Saturday, October 1, 2022

[Herpetology • 2022] Caecilia goweri • A New Species previously confused with Caecilia pachynema (Günther, 1859) (Gymnophiona: Caeciliidae) from the Cordillera Central of Colombia


Caecilia goweri
Fernandez & Lynch, 2022
 

Abstract
Caecilia pachynema is a distinctively colored species known from western Ecuador and supposedly from a remote population in the northern Cordillera Central of Colombia. Previously it had been detected that the Colombian populations of "C. pachynema’’ were likely an undescribed species. Material gathered over the past twenty years allows us to describe this new species and restrict the known distribution of C. pachynema to Ecuador.

 Keywords: Caecilians, Fossorial, Neotropical, Sexual dimorphism, Taxonomy


Head of Caecilia goweri (MHUA 8115) in (A) dorsal, (B) lateral, and (C) ventral views, in life.
Photographs by Dr. Juan Manuel Daza of MHUA.

Holotype of Caecilia goweri (MHUA 3241)
 (A) Ventral and (B) dorsal views, respectively, of whole specimen; scale bar equals 8 mm. (C) Lateral view of the head and (D) ventral view of the terminus and phallodeum; scale bar equals 3 mm.



Juan David Fernandez and John D. Lynch. 2022. A New Species previously confused with Caecilia pachynema (Günther, 1859) (Amphibia: Gymnophiona: Caeciliidae) from the Cordillera Central of Colombia.   Amphibians and Reptiles: Diversity and Natural History. DOI: 10.22201/fc.25942158e.2021.02.278
     

[Botany • 2021] Hyptis lavoisierifolia (Lamiaceae: Hyptidinae) • A New Species from the Noteworthy Hyptis subsect. Pachyphyllae endemic to Chapada dos Veadeiros Region, Goiás, Brazil


Hyptis lavoisierifolia A.Soares, J.F.B.Pastore & Harley,

in Soares, Pastore, Antar & Harley, 2021. 
 
Hyptis is a genus with about 151 species that belongs to subtribe Hyptidinae, a monophyletic and predominantly Neotropical group from Lamiaceae. The genus has gone through a series of taxonomic changes, especially sectional, since the early 19th century. Hyptis sect. Eriosphaeria subsect. Pachyphyllae, recent reestablished as subsection, is composed, until this paper, of four species, all endemic to the Chapada dos Veadeiros region, in Goiás state, Brazil. Here we report a novelty for the subsection.
 
Keywords: Brazilian flora, cerrado, endemism, Ocimeae, taxonomy, Eudicots


Hyptis lavoisierifolia A.Soares, J.F.B.Pastore & Harley:
A: Upper branch detail showing indumentum and inflorescence.; B: Mature individual.


Hyptis lavoisierifolia A.Soares, J.F.B.Pastore & Harley

Etymology:—The epithet is a reference to the plant genus Lavoisiera Candolle (1828:102), an endemic genus from Brazil, belonging to Melastomataceae Family, the leaves of which resemble the new species. 


Arthur de Souza Soares, José Floriano Barêa Pastore, Guilherme Medeiros Antar and Raymond Mervyn Harley. 2021. Hyptis lavoisierifolia, A New Species from the Noteworthy Hyptis subsect. Pachyphyllae (Lamiaceae—Hyptidinae) endemic to Chapada dos Veadeiros Region, Goiás, Brazil. Phytotaxa. 507(2); 175–182. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.507.2.5

[Herpetology • 2020] Rana jiulingensis • A New Species of the Rana japonica group (Anura: Ranidae) from China, with A Taxonomic Proposal for the R. johnsi group


   Rana jiulingensis Wan, Lyu & Wang,

 in Wan, Lyu, Qi, ... et Wang, 2020. 
Jiuling Mountains Brown Frog | 九岭山林蛙  ||  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.942.46928

Abstract
Rana jiulingensis sp. nov.a new species from Hunan and Jiangxi, southeastern China, is described. The new species is assigned to the R. japonica group. The clade comprising R. jiulingensis sp. nov. and R. dabieshanensis from Anhui is the sister taxon of R. omeimontis from Sichuan. Rana jiulingensis sp. nov. can be distinguished by the significant divergences in the 16S and COI genes, and the combination of following morphological characters: body size medium, SVL 48.3–57.8 mm in adult males and 48.2–57.5 mm in adult females; dorsolateral fold straight; digits without circummarginal grooves; dorsal skin smooth; tibio-tarsal articulation reaching forward beyond the tip of snout; heels overlapping; webbing formula of toes: I 1⅓ – 2 II 1⅓ – 2⅓ III 1½ – 2⅔ IV 3 – 1⅓ V; absence of vocal sacs in males; and presence of creamy white nuptial pad with tiny hoar spines on the finger I and reddish tubercles on loreal and temporal regions in breeding males. Furthermore, based on our results and the previous literature, R. zhengi is synonymized with R. sangzhiensis, and a new species group, the Rana johnsi group, is proposed for the R. johnsi and R. sangzhiensis. Currently, the Rana contains 41 recognized species, and the phylogenetic placements of several species remain unresolved.

Keywords: morphology, phylogeny, Rana jiulingensis sp. nov., Rana sangzhiensis, Rana zhengi

Morphological features of the adult male holotype SYS a005519 of Rana jiulingensis sp. nov. in life.
 A dorsolateral view B dorsal view C ventral view D grey nuptial pad E left hand F left foot.

Variations of Rana jiulingensis sp. nov.
 A, B dorsolateral view and ventral view of male paratype SYS a006495
C male paratype SYS a006496 D male paratype SYS a00511.

Rana (Rana) jiulingensis Wan, Lyu & Wang, sp. nov.
 
Suggested common name: Jiuling Mountains Brown Frog (in English), 
Jiu Ling Shan Lin Wa (九岭山林蛙 in Chinese)

Diagnosis: Rana jiulingensis sp. nov. is distinguished by the following morphological characteristics: (1) body medium-sized, SVL = 48.3–57.8 (51.7 ± 4.3, n = 4) mm in adult males, 48.2–57.5 (50.8 ± 4.4, n = 4) mm in adult females; (2) head length significantly larger than head width; (3) supratympanic fold absent; (4) dorsolateral fold distinct and thin, extending straight from posterior margin of upper eyelid to above groin; (5) internarial distances larger than interorbital distances; (6) tympanum diameter significantly smaller than eye diameter, TD/ED = 0.63–0.87; (7) fingers without circummarginal grooves, unwebbed, relative finger lengths I < II < IV < III; (8) presence of supernumerary tubercles below the bases of each finger, presence of three separated metacarpal tubercles; (9) toes without circummarginal grooves, toe webbing formula: I 1⅓ – 2 II 1⅓ – 2⅓ III 1 ½ – 2⅔ IV 3 – 1⅓ V, relative toe lengths I < II < III < V < IV; (10) tibio-tarsal articulation reaching forward beyond tip of snout; (11) heels overlapping; (12) dorsal skin smooth, flanks smooth with few granules; (13) absence of vocal sacs in males; (14) breeding males possess creamy white nuptial pad with tiny hoar spines on the finger I, divided into three parts; (15) presence of reddish tubercles on loreal and temporal regions in breeding males.

Etymology: The specific name jiulingensis is in reference to the type locality, Guanshan Nature Reserve in Jiuling Mountains.
 

Han Wan, Zhi-Tong Lyu, Shuo Qi, Jian Zhao, Pi-Peng Li and Ying-Yong Wang. 2020. A New Species of the Rana japonica group (Anura, Ranidae, Rana) from China, with A Taxonomic Proposal for the R. johnsi group. ZooKeys. 942: 141-158. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.942.46928

[Botany • 2022] Monopyle glutinosa (Gesneriaceae) • A New Species from the western slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes


Monopyle glutinosa J.L.Clark & Keene, 

in Clark, Tobar & Keene, 2022. 

Abstract
Exploratory field expeditions to the western slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes resulted in the discovery of a new species of Monopyle (Gesneriaceae). Monopyle glutinosa J.L.Clark & Keene, sp. nov. is described as a narrow endemic from lowland forests along the border of the Reserva Ecológica Los Illinizas in the Province of Cotopaxi. The new species is unique for the presence of glutinous or sticky trichomes on the calyx lobes and outer surface of the inferior ovary. Based on IUCN guidelines, a preliminary conservation status is assigned as Critically Endangered (CR).

Keywords: Ecuador, Gesneriaceae, Monopyle, taxonomy
 


Monopyle glutinosa J.L.Clark & Keene
 A lateral view of flower B front view of flower C inferior ovary and calyx lobes adhering to a finger from the sticky trichomes D dorsiventral habit
(A–D from J.L. Clark 16489). Photos by J.L. Clark.

 Monopyle glutinosa J.L.Clark & Keene, sp. nov.
 
Diagnosis: Similar to Monopyle ecuadorensis, differing in larger calyx lobes that reach 1.5 cm in length (vs. 0.5–1.0 cm long in M. ecuadorensis), larger campanulate corolla tube that exceeds 3.0 cm in length (vs. corolla tube less than 3 cm in M. ecuadorensis), and a uniformly dark purple corolla tube (vs. broad range of corolla tube colors from uniformly white to white suffused with blue in M. ecuadorensis).

Etymology: The trichomes on the calyx lobes and inferior ovary allow the flower to cling to an upside-down finger (Fig. 1C). This specific epithet reflects the sticky trichomes on the outer surface of the inferior ovary and calyx lobes.
 

John L. Clark, Franciso Tobar and Jeremy Keene. 2022. Monopyle glutinosa (Gesneriaceae), A New Species from the western slopes of the Ecuadorian Andes. PhytoKeys. 210: 15-21. DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.210.89520

Resumen: Las expediciones a los bosques de las laderas noroccidentales de los Andes de Ecuador dieron como resultado el descubrimiento de una nueva especie: Monopyle glutinosa J.L.Clark & Keene, sp. nov., la cual es endémica de una reducida área en el borde de la Reserva Ecológica Los Illinizas en la provincia de Cotopaxi. La nueva especie es única por la presencia de tricomas glutinosos o pegajosos en los lóbulos del cáliz y la superficie externa del ovario ínfero. Basados en los criterios de la UICN, se asigna un estado de conservación preliminar de En Peligro Crítico (CR).

Friday, September 30, 2022

[Entomology • 2022] Dasypolia sejilaensis & D. cerritula • Taxonomic Review of the Subgenus Tatsipolia of the Genus Dasypolia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) with Descriptions of Two New Species from southern Xizang, China


 Dasypolia (Tatsipoliasejilaensis
 Dasypolia (Tatsipoliacerritula

 Chen, Pan, Volynkin, Saldaitis & Benedek, 2022.

Abstract
The subgenus Tatsipolia Benedek, Behounek, Floriani & Saldaitis, 2011 of the genus Dasypolia Guenée, 1852 is reviewed. Two new species, D. (T.) sejilaensis sp. nov. and D. (T.) cerritula sp. nov. are described from the Linzhi (Nyingchi) Prefecture in southern Xizang, China. The adults and the male and female genitalia of all species in the subgenus are illustrated. Additionally, Dasypolia (Auropolia) carlotta Floriani, Benedek, Behounek & Saldaitis, 2011 is reported from Xizang for the first time.

Keywords: Antitypina, new record, Noctuinae, Owlet moth, systematics, taxonomy, Xylenini


Noctuidae Latreille, 1809
Noctuinae Latreille, 1809

Xylenini Guenée, 1837
Antitypina Forbes & Franclemont, 1954

Genus Dasypolia Guenée, 1852
 
Subgenus Tatsipolia Benedek, Behounek, Floriani & Saldaitis, 2011
Dasypolia (Tatsipolia) Benedek et al. 2011: 108. 
Type species: Dasypolia (Tatsipolia) ruficilia Benedek, Behounek, Floriani & Saldaitis, 2011, by original designation.

Diagnosis: Members of the subgenus are small moths (forewing length is 11-13 mm) externally similar to taxa of the subgenus Cteipolia. However, despite the external similarity, the subgenus is characterised by the following diagnostic features in the male genitalia: (1) The uncus is short but wide, triangular, dorso-ventrally flattened; (2) The harpe is reduced, tubercle- or spine-like; (3) The digitus is robust, thorn-like; (4) The juxta bears a medial process posteriorly; and (5) The phallus is relatively short but broad, with vesica bearing one or two clusters of spine-like cornuti. In the female genitalia, the broad ostium bursae and the sideways curved ductus and corpus bursae are characteristic for the subgenus.

Distribution: Species of the subgenus are known only from south-western China (Sichuan and southern Xizang).

Species content of Dasypolia (Tatsipolia)
D. (T.) sejilaensis sp. nov.
D. (T.) cerritula sp. nov.
D. (T.) vignai L. Ronkay & Zilli, 1993.
D. (T.) ruficilia Benedek, Behounek, Floriani & Saldaitis, 2011.

Dasypolia (Tatsipolia and Auropolia) spp., adults.
 Depositories of the specimens: 1–4 and 8 in TAAHU 5 in AFM 6 in HNHM (photo by B. Tóth) 7 in ZSM.


 Dasypolia (Tatsipolia) sejilaensis sp. nov.

Distribution: The new species is known only from Sejila Mountain in southern Xizang Province of China.

Etymology: The specific epithet refers to the type locality [Sejila Mountain].


 Dasypolia (Tatsipoliacerritula sp. nov.

Distribution: The new species is known only from Sejila Mountain in southern Xizang Province of China.

Etymology: In Latin, ‘cerritulus’ means ‘weird.’ The specific epithet refers to the unusual cucullus densely covered with robust, spine-like setae.


Enyong Chen, Zhaohui Pan, Anton V. Volynkin, Aidas Saldaitis and Balázs Benedek. 2022. Taxonomic Review of the Subgenus Tatsipolia Benedek, Behounek, Floriani & Saldaitis of the Genus Dasypolia Guenée with Descriptions of Two New Species from southern Xizang, China (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). ZooKeys. 1115: 187-198. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1115.84527

[Herpetology • 2022] Rhacophorus napoensis • A New Species of Rhacophorus (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Guangxi, China


 Rhacophorus napoensis
Li, Liu, Yu & Sun, 2022

Napo tree frog | 那坡树蛙  ||  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1117.85787

Abstract
Based on morphological and molecular evidence of five male adult specimens collected from Napo County, Baise City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, we describe a new species of Rhacophorus, Rhacophorus napoensis sp. nov. This new species is similar to Rhacophorus rhodopus Liu & Hu, 1959 and Rhacophorus bipunctatus Ahl, 1927 in morphology, but it can be distinguished from the latter two by the following morphological characteristics: head width is greater than head length, snout pointed, loreal region oblique, tympanum distinct, maxillary teeth distinct, tongue cordiform, external single subgular vocal sac, tibiotarsal articulation reaches the snout, tibia length is greater than foot length and slightly greater than half of snout-vent length, and single outer metatarsal tubercle is flat. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on 16S rRNA sequence shows that all individuals of this species clustered into the same clade, and genetically this new species differs from R. rhodopus and R. bipunctatus by 7.71% and 7.98% in 16S rRNA sequences, respectively.

Keywords: 16S rRNA, morphology, Rhacophorus napoensis sp. nov., Rhacophorus rhodopus, taxonomy

Dorsal views (a) and ventral views (b) of the holotype of Rhacophorus napoensis sp. nov. (GXNU YU000172) in preservative. Ventral view (c) of R. rhodopus from type locality (090142) in preservative.

Right armpit and flank view (a) and the left armpit and flank view (b) of the holotype of Rhacophorus napoensis sp. nov. (GXNU YU000172) in preservative.

 Rhacophorus napoensis sp. nov.
 
Diagnosis: Morphologically, there are the following differences between Napo County specimens and other species belonging to Rhacophorus: (1) Medium body size (adult males SVL 38.6–43.6 mm); (2) snout pointed, projecting beyond margin of lower jaw in ventral view, and the tip has a distinct bulge; (3) tympanum distinct, rounded; (4) maxillary teeth distinct; (5) tongue cordiform, notably notched posteriorly; (6) external single subgular vocal sac; (7) the tibiotarsal articulation reaches the snout; (8) TIL longer than FL and slightly longer than half of SVL; (9) entire web between fingers and toes; (10) single inner metatarsal tubercle, flat; (11) banding exists in dorsal surface of limbs posterior part of dorsum; (12) two to three black spots at axillary region; (13) web is not black; and (14) dorsal color hoary with numerous black spots when the species is kept in preservative.

Etymology: The specific epithet is named for the type locality. We suggest the English common name as “Napo tree frog” and the Chinese common name as “那坡树蛙”.

Distribution and ecology: The new species was found near several large rocks in the bushes, 306 m southeast of Nongyao, Napo County, Baise City, Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China (Fig. 7). Vocal recordings and tadpoles of this new species were not collected.



Jing Li, Shuo Liu, Guohua Yu and Tao Sun. 2022. A New Species of Rhacophorus (Anura, Rhacophoridae) from Guangxi, China. ZooKeys. 1117: 123-138. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.1117.85787

[Fungi • 2022] Gymnopus omphalinoides & G. schizophyllus (Agaricales: Omphalotaceae) • Emending Gymnopus sect. Gymnopus by including Two New Species from southern China


 Gymnopus omphalinoides J.P. Li, T.H. Li & Y. Li,

in Li, Antonín, Gates, Jiang, ... et Deng, 2022. 

Abstract
Based on phylogenetic analyses, some newly studied Chinese mushroom specimens were found to represent two distinct species within the genus Gymnopus. Along with G. fusipes (sect. Gymnopus) they form a distinct clade with high support, although their macromorphological characters seem to be closer to members of Gymnopus sect. Levipedes or sect. Vestipedes (Collybiopsis). When examined in detail, their micromorphological characters, especially the type of pileipellis, support them as new members of G. sect. Gymnopus. Therefore, two new species, G. omphalinoides and G. schizophyllus, and the emended circumscription of sect. Gymnopus are proposed in this paper. Detailed morphological descriptions, colour photos, illustrations of the two new species, morphological comparisons with similar taxa and the molecular-phylogenetic analyses of the combined nrITS and nrLSU data are presented. A key to the known species of G. sect. Gymnopus is also presented.

Keywords: Morphology, new taxa, phylogeny, taxonomy

Basidiomata of Gymnopus omphalinoides
a GDGM 78483 b GDGM 78318 holotype! (with magnifying slightly longitudinally striate stipe)
c KUN-HKAS 107312 d, e GDGM 44411 f HMJU 00506.
a photographed by M. Zhang b photographed by L.Q. Wu, c photographed by X.H. Wang d, e photographed by J.P. Li f photographed by J.Z. Xu. For a detailed display, the slightly longitudinally striate stipe is magnified in b, and the split lamellar edge is magnified in e, f. Scale bars: 1 cm.

 Gymnopus omphalinoides J.P. Li, T.H. Li & Y. Li, sp. nov.
 
Diagnosis: Differs from G. volkertii Murrill in its striate or grooved pileus and smaller basidiospores (4.0–5.5 × 2.5–3 μm). Basidiomata mainly gregarious on decayed wood in broadleaf forest; pileus disc reddish orange to dark brown becoming paler with age; lamellae broad, adnate and ventricose; stipe glabrous.

Etymology: The epithet ‘omphalinoides’ (Lat.) refers to the omphalinoid or Omphalina-like basidiomata of the new species.


Basidiomata of Gymnopus schizophyllus
a GDGM 77038 b GDGM 76287 c GDGM 77165 holotype! d KUN-HKAS 96494
a, c photographed by J.P. Li b photographed by H.S. Wen d photographed by S.H. Li. For a detailed display, the split lamellar edge is magnified in a. Scale bar: 1 cm.

 Gymnopus schizophyllus J.P. Li, T.H. Li & Y. Li, sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Differs from G. omphalinoides in its more or less depressed to slightly umbilicate pileus and more often split lamellar edge. Basidiomata mainly gregarious on decayed wood in broadleaf forest; pileus often pale orange to light brown; lamellae, adnate and generally split at the edge; stipe glabrous.

Etymology: The epithet “schizophyllus” (Lat.) refers to the split edge of lamellae which is not so common in the genus.

 
Ji-Peng Li, Vladimír Antonín, Genevieve Gates, Lu Jiang, Tai-Hui Li, Yu Li, Bin Song and Chun-Ying Deng. 2022. Emending Gymnopus sect. Gymnopus (Agaricales, Omphalotaceae) by including Two New Species from southern China. MycoKeys. 87: 183-204. DOI: 10.3897/mycokeys.87.76125

[Botany • 2022] Rotala biglandulosa (Lythraceae) • A New Species of Macrophyte from High-level Ferricretes of the northern Western Ghats, India

 

Rotala biglandulosa Arun Pr. & Sardesai, 

in Prasanth & Sardesai, 2022. 

Abstract
A new species, Rotala biglandulosa, is described here from the northern Western Ghats, Maharashtra, India. It is closely similar to R. juniperina but can be distinguished morphologically based on having stamens arising from base of the floral tube, the presence of three bipartite nectary gland, and capsules exceeding the floral tube. A phylogenetic study based on nrITS and psbA–trnH loci also confirmed the status of R. biglandulosa as a distinct species.

Keywords: Lythraceae, New species, Phylogeny, Rotala, Western Ghats


Rotala biglandulosa Arun Pr. & Sardesai, sp. nov. 

 Etymology The specific epithet ‘biglandulosa’ denotes bi-partite floral nectary glands.


Arun Prasanth and Milind M. Sardesai. 2022. Rotala biglandulosa (Lythraceae) – A New Species of Macrophyte from High-level Ferricretes of the northern Western Ghats, India. Folia Geobotanica. DOI: 10.1007/s12224-022-09418-x


[Botany • 2022] Stachys milasensis (Lamiaceae) • A New Species from Turkey


 Stachys milasensis
Güner. 2022


Abstract
Stachys, among the largest genera of Lamiaceae, includes approximately 370 species (435 taxa) and has a subcosmopolitan distribution. Here, based on their distinctive features of morphological characters, Muğla (Turkey) specimens are determined to represent a distinct species than relevant Stachys species in Turkey and Greece. Stachys milasensis Ö.Güner, described as a new species, belongs to section Swainsoniana and is an endemic species to Turkey. The newly described species shows affinity with S. swainsonii growing in Greece but differs from it in dense villous flowering stems, ovate to oblong-lanceolate cauline leaves, bilabiate calyx and oblong-ovate calyx teeth and oblong-ovate nutlets. In addition to morphological differences, the new species is geographically isolated from S. swainsonii. With this addition, the number of Turkish Stachys species has reached 94 (121 taxa), and 65 (53.7%) of these taxa are endemic.

Keywords: Anatolia, Bhattacharjee, Labiatae, taxonomy, Turkey, Eudicots

 Flowers of  Stachys milasensis (a) and S. swainsonii (b)
 (photograph by. S. Giannakopoulou).

  Stachys milasensis, a-general view, b-cauline leaves and verticillasters.
Stachys swainsonii, c-general view, d-verticillasters
(photograph by. G. Pantakis).

Stachys milasensis Ö.Güner, sp. nov.

Diagnosis:—Stachys milasensis differs from the related S. swainsonii by having dense villous flowering stems, ovate to oblong-lanceolatecauline leaves, remote verticillasters, bilabiate calyx, oblong-ovate and spinescent-tipped calyx teeth and oblong-ovate nutlets.

Etymology and vernacular name:— The epithet of the new species is derived from the name Milas district of Muğla where the type specimen was collected. The name of S. milasensis is proposed as “Milas Kayaçayı” in Turkish, according to the guidelines of Menemen et al. (2016). 

Habitat of  Stachys milasensis in Muğla province, southwestern Turkey.


Özal Güner. 2022. Stachys milasensis (Lamiaceae), A New Species from Turkey. Phytotaxa566(1); 64-72. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.566.1.3 

[Ornithology • 2022] Genome-wide SNPs confirm Plumage Polymorphism and Hybridisation within A Cyornis Flycatcher Species Complex



in Ng, Li, Zhang, Garg, ... et Lei, 2022. 

Abstract
Morphology has been a leading taxonomic guiding light to systematists for the last couple of hundred years. However, the genetic and – more recently – genomic revolution have produced numerous demonstrations of erroneous classifications that were based on labile morphological traits. We used thousands of genome-wide markers to shed light on evolutionary dynamics in a confusing and taxonomically obscure group of Asian Cyornis flycatchers. Using genomic data, we corroborated recent findings based on three mitochrondrial and five nuclear genes that the two taxa hainanus and klossi which were previously treated as separate species (Cyornis hainanus and Cyornis rubeculoides klossi, respectively) are genomically homogeneous and form a single species, C. hainanus. We also uncovered a novel case of interbreeding between C. hainanus and a non-sister species, C. glaucicomans, illustrating these flycatchers' ability to hybridise in marginal situations even after substantial times of divergence. Our study illustrates how genome-wide loci can shed light on complicated taxonomic problems, resulting in a better integration of phenotypic and genotypic data.

Keywords: Cyornis, ddRADseq, introgression, phylogenetics, species complex


(a) Distribution range of Cyornis rubeculoides and C. hainanus. Sampling localities are indicated by coloured circles, and the size of the circles is proportional to sample size. Approximate distributions of subspecies are indicated with dashed lines, but it should be noted that the subspecies distributions are poorly understood, especially the range of dialilaemus. Photographs of C. rubeculoides by Ashutosh Singh are reproduced here with permission from Singh et al. (2019).
(b) Maximum likelihood tree based on 21,283 SNPs, with bootstrap support indicated at major nodes. Colours represent different taxa: red, C. r. rubeculoides; orange, C. r. rogersi; blue, C. hainanus hainanus and C. h. klossi; green, C. glaucicomans; and pink, C. unicolor unicolor (outgroup). Plumage-type assignment for male C. hainanus is indicated by the squares, with typical hainanus in blue squares labelled with a h, typical klossi-type plumage in orange with a k and intermediate plumage types in both orange and blue squares and labelled with a h/k. Females have a brown square without any labels.
 (c) Species tree for all individuals generated with SNAPP


Photos of male Cyornis hainanus showing variability in breast coloration from typical C. h. klossi (a, o, p) to typical C. h. hainanus (l, m, n, s) and birds with intermediate characteristics in between. (a) Dakrong, Quang Tri, Vietnam, 25 March 2004; (b) Dakrong, Quang Tri, Vietnam, 4 April 2004; (c) Xitou, Guangdong, China, 29 September 2014 [IOZ-JM019]; (d) Leizhou, Guangdong, China, 24 October 2014 [IOZ-JM024]; (e) Dakrong, Quang Tri, Vietnam, 4 April 2004; (f) Leizhou, Guangdong, China, 13 November 2013; (g) Sanjia Shan, Guangdong, China, 20 April 2014 [IOZ-JM003]; (h) Weizhou Island, Guangxi, China, 15 April 2013; (i) Longtan, Guangxi, China, 01 June 2015; (j) Leizhou, Guangdong, China, 13 November 2013; (k) Vu Quang National Park, Ha Tinh, Vietnam, 13 March 2005; (l) Xitou, Guangdong, China, 27 September 2014 [JM013]; (m) Yunfu, Guangdong, China, 12 May 2014 [IOZ-JM005]; (n) Heweishan, Guangdong, China, 26 May 2014 [IOZ-JM006]; (o) Tra My, Quang Nam, Vietnam [AMNH833192]; (p) from left to right, Bolovens plateau, Thatèng, Xedong, Laos, 28 November 1931 [MNHN-ZO-MO-1933-72]; Quang Tri, Annam, Vietnam, 22 February 1924 [MNHN-ZO-MO-1924-665]; (q) Trakam, Laos, 29 April 1927 [MNHN-ZO-MO-1929-1100]; Bolovens plateau, Thatèng, Xedong, Laos, 28 November 1931 [MNHN-ZO-MO-1933-73]; Di Linh Plateau, Vietnam, 14 March 1927 [MNHN-ZO-MO-1928-385]; (r) Hainan, China, 9 October 1962 [GIABR-0275]; Ledong, Hainan, China 25 October 1962 [GIABR-0367]; Bawangling, Hainan, China 15 January 1964 [GIABR-2200]; (s) Paksé, Laos, 5 January 1932 [MNHN-ZO-MO-1933-74]; Siem Reap, Cambodia, 27 December 1927 [MNHN-ZO-MO-1929-1092]; Angkor, Siem Reap, Cambodia, December 1927 [MNHN-ZO-MO-1929-1093]; Angkor, Siem Reap, Cambodia, 4 February 1962 [MNHN-ZO-MO-61]. Photos in (a, b, e) by Peter Nilsson at Swedish Museum of Natural History; Photos in (c, d, f, g-j, l-n, p-s) by Jonathan Martinez; Photo in K by Ingrid Cederholm at the Swedish Museum of Natural History; Photo in (o) by Paul Sweet at the American Museum of Natural History. Abbreviations: AMNH – American Museum of Natural History, New York, USA; GIABR – Guangdong Institute of Applied Biological Resources; IOZ – Institute of Zoology, Beijing, China; MNHN – Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France

Photos of male Cyornis hainanus showing variability in breast coloration from typical C. h. klossi (a, o, p) to typical C. h. hainanus (l, m, n, s) and birds with intermediate characteristics in between.

CONCLUSIONS: 
The classification of Cyornis flycatchers has undergone substantial change over the last two decades, resulting in taxonomic rearrangements, in particular the synonymisation of the genus Rhinomyias with Cyornis (Sangster et al., 2010; Zhang et al., 2016; Zuccon & Ericson, 2010). Our study demonstrates that population-genomic and phylogenomic methodologies can effectively be applied to disentangle the complicated evolutionary history of cryptic species complexes such as the Cyornis flycatchers. Our ddRADseq data set confirms the remarkable case of incongruence between plumage and genomic divergence that has misled previous taxonomists into erroneous classifications (Zhang et al., 2016). Our results also show a novel interbreeding event between two non-sister species.

 
Elize Y. X. Ng, Siqi Li, Dezhi Zhang, Kritika M. Garg, Gang Song, Jonathan Martinez, Le Manh Hung, Vuong Tan Tu, Jérôme Fuchs, Lu Dong, Urban Olsson, Yuan Huang, Per Alström, Frank E. Rheindt and Fumin Lei. 2022. Genome-wide SNPs confirm Plumage Polymorphism and Hybridisation within A Cyornis Flycatcher Species Complex. Zoologica Scripta. DOI: 10.1111/zsc.12568

• Using genome wide markers, our study confirmed that 𝘊𝘺𝘰𝘳𝘯𝘪𝘴 𝘩𝘢𝘪𝘯𝘢𝘯𝘶𝘴 𝘬𝘭𝘰𝘴𝘴𝘪 was the same species as 𝘊. 𝘩. 𝘩𝘢𝘪𝘯𝘢𝘯𝘶𝘴.
• Based on plumage alone, 𝘊. 𝘩. 𝘬𝘭𝘰𝘴𝘴𝘪 was historically placed in the same species as 𝘊. 𝘳𝘶𝘣𝘦𝘤𝘶𝘭𝘰𝘪𝘥𝘦𝘴. 
• Furthermore, in the same study, we also uncovered the first reported instance of hybridization between 𝘊. 𝘩𝘢𝘪𝘯𝘢𝘯𝘶𝘴 and 𝘊 𝘨𝘭𝘢𝘶𝘤𝘪𝘤𝘰𝘮𝘢𝘯𝘴

[Botany • 2013] Garcinia pushpangadaniana (Clusiaceae) • A New Species from the southern Western Ghats, India


  Garcinia pushpangadaniana T. Sabu, N. Mohanan, Krishnaraj, & Shareef, 

in Sabu, Mohanan, Krishnaraj, ... et Roy, 2013. 

Abstract
Garcinia pushpangadaniana, a new species of Garcinia from the southern part of the Western Ghats, India, is described, discussed and illustrated. This species is allied to Garcinia xanthochyma.

Keywords: ecology, Garcinia, Garcinia xanthochyma, taxonomy

  Garcinia pushpangadaniana.
A. Habit with inflorescence; B. Female flower; C. Sepal (male flower); D1. Petal (Female flower); D2. Petal (Male flower); E. Staminate flower without sepals and petals; F. Pistillate flower without sterile stamens; G. Stigma; H. Cross section of ovary; I. Fruit; J. Seed.
 (Drawn after Sabu, Shareef & Krishnaraj 72601 
by M.V. Krishnaraj).

  Garcinia pushpangadaniana.
 A. Habit; B. Blaze (inset); C. Leaves; D. Female flower bud; E. Opened female flower; F & G. Fruits at various stages of maturity; H. Mature fruit; I. Ripened fruit; J. Seed.
(Prepared by S.M. Shareef from living plants at Kadalar, Idukki district, the type locality of G. pushpangadaniana).

Garcinia pushpangadaniana T. Sabu, N. Mohanan, Krishnaraj, & Shareef, sp. nov.

Eponymy:— The specific epithet honors Dr. P. Pushpangadan, former Director of Jawaharlal NehruTropical Botanical Garden & Research Institute for his invaluable contributions in the fields of Plantconservation, Ethnobiology, Ethnopharmacology and Pharmacognosy. 


Thygarajan Sabu, Narayanan Nair Mohanan, Moothedathu Venugopalan Nair Krishnaraj, Sainudeen Muhammed Shareef, Peerumuhammed Subaida Shameer and Ponnus Ezabelrajam Roy. 2013. Garcinia pushpangadaniana (Clusiaceae), A New Species from the southern Western Ghats, India