Friday, April 19, 2019

[Botany • 2019] Impatiens kamrupana (Balsaminaceae) • A New Species from Assam, India

Impatiens kamrupana Gogoi, J.Sarma & Borah

in Borah, Sarma & Gogoi, 2019.

Impatiens kamrupana, a new species from Assam, northeast India is described. The new species is easily distinguished from its allied taxa by its bicoloured, white and purple flowers and sub-bucciniform lower sepal with straight to slightly curved spur.

Keywords: Balsam, Northeast India, Novelty, Eudicots

FIGURE 1. Impatiens kamrupana Gogoi, J.Sarma & Borah sp. nov.
 (a) inflorescence, (b–c) flower bud, (d) bract, (e) frontal view of flower, (f) back view of flower, (g–h) lateral view of flower, (i) lateral sepals, (j–l) different view of lower sepal, (m) lower sepal (inside with red venation), (n) dorsal petal (dorsal view), (o) dorsal petal (ventral view), (p) lateral united petals (dorsal view), (q) lateral united petals (ventral view), (r) pedicel with androecium, (s) gynoecium, (t) capsules, (u) dehiscing capsule, (v) seeds.

Impatiens kamrupana Gogoi, J.Sarma & Borah sp. nov.

 Etymology:— The species epithet is named after its type locality i.e. district Kamrup of Assam state. 

Impatiens tripetala Roxb. ex DC (1824: 687) 

Souravjyoti Borah, Jatindra Sarma and Rajib Gogoi. 2019. Impatiens kamrupana (Balsaminaceae): A New Species from Assam, India. Phytotaxa. 395(1); 35–40.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.395.1.4

[Paleontology • 2019] Gobihadros mongoliensis • A New Hadrosauroid (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) from the Late Cretaceous Baynshire Formation of the Gobi Desert (Mongolia)

Gobihadros mongoliensis

Tsogtbaatar, Weishampel, Evans & Watabe, 2019

A new genus and species of non-hadrosaurid hadrosauroid, Gobihadros mongoliensis, is described from a virtually complete and undeformed skull and postcranial skeleton, as well as extensive referred material, collected from the Baynshire Formation (Cenomanian-Santonian) of the central and eastern Gobi Desert, Mongolia. Gobihadros mongoliensis is the first non-hadrosaurid hadrosauroid from the Late Cretaceous of central Asia known from a complete, articulated skull and skeleton. The material reveals the skeletal anatomy of a proximate sister taxon to Hadrosauridae in remarkable detail. Gobihadros is similar to Bactrosaurus johnsoni and Gilmoreosaurus mongoliensis, but can be distinguished from them in several autapomorphic traits, including the maximum number (three) of functional dentary teeth per tooth position, a premaxillary oral margin with a ‘double-layer morphology’, and a sigmoidal dorsal outline of the ilium with a well-developed, fan-shaped posterior process. All of these characters in Gobihadros are inferred to be convergent in Hadrosauridae. Phylogenetic analysis positions Gobihadros mongoliensis as a Bactrosaurus-grade hadrosauromorph hadrosauroid. Its relationship with Maastrichtian hadrosaurids from Asia (e.g., Saurolophus angustirostris, Kerberosaurus manakini, Wulagasaurus dongi, Kundurosaurus nagornyi) are sufficiently distant to indicate that these latter taxa owe their distribution to migration from North America across Beringia, rather than having a common Asian origin with Go. mongoliensis.

Fig 2. Skull and mandible of Gobihadros mongoliensis.
 Skull and mandible (MPC-D100/763) in left lateral (A), dorsal (B), ventral (C), and posterior (D) views.
Abbreviations: an, angular; ar, articular; at, atlas; atr, atlantal rib; ax, axis; boc, basioccipital; bsp, basisphenoid; cop, coronoid process; c3, 3rd cervical vertebra; d, dentary; exo, exoccipital; f, frontal; gl, glenoid for the lateral quadrate condyle; hy, hyoid; j, jugal; l, lacrimal; mx, maxilla; n, nasal; p, parietal; pa, palpebral; pat, proatlas; pd, predentary; pf, prefrontal; pl, palatine; pm, premaxilla; po, postorbital; poc, paroccipital process; pt, pterygoid; q, quadrate; qj, quadratojugal; rap, retroarticular process; s, surangular; scl, sclerotic ring; soc, supraoccipital; sq, squamosal; v, vomer.

Fig 33. Skeletal reconstructions of Gobihadros mongoliensis.
 Skull (MPC-D100/763) of Gobihadros mongoliensis in left lateral (A), anterior (B), dorsal (C), and posterior (D) views.
Schematic reconstruction of the skeleton of Gobihadros mongoliensis (E) in lateral view.

Abbreviations: an, angular; boc, basioccipital; bsp, basisphenoid; d, dentary; exo, exoccipital; f, frontal; fm, foramen magnum; hy, hyoid; j, jugal; l, lacrimal; mx, maxilla; n, nasal; p, parietal; pa, palpebral; pd, predentary; pf, prefrontal; pm, premaxilla; po, postorbital; pt, pterygoid; q, quadrate; qj, quadratojugal; s, surangular; soc, supraoccipital; sq, squamosal.

Systematic Palaeontology
ORNITHISCHIA Seeley, 1887 
ORNITHOPODA Marsh, 1881 [42]

IGUANODONTIA sensu Sereno, 1998  
HADROSAUROIDEA sensu Sereno 1998  

Gobihadros nov. gen. 

Gobihadros mongoliensis nov. sp.

Etymology. Hadrosauroid from the Gobi Desert of Mongolia.

Holotype. MPC-D100/746, a complete, nearly articulated skeleton from sub-locality I of Bayshin Tsav.

Locality and horizon. Bayshin Tsav (South Gobi Aimag); Khoorai Tsav (South Gobi Aimag); Khongil Tsav (East Gobi Aimag); Baynshire Formation (Cenomanian-Santonian), Upper Cretaceous.

Diagnosis. Small hadrosauroid that differs from all other non-hadrosaurid hadrosauroids (including Bactrosaurus and Gilmoreosaurus) in the presence of a premaxilla with a ‘double-layer’ oral margin and up to three functional teeth in the dentary tooth row (both convergent in Hadrosauridae). Gobihadros differs from Bactrosaurus johnsoni, Probactrosaurus gobiensis, Eolambia caroljonesi, Claosaurus agilis, Tethyshadros insularis, in the sigmoidal dorsal outline of the ilium and the greater lateral expression of the supracetabular crest. Gobihadros differs from T. insularis, Plesiohadros djaktaensis, and Hadrosauridae in the possession of a spike-like manus digit 1.

Fig 34. Schematic depicting the limb proportions of Gobihadros mongoliensis relative to other iguanodontians. The forelimbs of several iguanodontians on the left scaled to a generalized hindlimb on the right, following [Norman, 1980], to show differences in limb proportions. The phalangeal formula of the manus occurs below each forelimb of the corresponding taxon. Modified from Figure 81 of [Norman, 1980].

Khishigjav Tsogtbaatar, David B. Weishampel, David C. Evans and Mahito Watabe. 2019. A New Hadrosauroid (Dinosauria: Ornithopoda) from the Late Cretaceous Baynshire Formation of the Gobi Desert (Mongolia). PLoS ONE. 14(4): e0208480.  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208480

[Herpetology • 2019] Leap‐frog Dispersal and Mitochondrial Introgression: Phylogenomics and Biogeography of Limnonectes Fanged Frogs in the Lesser Sundas Archipelago of Wallacea

  (b) Limnonectes dammermani occurs on Lombok. 
(c) L. kadarsani occurs on Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Adonara and Lembata.  
(a) Map of southern Wallacea.

in Reilly, Stubbs, Karin, et al., 2019. 
  DOI: 10.1111/jbi.13526  
(Photos: J. McGuire)

Aim: The Lesser Sunda Islands are situated between the Sunda and Sahul Shelves, with a linear arrangement that has functioned as a two‐way filter for taxa dispersing between the Asian and Australo‐Papuan biogeographical realms. Distributional patterns of many terrestrial vertebrates suggest a stepping‐stone model of island colonization. Here we investigate the timing and sequence of island colonization in Asian‐origin fanged frogs from the volcanic Sunda Arc islands with the goal of testing the stepping‐stone model of island colonization.

Location: The Indonesian islands of Java, Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores and Lembata.

Taxon: Limnonectes dammermani and L. kadarsani (Family: Dicroglossidae)

Mitochondrial DNA was sequenced from 153 frogs to identify major lineages and to select samples for an exon‐capture experiment. We designed probes to capture sequence data from 974 exonic loci (1,235,981 bp) from 48 frogs including the outgroup species, L. microdiscus. The resulting data were analysed using phylogenetic, population genetic and biogeographical model testing methods.

The mtDNA phylogeny finds L. kadarsani paraphyletic with respect to L. dammermani, with a pectinate topology consistent with the stepping‐stone model. Phylogenomic analyses of 974 exons recovered the two species as monophyletic sister taxa that diverged ~7.6 Ma with no detectable contemporary gene flow, suggesting introgression of the L. dammermani mitochondrion into L. kadarsani on Lombok resulting from an isolated ancient hybridization event ~4 Ma. Within L. kadarsani, the Lombok lineage diverged first while the Sumbawa and Lembata lineages are nested within a Flores assemblage composed of two parapatrically distributed lineages meeting in central Flores. Biogeographical model comparison found strict stepping‐stone dispersal to be less likely than models involving leap‐frog dispersal events.

Main conclusions: 
These results suggest that the currently accepted stepping‐stone model of island colonization might not best explain the current patterns of diversity in the archipelago. The high degree of genetic structure, large divergence times, and absent or low levels of migration between lineages suggests that L. kadarsani represents five distinct species.

Keywords: amphibians, exon‐capture, genomics, Indonesia island, biogeography, phylogeography

Figure 1: (a) Map of southern Wallacea. (b) Limnonectes dammermani occurs on Lombok and (c) L. kadarsani occurs on Lombok, Sumbawa, Flores, Adonara and Lembata (Photos: J. McGuire)

Sean B. Reilly, Alexander L. Stubbs, Benjamin R. Karin, Ke Bi, Evy Arida, Djoko T. Iskandar and Jimmy A. McGuire. 2019. Leap‐frog Dispersal and Mitochondrial Introgression: Phylogenomics and Biogeography of Limnonectes Fanged Frogs in the Lesser Sundas Archipelago of Wallacea. Journal of Biogeography. DOI: 10.1111/jbi.13526   

[Botany • 2019] Argyreia decemloba (Convolvulaceae) • A New Species of Argyreia from Chin State, Myanmar

Argyreia decemloba
 Traiperm, Fujikawa & Staples

in Traiperm, Fujikawa, Chitchak, et al., 2019. 

Argyreia decemloba Traiperm, Fujikawa & Staples, a new species of Convolvulaceae from Natma Taung National Park, Chin State, Myanmar, is described here with detailed illustrations and summaries for its distribution, ecology and IUCN conservation status. This new species is a high-climbing twiner that can be distinguished by a white or pale yellow corolla with a deep red or purple-black colour inside at the base of the tube, a ten-lobed corolla limb, and staminal filament bases expanded and densely covered by hispid hairs. Argyreia decemloba is here assessed as Near Threatened (NT) following IUCN Red List categories.

KEYWORDS: Argyreia, Chin State, Convolvulaceae, filament morphology, Mount Victoria, Myanmar, Natma Taung, new species discovery, SE Asian biodiversity, staminal trichomes, taxonomy

Fig. 1. Argyreia decemloba – A: stem with leaves and inflorescences; B: secondary veins at first run beside midvein on adaxial leaf surface; C: adaxial leaf surface; D: abaxial leaf surface; E: inflorescence bracts, outer (left) to inner (right); F: abaxial bract surface, showing 2 trichome types; G: 5 sepals from outer (left) to innermost (right); H: opened corolla with 5 stamens; I: single stamen; J: pistil, showing undulate disk and biglobose stigma; K: filament insertion showing dense covering of straight, hispid trichomes; L: fruits (right) and fruit with sepals (left); M: seeds in side view (left) and top view (right). – All drawn by N. Chitchak from voucher specimens Fujikawa & al. 95008 (QBG) (A–K), Kuroiwa & al. 30480 (MBK) (L–M).

Argyreia decemloba Traiperm, Fujikawa & Staples, sp. nov.  

Holotype: Myanmar, Chin State, Mindat Township, ...

Diagnosis — Three species of Argyreia are known to have a white or pale yellow corolla with a deep red or purple-black colour inside at the base of the tube as well as a 10-lobed limb: A. barbata (Wall.) Raizada; A. maymyensis (Lace) Raizada; and A. decemloba (Table 1). Argyreia barbata and A. maymyensis have quite narrow, linear inflorescence- and floral bracts that do not cover up the calyx and corolla base; the hispid-hirsute indumentum of A. barbata, composed of dense, bristly hairs may obscure the floral organs underneath. In contrast, A. decemloba has broad, laminar inflorescence- and floral bracts that cover the floral organs underneath; the abaxial surface of the bracts has a completely different, dimorphic indumentum composed of two different trichome types (Table 1).

Fig. 2. Argyreia decemloba inflorescence and corolla details
– A, B: plant habit (voucher: Fujikawa & al. 95008); C: flower in frontal view, showing 10-lobed corolla limb, included genitalia, and reddish interior of corolla tube; D: inflorescence and flower in lateral view, showing capitate inflorescence with short, thick peduncle, overlapping whitish bracts, and triangular-funnelform corolla shape (voucher: Fujikawa & al. 94296). – All photographs by C. Maknoi.

Distribution and ecology — So far known only from Chin State, Myanmar, occurring at elevations of (740–)1025–1200(–1530) m. A high-climbing twiner in trees and shrubs inhabiting open, sunny places such as roadsides, footpaths in secondary forest, edges of deciduous forest, clearings in evergreen forest, and in semi-evergreen forest; preferring moist soils along streams or the banks of rivers. The soil type has not been reported.

Etymology — The specific epithet recognizes the distinctive 10-lobed corolla limb.

Paweena Traiperm, Kazumi Fujikawa, Natthaphong Chitchak, Prachaya Srisanga, Charun Maknoi and George Staples. 2019. A New Species of Argyreia (Convolvulaceae) from Myanmar. Willdenowia.  49(1); 65–70.  DOI: 10.3372/wi.49.49108  

[Arachnida • 2019] A Revision of the Endemic South African Long-jawed Ground Spider Genus Drassodella Hewitt, 1916 (Araneae: Gallieniellidae)

Drassodella quinquelabecula Tucker, 1923

in Mbo & Haddad, 2019.

The genus Drassodella Hewitt, 1916 is one of four Afrotropical genera of Gallieniellidae, and is presently represented by seven species, all endemic to South Africa. The type material of six of the described species was studied and they are redescribed from both sexes: D. melana Tucker, 1923, D. quinquelabecula Tucker, 1923, D. salisburyi Hewitt, 1916, D. septemmaculata (Strand, 1909), D. tenebrosa Lawrence, 1938 and D. vasivulva Tucker, 1923. Of these, the males of D. melana, D. tenebrosa and D. vasivulva are described for the first time. Recent field work yielded additional females of D. purcelli Tucker, 1923 from the vicinity of the type locality, and this sex is redescribed; the male remains unknown. A further 12 new species are recognized: D. amatola sp. nov. (♀ ♂), D. aurostriata sp. nov. (♀ ♂), D. baviaans sp. nov. (♂), D. flava sp. nov. (♀ ♂), D. guttata sp. nov. (♀ ♂), D. lotzi sp. nov. (♀), D. maculata sp. nov. (♀), D. montana sp. nov. (♀ ♂), D. tolkieni sp. nov. (♀ ♂), D. trilineata sp. nov. (♀), D. transversa sp. nov. (♀ ♂) and D. venda sp. nov. (♀ ♂). Based on the genitalic structures, there appear to be two distinct species groups. The D. melana species group, which includes D. melana, D. tenebrosa and eight new species mainly distributed in eastern and northern South Africa, is characterised by very conservative genitalic morphology in both sexes. The D. salisburyi species group, with considerable variation in the structure of the copulatory organs and distributed in the southern half of South Africa, includes the remaining nine species, of which four are new. Although D. tenebrosa represents an intermediate between the two groups, with palpal morphology more typical of the D. melana species group and epigynal morphology typical of the D. salisburyi group, it is placed in the former species group based on its distribution in eastern South Africa. The biology, habitat preferences and biogeography of Drassodella are briefly discussed.

Keywords: Araneae, genitalia, new species, species group, Afrotropical, biome, biogeography

 Zingisile Mbo and Charles R. Haddad. 2019. A Revision of the Endemic South African Long-jawed Ground Spider Genus Drassodella Hewitt, 1916 (Araneae: Gallieniellidae). Zootaxa. 4582(1); 1-62.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4582.1.1

Thursday, April 18, 2019

[PaleoMammalogy • 2019] Simbakubwa kutokaafrika • A Gigantic Carnivore (Hyaenodonta, Hyainailourinae) from the earliest Miocene of Kenya

Simbakubwa kutokaafrika
 Borths & Stevens, 2019

Illustration: Mauricio Antón

Hyainailourine hyaenodonts are among the largest terrestrial carnivorous mammals known. The clade is widely dispersed, found in Eurasia, North America, and Afro-Arabia in the Paleogene and early Neogene. In this study, we describe dental and postcranial material from Simbakubwa kutokaafrika, gen. et sp. nov., the most complete hyainailourine known from sub-Saharan Africa. The material is from a relatively young adult from the early Miocene locality of Meswa Bridge, Kenya. Simbakubwa differs from Hyainailouros in exhibiting lingually oriented molar protocones, gracile metastyles, and buccolingually compressed, shearing canines. Like other large Miocene hyainailourines, Simbakubwa has deep carnassial notches on the molars and tall paracones fused to shorter metacones forming single piercing cusps. A Bayesian phylogenetic analysis recovers Simbakubwa as the sister taxon of a clade of large-bodied Miocene hyainailourines that includes Hyainailouros and Megistotherium. Bayesian ancestral state reconstruction supports an Afro-Arabian origin for Hyainailourinae with subsequent dispersal to Eurasia during the early Miocene. Regression analysis based on carnassial size is applied to Simbakubwa and closely related hyainailourines, recovering a body mass up to 1,500 kg for the new taxon. The evolution and extinction of Hyainailourinae offers important insights for interpreting ecological transitions from Paleogene to Neogene faunas in Afro-Arabia and Eurasia.


MAMMALIA Linnaeus, 1758
 EUTHERIA Huxley, 1880
 HYAENODONTA Van Valen, 1967, sensu Solé et al., 2015 

HYAINAILOUROIDEA Pilgrim, 1932, sensu Borths et al., 2016 
HYAINAILOURINAE Pilgrim, 1932, sensu Solé et al., 2015

FIGURE 1. Simbakubwa kutokaafrika mandible, with Panthera leo mandible for comparison.
Simbakubwa kutokaafrika, KNM-ME 20A, holotype, left dentary ... in A, lingual, B, buccal, and C, occlusal views.

D, P. leo, LACM 51553, modern male dentary in buccal view, for comparison.

Note that KNM-ME 20A is reconstructed with the posterior portion of the mandible angled medially out of natural position. Scale bar equals 5 cm.

A modern lion Panthera leo skull (upper) and the left mandible of Simbakubwa kutokaafrika.

Illustration: Mauricio Antón 


Etymology— Simbakubwa, from Swahili ‘simba’ meaning ‘lion’ and ‘kubwa’ meaning ‘big’; kutokaafrika, from Swahili meaning ‘from Africa.’

Matthew R. Borths and Nancy J. Stevens. 2019. Simbakubwa kutokaafrika, gen. et sp. nov. (Hyainailourinae, Hyaenodonta, ‘Creodonta,’ Mammalia), A Gigantic Carnivore from the earliest Miocene of Kenya. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2019.1570222

Fossils found in museum drawer in Kenya belong to gigantic carnivore via @EurekAlert 

Hyainailourines were some of the largest mammalian carnivores to ever walk the earth. In this study we describe a new hyainailourine from Kenya, Simbakubwa kutokaafrika. Simbakubwa kutokaafrika, whose name means “Big lion from Africa” in Swahili, was the size of a small rhinoceros and lived about 23 million years ago. The hyainailourine lineage is part of Hyaenodonta, a diverse group of meat-eating mammals unrelated to hyenas that lived in Eurasia, North America, and Africa for the first three-quarters of the Age of Mammals. We estimated the size of Simbakubwa using beautifully preserved teeth that were discovered at Meswa Bridge, an important fossil site in Kenya that also preserves evidence of our early ape relatives. Most of Simbakubwa’s close relatives are known from worn and scrappy fossils. Simbakubwa makes it easier to interpret fragmentary hyainailourine material from Eurasia and Africa. We used the new specimens to place Simbakubwa in the hyaenodont family tree. Based on our analysis, giant hyainailourines originated in Africa about 30 million years ago and they moved into northern ecosystems multiple times before going extinct about ten million years ago. The Miocene, the epoch when giant hyainailourines reigned, was a time of massive tectonic and ecological change as Africa collided with Eurasia, lineages encountered each by crossing the newly formed land bridge, grasslands expanded, and the evolving East African Rift changed climate patterns. The discovery of Simbakubwa offers new insights into how carnivorous mammals adapted to these dramatic changes and gave rise to the modern African ecosystem.



Wednesday, April 17, 2019

[Ichthyology • 2019] Chromis tingting • A New Species of Damselfish (Teleostei: Pomacentridae) from Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems of southern Japan

Chromis tingting 
Tea, Gill & Senou, 2019

Chromis tingting sp. nov., is described on the basis of the holotype and three paratypes from Sagami Bay, Japan. The new species likely belongs to a complex consisting of C. mirationis, C. okamurai and C. struhsakeri, with which it shares the following character combination: dorsal rays XIV,13–14; anal rays II,12; pectoral rays 19–20; tubed lateral-line scales 15–17; two spinous procurrent rays dorsally and ventrally in the caudal fin; and a generally silvery white adult coloration. The new species differs from the other members of its complex in coloration details (particularly in juvenile coloration), and in having fewer gill rakers (5–6 + 17–20 = 22–26), and a larger eye -(13.7–19.4 % SL). The new species has previously been confused with Chromis mirationis, and the contention is herewith briefly discussed.

Keywords: Pisces, taxonomy, ichthyology, Ryukyu Archipelago, Sagami Bay, deep-water

FIGURE 2. Chromis tingting sp. nov., KPM-NI 30479, 53.6 mm SL, holotype, Izu Peninsula, Sagami Bay, Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. Photo by H. Senou.

FIGURE 6. Chromis tingting sp. nov., juvenile specimen from Kashiwajima, Japan. Note the large black spot on the pectoral fin axil. Photo by K. Nakajima.

FIGURE 5. Chromis tingting sp. nov., underwater photo in 50-60 m, Izu Oceanic Park, Sagami Bay, Honshu, Japan. Note Sacura margaritacea and Pseudolabrus sieboldi in the background. Photo by H. Tatsuuma.

Chromis tingting sp. nov. 
New standard Japanese name: Gekko-suzumedai 
English common name: Moonstone Chromis
 Chromis mirationis [non Tanaka 1917]; Song et al. 2014: 2, figs 1a–c and 2, table 1 (larval description and identification). 

Holotype. KPM-NI 30479, 53.6 mm SL, Japan, Shizuoka Prefecture, west side of Sagami Bay, ....

Diagnosis. The following combination of characters distinguishes C. tingting from all congeners: dorsal rays XIV,13–14; anal rays II,12; pectoral rays 19–20; tubed lateral-line scales 15–17; gill rakers 5–6 + 17–20 = 22–26; caudal fin with two spinous procurrent rays dorsally and ventrally. Chromis tingting can be further distinguished from congeners based on color patterns, and in having a large black spot on the pectoral fin base that reaches the lower limits of the axil.

Etymology. Named in honor of the first author’s mother, in recognition of her unconditional love, support and encouragement. To be treated as a noun in apposition. 
The common name Moonstone Chromis refers to the pearlescentsilvery-blue coloration of the juveniles and adults of this species. “Gekko”, of the new standard Japanese name, means moonlight in Japanese. 

FIGURE 7. Juveniles and adults of selected Chromis species:
A1: Chromis tingting sp. nov., juvenile, Hachijo-Jima, Japan (Photo by Kiss2Sea); A2: Chromis tingting sp. nov., adult, Izu Oceanic Park, Japan (Photo by W. Takase);
B1: Chromis mirationis, juvenile, aquarium specimen from Okinawa (Photo by Y.K. Tea); B2: Chromis mirationis, adult, aquarium specimen from Izu peninsular (Photo by Y.K. Tea);
C1: Chromis okamurai, juvenile, Kashiwajima, Japan (Photo by K. Nakajima); C2: Chromis okamurai, adult, Kashiwajima, Japan (Photo by K. Nakajima);
D1: Chromis struhsakeri, juvenile, Midway Atoll (Photo by R. Whitton); D2: Chromis struhsakeri, adult, Midway Atoll (Photo by R. Whitton).


Yi-Kai Tea, Anthony C. Gill amd Hiroshi Senou. 2019. Chromis tingting, A New Species of Damselfish from Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems of southern Japan, with Notes on C. mirationis Tanaka (Teleostei: Pomacentridae). Zootaxa. 4586(2); 249–260. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4586.2.2

[Botany • 2019] Stachytarpheta atkinsiae (Verbenaceae) • A New Species endemic to the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil

Stachytarpheta atkinsiae Harley & Giul.

in Harley, Antar & Giulietti, 2019. 

Stachytarpheta atkinsiae, belonging to the Radlkoferiana group from the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia state Brazil, is here described. It is a red-flowered species, and unusual in being a large, much-branched shrub, with densely lanate indumentum. The species shows similarities with S. froesii and S. radlkoferiana, but differs from both vegetative and floral characters. We provide a full description of the species, together with illustrations, a conservation status assessment, and a distribution map.

Keywords: “campo rupestre”, endemic species, Serra do Espinhaço, taxonomy

FIGURE 1. Stachytarpheta atkinsiae.
a. Habit. b. Leaf, adaxial surface. c. Leaf, abaxial surface. d. Leaf, detail of revolute margin. e. Inflorescence. f. Flower, including calyx, corolla, bract. g. Corolla tube detail with gland-tipped trichomes. h. Bract, adaxial surface. i. Calyx lobe, internal surface. j. Dissected corolla. k. Detail of the trichome of corolla. l. Anther. m. Style apex with capitate stigma. All from Harley et al. 55488 (type).
 Drawn by João Silveira.

Figure 2. Stachytarpheta atkinsiae. A. Branch with flowers. B. Habit. C. Habitat.
Photos by Raymond M. Harley.

Stachytarpheta atkinsiae Harley & Giul. sp. nov. 

Type:— BRAZIL. Bahia: Mucugê, Serra do Gobira, ca. 8,4 km ao sul de Mucugê em linha reta, na última subida próxima ao cume, ...., 1555 m. Campo rupestre entre pedras, 19 January 2005, R.M. Harley, A.M. Giulietti & E. Ribeiro 55488 (holotype HUEFS; Isotypes K, MG, SPF).

Stachytarpheta atkinsiae is morphologically similar to S. froesii Moldenke, S. radlkoferiana Mansfeld var. radlkoferiana and S. radlkoferiana var. lanata S.Atkins. All taxa are red-flowered and those species are the only ones to share with S. atkinsiae the discolorous leaves, ± glabrous on adaxial surface and white-lanate on abaxial surface and with a revolute margin. S. atkinsiae has leaves sessile or with petiole up to 2 mm long, lamina 2.0–3.7 × 1.0–2.3 cm, elliptic, apex obtuse; bracts linear, 10–12.5 mm long; base of flowers obscured by lanate indumentum. S. froesii differs from the new species as follows: it has leaves with petiole 5–8 mm long, lamina 1.5–2.8 × 1.4–2.5 cm, broadly obovate, apex rotund to truncate, base of flowers not obscured by lanate indumentum and especially because the bracts which are linear as in S. atkinsiae, measure only c. 4 mm long. S. radlkoferiana var. radlkoferiana and var. lanata differ from the new species as both possess obovate and not linear bracts, as well as having much smaller, sessile leaves. S. radlkoferiana var. radlkoferiana has imbricate leaves on the young shoots, 0.7–1.5 × 0.4–0.8 cm., linear-elliptic to long-triangular or narrowly oblong, while S. radlkoferiana var. lanata has ovate leaves, which measure 1.0–1.4 × 0.5–0.7 cm.

Distribution and ecology:— S. atkinsiae is known only from the Serra do Gobira, in the municipality of Mucugê, in Bahia (Map 1). The species occurs only in campo rupestre vegetation in sandy rocky dry soils. It is recorded from high elevation areas (1400 to 1570 m) in campo rupestre vegetation, in sandy rocky dry soils. Flowers and fruits were registered in September and January (most collections in this month).

Etymology:— The specific epithet honors Sandy Atkins who worked at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Sandy Atkins is the author of the revision of Stachytarpheta in Brazil (Atkins 2005), a superb work that is currently the most up-to-date and important contribution to our knowledge of the genus.

Raymond M. Harley, Guilherme Medeiros Antar and Ana Maria Giulietti. 2019. Stachytarpheta atkinsiae, A New Species of Verbenaceae endemic to the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil. Phytotaxa. 401(2); 127–132.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.401.2.4

Resumo: Nesse trabalho está sendo descrita Stachytarpheta atkinsiae pertencente ao Grupo Radlkoferiana e de ocorrência na Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil. É uma espécie vistosa, com flores vermelhas, e bem distinta por ser um arbusto alto, robusto e ramificado, com ramos densamente lanados. A espécie tem semelhanças com S. froesii e com S. radlkoferiana, mas difere por caracteres vegetativos e florais. É apresentada descrição detalhada, ilustrações, fotos em campo, análise do estado de conservação, e mapa de distribuição. 

Tuesday, April 16, 2019

[Botany • 2019] Allium albanicum (Amaryllidaceae) • A New Species from Balkans

  Allium albanicum Brullo, C. Brullo, Cambria, Giusso & Salmeri  

in Brullo, Brullo, Cambria, et al., 2019. 

A new species, Allium albanicum, is described and illustrated from Albania (Balkan Peninsula). It grows on serpentines or limestone in open rocky stands with a scattered distribution, mainly in mountain locations. Previously, the populations of this geophyte were attributed to A. meteoricum Heldr. & Hausskn. ex Halácsy, described from a few localities of North and Central Greece. These two species indeed show close relationships, chiefly regarding some features of the spathe valves, inflorescence and floral parts. They also share the same diploid chromosome number 2n =16 and similar karyotype, while seed testa micro-sculptures and leaf anatomy reveal remarkable differences. There are also several morphological features that allow them to be differentiated at specific level. The inclusion of both species into a newly described section Pseudoscorodon of the subgen. Allium is proposed. An analytic key to the species, included in the new section, is also provided.

Keywords: Allium, Amaryllidaceae, Albania, chromosome, new section, taxonomy

Figure 1.  Allium albanicum Brullo, C. Brullo, Cambria, Giusso & Salmeri sp. nov. 
A Habit B Flower C Perigon and stamens open D Anther E Ovaries F Capsule G Spathe valves. Drawing by S. Brullo based on living material coming from the type locality.

Figure 7. Phenological features of Allium albanicum and A. meteoricum.
 A Growing habitat of A. albanicum in the locus classicus (Albania) B Individuals of A. albanicum from the locus classicus C A. albanicum cultivated material in Botanical Garden of Catania D Leaf of A. albanicum, cultivated material
 E, F Individual of A. meteoricum, from Meteora (Greece). Photos by S. Cambria.

Allium albanicum Brullo, C. Brullo, Cambria, Giusso & Salmeri, sp. nov.

Allium meteoricum auct. fl. Albania non Halacsy, Consp. Fl. Graec. 3(1): 250. 1904, Syn.

Type: ALBANIA. Devoli river, near Berat, serpentines, ca. 700 m elev., ...., 26 June 2017, S. Cambria s.n. (Holotype: CAT; Isotypes: CAT, FI, G).

Diagnosis: Allio meteoricum similis sed bulbis minoribus tunicis exterioribus brunneis, scapo ad 1/4 longitudinem vaginis foliorum tecto, spathae valvis in dimidio inferiore connatis, appendice usque ad 2,5 mm longa, majore 3–5 nervata, minore 3 nervata, tepalis albo-roseis, minoribus, apice erosis, filamentis staminorum minoribus, luteis superne, annulo breviore, antheris viridulis- pallide luteis, apice rotundatis, ovario luteo leviter apice rugoso, poris nectariferis majoris, capsula majore subgloboso-obovata, differt.

Etymology: The epithet refers to the Latin “Albanicum”, coming from Albania, the country where the species grows.

 Salvatore Brullo, Cristian Brullo, Salvatore Cambria, Gianpietro Giusso del Galdo and Cristina Salmeri. 2019. Allium albanicum (Amaryllidaceae), A New Species from Balkans and its relationships with A. meteoricum Heldr. & Hausskn. ex Halácsy. PhytoKeys. 119: 117-136. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.119.30790