Friday, December 13, 2019

[Botany • 2019] Phyllanthus huamotensis & P. chantaranothaii (Phyllanthaceae) • Two New Species of Phyllanthus from A Limestone Mountain, northern Thailand

Phyllanthus huamotensis Pornp., Chantar. & J.Parn.

in Pornpongrungrueng, Chantaranothai, Parnell & Hodkinson, 2019.
มะขามป้อมดอยหัวหมด  ||  DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.136.47625 

Two Phyllanthus species are newly described from a limestone mountain in the north of Thailand. The first species, P. huamotensis Pornp., Chantar. & J.Parn., sp. nov., is one of the most distinct Phyllanthus species easily distinguished by its reddish branchlets and stem, conspicuous reddish venation, especially on the lower leaf surface, red sepals with long fimbriate margin and red capsule with papillose-puberulous surface. The second species, P. chantaranothaii Pornp., J.Parn. & Hodk., sp. nov., is similar to P. pulcher Wall. ex Müll.Arg., but it is distinguished by its puberulous upper leaf surface and pistillate flowers which have red, narrowly lanceolate sepals with a white, long fimbriate margin, puberulous outer side as well as puberulous pedicel.

Keywords: diversity, Euphorbiaceae, new taxa, revision, taxonomy

Figure 1. Phyllanthus huamotensis Pornp., Chantar. & J.Parn., sp. nov. A habit B, C leaf shapes (B adaxial surface C abaxial surface) D stipule E pistillate flower F staminate flower G mature capsule.
 Drawn by Pimwadee Pornpongrungrueng. 

Figure 2. Phyllanthus huamotensis Pornp., Chantar. & J.Parn., sp. nov. A, B habit C branchlet showing axillary fascicle of staminate flowers D branchlet showing pistillate flower E branchlet showing young red capsule.
A Photo by Natthawut Triyuttachai B, C photos by Suchart Chanhomhual D, E photos by Kanokorn Ruengsawang.

Phyllanthus huamotensis Pornp., Chantar. & J.Parn., sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Phyllanthus huamotensis is one of the most distinct species of Phyllanthus in Thailand, easily distinguished by its reddish branchlets and stem, conspicuous reddish venation, especially on the lower leaf surface, red sepals with long fimbriate margins and red capsule with a papillose-puberulous surface. It is most similar to P. pulcher Wall. ex Müll.Arg., but differs in its undershrub habit that is up to 30 cm high (P. pulcher is a shrub up to 1.5 m high), small sized leaves (2–9 × (2–)3–8 mm) (leaves in P. pulcher are 7–28 × 6–17 mm) with conspicuous reddish venation (inconspicuous on both leaf surfaces in P. pulcher) and a red capsule with a papillose-puberulous surface (glabrous in P. pulcher).

Habitat and distribution: This species grows on open limestone hills, at 880–937 m above sea level. Currently, it is known only from the type location Doi Huamot, Tak province in northern Thailand.

Etymology: The name of this species is given, based on the location where the plant was first discovered.

Vernacular: Ma Kham Pom Din Huamot - มะขามป้อมดอยหัวหมด.

Figure 3. Phyllanthus chantaranothaii Pornp., J.Parn. & Hodk., sp. nov.
A habit B, C leaf shapes (B adaxial surface C abaxial surface) D stipule E pistillate flower F staminate flower G young capsule H mature capsule.
Drawn by Pimwadee Pornpongrungrueng. 

Figure 4. Phyllanthus chantaranothaii Pornp., J.Parn. & Hodk., sp. nov.
A habit B branchlet showing axillary fascicle of staminate flowers C branchlet showing pistillate flower D branchlet showing young capsule E branchlet showing mature capsule.
 A–C photos by Natthawut Triyuttachai D, E photos by Siriyakorn Sukcharoen.

Phyllanthus chantaranothaii Pornp., J.Parn. & Hodk., sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Phyllanthus chantaranothaii is most similar to P. pulcher, but differs in its puberulous upper leaf surface with white, simple and dendritic hairs and pistillate flowers that have red, narrowly lanceolate sepals with a white long fimbriate margin, puberulous on the outer side and puberulous pedicel, whereas in P. pulcher, the leaf is glabrous on both surfaces and the sepals of the pistillate flower are rhombic-ovate with the upper part greenish and lower part red, glabrous on the outside and glabrous pedicel.

Habitat and distribution: This species grows in mixed deciduous forest, at ca. 500 m elevation. It is currently known from the type location near Pa La Ta waterfall and Doi Huamot, Tak province, Thailand.
Etymology: The name of this species honours Prof. Dr. Pranom Chantaranothai for his major contributions to plant taxonomy, in general, but especially for his extensive work on Phyllanthus in the Flora of Thailand.

Vernacular: Mayom Noi - มะยมน้อย.

Pimwadee Pornpongrungrueng, Pranom Chantaranothai, John A.N. Parnell and Trevor R. Hodkinson. 2019. Two New Species of Phyllanthus (Phyllanthaceae) from Thailand.  PhytoKeys. 136: 35-44. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.136.47625

[Paleontology • 2020] Volcanosuchus statisticae • A New Phytosaur (Diapsida, Archosauria) from the Upper Triassic of India: Implications for Phytosaur Phylogeny and Biostratigraphy

Volcanosuchus statisticae
Datta, Ray & Bandyopadhyay, 2020

Detailed description and phylogenetic assessment of a phytosaur skull collected from the Tiki Formation of the Rewa Gondwana Basin of India and earlier diagnosed as Parasuchus hislopi, show that it pertains to a new genus and species, Volcanosuchus statisticae. The new taxon is characterized by marginal overlapping of the nostrils by the antorbital fenestrae, external nares situated on a bulbous and raised dome, the lateral surface of the jugal ornamented by a prominent ridge defined by multiple tubercles and radiating thread‐like structures, and distinct ornamentation patterns on the rostrum and skull table. Phylogenetic analysis nests Volcanosuchus within Mystriosuchinae, where it forms a sister taxon to (Rutiodon + Leptosuchomorpha) and marks the transition between the basal Parasuchidae and more derived Mystriosuchinae phytosaurs. Evolution of the phytosaur skulls resulted in changes from non‐overlapping nostril and antorbital fenestra to an overlapping state, anteroposterior elongation of the exoccipital–supraoccipital shelf, appearance of a median ridge on the basioccipital, and reduction of the supratemporal fenestra. Considerable faunal overlap of the Tiki Formation is evident with the lower Maleri Formation, which is late Carnian based on the occurrence of Hyperodapedon, Parasuchus and Exaeretodon. The Tiki Formation correlates with the Ischigualasto Formation of Argentina, the upper part of the Santa Maria Formation, and the overlying lower Caturrita Formation of Brazil, the Isalo II Beds of Madagascar, Lossiemouth Sandstone of Scotland, and the lower Tecovas Formation of the Chinle Group of North America, and ranges from late Carnian to early/middle Norian.

Keywords: archosaur, Gondwana, India, Late Triassic, phytosaur, phylogeny

Volcanosuchus statisticae gen. et sp. nov. Holotype, ISIR 44, a partial skull in dorsal view.

Volcanosuchus statisticae gen. et sp. nov. Holotype, ISIR 44, a partial skull in right lateral view.

ARCHOSAURIA Cope, 1869–1870 (sensu Ezcurra 2016) 

Order PHYTOSAURIA Jaeger, 1828 

Family PARASUCHIDAE Lydekker, 1885 (sensu Kammerer et al. 2016) 
Subfamily MYSTRIOSUCHINAE von Huene, 1915 (sensu Kammerer et al. 2016) 


Derivation of name. Generic name, derived from the Latin word ‘volcanus’ referring to the raised dome-like narial prominence, which resembles a high volcanic crater in lateral view, and ‘suchus’ meaning crocodile-like.

Volcanosuchus statisticae sp. nov.

Derivation of name. Specific name is after the Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata, one of the first institutes in India to promote and establish a school of vertebrate palaeontology.

Debajit Datta, Sanghamitra Ray and Saswati Bandyopadhyay. 2020. Cranial Morphology of A New Phytosaur (Diapsida, Archosauria) from the Upper Triassic of India: Implications for Phytosaur Phylogeny and Biostratigraphy. Papers in Palaeontology. DOI: 10.1002/spp2.1292

[Botany • 2019] Zahora ait-atta • A New Monotypic Genus from tribe Brassiceae (Brassicaceae) endemic to the Moroccan Sahara

Zahora ait-atta Lemmel & M.Koch

in Koch & Lemmel, 2019. 
Zizaou n’oudad  ||  DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.135.46946

Zahora ait-atta Lemmel & M.Koch, a new species from the Moroccan Sahara, is described and documented here and constitutes a monotypic new genus. The new taxon belongs to the tribe Brassiceae (Brassicaceae), and cytogenetic and phylogenetic analyses reveal that this diploid species has a remote status of Miocene origin in the northwestern Sahara Desert. We examined the morphological differences between morphologically related genera and provide photographs of the new species. The new genus may play a key role in future Brassica-Raphanus crop research since it is placed phylogenetically at the base of a generically highly diverse clade including Raphanus sativus, and it shows affinities to various Brassica species.

Keywords: Brassiceae, Brassicaceae, flora of the Sahara, Morocco, new genus, Zahora ait-atta

Figure 1. Zahora ait-atta in its natural environment. Border region with Algeria. Near Errachidia.
Oued Bou-Ibourine – type locality a sandy habitat b flowering plant c rosette during winter d lyrate leaf from lower part of the plant e rosette starts building the inflorescence f ripening heteroarthrocarpic fruits g flowers and detailed view on sepals h siliques releasing seeds from dehiscent distal part of fruit.
Images taken by C. Lemmel and Z. Attioui.

Zahora ait-atta Lemmel & M.Koch, gen. et, sp. nov.

Type: Morocco. Meknés-Tafilalet/Drâa-Tafilalet: Border region with Algeria. Near Errachidia. Oued Bou-Ibourine, « Zizaou n´oudad », gps 31.4114, -3.7220, 900 m a.s.l., 11th March 2019, C. Lemmel s.n. (Holotype, HEID 505689; Isotype, G00394714, Conservatoire et jardin botanique de Genève; Paratype, HEID 505749, 505750, ex. cult. Botanical Garden Heidelberg 2019). 

Description: Herbs, woody at base, monocarpic, simple trichomes; rhizome fleshy, 2–3 cm in diam. Stems 80–140(-180) cm tall, robust, up to 1.4 cm in diam, erect, simple at base, often alternately branched in lower part. Basal leaves rosulate, fleshy; leaves lyrate, distal lobecordate, (10-)15–25(-40) cm, margin entire to distantly dentate, numerous simple trichomes on lower surface mostly along veins, upper side loosely covered with simple trichomes; cauline leaves similar but apex obtuse to weakly subacute, 10–15 × 5–7 cm. Raceme ebracteate, elongating in fruit, 40–100 cm; often branched. Sepals erect, saccate ca. 8 mm long, with few simple trichomes; petals pale-yellow,1.5–1.7 cm long, 6–7 mm wide, petal claw 8 mm long, obtuse at apex, glabrous. Filaments tetradynamous, ca. 9 mm long; nectar glands 4, rounded, elateral pair larger. Stigma entire. Infructescence with up to 100(-200) siliques, (30-)40–45(-48) mm, petiolate (9–11 mm). Fruits heteroarthrocarpic with a distal indehiscent balloon-like structure with two viable seeds (3.5–5 × 6–8 mm); proximal part dehiscent, terete (30–45 mm); 20–40 ovules; septum complete. Seeds biseriate, mucilaginous, 1.3–1.4 × 1.4–1.5 mm.

Etymology: Zahora means “flower” in Arabic, indicating the attractive and peculiar appearance of the plant. “Aït-atta” are a Berber tribal confederation of south eastern Morocco who locally know the plant under the name «Zizaou n’oudad» (Barbary-sheep’s cabbage).

Habitat: All places are in sandy beds of oueds flowing from the base of the kreb (cliff) of the Hamada du Guir or the Bin el Korbine.

Ecology: Greenhouse and pollination experiments showed that the species is largely self-compatible. At its natural stands the plant is annual and monocarpic. However, in cultivation the plant species can be kept growing when cutting frutescence. There are two different options of seed release, either directly into a local soil seed bank from the dehiscent part of fruit or via the distal indehiscent part carrying two seeds, which may allow distributing effectively with water in the wadi systems at rare and occasional events.

Figure 2. Distribution of known localities (red dots) of Zahora ait-atta documented from 2015 to 2019 (satellite map was taken from image metadata Copernicus/Landsat).

Figure 3. BEAST analysis of tribe Brassiceae based on ITS DNA sequence data (Suppl. material 2). The new genus Zahora is highlighted, and its respective stem group node is indicated (red dot). Divergence times are given as Mya (million years ago). Agronomically important species, Brassica oleracea and Raphanus sativus, are indicated and shown with their respective clades. Brassica nigra and B. carinata are also indicated with an asterisk (orange).

Zahora ait-atta is described as a new species of a new monotypic genus. Zahora shows a peculiar fruit feature, namely heteroarthrocarpic fruits, and the species might mediate evolutionary between Core Oleracea clade (e.g. Brassica oleracea, Brassica napus) and Raphanus sativus and related genera. Both represent important crop plant groups with seeds playing an enormous agronomical role. The diploid new species might, therefore, serve as important germplasm reservoir to study traits and characters in a number of Brassiceae crop plants.


 Marcus A. Koch and Claude Lemmel. 2019. Zahora, A New Monotypic Genus from tribe Brassiceae (Brassicaceae) endemic to the Moroccan Sahara. PhytoKeys. 135: 119-131. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.135.46946

[Botany • 2019] Ternstroemia guineensis (Ternstroemiaceae) • A New Endangered Cloudforest Shrub with Neotropical Affinities from Kounounkan, Guinea, W Africa

Ternstroemia guineensis Cheek

in Cheek, Haba, Konomou & Van Der Burgt, 2019.
 DOI:  10.3372/wi.49.49306 
Ternstroemia guineensis is described from a sandstone table mountain at Kounounkan, possibly the last in the Fouta Djallon (Guinea Highlands) to remain largely unimpacted by humans and to have mainly intact natural habitats. It occurs about 2400 km westward of the nearest existing record (Nigeria) of the genus in Africa. It is confined to cloud (submontane) forest in galleries along watercourses. Its conservation status is assessed as Endangered using the IUCN 2012 criteria. The species differs from the other two African highland species, T. cameroonensis and T. polypetala, in having hermaphrodite flowers with a long subcylindric style and punctiform stigmas, and petals connate at the base into a tube (not dioecious, with a short style and cone-like stigmas, and free petals) resembling in these features the neotropical Ternstroemia species, as does also the lowland wetland T. africana of Nigeria, Gabon and Angola.

KEYWORDS: amphi-Atlantic, conservation, Guinea, Guinea Highlands, Kounounkan, medicinal, new species, Pentaphylacaceae, relic, Ternstroemia, Ternstroemiaceae, Theaceae, West Africa

Fig. 1. Ternstroemia guineensis – A: habit, flowering leafy stems; B: detail of revolute margin of mature leaf, abaxial view, showing circular scars of fallen marginal setae; C: detail of one seta scar from B; D: detail of margin of immature leaf showing patent setae; E: flower, hydrated, side view; F: connate corolla with staminal ring, as self-detaching after anthesis; G: flower, with pistil exposed by removal of two sepals, two petals and several stamens; H: transverse section of ovary showing intruding placentas in both of two locules; I: side view of stamen, showing inward arching; J: adaxial view of stamen; K: inner view of two adherent petals, with adherent staminal ring; L: petal (flattened), adaxial surface showing slightly lacerate distal margins and longitudinal nerves; M: outer sepal (flattened); N: inner sepal (flattened).
 Scale bars: A = 5 cm; B–G, K–N = 5 mm; I, J = 2 mm; H = 1 mm. 
 All drawn from Pepe Haba 1060 (K) by Andrew Brown. 

Fig. 2. Ternstroemia guineensis – A: habitat, submontane gallery forest in sparsely wooded grassland; B: habit; C: flower; D: fruits; E: base of a multi-stemmed shrub; F: bark of a tree, trunk c. 18 cm in diam.
Photos: Republic of Guinea, Kounounkan Massif, Feb 2019, Xander van der Burgt.

Ternstroemia guineensis Cheek, sp. nov.
 Holotype: Guinea, Forécariah Préfecture, S part of Kounounkan Plateau, ..., 910 m, fl., 26 Nov 2017, P. M. Haba with X. M. van der Burgt, L. Jennings & G. Konomou 1060 (K K001286639; isotypes: HNG, MO, P, US, WAG).

Diagnosis — Similar to Ternstroemia africana Melch., differing in the smaller leaves (2.5–)3.7–6.1(–6.7) × (1.3–)1.6–2.5(–3) cm, secondary nerves not visible, (not (4–)8–10 × (2–)4–5 cm, secondary nerves visible, c. 7 pairs); petiole margins entire or with 1–2 setae (not densely glandular denticulate); peduncles 1.4–2.4 cm long (not 3–4.5 cm long).

Distribution — Ternstroemia guineensis is currently only known from the southernmost plateau of the Kounounkan Massif in Forécariah Prefecture, an uninhabited sandstone table mountain, where it is known from gallery forests along four streams.

Ecology — The species was found in species-rich submontane gallery (cloud) forest, on rocky soils, at 900–1100 m altitude.

Etymology — The specific epithet guineensis signifies from Guinea (Guinea-Conakry or the Republic of Guinea), which holds the only known global location for this species.

Martin Cheek, Pepe M. Haba, Gbamon Konomou and Xander M. Van Der Burgt. 2019. Ternstroemia guineensis (Ternstroemiaceae), A New Endangered Cloudforest Shrub with Neotropical Affinities from Kounounkan, Guinea, W Africa. Willdenowia. 49(3); 351-360. DOI:  10.3372/wi.49.49306 

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

[Paleontology • 2019] Asfaltovenator vialidadiProbable Basal Allosauroid from the early Middle Jurassic Cañadón Asfalto Formation of Argentina Highlights Phylogenetic Uncertainty in Tetanuran Theropod Dinosaurs

Asfaltovenator vialidadi
 Rauhut & Pol, 2019

Illustration: Gabriel Lío

Tetanurae, the most successful clade of theropod dinosaurs, including modern birds, split into three major clades early in their evolutionary history: Megalosauroidea, Coelurosauria, and Allosauroidea. The oldest tetanurans occur in the earliest Middle Jurassic, but the early fossil record of the clade is still poor. Here we report one of the oldest known and most complete pre-Late Jurassic tetanuran, the probable allosauroid Asfaltovenator vialidadi gen. et sp. nov., which has an unusual character combination, uniting features currently considered to be apomorphic of different tetanuran lineages. A phylogenetic analysis resulted in a monophyletic Carnosauria (Allosauroidea + Megalosauroidea), and the inclusion of the new taxon significantly changes topology within carnosaurs. The analysis shows concentrated homoplasy in proximal nodes at the base of Tetanurae, and a temporal peak at the Pliensbachian-Toarcian extinction event, recently identified as a potential driver of tetanuran radiation. These results highlight the complex morphological evolution in the early radiation of tetanuran theropods, in which convergences and parallelisms were extremely common. This pattern seems to be a common feature in rapid radiation events of major clades of vertebrates and might explain the common difficulties to unravel phylogenetic relationships of important lineages at the base of major clades.

Figure 1: Cranial anatomy of Asfaltovenator vialidadi, MPEF PV 3440.
(A) composite reconstruction of the skull and lower jaws, based on disarticulated cranial elements. (B), graphic reconstruction of articulated skull. (C), braincase in occipital view. (D,E) posterior end of left mandible in dorsal view; (D) photo; (E) outline drawing.
 Abbreviations: a, angular; aa, antarticular; ao, antorbital fenestra; aof, antorbital fossa; ar, articular; bsr, basisphenoid recess; bt, basal tubera; cp, cornual process; d, dentary; en, external nares; eor, exoccipital ridge; fm, foramen magnum; g, groove; itf, infratemporal fenestra; j, jugal; jf, jugal foramen; l, lacrimal; lf, lacrimal fenestrae; m, maxilla; mf, maxillary fenestra; n, nasal; nf, nasal foramina; o, orbit; oc, occipital condyle; pap, paroccipital process; pcf, posterior exit of mid-cerebral vein; pm, premaxilla; po, postorbital; pra, prearticular; ptf, posttemporal foramen; q, quadrate; qj, quadratojugal; sa, surangular; snf, supranarial fossa; soc, supraoccipital; sq, squamosal; stf, supratemporal fenestra. Scale bars are 10 cm (A–C) and 5 cm (D,E).

Figure 2: Selected skeletal elements of Asfaltovenator vialidadi, MPEF PV 3440.
(A) left nasal in lateral view. (B), right maxilla in lateral view. (C) anterior end of left maxilla in lateral view. (D) left ectopterygoid in ventral view. (E) jugal process of left ectopterygoid in lateral view. (F) left dentary in lateral view. (G) last two cervical vertebrae and centrum of first dorsal vertebra in left lateral view.
Abbreviations: aof, antorbital fenestra; avp, anteroventral process; en, external nares; epi, epipophysis; fao, antorbital fossa; j, facet for articulation with the jugal; l, facet for articulation with lacrimal; mf, maxillary fenestra; nc, nasal crest; ns, neural spine; pap, parapophysis; pf, pneumatic foramen; pl, pleurocoel; prz, prezygapophysis; r, ridge that forms the ventral border of the antorbital fossa; snf, supranarial fossa; vf, ventral fossa. Scale bars are 5 cm.

Systematic Palaeontology: 
Theropoda Marsh, 1881, 
Tetanurae Gauthier, 1986, 
Allosauroidea (Marsh, 1878), 

Asfaltovenator vialidadi gen. et sp. nov.

Etymology: Generic name for the Cañadón Asfalto Formation and venator, Greek for hunter. The species epithet honours the Administración de Vialidad Provincial of Chubut and the Dirección Nacional de Vialidad, for their aid to paleontological expeditions of the Museo Paleontológico Egidio Feruglio.


Figure 3: Skeletal reconstruction and postcranial anatomy of Asfaltovenator vialidadi, MPEF PV 3440. Centre: body outline with preserved elements indicated. (A) articulated cervical vertebrae three to five. (B) cervical vertebra 7. (C) articulated dorsal vertebrae four to seven (better preserved right side, reversed). (D) right humerus in anterior view. (E) right radius and ulna, medial view. (F) right manus, metacarpus in dorsal and digits in lateral view. (G) articulated proximal ends of right tibia and fibula in lateral and proximal views.
Abbreviations: ag, anterior groove; cc, cnemial crest; cr, cervical rib; dc, distal carpal; di, diapophysis; dpc, deltpectoral crest; ec, ectepicondyle; ent, entepicondyle; epi, epipophysis; fi, fibula; fic, fibular condyle; hy, hyposphene; im, intermedium; it, internal tuberosity; lr, lateral ridge; mc, metacarpal; ns, neural spine; ol, olecranon; pa, parapophysis; pl, pleurocoel; poz, postzygapophysis; ppdl, paradiapophyseal lamina; prz, prezygapophysis; ra, radial. Scale bars are 100 cm (skeletal reconstruction), 5 cm (A–C) and 10 cm (D–G).

Locality and Horizon: Ca. 1.6 km NE of the village of Cerro Cóndor, lacustrine layers of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation, late Toarcian to Bajocian9.

Diagnosis: Large basal tetanuran diagnosed by the following character combination (autapomorphies are marked with*): premaxillary teeth with well-developed distal, but only minute mesial serrations*; postorbital with small cornual dorsal process; exoccipital with pronounced horizontal ridges between paroccipital processes and foramen magnum*; ossified antarticular in the mandible; platycoelous cervical vertebrae; neural spines of cervical vertebrae three and four triangular and backswept*; anterior cervical epipophyses tab-like and elongated; mid-cervical vertebrae with median pit between parapophyses ventrally; ventral keel absent in posterior cervical and poorly developed in anterior dorsal vertebrae; well-developed paradiapohyseal lamina in middle and posterior dorsal vertebrae; dorsals 11 and 12 with small additional anterior centrodiapophyseal lamina*; articulated metacarpus broader than long; manual digit III significantly more slender and shorter than digits II and III.

Oliver W. M. Rauhut and Diego Pol. 2019. Probable Basal Allosauroid from the early Middle Jurassic Cañadón Asfalto Formation of Argentina Highlights Phylogenetic Uncertainty in Tetanuran Theropod Dinosaurs. Scientific Reports. 9: 18826. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-53672-7

 Hallan uno de los más antiguos y completos dinosaurios carnívoros del Jurásico

[Arachnida • 2019] Loxosceles tenochtitlanUnder An Integrative Taxonomic Approach: the Description of A New Species of the Genus Loxosceles (Araneae, Sicariidae) from Mexico City

 Loxosceles tenochtitlan Valdez-Mondragón & Navarro-Rodríguez

in Valdez-Mondragón, Navarro-Rodríguez, Solís-Catalán, Cortez-Roldán & Juárez-Sánchez, 2019. 

A new species of the spider genus Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe, 1832, Loxosceles tenochtitlan Valdez-Mondragón & Navarro-Rodríguez, sp. nov., is described based on adult male and female specimens from the states of Mexico City, Estado de Mexico and Tlaxcala. Integrative taxonomy including traditional morphology, geometric and lineal morphology, and molecules (DNA barcodes of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) and internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2)), were used as evidence to delimit the new species. Four methods were used for molecular analyses and species delimitation: 1) corrected p-distances under neighbor joining (NJ), 2) automatic barcode gap discovery (ABGD), 3) general mixed yule coalescent model (GMYC), and 4) poisson tree processes (bPTP). All molecular methods, traditional, geometric and lineal morphology were consistent in delimiting and recognizing the new species. Loxosceles tenochtitlan sp. nov. is closely related to L. misteca based on molecular data. Although both species are morphologically similar, the average p-distance from CO1 data was 13.8% and 4.2% for ITS2 data. The molecular species delimitation methods recovered well-supported monophyletic clusters for samples of L. tenochtitlan sp. nov. from Mexico City + Tlaxcala and for samples of L. misteca from Guerrero. Loxosceles tenochtitlan sp. nov. is considered a unique species for three reasons: (1) it can be distinguished by morphological characters (genitalic and somatic); (2) the four different molecular species delimitation methods were congruent to separate both species; and (3) there is variation in leg I length of males between both species, with the males of L. misteca having longer legs than males of L. tenochtitlan sp. nov., also morphometrically, the shape of tibiae of the palp between males of both species is different.

Keywords: DNA barcodes, ecological niche modeling, Loxosceles tenochtitlan sp. nov., species delimitation, taxonomy

Family Sicariidae Keyserling, 1880

Genus Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe, 1832
Type species: Loxosceles rufescens (Dufour, 1820).

Figures 1–6. Live specimens of  Loxosceles tenochtitlan sp. nov. from Street Juárez Norte #214, Huamantla, Municipality Huamantla, Tlaxcala, Mexico
1–3 females 4–6 males.
Photographs by Jared Lacayo-Ramírez (2019).

Loxosceles tenochtitlan Valdez-Mondragón & Navarro-Rodríguez, sp. nov.

Etymology: The species is a noun in apposition dedicated to Tenochtitlán (Nahuatl language) city, a large Mexica city-state in what is now Mexico City where the type locality is located. Tenochtitlán was built on an island in what was then Lake Texcoco in the Valley of Mexico, being the capital of the expanding Aztec Empire in the 15th century.

Diagnosis: The male of Loxosceles tenochtitlan sp. nov. morphologically resembles those of Loxosceles misteca Gertsch, 1958 (Figs 29–31, 38–47) from Guerrero; however, in the new species, the curvature of the basal-ventral part of the tibia of the male palp is less pronounced than in L. misteca¸ where it is prominent (Figs 23, 25, 42, 44, 48–55). Both species have a spatula-shaped embolus; in the new species, the embolus is slightly wider than that of L. misteca (Figs 23, 25, 26, 42, 44, 45, 48–55, 62–65). In dorsal view, the embolus basally is wider in L. tenochtitlan sp. nov. than in L. misteca (Figs 26, 45). Leg I length of males of L. tenochtitlan sp. nov. is shorter than legs I of L. misteca (Fig. 81). The seminal receptacles of females of L. tenochtitlan sp. nov. and L. misteca are similar, however in the new species the distance between the base of the receptacles is larger than in L. misteca (Figs 56–61, 66–69), also, the genitalia of L. tenochtitlan sp. nov. has small accessory lobes receptacles on each side (Figs 56–61), which are absent on L. misteca (Figs 66–69).

 Alejandro Valdez-Mondragón, Claudia I. Navarro-Rodríguez, Karen P. Solís-Catalán, Mayra R. Cortez-Roldán and Alma R. Juárez-Sánchez. 2019. Under An Integrative Taxonomic Approach: the Description of A New Species of the Genus Loxosceles (Araneae, Sicariidae) from Mexico City. ZooKeys. 892: 93-133. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.892.39558

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

[Entomology • 2019] Ophthalmoblysis ibarrai • A New Species of Ophthalmoblysis Scoble, 1995 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Ennominae) from México with ‘Sleepy’ Eyespots

Ophthalmoblysis ibarrai Garzón-Orduña, 2019. 

A new species of Ophthalmoblysis Scoble, 1995 from Mexico is described and illustrated: O. ibarrai Garzón-Orduña, sp.n. The species is known only from Los Tuxtlas (Veracruz, Mexico), and is distinguished by the shape and pattern of the hindwing eyespot. Unlike the eyespot of other species in Ophthalmoblysis, that of O. ibarrai has a smaller and not fully circular inner black disc. In addition, O. ibarrai can be distinguished from a similar, undescribed species from Costa Rica by the presence of a sclerotized extension at the tip of the male valva and by the shape of the cornutus in the vesica. Ophthalmoblysis ibarrai represents the northernmost member of the genus.

Keywords: Biodiversity, Lepidoptera, taxonomy, Veracruz, eyespots, moths, Neotropics

Ophthalmoblysis ibarrai Garzón-Orduña, sp.n.

Ivonne J. Garzón-Orduña. 2019. A New Species of Ophthalmoblysis Scoble, 1995 (Geometridae: Ennominae) from México with ‘Sleepy’ Eyespots. Zootaxa. 4706(3); 469–476. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4706.3.7

[Botany • 2018] Boeica clarkei (Gesneriaceae) • A New Species from northeastern India

Boeica clarkei Hareesh, L.Wu, A. Joe & M.Sabu

in Vadakkoot, Lei, Alfred & Mamiyil, 2018. 

Boeica clarkei, a new species is described from Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India. This novelity resemble B. porosa but differ in having corolla externally pubescent, an inconspicuous disc and transversely dehiscing anthers. From B. multinervia it differs in being pubescent rather than woolly, and in having only 8–12 paired lateral leaf veins, only ca 1 mm long corolla tube, and longer lip lobes. A detailed description along with colour photographs, distribution, conservation status and a key to the Indian species of Boeica are provided.

Keywords: Boeica, Gesneriaceae, northeast India

Boeica clarkei sp. nov.
(A) habit, (B)–(D) inflorescence: (B) front view, (C) side view, (D) back view, (E)–(G) corolla: (E) back view, (F) front view, (G) split opened showing stamens, (H) capsule with calyx, (I) immature infructescence.
Photos by V.S. Hareesh.

Boeica clarkei Hareesh, L.Wu, A. Joe & M.Sabu sp. nov.

Etymology: The specific epithet honours C. B. Clarke, a British botanist that described the genus Boeica and his contribution to the field of plant taxonomy.

Sankaran Hareesh Vadakkoot, Wu Lei, Joe Alfred and Sabu Mamiyil. 2018. Boeica clarkei sp. nov. (Gesneriaceae) from northeastern India. Nordic Journal of Botany. 36(4)njb-01551. DOI: 10.1111/njb.01551

[Mollusca • 2019] The Little Aplysia Coming of Age: From One Species to A Complex of Species Complexes in Aplysia parvula (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia)

in Golestani, Crocetta, Padula, Valdés, 2019. 

The widespread sea hare species Aplysia parvula includes four genetically distinct lineages, containing a total of ten different species. While the four lineages can be differentiated by their external characteristics, species in each clade are often morphologically indistinguishable. A review of literature and type material revealed that several available names exist for species recognized herein: Aplysia parvula is retained for a species from the north-eastern Atlantic; A. atromarginata, A. elongata, A. nigrocincta and A. japonica are resurrected for species from the western Pacific Ocean, the Hawaiian Islands, the Indian and western Pacific Oceans, and Japan and Korea, respectively. Two new species names are introduced for animals from the eastern Pacific, and the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Mitochondrial sequences from Mediterranean and eastern Atlantic specimens identified as A. parvula, resulted to be A. punctata. However, two specimens were heterozygotes of histone H3 alleles of A. punctata and of a new Atlantic species described herein, suggesting they could be hybrids. These results contradict the hypothesis that the Mediterranean was colonized by A. parvula. If an invasion occurred, it was a limited introgression of nDNA from an Atlantic species into native A. punctata populations.

Keywords: biogeography, Mediterranean, molecular systematic, morphology, natural hybridization

Aplysia parvula Guilding in Mørch, 1863

Haleh Golestani, Fabio Crocetta, Vinicius Padula, Yolanda Camacho-García, Joachim Langeneck, Dimitris Poursanidis, Marta Pola, M Baki yokeş, Juan Lucas Cervera, Dae-Wui Jung, Terrence M Gosliner, Juan Francisco Araya, Yuri Hooker, Michael schrödl and Ángel Valdés. 2019. The Little Aplysia Coming of Age: From One Species to A Complex of Species Complexes in Aplysia parvula (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Heterobranchia).  Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 187(2); 279–330. DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz028  

Monday, December 9, 2019

[Crustacea • 2019] Revision of the Shell-carrying Crab Genus Conchoecetes Stimpson, 1858 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Dromiidae)

Conchoecetes chanty 
McLay & Naruse, 2019

The genus Conchoecetes Stimpson, 1858, has long been considered to include three species: C. artificiosus (Fabricius, 1798), C. andamanicus Alcock, 1900, and C. intermedius Lewinsohn, 1984. The type species, C. artificiosus, has been assumed to be widely distributed throughout the Indo-West Pacific and a fourth species, C. conchifera (Haswell, 1882), from Australia, has been regarded as a synonym. The enigmatic and long overlooked “Caphyra pectenicola Adams, in Belcher, 1848” is shown to be a species of Conchoecetes occurring in Java, Singapore and the Gulf of Thailand. We review the status of these species, establish C. conchifera as a valid species, and describe five new species: C. atlas n. sp., C avikele n. sp., C. chanty n. sp., C. investigator n. sp. and C. pembawa n. sp. In this revision we recognize 10 valid species in Conchoecetes. They are distributed from Southern Africa, across the Indian Ocean to Australia and northwards to China. Formerly considered to be cosmopolitan, C. artificiosus is restricted to India, Sri Lanka Pakistan, as well as the Persian Gulf and Madagascar, while C. intermedius, first discovered near Madagascar, is shown to be the most widespread species occurring from Africa to China.

Keywords: Crustacea, Australia, Indo-West Pacific, Podotremata, reproduction, shell carrying, Southeast Asia, sponge crabs

Colin L. McLay and Tohru Naruse. 2019. Revision of the Shell-carrying Crab Genus Conchoecetes Stimpson, 1858 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Dromiidae).  Zootaxa. 4706(1); 1–47. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4706.1.1

Saturday, December 7, 2019

[Paleontology • 2020] Additional Skulls of Talarurus plicatospineus (Dinosauria: Ankylosauridae) and Implications for Paleobiogeography and Paleoecology of Armored Dinosaurs

Talarurus plicatospineus Maleev, 1952

in Park, Lee, Currie, ... et Kim, 2020. 
Illustration: Jed Taylor JCT Art Studio

• Three new specimens of Talarurus provide new anatomical information about this taxon.
• A dispersal event of ankylosaurines from Asia to western North America occurred before the Cenomanian.
• Differences of muzzle shape between Talarurus and Tsagantegia suggest a possible niche partitioning among these taxa.

Three new additional skull specimens of Talarurus plicatospineus have been recovered from the Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian–Santonian) Bayanshiree Formation, of Bayan Shiree cliffs, eastern Gobi Desert, Mongolia. The skulls feature unique characters such as an anteriorly protruded single internarial caputegulum, around 20 flat or concave nasal-area caputegulae surrounded by a wide sulcus, a vertically oriented elongate loreal caputegulum with a pitted surface, an elongate lacrimal caputegulum positioned above the posterodorsal border of the maxilla, two longitudinally arranged large frontoparietal caputegulae surrounded by smaller rhomboid caputegulae, small but elongate medial supraorbital caputegulae, a posterior supraorbital caputegulum that is four times larger than the anterior one, up to three transverse parallel grooves on the dorsal surface of the posterior supraorbital caputegulum, postocular caputegulae along the ventral to posterior rim of the orbit that extend almost to the anteroventral margin of the squamosal horn, a longitudinal furrow tapering towards the apex of the squamosal horn, a lateral nuchal caputegulum four to five times larger than other nuchal caputegulae, and a pterygovomerine keel with a ventral margin that is dorsally positioned to the alveolar ridge. The phylogenetic analysis result showed that Talarurus is sister to the clade that includes the derived Asian ankylosaurines (Saichania chulsanensis, Tarchia kielanae, and Zaraapelta nomadis). It also shows that there was dispersal of ankylosaurines from Asia into western North America before the Cenomanian. Moreover, the rostral differences between Talarurus and Tsagantegia, another ankylosaur from the same formation, suggest possible niche partitioning between these taxa.

Keywords: Dinosauria, Ankylosauridae, Ankylosauinae, Talarurus plicatospineus, Bayanshiree Formation, paleobiogeography

 Photographs of new skull specimens of Talarurus plicatospineus in left lateral view. 
(A) MPC-D 100/1354. (B) MPC-D 100/1355. (C) MPC-D 100/1356.
Skull reconstruction of Talarurus plicatospineus

a hypothesized illustration for the different feeding heights between Tsagantegia longicranialis and Talarurus plicatospineus.
Illustration: Jed Taylor JCT Art Studio

 Jin-Young Park, Yuong-Nam Lee, Philip J. Currie, Yoshitsugu Kobayashi, Eva Koppelhus, Rinchen Barsbold, Octávio Mateus, Sungjin Lee and Su-Hwan Kim. 2020. Additional Skulls of Talarurus plicatospineus (Dinosauria: Ankylosauridae) and Implications for Paleobiogeography and Paleoecology of Armored Dinosaurs. Cretaceous Research. In Press. DOI: 10.1016/j.cretres.2019.104340  


새 논문이 나왔습니다! 몽골의 갑옷공룡 탈라루루스(Talarurus)의 머리가 67년 만에 (거의) 완벽하게 복원됐습니다. 용처럼 생겼지만 초식공룡입니다.