Tuesday, October 15, 2019

[Ichthyology • 2019] Channa rara • A New Species of Snakehead Fish (Labyrinthici: Channidae) from the Western Ghats region of Maharashtra, India

Channa rara
Britz, Dahanukar, Anoop & Ali, 2019


Channa rara, new species, is described from the Jagbudi River in Maharashtra, India. It belongs to the Gachua group and differs from all its members by the possession of one or more ocelli in the posterior part of the dorsal fin in adults (vs. ocelli absent or 1, rarely 2–3 ocelli in juveniles only). It is further distinguished from most species of the C. gachua group by having 6–7 dark concentric bands on the pectoral fins. We review recent descriptions of species of the genus Channa and conclude that C. royi is a synonym of Channa harcourtbutleri, that the diagnosis of C. shingon from C. harcourtbutleri is seriously flawed and that C. torsaensis is not sufficiently diagnosed from C. quinquefasciata. The recently described C. amari is a junior synonym of C. brunnea.

Keywords: Pisces, taxonomy, endemism, Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot

FIGURE 2. Channa rara, live colouration.
(A) BNHS FWF 1003, holotype, 87.6 mm SL, India: Maharashthra: Jagbudi River near Khopi Village, note series of small dark spots along base of dorsal fin, large ocellus-like blotch at posterior dorsal fin.
(B) juvenile, not preserved, ca. 30 mm SL, note numerous black blotches in dorsal, anal, and caudal fins.
(C) small juvenile released from mouthbrooding male, not preserved, ca. 12 mm SL.

FIGURE 3. Channa rara, variation of live colouration.
(A) BNHS FWF 1004-1005, paratypes, 90.3 mm SL (left) and 82.1 (right), note presence of two (left) and three (right) posterior ocellus-like dorsal-fin blotches.
(B) BNHS FWF 1004-1005, paratypes, 90.3 mm SL (left) and 82.1 (right) illustrating ventral head colouration.

Ralf Britz, Neelesh Dahanukar, V.K. Anoop and Anvar Ali. 2019. Channa rara, A New Species of Snakehead Fish from the Western Ghats region of Maharashtra, India (Teleostei: Labyrinthici: Channidae). Zootaxa. 4683(4); 589–600. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4683.4.8


[Herpetology • 2019] Integrative Taxonomy of the Asian Skinks Sphenomorphus stellatus and S. praesignis with the Resurrection of S. annamiticus and the Description of A New Species, S. preylangensis, from Cambodia

[A] Sphenomorphus stellatus (Boulenger, 1900)
 from the Bukit Larut, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. 

[C] Sphenomorphus preylangensis 
Grismer, Wood, Quah, Anuar, Poyarkov, Thy, Orlov, Thammachoti & Seiha. 2019
from Phnom Chi, Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary, Cambodia. 
Photographs by L. L. Grismer & Neang Thy.

Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the sister species Sphenomorphus stellatus and S. praesignis based on the mitochondrial genes 12S and 16S rRNA recover the former as paraphyletic with respect to the latter in that a specimen of S. stellatus from the type locality in Peninsular Malaysia is more closely related to S. praesignis than to Indochinese populations of S. stellatus. Furthermore, the phylogeny indicates that the Indochinese populations represent two species, thus resulting in four major lineages within this clade. These relationships are consistent with multivariate and univariate analyses of morphological and discrete color pattern data which statistically define and diagnose the four lineages and together with the molecular data, provide the foundation for robust, testable, species-level hypotheses. As such, S. stellatus is herein restricted to Peninsular Malaysia; S. annamiticus is resurrected for the circum-continental populations ranging through southeastern Thailand, southern Cambodia, and southern Vietnam; a new species— Sphenomorphus preylangensis sp. nov. —is described from an isolated mountain, Phnom Chi, from the Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary in central Cambodia; and the taxonomy of S. praesignis remains unchanged. The description of S. preylangensis sp. nov. underscores the necessity to conserve this remnant of lowland evergreen rainforest in the Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary.

Keywords: Reptilia, Phylogenetic systematics, Indochina, Peninsular Malaysia, Cambodia, Vietnam, Scincidae, Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary

FIGURE 3. Maximum likelihood consensus tree. Black circles represent nodes supported by BI and UFB support values of 1.00 and 100, respectively. Numbers in parentheses correspond to the localities in Figure 1.

FIGURE 4. Sphenomorphus annamiticus
A. LSUDPC 10975 from Khao Soi Dao Wildlife Sanctuary, Chantaburi Province, Thailand. Photograph by Ian Dugdale.
 B. CBC 02530 from Bokor National Park, Kampot Province, Cambodia. Photograph by Hun Seiha.
 C. LSUDPC 4853 from Kon Tum, Kon Tum Province, Vietnam. Photograph by Nikolai Orlov.
D. ZISP 19804 from Buon Luoi Village, An Khe District, Gia Lai Province, Vietnam. Photograph by Nikolai Orlov.

FIGURE 7. A. Sphenomorphus stellatus (LSUHC 13483) from the Bukit Larut, Perak, Peninsular Malaysia. Photograph by L. L. Grismer. B. Sphenomorphus annamiticus (ZISP 30194) from Mang Canh Village, Kon Tum Province, Vietnam. Photograph by Nikolai Orlov.
C. Sphenomorphus preylangensis sp. nov. (CBC 02404) from Phnom Chi, Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary, Cambodia. Photograph by Neang Thy. D. Sphenomorphus praesignis (LSUDPC 9558) from Fraser's Hill, Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia. Photograph by L. L. Grismer.

FIGURE 11. Human-made resin collecting depression cut into the side of tree (C) forming the microhabitat of a Sphenomorphus preylangensis sp. nov. (A and B; CBC 2403) from Phnom Chi, Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary, Cambodia. B. The skink is actually submerged in the resin. Photographs by Neang Thy.

Sphenomorphus preylangensis sp. nov. 
Suggested Common Name: Prey Lang Forest Skink

Etymology. The specific epithet preylangensis is a Latinized toponymic adjective named after the Prey Lang Wildlife Sanctuary.

Sphenomorphus annamiticus (Boettger, 1901) 
Based on this study, it appears Sphenomorphus annamiticus has a disjunct circum-continental distribution along the southern and eastern hilly margins of the Indochinese Peninsula from at least Khao Soi Dao, Thailand through the Cardamom Mountains of southern Cambodia to the Bokor Plateau at the western margin of the Mekong Delta. Its distribution begins again in the lowland areas of Ma Da and Cat Tien, Dong Nai Province on the eastern margin of the Mekong Delta in Vietnam and continues northward to at least the type locality of Phuoc Son in Quang Nam Province (Fig. 1). 

Sphenomorphus stellatus (Boulenger, 1900)
 Sphenomorphus stellatus is endemic to Peninsular Malaysia although it very likely ranges farther north up the Thai-Malay Peninsula to at least the Isthmus of Kra.

L. Lee Grismer, Perry L. Jr. Wood, Evan S. H. Quah, Shahrul Anuar, Nikolay A. Poyarkov, Neang Thy, Nikolai L. Orlov, Panupong Thammachoti and Hun Seiha. 2019. Integrative Taxonomy of the Asian Skinks Sphenomorphus stellatus (Boulenger, 1900) and S. praesignis (Boulenger, 1900) with the Resurrection of S. annamiticus (Boettger, 1901) and the Description of A New Species from Cambodia. Zootaxa. 4683(3); 381–411. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4683.3.4 


[Mammalogy • 2019] Parahypsugo happoldorum • A New Genus and Species of Vesper Bat (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) from West Africa, with Notes on Hypsugo, Neoromicia, and Pipistrellus

Parahypsugo happoldorum
Hutterer, Decher, Monadjem & Astrin, 2019

We describe a new species of vespertilionid bat from Guinea and Liberia, West Africa. In this context we evaluate previously described taxa from West Africa assigned to Pipistrellus, Neoromicia, and Hypsugo. Based on genetics, morphology and ecology we conclude that the taxon Pipistrellus eisentrauti bellieri should be elevated to species level, and that the taxa bellieri, crassulus, eisentrauti plus the new species form a monophyletic clade for which a new genus name is proposed. The new genus occurs in forested regions south of the Sahara from Senegal to Ethiopia and Somalia, from where further taxa remain to be described.

Parahypsugo happoldorum

Rainer Hutterer, Jan Decher, Ara Monadjem and Jonas Astrin. 2019. A New Genus and Species of Vesper Bat from West Africa, with Notes on HypsugoNeoromicia, and Pipistrellus (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae). Acta Chiropterologica. 21(1); 1-22. DOI: 10.3161/15081109ACC2019.21.1.001  
Neue Fledermausgattung aus Westafrika

[Herpetology • 2019] Species Delimitation and Systematics of the Green Pythons (Morelia viridis complex) of Melanesia and Australia

in Natusch, Esquerré, Lyons, et al., 2019.

• Heavily wild-harvested green pythons have long thought to comprise a single taxon.
• A geographically comprehensive molecular sampling reveals four cryptic taxa.
• Zones of contact between taxa occur at hithero unknown locations across New Guinea.

Molecular data sets and the increasing use of integrative systematics is revealing cryptic diversity in a range of taxa – particularly in remote and poorly sampled landscapes like the island of New Guinea. Green pythons (Morelia viridis complex) are one of the most conspicuous elements of this island’s fauna, with large numbers taken from the wild to supply international demand for exotic pets. We test hypotheses about species boundaries in green pythons from across New Guinea and Australia with mitochondrial genomes, 389 nuclear exons, and comprehensive assessment of morphological variation. Strong genetic structuring of green python populations and species delimitation methods confirm the presence of two species, broadly occurring north and south of New Guinea’s central mountains. Our data also support three subspecies within the northern species. Subtle but consistent morphological divergence among the putative taxa is concordant with patterns of molecular divergence. Our extensive sampling identifies several zones of hitherto unknown biogeographical significance on the island of New Guinea. We revise the taxonomy of the group, discuss the relevance of our findings in the context of Papuan biogeography and the implications of our systematic changes for the conservation management of these taxa.
Graphical abstract

Keywords: CITES, New Guinea, Chondropython, biogeography, cryptic diversity, Papua, Indonesia

Morelia viridis
Python viridis Schlegel 1872: 54
Chondropython azureus Meyer 1874: 134
Chondropython pulcher Sauvage 1878: 37
Chondropython viridis Boulenger 1893: 90
Morelia viridis Kluge 1993

Morelia azurea azurea
Python viridis Schlegel 1872
Chondropython azureus Meyer 1874
Chondropython pulcher Sauvage 1878
Chondropython viridis Boulenger 1893
Morelia azurea Schleip & O’Shea 2010

Morelia azurea pulcher
Python viridis Schlegel 1872
Chondropython azureus Meyer 1874
Chondropython pulcher Sauvage 1878
Chondropython viridis Boulenger 1893
Morelia azurea Schleip & O’Shea 2010

Morelia azurea utaraensis subsp. nov.

Python viridis Schlegel 1872
Chondropython azureus Meyer 1874
Chondropython pulcher Sauvage 1878
Chondropython viridis Boulenger 1893
Morelia azurea Schleip & O’Shea 2010

Etymology: The name utaraensis is derived from the Indonesian language word for “north”. Morelia azurea utaraensis occurs in northern New Guinea, with its name meaning “from the north”.

Daniel J.D. Natusch, Damien Esquerré, Jessica A. Lyons, Amir Hamidy, Alan R. Lemmon, Emily Moriarty Lemmon, Awal Riyanto J. Scott Keogh and Stephen Donnellan. 2019. Species Delimitation and Systematics of the Green Pythons (Morelia viridis complex) of Melanesia and Australia. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. In Press, 106640. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2019.106640

Saturday, October 12, 2019

[Botany • 2019] Linaria vettonica (Plantaginaceae) • A New Species of Linaria sect. Supinae from Sierra de Gredos (Sistema Central mountains, Iberian Peninsula)

Linaria vettonica Luceño, Mazuecos & P. Vargas

in Luceño, Fernández-Mazuecos & Vargas, 2019. 


Linaria vettonica Luceño, Mazuecos & P. Vargas, a new species of Linaria sect. Supinae, is described. It is a narrow endemic inhabiting the southern hills of the western and central massifs of Sierra de Gredos (Sistema Central mountains, Iberian Peninsula). The five populations found occur on siliceous, sandy soils of Quercus pyrenaica woodland clearings and slopes. L. vettonica can be distinguished from Linaria caesia by the densely glandular-pubescent inflorescence, dark purple corolla and brown seeds with tuberculate disc, and from L. aeruginea by its erect fertile stems and dark purple -never blackish- corolla.

Key words: Linaria, Sierra de Gredos, narrow endemic, taxonomy, seed micromorphology.

Figure 2.  Linaria vettonica.
A: habit. B: young capsules. C: sterile stem and young inflorescence.

 Linaria vettonica Luceño, Mazuecos & P. Vargas

Diagnosis: Linaria vettonica is similar to L. caesia and L. aeruginea. It differs from the former by the following features: the inflorescence is densely glandular-pubescent (vs. glabrous or sparsely glandular-pubescent in L. caesia); the corolla is dark purple (vs. yellow or whitish-yellow with reddish-brown veins in L. caesia);and seeds are brown (vs. black in L. caesia), with tuberculate disc (vs. smooth or rarely with tuberculate disc in L. caesia). It differs from L. aeruginea mainly by its erect or, rarely, erect-ascending stems (decumbent to erect-ascending in L. aeruginea), and by its deep purple corolla (purple-blackish -in Gredos populations-, reddish, reddish-purple, pink-purple, greyish-purple, yellow or yellow-orange in L. aeruginea).

Etymology: This species is named after the Vettones, a Celtic people that inhabited Sierra de Gredos in pre-Roman times. 

Figure 1. Distribution range of  Linaria vettonica in Sierra de Gredos (Sistema Central mountains, Iberian Peninsula). Known localities are shown as stars.

Distribution: southern hills of the western and centrals massifs of Sierra de Gredos (Sistema Central mountains, Iberian Peninsula; Fig. 1).

Habitat: woodland (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) clearings, slopes, siliceous sandy soils.

Elevational range: 470-1250 m.

Modesto Luceño, Mario Fernández-Mazuecos and Pablo Vargas. 2019. A New Species of Linaria sect. Supinae from Sierra de Gredos (Sistema Central mountains, Iberian Peninsula). Acta Botanica Malacitana. 44DOI: 10.24310/abm.v44i0.6679

Una especie nueva de Linaria sect. Supinae en la Sierra de Gredos (Sistema Central, Península Ibérica)
Resumen: Se describe Linaria vettonica Luceño, Mazuecos & P. Vargas, una nueva especie de Linaria sect. Supinae. Se trata de un endemismo restringido que se distribuye por las vertientes meridionales de los macizos occidental y central de la Sierra de Gredos (Sistema Central, Península Ibérica). Las cinco poblaciones encontradas aparecieron sobre suelos arenosos silíceos en claros y laderas de bosques de Quercus pyrenaica. L. vettonica se distingue de L. caesia por sus inflorescencias densamente glandular-pubescentes, corolas de color púrpura oscuro y semillas marrones con disco ornamentado con numerosos tubérculos. De L. aeruginea se distingue por sus tallos fértiles erectos y sus flores de color púrpura oscuro, nunca negruzcas.
Palabras clave: Linaria, sierra de Gredos, endemismo restringido, taxonomía, micromorfología de semillas.

Friday, October 11, 2019

[Arachnida • 2019] Taxonomy of the Genus Ischnocolus (Araneae: Theraphosidae) in the Middle East, with Description of A New Species, I. vanandelae, from Oman and Iran

 Ischnocolus vanandelae Montemor, West & Zamani

in Montemor, West, Zamani, Moradmand, Wirth, Wendt, Huber & Guadanucci, 2019. 

Spider material collected from Oman and Iran revealed a new species of the genus Ischnocolus Ausserer, 1871, which is described as Ischnocolus vanandelae sp. n. New records of I. jickelii L. Koch, 1875 from Saudi Arabia, Yemen and United Arab Emirates show a larger distribution of this species than previously known. The natural history of I. vanandelae sp. n. and I. jickelii is described and the rather unusual colour polymorphism of the latter is discussed. The genus now includes eight species, whose distribution is mapped.

Keywords: Taxonomy, spiders, Mygalomorphae, Oman, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates

Family Theraphosidae Thorell, 1869
 Subfamily Ischnocolinae Simon, 1892 

Genus Ischnocolus Ausserer, 1871 

Ischnocolus ignoratus Guadanucci & Wendt, 2014

Ischnocolus jickelii L. Koch, 1875

 Ischnocolus vanandelae sp. n. Immature female, from Siahhu, Hormozgan, Iran.
 (photos: A. Zamani)

 Ischnocolus vanandelae sp. n. Montemor, West & Zamani  

Etymology. This species is named after Mrs. Priscilla M. J. van Andel, a Dutch wildlife enthusiast, who, along with her husband Mr. J. H. (Hans) Raaijmakers, first found and provided specimens from the UAE for this study.

Distribution. Oman, Iran (first record of the family).  

Vivian M. Montemor, Rick C. West, Alireza Zamani, Majid Moradmand, Volker V. Wirth, Ingo Wendt, Siegfried Huber and José Paulo L. Guadanucci. 2019. Taxonomy of the Genus Ischnocolus in the Middle East, with Description of A New Species from Oman and Iran (Araneae: Theraphosidae). Zoology in the Middle East.  DOI: 10.1080/09397140.2020.1675994 

[Herpetology • 2019] Leptodactylus apepyta • A New Frog of the Leptodactylus fuscus Species Group (Anura: Leptodactylidae), endemic from the South American Gran Chaco

Leptodactylus apepyta 
Schneider, Cardozo, Brusquetti, Kolenc, Borteiro, Haddad, Basso & Baldo, 2019

A new species of Leptodactylus frog (Anura: Leptodactylidae) from the South American Gran Chaco, morphologically similar and previously confused with the widespread Leptodactylus mystacinus, is described through the use of multiple sources of evidence (molecular, external morphology, coloration, osteology, bioacoustics, and behavior). The phylogenetic analysis with partial sequences of mitochondrial rDNA genes (12S and 16S) recovered the new species within the L. fuscus group, being highly divergent (>3% genetic distance in 16S). The new species was recovered as sister taxa of L. mystacinus, from which it is distinguished by tympanum coloration, cephalic index, dorsum and legs coloration, and some osteological differences in nasals and prevomers. This new frog is characterized by a moderate body size (SVL 46.80–66.21 mm), distinctive color pattern (reddish dorsal surfaces of body with noticeable black stripes in the dorsolateral folds), a circular and dark tympanum with dark tympanic annuli, and behavior of males that call on top of fallen logs and tree branches close to the ground.

Figure 5: Leptodactylus apepyta sp. nov.
(A) Dorsolateral view of the holotype (LGE 8114) in life; (B) male vocalizing from a log (LGE 15240).
Photos: Diego Baldo.

Leptodactylus apepyta sp. nov.

Etymology: The specific epithet is an indeclinable noun, constructed from the words of the Guaraní language apé (= back of the neckdorsum) and pytã (= red), in reference to the intense brick red dorsum of adult and juvenile live specimens.

Definition and diagnosis: 
Leptodactylus apepyta sp. nov. is assigned to the L. fuscus group (sensu Heyer (1969b)) by its phylogenetic position, and by the presence of the following synaphomorphies (Ponssa, 2008): (1) tectum nasi and alary process of premaxilla at the same level; (2) frontoparietal with posterior margin convex, and (3) cultriform process of parasphenoid sited between neopalatines.

The new species is diagnosed within the L. fuscus group by the following combination of character states: (1) moderate size sensu Heyer & Thompson (2000) (SVL 46.80–61.41 mm in males; 51.67–66.21 mm in females); (2) robust body aspect in dorsal view; (3) head wider than long (CI 0.77–0.95); (4) small, circular, and dark tympanum, with dark tympanic annuli; (5) black broad stripe from tip of snout to the insertion of the forelimb; (6) a distinct light upper lip stripe; (7) one or two pairs of dorsolateral folds, with distinct uninterrupted dark stripes coincident with the upper pair, and interrupted dark stripes in the dorsolateral folds of the flanks; (8) reddish color on dorsal surfaces of body and limbs; (9) dorsum with small dark spots; (10) thigh, tibia, and tarsus with broad, diffuse, and dark bars; and (11) advertisement call composed by a single, short (30–68 ms), and non-pulsed note; call rate of 3.86–7.69 calls/s, without harmonic structure and with dominant frequency between 2,155 and 2,457 Hz; (12) males usually call on the top of fallen logs and low branches of trees.

Figure 6: Intraspecific variation observed in Leptodactylus apepyta sp. nov. (A) LGE 8085, (B) LGE 8087, (C) LGE15241, (D) LGE 8114, (E) LGE 8181, (F) LGE 9399, (G) LGE 15240, (H) LGE 15232, (I) IIBP-H 729, (J) LGE 8113, (K) LGE 8384, (L) LGE 8086.
See Appendix II for locality data. Photos: Diego Baldo.

Rosio G. Schneider, Dario E. Cardozo, Francisco Brusquetti, Francisco Kolenc, Claudio Borteiro, Célio Haddad, Nestor G. Basso and Diego Baldo. 2019. A New Frog of the Leptodactylus fuscus Species Group (Anura: Leptodactylidae), endemic from the South American Gran Chaco.  PeerJ. 7:e7869. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.7869

[Mammalogy • 2019] Rhinolophus andamanensis • Integrated Approaches to Identifying Cryptic Bat Species in Areas of High Endemism

Rhinolophus andamanensis Dobson, 1872

in Srinivasulu, Srinivasulu, Srinivasulu & Jones, 2019. 

The diversity of bats worldwide includes large numbers of cryptic species, partly because divergence in acoustic traits such as echolocation calls are under stronger selection than differences in visual appearance in these nocturnal mammals. Island faunas often contain disproportionate numbers of endemic species, and hence we might expect cryptic, endemic species to be discovered relatively frequently in bats inhabiting islands. Species are best defined when multiple lines of evidence supports their diagnosis. Here we use morphometric, acoustic, and molecular phylogenetic data to show that a horseshoe bat in the Andaman Islands is distinct in all three aspects, supporting its status as a distinct species. We recommend investigation into possible new and endemic bat species on islands by using integrated approaches that provide independent lines of evidence for taxonomic distinctiveness. We provide a formal redescription of the taxon newly raised to species level, Rhinolophus andamanensis Dobson, 1872.

Fig 4. Live images (A-C) and holotype (ZSI Reg. No. 15561) (D) of Rhinolophus andamanensis Dobson, 1872.
Ear pinna and antitragus (A), frontal view of the noseleaf and three mental grooves (B), and lateral view of the noseleaf showing shape of the sella (C) and the holotype (D).

Rhinolophus andamanensis Dobson, 1872
 Homfray’s Horseshoe Bat.

Holotype: Rhinolophus andamanensis ZSI Reg. No. 15561, male, collected from South Andaman Island, Andaman Islands, India, 1872, by J. Homfray; specimen, and skull (damaged).

Diagnosis: A medium-sized bat with a forearm length ranging between 46.7–56.6mm. Ears tall and broad, with well-developed antitragus, tragus absent (Fig 4A). Horseshoe is broad and covers the whole of the muzzle, supplementary leaflet distinct; three mental grooves are observed on the lower lip (Fig 4B). When viewed frontally, sella is narrow above and wider below (Fig 4B). Superior connecting process bluntly rounded off, inferior surface slightly bent, inferior extremity curved downward (Fig 4C). Sella roughly half the length of the lancet. Lancet narrow, triangular and tapered to a point; has three distinct cells (Fig 4B). Skull robust with a condylocanine length of 21.97±0.53mm. The maxillary toothrow (cm3) measures 9.85±0.30mm. pm2 is small but in the toothrow. pm2 is in the toothrow, and is half the height of pm4 and one third the height of the canine. Baculum narrow and long, base distinctly trilobed, the shaft curving gently when viewed laterally.

Ecology: Little is known about the ecology of this species. Large colonies were found in limestone caves, forest caves, and sometimes in holes and hollows of large trees. It cohabits with Rhinolophus cognatus, Hipposideros diadema masoni, H. gentilis, H. grandis, and Myotis horsfieldii.

Distribution: Rhinolophus andamanensis is endemic to the Andaman Islands. It is distributed throughout the Andaman Archipelago—from North Andaman to Little Andaman.

Chelmala Srinivasulu, Aditya Srinivasulu, Bhargavi Srinivasulu and Gareth Jones. 2019. Integrated Approaches to Identifying Cryptic Bat Species in Areas of High Endemism: The Case of Rhinolophus andamanensis in the Andaman Islands.  PLoS ONE. 14(10): e0213562. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0213562

[Ichthyology • 2019] Upeneus caudofasciatus, U. gubal & U. heterospinus • Three New Goatfishes of the Genus Upeneus (Mullidae) from the Indo-Pacific, with A Redescription of Colour Patterns in U. margarethae

Upeneus heterospinus Uiblein & Pavlov

in Uiblein, Gledhill, Pavlov, Hoang & Shaheen, 2019.

For the goatfish genus Upeneus Cuvier 1829 (Mullidae), a new taxonomic species group called the “margarethae group” is established which can be distinguished from the six species of the most similar “tragula group” by a combination of the following characteristics: absence of dark pigmentation in the area of the first dorsal-fin tip, 21–25 total gill rakers and 28–30 lateral-line scales. Initially, three recently-described species have been included in the margarethae group: Upeneus margarethae Uiblein & Heemstra, 2010, known from the Indian Ocean including the Red Sea and from the Arafura Sea (W Pacific), U. mouthami Randall & Kulbicki, 2006, from New Caledonia and Vanuatu (W Pacific), and U. randalli Uiblein & Heemstra, 2011, from the Arabian/Persian Gulf and the inner Gulf of Oman (NW Indian Ocean). The present taxonomic review of the margarethae group analyses a large data set of 41 morphometric, 10 meristic and many colour characters obtained from 279 preserved goatfish specimens and 166 fresh-colour photos (plus a fresh-colour drawing). For the nominal species of the group, U. margarethae, a redescription of the colour patterns is provided and new records for Myanmar, Andaman Sea (NE Indian Ocean) and the Gulf of Carpentaria, N Australia (W Pacific), are reported. Three new species are described: Upeneus caudofasciatus n. sp. from the area of the Great Barrier Reef to Torres Strait off NE Australia (Coral Sea, W Pacific), U. gubal n. sp. from the S Gulf of Suez (Northern Red Sea), and U. heterospinus n. sp. from S Indonesia to Singapore, the Gulf of Thailand, Vietnam, Philippines, China, Taiwan and Japan (W Pacific). A comprehensive alpha-taxonomic approach is adopted, considering population differences as well as intraspecific sizerelated variation in morphology and colour patterns by splitting the data set into two size classes, adults (≥ 65 mm SL) and smaller subadults. Inter- and intraspecific comparisons include statistical analyses for species and population with sufficiently large samples sizes (n ≥ 20). Colour-pattern characterization and analysis are based on photos of recently collected and deceased fish (partly associated with voucher specimens), photos obtained from active or resting fishes in situ or in a tank, and inspection of pigmentation patterns retained in preserved specimens. Species differences are elaborated under consideration of distribution patterns and the characteristics found in the closest-most population of widely distributed species such as U. margarethae, resulting in clear and consistent distinction among the six species in single or in a combination of several characteristics. Comparisons among size classes revealed species-specific patterns in morphometric, meristic and colour changes with increasing size. One species, U. heterospinus n. sp., has seven or eight spines in the dorsal fin which occur in balanced ratio across populations. This is a unique characteristic for Upeneus species which usually have either seven or eight dorsal-fin spines, respectively. The best distinction of Upeneus heterospinus n. sp. from all other congeners is reached by combined examination of dorsal-fin spines with several other characters such as barbel colour, presence of a mid-lateral body stripe, pigmentation patterns (partly retained also in preserved fish), gillraker and pectoral-fin ray numbers, and body-shape variables. The high degree of overall morphological differentation among the three most common species U. caudofasciatus n. sp., U. heterospinus n. sp. and U. margarethae, as revealed by the statistical comparisons, strongly contrasts with a still signficant, but much lower degree of differentiation among populations. The diagnostic characteristics of the margarethae group are updated and the importance to use the results of this taxonomic review in ongoing fisheries-related and ecological research is emphasized. Requirements for future taxonomic research featuring the stunning diversity of the goatfish genus Upeneus are also discussed.

Keywords: Pisces, margarethae species group, meristic characters, body shape, colour patterns, comprehensive alpha taxonomy

Upeneus margarethae Uiblein & Heemstra, 2010
Margaretha’s goatfish

FIGURE 7. (A–C) Upeneus caudofasciatus n. sp. ; (A) HT, CSIRO H 6717-02, 116 mm SL, NE Australia, Great Barrier Reef, N of Rockingham Bay (D.C. Gledhill); (B) PT, CSIRO H 7212-01, 95 mm SL, same region, SE of Cairns (D.C. Gledhill); (C) CSIRO H 3637-10, 69 mm SL, Torres Strait W of Thursday Island, (G. Yearsley);
 (D) U. gubal n. sp., 87 mm SL, Red Sea, S Gulf Of Suez (F. Uiblein);
(E–G) U. mouthami; (E) HT, BPBM 33858, 70 mm SL, Chesterfield Bank, Coral Sea (J.E. Randall); (F) MNHN 2008-1433, 49 mm SL, Vanuatu, off Malo Island, Bruat Channel (C. Ferrara); (G) same specimen preserved (F. Uiblein).

Upeneus caudofasciatus n. sp. Uiblein & Gledhill
Tailbar goatfish

Etymology. The name refers to the occurrence of oblique conspicuous bars which cross both caudal-fin lobes entirely.

 Distribution, habitat and size. SW Pacific, NE Australia, Queensland, from W of Thursday Island and S of Daru Island, Torres Strait to NE of Gladstone, Great Barrier Reef; maximum depth 60 m, commonly trawled above soft bottoms at between 15 and 40 m; maximum size 12.5 cm SL.

Intraspecific comparisons. Subadults differ from adults in having a slightly longer head, shallower pelvic-fin depth and longer pelvic fins (Tables 2, 9; Figure 8); they differ in having fewer bars on the caudal fin (only preserved fish could be compared; Tables 2, 9); dark pigmentation is more often found in preserved subadults than in preserved adults (Tables 2, 9; see also preserved colour description above).

Remarks. Because of the relatively small distribution area of the species and low numbers of specimens available from the most distant localities, no quantitative population comparisons could be conducted. In two of the 55 studied specimens the tiny first-dorsal fin spine is overgrown with skin or very small and hence difficult to detect. Though this species appears to be rather common on shallow soft bottoms near coral reefs, we could not find any in-situ fresh-colour photo documentation.

Upeneus gubal n. sp. Uiblein
Gubal goatfish

Diagnosis. Dorsal fins VIII + 9, the first spine minute; pectoral fins 15; gill rakers 6 + 19 = 25; lateral-line scales 28–29; measurements in % SL: body depth at first dorsal-fin origin 24; body depth at anus 21; caudal-peduncle depth 11; caudal-peduncle width 3.3; maximum head depth 20; head depth through eye 16; suborbital depth 9.0; interorbital length 8.2; head length 29; snout length 11; postorbital length 11; orbit length 7.4; upper-jaw length 11; barbel length 19; interdorsal distance 16; caudal-peduncle length 24; caudal-fin length 31; anal-fin height 19; pelvic-fin length 22; pectoral-fin length 22; pectoral-fin width 4.8; first dorsal-fin height 22; second dorsal-fin height 19; preserved colour pale brown.

Etymology. Named after the type locality which is situated close to Gubal Island and in the Strait of Gubal at the southern entrance to the Gulf of Suez, Northern Red Sea. The name “gubal” is used as a noun in apposition.

Distribution, habitat and size. Single locality off Gubal Island, S Gulf of Suez, Northern Red Sea; fish caught by trawling at 70 m depth, most probably on sandy or muddy bottom; size of the specimen is 8.7 cm SL.

Remarks. Fresh colour of Upeneus gubal n. sp. is yet unknown, but the available morphological evidence strongly suggests its inclusion in the margarethae group (see also the Interspecific comparisons section further below). The single type specimen was collected together with a specimen of Upeneus moluccensis (Bleeker, 1855) (registered as MNHN 2011-0093). The latter did not show any remains of dark pigmentation e.g. of first dorsal-fin tip and oblique bars on upper caudal-fin lobe as indicated to be diagnostic for preserved conspecifics (Uiblein & Heemstra 2010). The single known locality of U. gubal n. sp. in the S Gulf of Suez is about 1100 km north of the northernmost currently known occurrence of U. margarethae off Ibn Abbas Island, S coast of Sudan.

Figure 10. Upeneus heterospinus n. sp.;
 (A) HIFIRE 58231, 123 mm SL, N of Hon Tre Island, Nha Trang, South-central Vietnam, live tank photo (F. Uiblein); (B) subadult or small adult specimen (ca. 6–7 cm SL) encountered during dive off Phu Quoc, S Vietnam (F. Uiblein); (C) adult amongst three U. asymmetricus (with red oblique head bars), Chocolate Point, Malapascua Island, Chocolate Island, Philippines, 12 m depth; (D) adult, Yao Island, Bantayan Islands, Philippines; (E) adult, resting, Nocnocan Island, Bohol, Philippines (C-E: P. & G. Poppe - www.poppe-images.com)

Upeneus heterospinus n. sp. Uiblein & Pavlov
Varied-spine goatfish

Etymology. The name refers to the variable number of 7 or 8 dorsal-fin spines in this species, which is in contrast to most other goatfish species and all other Indo-Pacific congeners which have either 7 or 8 dorsal-fin spines.

 Distribution, habitat and size. W Pacific, from border to EIO in S Indonesia to Singapore, Gulf of Thailand, Vietnam, Central Philippines, South China, Taiwan, and S Japan; 6–24 m depth, sandy or muddy bottoms; maximum size 16 cm SL.

Intraspecific comparisons. To ensure that the dimorphic expression of seven and eight dorsal-fin spines in U. heterospinus n. sp. is indeed a single-species characteristic, as is unusual in goatfishes, the two morphs were compared using the entire set of studied characters. As was expected, no differences could be discovered in any single character (Table 8), nor in any combinations of characters or in statistical comparisons of morphometric, meristic and colour characters.

Remarks. Upeneus heterospinus n. sp. has been reported from many areas using various names and most recently as U. spottocaudalis from Japan (Bandai et al. 2018). From Vietnam, where it is a common species that is frequently encountered in fish markets, biological data have been recently collected and published using preliminary identification information (Emel’yanova & Pavlov 2014; Pavlov & Emel’yanova 2016).

 Upeneus mouthami Randall & Kulbicki, 2006
Mou Tham’s goatfish

Distribution, habitat and size. Coral Sea, New Caledonia, Chesterfield Islands and Vanuatu off Malo and Spiritu Santo Islands; 36–175 m depth, muddy bottoms, adults occur shallower than juveniles; maximum size 9.5 cm SL.

Intraspecific comparisons. Subadults differ from adults in shallower head, narrower snout, slightly longer caudal peduncle and first dorsal-fin base, longer caudal fin and narrower pectoral fins (Tables 2, 9).

 Upeneus randalli Uiblein & Heemstra, 2011
Randall’s goatfish

Intraspecific comparison. The single subadult differs from adults in shallower maximum body and head depth, shallower caudal peduncle, shallower suborbital depth, larger eyes, longer anal-fin base, slightly narrower pectoral fins and wider bars on caudal fin, especially on lower fin lobe which is crossed by a dark stripe at mid of lobe (Tables 2, 9; Figure 2 G, H).

Franz Uiblein, Daniel C. Gledhill, Dimitri A. Pavlov, Tuan Anh Hoang and Shaker Shaheen. 2019. Three New Goatfishes of the Genus Upeneus (Mullidae) from the Indo-Pacific, with A Redescription of Colour Patterns in U. margarethaeZootaxa. 4683(2); 151–196. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4683.2.1

[Ichthyology • 2019] Phylogenetic Position of the Fish Genera Lobotes, Datnioides and Hapalogenys, with A Reappraisal of Acanthuriform Composition and Relationships based on Adult and Larval Morphology

Lobotes surinamensis (Bloch, 1790)

in Gill & Leis, 2019. 

Lobotes, Datnioides and Hapalogenys are assigned to a newly defined Acanthuriformes on the basis of their pattern of tooth replacement (termed posterolateral tooth replacement), where new teeth form at the posterolateral ends of series. Posterolateral tooth replacement is shown to be a synamorphy of the order. The order is expanded to include Chaetodontidae, Pomacanthidae, Drepaneidae, Ephippidae, Leiognathidae, Antigonia, Scatophagidae and Capros, along with the more traditional members, Siganidae, Luvaridae, Zanclidae and Acanthuridae. Three-item analysis of 63 adult and larval morphological characters yields two optimal trees that differ only in the relative positions of Capros and Siganidae. The intersection tree of the two optimal trees is: (((Hapalogenys (Datnioides, Lobotidae)) (Pomacanthidae (Drepaneidae (Chaetodontidae (Ephippidae (Leiognathidae (Scatophagidae (Antigonia (Siganidae, Capros (Luvaridae (Zanclidae, Acanthuridae)))))))))))). This cladogram is compared with recent phylogenies based on analyses of sequence data, and few differences are found once the weakly-supported interior nodes of the latter are collapsed. Aside from expansion of the Acanthuriformes, the following classification changes are proposed in order to reflect the phylogenetic relationships: redefinition of the Lobotidae to include Lobotes, Datnioides and Hapalogenys; separate families for Antigonia and Capros (Antigoniidae and Caproidae, respectively); continued recognition of Drepaneidae (often considered a synonym of Ephippidae). The larvae of Capros aper are illustrated to show features overlooked in earlier descriptions.

Keywords: Pisces, Osteology, comparative anatomy, dentition, larval development, ichthyology, phylogenetics, three-item analysis

Adult Lobotes surinamensis, ca. 150 mm SL, Swansboro, North Carolina, USA.
Photo by A.K. Gardner.

 Anthony C. Gill and Jeffrey M. Leis. 2019. Phylogenetic Position of the Fish Genera LobotesDatnioides and Hapalogenys, with A Reappraisal of Acanthuriform Composition and Relationships based on Adult and Larval Morphology. Zootaxa. 4680(1); 1–81. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4680.1.1

Thursday, October 10, 2019

[Paleontology • 2019] Siamraptor suwati | สยามแรปเตอร์ สุวัจน์ติ • A New Carcharodontosaurian Theropod (Dinosauria: Saurischia) from the Lower Cretaceous of Thailand

Siamraptor suwati
Chokchaloemwong, Hattori, Cuesta, Jintasakul, Shibata & Azuma, 2019

The isolated fossil remains of an allosauroid theropod from the Lower Cretaceous Khok Kruat Formation of Khorat, Thailand, are described in this study. Detailed observations support the establishment of a new allosauroid, Siamraptor suwati gen. et sp. nov. This new taxon is based on a composite cranial and postcranial skeleton comprising premaxilla, maxilla, jugal, surangular, prearticular, articular, vertebrae, manual ungual, ischium, tibia, and pedal phalanx. It is distinguished from other allosauroids by characters such as a jugal with straight ventral margin and dorsoventrally deep anterior process below the orbit, a surangular with a deep oval concavity at the posterior end of the lateral shelf and four posterior surangular foramina, a long and narrow groove along the suture between the surangular and the prearticular, an articular with a foramen at the notch of the suture with the prearticular, an anterior cervical vertebra with a pneumatic foramen (so-called ‘pleurocoel’) excavating parapophysis, and cervical and posterior dorsal vertebrae penetrated by a pair of small foramina bilaterally at the base of the neural spine. The presence of a huge number of camerae and pneumatopores in cranial and axial elements reveals a remarkable skeletal pneumatic system in this new taxon. Moreover, the phylogenetic analyses revealed that Siamraptor is a basal taxon of Carcharodontosauria, involving a new sight of the paleobiogeographical context of this group. Siamraptor is the best preserved carcharodontosaurian theropod in Southeast Asia, and it sheds new light on the early evolutionary history of Carcharodontosauria.

Fig 1. Locality map of new theropod material and stratigraphy of Khorat Group. A, map of Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand; B, distribution map of the Khok Kruat Formation in Nakhon Ratchasima Province (modified from the Geological map of Thailand, Department of Mineral Resources); C, enlarged locality map of Suranaree and Khok Kruat subdistricts with the subdistrict boundaries;
E, a photograph of the excavation site; D, stratigraphic column of the Khorat Group.
 A red-colored star indicates the new theropod locality, the dotted lines indicate the subdistrict boundaries, and the grey-colored lines indicate the roads in C, respectively.

Fig 10. Dorsal vertebrae NRRU-F01020014 (A–D), F01020015 (E, F), and F01020016 (G, H) and a caudal vertebra NRRU-F01020017 (I–M) in posterior (A, F, L), right lateral (B, E), anterior (C, G, J), left lateral (H, K), dorsal (I), and ventral (F) views.
Abbreviations: cc, chevron contact; cdf; centrodiapophyseal fossa; cprl, centroprezygapophyseal lamina; fo, foramen; hpa, hypantrum; hpo, hyposphene; mr, median ridge; ms, metaplastic scars; nc, neural canal; ns, neural spine; pcdf, prezygocentrodiapophyseal fossa; pocdf, postzygocentrodiapophyseal fossa; pnf, pneumatic foramen; poz, postzygapophysis; prz, prezygapophysis; spof, spinopostzygapophyseal fossa; sprf, spinoprezygapophyseal fossa; tp, transverse process. Scale bar equals 100 mm for A–H and 60 mm for I–M.

Fig 2. Skeletal reconstruction of Siamraptor suwati. Cranial elements were scaled to fit in with the holotype (surangular). Scale bar equals 1 m.

Systematic paleontology: 
Dinosauria Owen, 1842 
Theropoda Marsh, 1881  
Tetanurae Gauthier, 1986 
Allosauroidea Marsh, 1878 

Carcharodontosauria Benson, Carrano and Brusatte, 2010 

Siamraptor suwati gen. et sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Allosauroid theropod with the following autapomorphies among allosauroids: Jugal with straight ventral margin, and dorsoventrally deep anterior process below the orbit; surangular with a deep oval concavity at the posterior end of the lateral shelf and four posterior surangular foramina; long and narrow groove along the suture between surangular and prearticular; articular with a foramen at the notch of the suture with prearticular; anterior cervical vertebra with an additional pneumatic foramen excavating parapophysis; cervical and posterior dorsal vertebra penetrated by a pair of small foramina bilaterally at the base of neural spine.

Holotype: An articulated posterior half of the right mandible comprising the surangular, prearticular, and articular (NRRU-F01020008).

Referred materials: Disarticulated cranial and postcranial elements from at least three individuals; three right premaxillae (NRRU-F01020001–F01020003), a right (NRRU-F01020004) and a left (NRRU-F01020005) maxillae, a left jugal (NRRU-F01020006), two posterior parts of the left mandible comprising the surangular, prearticular, and articular (NRRU-F01020007, F01020009), a posterior part of the left mandible comprising the surangular and prearticular (NRRU-F01020010), three anterior cervical vertebrae (NRRU-F01020011–F01020013), three posterior dorsal vertebrae (NRRU-F01020014–F01020016), a middle caudal vertebra (NRRU-F01020017), a manual ungual (NRRU-F01020018), a right ischium (NRRU-F01020019 and F01020020), a distal part of the right tibia (NRRU-F01020021), and a left pedal phalanx IV-1 (NRRU-F01020022). All of these are materials comparable to Allosauroidea that were found in a small area (125 m x 160 m) of a single layer of a single locality, and the overlapping materials exhibit the same diagnostic features.

Locality and horizon: In Ban (meaning “village”) Saphan Hin, Suranaree Subdistrict, Muaeng Nakhon Ratchasima District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Lower Cretaceous (Aptian) Khok Kruat Formation.

Etymology: Siam (Latin): in reference to Thailandraptor (Latin): meaning a robbersuwati: in honour of Mr. Suwat Liptapanlop  [สุวัจน์ ลิปตพัลลภ], who supports and promotes the work of the Northeastern Research Institute of Petrified Wood and Mineral Resources.

A new carcharodontosaurian theropod, Siamraptor suwati, is described based on isolated cranial and postcranial remains from the Lower Cretaceous Khok Kruat Formation. Siamraptor is diagnosed by eight characters in cranial and axial elements, and it also exhibits several carcharodontosaurian synapomorphies such as two pneumatic foramina oriented anteroventral–posterodorsally in cervical vertebrae, a parallel and sheet-like hyposphene lamina, and a reduced and oblique ridge of suprastragalar buttress for the astragalus in the tibia. Siamraptor is also characterized by remarkable pneumaticity in cranial and axial bones, which is comparable with those observed in several other carcharodontosaurians, although those taxa could have another phylogenetical interpretation as tyrannosaurids. Both phylogenetic analyses using two independent datasets locate Siamraptor as the most basal member of Carcharodontosauria, which also means that this taxon is the first definitive carcharodontosaurian theropod from Southeast Asia. The presence of Siamraptor in this area indicates an extension of the record in the Laurasian landmasses during the earliest stage of the evolutionary history of Carcharodontosauria.

Duangsuda Chokchaloemwong, Soki Hattori, Elena Cuesta, Pratueng Jintasakul, Masateru Shibata and Yoichi Azuma. 2019. A New Carcharodontosaurian Theropod (Dinosauria: Saurischia) from the Lower Cretaceous of Thailand. PLoS ONE. 14(10): e0222489. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0222489
 ดวงสุดา โชคเฉลิมวงศ์