detail of the petiole, node, and internode. -C. Fruit in side view. -D. Magnified view of the infructescence. -E. Floral bract view from above. -F. Detail of the leaf base and prophyll. -G. Detail of the indument along the midvein and secondary nerves of the lower leaf surface. -H. Papillae on the proximal portion of the midvein and secondary nerves of the lower leaf surface. Illustration by Isabella Garzón based on Trujillo et al. 1061.

  Piper callejasii W. Trujillo & M. A. Jaram.
A. Inflorescence; monopodial and sympodial leaves. B. Sympodialbranch; upper leaf surfaces and infructescence.
Photos from Trujillo et al. 1061 by W. Trujillo.

 Piper callejasii W. Trujillo & M. A. Jaram. sp. nov.

Etymology. This species is named in honor of Ricardo Callejas. Ricardo has worked on Piper taxonomy for more than three decades. Not only is he immensely knowledgeable about species in the Neotropics (mostly) and Asia (some), but he has been incredibly instrumental in empowering young botanists, like us, to study Piper in an integrative manner. Christiane Ehringhaus called him the “Pope of Piper” (Ehringhaus, 1997); we prefer the “Father of Piper” because of his knowledge and warm welcome to anyone dedicating time to study these captivating plants. 

William Trujillo, Edwin Trujillo Trujillo and M. Alejandra Jaramillo. 2021. Piper callejasii (Piperaceae), A New Species from the Eastern Slopes of the Andes, Northern South America. Novon. 29: 200–205. DOI: 10.3417/2021659 

[Fungi • 2022] Retiperidiolia gen. nov. (Agaricales: Nidulariaceae)Hidden in the Tropics: A New Genus of Bird’s Nest Fungi (Nidulariaceae), and A Systematic Study of the Genus Mycocalia

  Retiperidiolia reticulata (Petch) Kraisit., Choeyklin, Boonprat. & M.E. Sm.

in Kraisitudomsook, Choeyklin, Boonpratuang, ... et Smith, 2022. 

Nidulariaceae (bird’s nest fungi) are an understudied group of fungi, and species of Mycocalia J.T. Palmer are the least known taxa in the family. Mycocalia was previously shown to be polyphyletic, but no further research has been conducted to revise the taxonomy of the genus. Here we conduct a phylogenetic study of Mycocalia species using five loci (ITS, LSU, SSU, TEF1, and RPB2) and morphologically examined Mycocalia collections available in herbaria. Our results indicate that two tropical Mycocalia species, M. aquaphila and M. reticulata, are distantly related to M. denudata, the type species of this genus. Accordingly, we propose the new genus Retiperidiolia to accommodate this phylogenetically and morphologically unique bird’s nest fungus lineage, with R. reticulata as the type species. Retiperidiolia reticulata was originally described from Sri Lanka by Petch in 1919. Because the type specimen is in poor condition and no molecular data can be obtained, we designated an epitype based on a recent collection from Thailand. Species of Retiperidiolia closely resemble Mycocalia species except that the peridiole cortex in Retiperidiolia species has a reticulated pattern and members of this lineage are thus far known only from tropical or subtropical habitats. In addition to phylogenetic and morphological characterization, we revised the taxonomy and provided a revised key to accepted species of Mycocalia and Retiperidiolia.

Keywords: Taxonomy, New genus, Tropical fungi, Thailand, Rediscovery, Fungarium

 Morphological features of Retiperidiolia reticulata (BBH-19922 and BBH-44760).
a Immature basidiocarps showing white peridium (scale bar = 10 mm).
b Mature basidiocarps with many light brown peridioles packed inside (scale bar = 5 mm).
 c Peridiole cortex showing dark outer layer and strong reticulation with deeply branched hyphae (scale bar = 20 μm).
d Hyphae from the basidiocarp showing regular septations and clamp connections, stained in Congo red (scale bar = 25 μm).
e Differential interference contrast (DIC) image of mature hyaline basidiospores showing elliptical shape (scale bar = 20 μm).
f DIC image of metamorphosed basidium showing the lecythiform shape (scale bar = 5 μm).
g Basidium with sterigmata and basidiospores, stained in Congo red (scale bar = 5 μm)

Retiperidiolia Kraisit., Cheoyklin, Boonprat. & M.E. Sm., gen. nov.

Etymology: Retiperidiolia” refers to the key morphological characteristic of this genus, which is the reticulation of the peridiole cortex.

Retiperidiolia reticulata (Petch) Kraisit., Choeyklin, Boonprat. & M.E. Sm., comb. nov. 

Distribution and habitat: epigeous, solitary or in clusters on plant debris in tropical forests. Thus far only definitively documented from Asia [Sri Lanka; Thailand, Satun] and Oceania [United States, Hawaii].

Retiperidiolia aquaphila (Cruz et al.) Kraisit. & M.E. Sm., comb. nov.

Specimens examined: Brazil, Pará, Belém, Mosqueiro Island, on Marachú Beach, leg.

 Nattapol Kraisitudomsook, Rattaket Choeyklin, Thitiya Boonpratuang, Maneerat Pobkwamsuk, Sakaokan Anaphon and Matthew E. Smith. 2022. Hidden in the Tropics: Retiperidiolia gen. nov., A New Genus of Bird’s Nest Fungi (Nidulariaceae), and A  Systematic Study of the Genus Mycocalia.  Mycological Progress. 21: 56. DOI: 10.1007/s11557-022-01807-y

Retiperidiolia: เห็ดกลุ่มรังนก (Bird's Nest Fungi) สกุลใหม่ของโลก
นอกจากแปลกตาแล้วยังพบได้ยากมากที่สุด เนื่องจากขนาดเล็กมาก เพียง 5-10 มม. เท่านั้น ในปัจจุบันมีการค้นพบเฉพาะเขตร้อน โดยครั้งแรกพบที่ประเทศศรีลังกา ปี 1919 ครั้งที่สองพบที่ รัฐฮาวาย สหรัฐอเมริกา และค้นพบอีกครั้งในประเทศไทยในปี 2006 โดยนักวิจัยธนาคารทรัพยากรชีวภาพแห่งชาติ ดร.รัตเขตร์ เชยกลิ่น งานวิจัยนี้เป็นความร่วมมือระหว่าง ธนาคารทรัพยากรชีวภาพแห่งชาติ และ University of Florida โดยมี ดร.ณัฐพล ไกรสิทธิ์อุดมสุข เป็นผู้วิจัยต่อยอด

เอกลักษณ์หลักที่พบจนนำไปสู่การตั้งสกุลใหม่ เป็นผลจากงานวิจัยด้านสัณฐานวิทยา ควบคู่กับอณูชีวโมเลกุล พบว่า ตัวอย่างทั้งสี่มีเอกลักษณ์ที่ชัดเจน บริเวณชั้นเนื้อเยื่อผนังด้านใน หรือ peridiole cortex ที่เป็นโครงสร้างแบบร่างแห และมีผนังเซลล์หนา รวมถึง พบเซลล์สร้างสปอร์มีสองแบบคือ ทั้งที่เป็น 2 และ 4 สปอร์ 
 จึงเป็นที่มาของการตั้งชื่อสกุลใหม่ว่า Retiperidiolia แปลว่า ผนังเนื้อเยื่อด้านใน (peridiole) มีลักษณะเป็นร่างแห (reticula) 

ตัวอย่างจากประเทศไทย ค้นพบที่ อุทยานแห่งชาติทะเลบัน ถึงสองตัวอย่างซึ่งคิดเป็นร้อยละ50 ของที่พบทั่วโลก จะเห็นว่าการค้นพบนั้นเป็นระยะเวลายาวนานและการนำมาวิเคราะห์ใหม่กับตัวอย่างที่พบทั่วโลกทำให้เปิดเผยข้อมูลใหม่ๆ ขึ้นมาอีก ซึ่งผลจากการวิเคราะห์สายสัมพันธ์ทางวิวัฒนาการ (Phylogeny) สนับสนุนข้อมูลด้านสัณฐานวิทยาว่ามีวิวัฒนาการที่แยกออกมาจากสกุล Mycocaria และถ้าท่านพบสองสกุลนี้จุดที่แตกต่างกันอย่างเห็นได้ชัดเจนคือบริเวณโครงสร้างผนังชั้นใน peridiole นั่นเอง

เห็ดดังกล่าวได้รับการตีพิมพ์เผยแพร่ในวารสาร Mycological Progress volume 21, Article number: 56 (2022) ตัวอย่างแห้งของประเทศไทย ถูกเลือกเป็น Epitype เก็บรักษาที่ BIOTEC Bangkok Herbarium & Fungarium (BBH) ประเทศไทย ส่วนตัวอย่างต้นแบบ Holotype เก็บที่ Botanical Garden ประเทศศรีลังกา

ธนาคารทรัพยากรชีวภาพแห่งชาติ (NBT). (2565). Retiperidiolia reticulata (Petch), 17 มิถุนายน 2565.

Friday, June 24, 2022

[Diplopoda • 2022] Glyphiulus sinuatoprocessus, G. scutatus, G. xiniudong, etc. • Revision of the javanicus Species Group of the Millipede Genus Glyphiulus Gervais, 1847 (Spirostreptida: Cambalopsidae), with Descriptions of Five New Species from China

Glyphiulus sinuatoprocessus Zhao & Liu, sp. nov. from Cave Niubi Yan
G. scutatus Zhao & Liu, sp. nov. from Cave Bianfu Dong
C G. portaliformis Zhao & Liu, sp. nov. from Cave Baiyan Dong
G. xiniudong Zhao & Liu, sp. nov. from Cave Xiniu Dong 

in Zhao, Guo, Golovatch & Liu, 2022. 

The javanicus-group of Glyphiulus is re-assessed and its Chinese component species are presently divided between the following two newly-circumscribed species groups, i.e. the formosus- and the sinensis-group. The two can be differentiated, based on the diagnostic characters of the first pair of legs in the male. In addition, metatergal crests being complete and the carinotaxy formula on the collum being I–III+P+M are only characteristic of the formosus-group. A molecular phylogeny of the genus, based on DNA sequencing of four gene fragments of four genes, allows for Glyphiulus to be recovered as a monophyletic group, the phylogenetic relationship being ((Clade A, Clade B), Clade C). Molecular evidence is fully congruent with the morphological one. In addition, based on barcoding data, interspecific p-distances between Glyphiulus species amount to 11.2–24.9%, vs. 0–8.2% for intraspecific p-distances. Five new species of Glyphiulus, all cavernicolous, are described from China: G. sinuatoprocessus Zhao & Liu, sp. nov., G. conuliformis Zhao & Liu, sp. nov. (both from Guangdong Province), G. xiniudong Zhao & Liu, sp. nov., G. scutatus Zhao & Liu, sp. nov. and G. portaliformis Zhao & Liu, sp. nov. (all three from Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region). The known Chinese species of the formosus-group appear to mainly be confined to the South China region.

Keywords: Cave, DNA barcoding, new record, new species, phylogeny, taxonomy

Pictures of live animals
 A Glyphiulus sinuatoprocessus Zhao & Liu, sp. nov. from Cave Niubi Yan B G. scutatus Zhao & Liu, sp. nov. from Cave Bianfu Dong C G. portaliformis Zhao & Liu, sp. nov. from Cave Baiyan Dong D G. xiniudong Zhao & Liu, sp. nov. from Cave Xiniu Dong E G. conuliformis Zhao & Liu, sp. nov. from Cave Yanzi Dong.

Yi Zhao, Wan-Ru Guo, Sergei I. Golovatch and Wei-Xin Liu. 2022. Revision of the javanicus Species Group of the Millipede Genus Glyphiulus Gervais, 1847, with Descriptions of Five New Species from China (Diplopoda, Spirostreptida, Cambalopsidae). ZooKeys. 1108: 89-118.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1108.85156

[Botany • 2022] Mitracarpus semirianus (Rubiaceae: Spermacoceae) • An overlooked New Species from the “campo rupestre” of Bahia, northeastern Brazil

Mitracarpus semirianus J.A.M.Carmo & Scatigna, 

in Carmo, Scatigna, Shimizu & Simões, 2022.

Background and aims – Mitracarpus semirianus, an overlooked new species from the “campo rupestre” of the Chapada Diamantina, in the state of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, is here described and illustrated. Specimens of the new species have been previously identified as M. frigidus or M. lhotzkyanus, with which its distinction is discussed. We also provide an updated description of the latter, with notes on its type specimens. In addition, we comment on the distribution, habitat, and preliminary conservation status of both M. semirianus and M. lhotzkyanus. We also provide an updated identification key to the species of Mitracarpus occurring in Brazil.
Material and methods – This study was based on fieldwork collections and observations and analysis of specimens deposited in herbaria. Preliminary conservation status assessments follow the IUCN Red List criteria.
Key results – Mitracarpus semirianus differs from M. frigidus and M. lhotzkyanus by its glabrous stems, winged at each angle, wing margin hirsute, glabrous leaf blades, and the oblongoid and slightly compressed seeds, with a smooth longitudinal groove dorsally and an inverted “Y”-shaped groove ventrally. The new species is assessed as Endangered according to the IUCN criteria. Furthermore, it is more likely that Riedel, not Lhotzky, collected the original material of the name M. lhotzkyanus. This species is glabrate, not completely glabrous, presenting a generally strigose indumentum on the stems, stipular sheaths, and leaf blades.

Keywords: Espinhaço Range, morphology, Rubioideae, Spermacoce clade, taxonomy

 Mitracarpus semirianus J.A.M.Carmo & Scatigna.  
 A. Branch portion with a terminal glomerule. B. Branch portion with terminal and axillary glomerules. C. Stem and stipule. D. Flower. E. Detail of the exteranal surface of the corolla. F. Dissected corolla, with stamens, style, and stigma. G. Capsule. H. Inferior portion of a dehiscent capsule. I. Seed, dorsal (left) and ventral (right) views. J. Detail of the testa of the seed.
 From J.A.M. Carmo & A.V. Scatigna 420. Drawn by Klei Sousa.

Mitracarpus semirianus J.A.M.Carmo & Scatigna. 
A. Inflorescence. B. Individuals. C. Habitat. D. General view of the site of collection.
 Photographs by João Carmo (A–C) and André Scatigna (D).

Mitracarpus semirianus J.A.M.Carmo & Scatigna, sp. nov. 

Diagnosis – Mitracarpus semirianus is similar to M. frigidus, but differs by the glabrous stems (vs puberulent to glabrous in M. frigidus), winged at each angle (vs ribbed at each angle), wing margin hirsute (vs rib margin hirsute, strigose, or glabrous); elliptic, ovate, or narrowly ovate leaf blades, glabrous (vs narrowly ovate, rarely linear leaf blades, hirsute, pubescent, strigose, or glabrous); terminal glomerules, rarely one axillary (vs terminal and axillary, rarely just terminal); oblongoid, slightly compressed seeds (vs oblongoid to globose seeds), with a smooth longitudinal groove dorsally and an inverted “Y”-shaped groove ventrally (vs cruciform depression dorsally and an “X”-shaped groove ventrally). Mitracarpus semirianus is also similar to M. lhotzkyanus, but differs by the stems winged at each angle (vs ribbed at each angle), wing margin hirsute (vs rib margin strigose to glabrous), leaf blades with strigulose and revolute margin (vs glabrous to strigose margin and slightly revolute near the base), and the oblongoid, slightly compressed seeds (vs oblongoid to ellipsoid seeds), with an inverted “Y”-shaped groove on the ventral surface (vs a rectangular groove on the ventral surface).

Etymology – The specific epithet honours Professor João Semir, who worked at the University of Campinas (Unicamp) and passed away on the 8th of November 2018. Professor Semir dedicated his life to the study of plants. His invaluable contribution to science and society comes in the form of many theses and dissertations produced by his students, as well as works on the Brazilian flora, especially regarding the Compositae and the “campo rupestre”. He played a crucial role in the formation of generations of taxonomists at Unicamp and many other institutions, including the authors of this paper.

 João Carmo, André Scatigna, Gustavo Shimizu and André Olmos Simões. 2022. Mitracarpus semirianus (Spermacoceae, Rubiaceae), An overlooked New Species from the “campo rupestre” of Bahia, northeastern Brazil, with notes on Mitracarpus lhotzkyanusPlant Ecology and Evolution 155(1): 165-177. DOI: 10.5091/plecevo.84548

Thursday, June 23, 2022

[Botany • 2022] Nepenthes pudica (Nepenthaceae) First Record of Functional Underground Traps in A Pitcher Plant: A New Species from North Kalimantan, Borneo

Nepenthes pudica Dančák & Majeský, 

 iDančák, Majeský, Čermák, ... et Tjiasmanto, 2022.
Photographs by M. Dančák.

Nepenthes pudica, a new species from North Kalimantan, Indonesia, is described and illustrated. The species belongs to the N. hirsuta group (sensu Cheek and Jebb 1999) but exhibits some characters that are unique within the group or even within the genus. Above all, it produces underground, achlorophyllous shoots with well-developed, ventricose lower pitchers that form in soil cavities or directly in the soil. No lower pitchers are formed above ground. The main part of its prey are ants, besides other litter- and soil-inhabiting species of invertebrates. A number of infaunal species were found in both aerial and underground pitchers, mainly Diptera and nematodes. Nepenthes pudica is known only from a few neighbouring localities in the Mentarang Hulu district of North Kalimantan, where it grows on ridgetops at an elevation of 1100–1300 m. Its discovery underlines the natural richness of Borneo’s rainforest and the necessity to preserve this important ecosystem with its enormous and still undiscovered biodiversity.

Keywords: Borneo, carnivorous plant, Caryophyllales, Mentarang Hulu, prey composition, taxonomy, underground trap

Nepenthes pudica Dančák & Majeský, 
 A juvenile rosette pitcher B upper pitchers (4 on the right; each from a different plant), intermediate pitcher (1 on the left) C habitat with mature plant D habitat with lower pitchers excavated from the soil.
Photographs by M. Dančák.

Nepenthes pudica Dančák & Majeský, 
 A detail of lower pitchers excavated from the soil B lower pitchers in a cavity under tree roots–note greening of phyllodia formed in presence of low light C lower pitchers revealed under a moss mat D lower pitchers extracted from a cavity–note achlorophyllous shoot and reduced phyllodia formed in total darkness.
 Photographs by M. Dančák.

Nepenthes pudica Dančák & Majeský, 
A habit B lower pitcher C infructescence D male inflorescence E detail of climbing stem with a leaf.
Drawn by Kateřina Janošíková.

Nepenthes pudica Dančák & Majeský, 
A male flowers B male plant with inflorescence C infructescence D female plant with infructescence.
Photographs by M. Dančák.

 Nepenthes pudica Dančák & Majeský, sp. nov.
DiagnosisNepenthes pudica differs from N. hispida Beck in producing short basal underground (vs. aboveground) shoots; ± glabrous (vs. hairy) stems; petiolate (vs. sessile) climbing shoot leaves with auriculate, shortly decurrent (vs. decurrent-amplexicaul) bases; rare (vs. common) upper pitchers; red (vs. green or red blotched) lower pitchers; ± glabrous (vs. hairy) mature pitchers; ventricose (vs. ovoid-ellipsoid) lower pitchers; infundibular (vs. subcylindrical, tapering) upper half of the lower pitcher; 3–5.5 cm (vs. 1.5–3 cm) wide lower pitchers; male flowers in pairs (vs. single or rarely in pairs) and androphore c. 4 mm (vs. 1.5–2 mm) long.

  Distribution: The species is known only from a few adjoining localities in the western part of the Mentarang Hulu district of North Kalimantan, Indonesia. The exact locations have been withheld in order to prevent poaching by unscrupulous commercial collectors.

Etymology: The specific epithet pudica (bashful, shy), is a feminine adjective and alludes to the fact that lower pitchers remain concealed from direct view.

Martin Dančák, Ľuboš Majeský, Václav Čermák, Michal R. Golos, Bartosz J. Płachno and Wewin Tjiasmanto. 2022. First Record of Functional Underground Traps in A Pitcher Plant: Nepenthes pudica (Nepenthaceae), A New Species from North Kalimantan, Borneo. PhytoKeys. 201: 77-97. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.201.82872

[Herpetology • 2022] Cyrtodactylus phukhaensis • A New Cyrtodactylus Species (Reptila: Gekkonidae) from Nan Province, Northern Thailand

Cyrtodactylus phukhaensis Chomdej, Pradit, Pawangkhanant, Naiduangchan & Suwannapoom, 

in Chomdej, Pradit, Pawangkhanant, ... et Suwannapoom. 2022.
ตุ๊กกายภูคา  || นก หนู งูเห่า 
Here, a new species of bent-toed gecko, Cyrtodactylus phukhaensis sp. nov., is described from Doi Phu Kha, Nan province, Thailand based on molecular and morphological evidence. A phylogeny based on NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 (ND2) and its flanking tRNAs places the new species in the chauquangensis group as a sister taxon to Cyrtodactylus wayakonei. The new species can be differentiated from other members of the chauquangensis group by having a unique combination of 7 or 8 supralabials, 23–28 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles, 8–10 infralabials, 9 femoral pores, 7 precloacal pores, 40–47 ventral scales, and a lack of bands crossing the temporal area. In addition, results from a chromosome study of C. phukhaensis sp. nov. showed that the new species has a diploid chromosome number of 40 with a fundamental number of 46. The formula of the karyotype was as follows: 2n (40) = 2m + 4sm + 34t. Our findings suggest that further studies of Cyrtodactylus biodiversity in northern Thailand are needed.

Keywords: bent-toed gecko;  Cyrtodactylus wayakonei;  Cyrtodactylus chauquangensis;  karyotype;  phylogeny;  taxonomy

Distributions of the Cyrtodactylus chauquangensis group.
Red star indicates the type locality of Cyrtodactylus phukhaensis sp. nov. in Nan Province, Thailand.
Red dots represent the distributions of other Cyrtodactylus spp. including (1) C. zhenkangensis, (2) C. erythrops, (3) C. dumnuii, (4) C. doisuthep, (5) C. auribalteatus, (6) C. kunyai, (7) C. wayakonei, (8) C. vilaphongi, (9) C. spelaeus, (10) C. martini, (11) C. hekouensis, (12) C. sonlaensis, (13) C. otai, (14) C. puhuensis, (15) C. bobrovi, (16) C. huongsonensis, (17) C. cucphuongensis, (18) C. soni, and (19) C. chauquangensis.

Dorsal view of live  Cyrtodactylus phukhaensis sp. nov.  from Doi Phu Kha, Pua and Bo Kluea District, Nan Province, northern Thailand.
Habitat of  Cyrtodactylus phukhaensis sp. nov. at the Doi Phu Kha, Nan Province, Thailand, i.e., the type locality.

The specimen observed on a large boulder near the stream in the habitat.

Cyrtodactylus phukhaensis sp. nov.
Chomdej, Pradit, Pawangkhanant, Naiduangchan, and Suwannapoom
 Phukha Bent-toed Gecko

Diagnosis Cyrtodactylus phukhaensis sp. nov. differs from all other species in the C. chauguangensis group by having a combination of 8 or 9 supralabials; 8–10 infralabials; 36–44 paravertebral tubercles; 23–28 longitudinal rows of dorsal tubercles; 40 –47 ventral scales; 7 expanded subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe, 11 or 12 unmodified subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe, and 18 or 19 total subdigital lamellae on the fourth toe; 27–34 enlarged femoral scales; 10 –12 pore-bearing femoral scales in males; 8–11 enlarged precloacal scales; 7 pore-bearing precloacal scales in males; 3 rows of enlarged postprecloacal scales; 4–7 broken to hour glass-shaped dorsal body bands; 4–8 light-colored caudal bands (n = 2); 3–8 dark colored caudal bands (n = 2); raised and strongly keeled dorsal tubercles that extend beyond the base of the tail; enlarged femoral and precloacal scales that are nearly the same size and continuous; pore-bearing femoral and precloacal scales that are not continuous; medial subcaudals 2–3 times wider than long and extending onto the lateral side of the tail; green irises; a nuchal loop lacking an anterior azygous notch and bearing a jagged posterior border; dorsal bands bearing paravertebral elements that are generally equal in width to the interspaces, bear lightened centers, and are edged with white tubercles; dark markings in the dorsal interspaces; light caudal bands in adults bearing dark-colored markings; light-colored caudal bands that do not encircle the tail, and a mature regenerated tail that is not spotted (Table 3).

 The specific epithet, phukhaensis, is derived from the place name of Doi Phu Kha where the type series was collected.


Siriwadee Chomdej, Waranee Pradit, Parinya Pawangkhanant, Chakkrapong Kuensaen, Apichaya Phupanbai, Mali Naiduangchan, Promporn Piboon, Korakot Nganvongpanit, Zhiyong Yuan, Yinpeng Zhang, Jing Che, Phuping Sucharitakul and Chatmongkon Suwannapoom. 2022.
A New Cyrtodactylus Species (Reptila: Gekkonidae) from Nan Province, Northern Thailand [96-108]
 Asian Herpetological Research. 13(2); 96–108. DOI: 10.16373/j.cnki.ahr.210055

[Herpetology • 2022] Darevskia salihae Hidden Diversity in A Narrow Valley: Description of New Endemic Palearctic Rock Lizard Darevskia (Squamata: Lacertidae) Species from Northeastern Turkey

Darevskia salihae  
Kurnaz, Şahin & Eroğlu, 2022

Darevskia is a particularly species-rich radiation of Palearctic rock lizards from the Caucasus region. Thanks to intense systematic and taxonomic research, the knowledge of species – level diversity within this genus has increased over the last quarter century. Here, we described a new species, Darevskia salihae sp. nov. from northeastern Turkey. The new taxon is differentiated from other nearby taxon by the low number of dorsal scales in the middle of the body, the shorter body length, and the absence of blue dots both on the lateral region above the forelimbs and on the margin of the ventral plates. In addition to their morphological differences, the new taxon is phylogenetically different from close groups. It is located in a separate subclade from the rudis-valentini-portschinskii subclade. This distinction is supported by both a high bootstrap value (100) and a high posterior probability value (1.00). These two subclades are separated from each other by a genetic distance of almost 4%. This separation is supported not only genetically and morphologically, but also geographically. Since the habitat of the new taxon is limited to a high mountain and a narrow valley, it does not provide an opportunity for a different Darevskia species to shelter because it creates geographical isolation. However, Darevskia parvula that live closest to the habitat of the new taxon live only at the habitat boundaries and do not enter areas where the new taxon is found. Therefore, it might be possible that while it was separated from the rudis-valentini-portschinskii group during the evolutionary transformation, it remained as a refuge and relict in a narrow area as a result of the collapse of the valleys and the partial uplift of the Kaçkar Mountains.

Key words: Darevskia salihae sp. nov., Caucasian rock lizards, New species, Phylogeny, Morphology, Isolation, Relict endemic, Anatolia.

General view of subadult female paratype of Darevskia salihae sp. nov. (GUK 1/2021-4).

General view of adult female of Darevskia salihae sp. nov. 
(holotype GUK 1/2021-1 and paratype GUK 1/2021-2).

Family: Lacertidae Oppel, 1811 

Genus: Darevskia Arribas, 1999 

Darevskia salihae sp. nov. Kurnaz, Şahin and Eroğlu, 2022

Diagnosis: Darevskia salihae sp. nov. is small sized (SVL: 51.79–58.98 mm) (Fig. 4a, b). Rostral and internasal is rarely in contact. Suboculars on both sides reach the mouth, four supralabials in anterior of suboculars. The first supratemporal plates are bigger than the others on each side of the head. All individuals have 4 supraocular plates on each side of the head. The supranasal plate is separated from anterior loreal plates above nostrils in all specimens. The postnasal plate is single on each side in all specimens. Massetericum is large and present in each side of temporal region. The row of supraciliar granules for all individuals is complete. 23–25 gularia between the third inframaxillary and collars. Generally, 6 longitudinal rows of ventral plates, and 24–30 ventral series in a longitudinal row along the belly between collar and preanal; 39–43 (mean 41) smooth dorsal midbody scales. 17–19 femoral pores exist on the right side. 22–25 lamellae exist beneath the 4th toe. The dorsal body scales in the midbody are tiny and flat. Subdigital lamellae in the 4th toe is smooth. The anal plate is singular in all specimens. Tibial scales are not carinated.

Etymology: The name of the new taxon was given in honor of Saliha Şahin, who is the mother of one of the authors, Mehmet Kürşat Şahin, who passed away recently.

Muammer Kurnaz, Mehmet Kürşat Şahin and Ali İhsan Eroğlu. 2022. Hidden Diversity in A Narrow Valley: Description of New Endemic Palearctic Rock Lizard Darevskia (Squamata: Lacertidae) Species from Northeastern Turkey. Zoological Studies. 61; 44.