Thursday, August 5, 2021

[Herpetology • 2021] Chirixalus pantaiselatan • A New Species of Chirixalus Boulenger, 1893 (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from the Lowland Forests of Java, Indonesia

(A-B) Chirixalus pantaiselatan
Munir, Hamidy, Kusrini, Kennedi, Ridha, Qayyim, Rafsanzani & Nishikawa, 2021


 The Old World tree frog genus Chirixalus is distributed from northeastern India, southern China, continental Southeast Asia to Sumatra and Java. The species of this genus were previously assigned to the genera Chiromantis or Philautus. Here, we describe a newly discovered species of Chirixalus from Java. Chirixalus pantaiselatan, new species, is a small rhacophorid frog (male snout-vent length = 25.3–28.9 mm) that can be distinguished from all congeners using a combination of morphological, molecular, and advertisement call characteristics. 

Key words. bioacoustics, Chirixalus, citizen science, taxonomy

the current distribution map of Chirixalus sp. (open diamond) and Chirixalus trilaksonoi (open circle). The distribution map was generated based on voucher material stored at the Museum Zooloogicum Bogoriense and sightings recorded from the ARK project on iNaturalist.
 Living specimen of Chirixalus trilaksonoi photographed by Wahyu Trilaksono.

Chirixalus pantaiselatan, new species, MZB. Amph 30547 in night-time (A) and MZB. Amph 30548 in the daytime (B),
uncollected Chiromantis trilaksonoi (C), and Feihyla vittiger, MZB. Amph 27238 (D).
C & D photographed by Farits Alhadi.

Chirixalus pantaiselatan, new species

Diagnosis. The new species was assigned to the genus Chirixalus based on the following external characters: horizontal pupil, tongue free and deeply notched, distinct tympanum, opposed fingers, toes webbed, tips of fingers and toes dilated into disks, outer metatarsal separated by web, terminal phalanges obtuse (Boulenger, 1893). The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by the combination of the following characters: snout truncate; SVL 25.3–28.9 mm in males; uniform lateral body colouration, without a light dorsolateral stripe from canthus rostralis through upper orbital to the body or a light lateral stripe from under orbital to mid-body; brown dorsal colouration, with an indistinct transverse dark brown patch on intercanthal and upper eyelid to interorbital area continued by an indistinct irregular hexagon-like shape covering the parietoscapular region, and a diamond-like shape on suprascapular region to mid-body; distinct dark brown tympanum; third finger disk diameter about half that of tympanum and unique advertisement call consisting of short (2–9 notes), medium (11–17 notes), and long calls (22–46 notes). Calls are 185.71–1,644.28, 1,420.78–2,708.46, and 3,292.29–7,055.79 ms in duration, respectively, with note durations of 4.14–18.03, 4.82–15.19, and 4.78–24.88 ms, respectively. Dominant frequencies ranging from 2.34–3.94, 2.53–3.75, and 2.72–3.94 kHz for calls of short, medium, and long duration.

Etymology. The specific name is an Indonesian adjective incorporating the words “Pantai,” meaning “coast,” and “Selatan,” meaning “south.” This name refers to the locality of this species in southern Java. 
Indonesian Name. Katak-pucat pantaiselatan

Misbahul Munir, Amir Hamidy, Mirza Dikari Kusrini, Umar Fhadli Kennedi, Mohammad Ali Ridha, Dzikri Ibnul Qayyim, Rizky Rafsanzani and Kanto Nishikawa. 2021. A New Species of Chirixalus Boulenger, 1893 (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from the Lowland Forests of Java. RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY. 69; 219–234 

[Invertebrate • 2021] Iridoteuthis merlini & I. lophia • Two New Species of Iridoteuthis (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae: Heteroteuthinae) from the southwest Pacific, with A Redescription of Stoloteuthis maoria (Dell, 1959)

 Iridoteuthis merlini
Reid, 2021

Examination of the Stoloteuthis maoria (Dell, 1959) type specimens held in the Museum of New Zealand, Te Papa Tongarewa revealed that the two female paratypes were not conspecific with the S. maoria holotype male and belong to the genus Iridoteuthis Naef, 1912. Based on this finding, Stoloteuthis maoria is redescribed here to properly define the male and female characters. Its occurrence in Australian waters is formally recognised for the first time; the species was known previously only from New Zealand. The Iridoteuthis taxon was found to be new and is described as I. merlini, n. sp. Like S. maoria, this new species occurs in New Zealand and southern Australia. A second new Iridoteuthis from New Zealand was also discovered among the Te Papa collection and is described here as I. lophia, n. sp. The sucker pedicels in males of this latter species are highly and uniquely modified. 

Keywords: Cephalopoda, Heteroteuthinae, Stoloteuthis, Iridoteuthis, Mollusca

Amanda L. Reid. 2021. Two New Species of Iridoteuthis (Cephalopoda: Sepiolidae: Heteroteuthinae) from the southwest Pacific, with A Redescription of Stoloteuthis maoria (Dell, 1959). Zootaxa. 5005(4); 503-537. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.5005.4.3

New species of bobtail squid named in honour of Professor Merlin Crossley 
Naming of Iridoteuthis merlini recognises UNSW DVC’s valued contribution to the Australian Museum.

[Entomology • 2021] A Tree of Leaves: Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of the Leaf Insects (Phasmatodea: Phylliidae)

(b) female of Phyllium elegans, (d) female of Phyllium hausleithneri,
(e) couple of Phyllium rubrum and
(f) male of Phyllium letiranti.  

in Bank, Cumming, ... et Bradler, 2021. 
 Photographs by Bruno Kneubühler.

The insect order Phasmatodea is known for large slender insects masquerading as twigs or bark. In contrast to these so-called stick insects, the subordinated clade of leaf insects (Phylliidae) are dorso-ventrally flattened and therefore resemble leaves in a unique way. Here we show that the origin of extant leaf insects lies in the Australasian/Pacific region with subsequent dispersal westwards to mainland Asia and colonisation of most Southeast Asian landmasses. We further hypothesise that the clade originated in the Early Eocene after the emergence of angiosperm-dominated rainforests. The genus Phyllium to which most of the ~100 described species pertain is recovered as paraphyletic and its three non-nominate subgenera are recovered as distinct, monophyletic groups and are consequently elevated to genus rank. This first phylogeny covering all major phylliid groups provides the basis for future studies on their taxonomy and a framework to unveil more of their cryptic and underestimated diversity.

Fig. 1: Photographs of leaf insect specimens (Phylliidae).
a, b phenotypic variations of Phyllium elegans females, c female of Phyllium letiranti, d female of Phyllium hausleithneri, e couple of Phyllium rubrum and (f) male of Phyllium letiranti.
   Photographs by Bruno Kneubühler.

Fig. 6: Schematic overview of the historical biogeography of Phylliidae.
a–c Palaeogeography of SE Asia and the SW Pacific (adapted from Hall72) showing the northward movement of the Sahul shelf and the drift of the fragments of the Philippines and Wallacea. The dotted line in (a) indicates which landmasses will be connected via the Vitiaz arc (~30 mya). Note that the depiction of landmasses does not necessarily imply that they were emergent at that time. Both Sunda and Sahul shelves may have been exposed as dry land during low sea–level stands. d Main dispersal events of extant leaf insects with origin in the Australasian/Pacific region (0). The numbering illustrates our suggested chronological order of colonisation. Colour code corresponds to Fig. 5. Bo Borneo, Ha Halmahera, Ja Java, Pa Palawan, NC New Caledonia, NG New Guinea, SCA South Caroline arc, So Solomon Islands, Su Sulawesi, Sum Sumatra.

Sarah Bank, Royce T. Cumming, Yunchang Li, Katharina Henze, Stéphane Le Tirant and Sven Bradler. 2021. A Tree of Leaves: Phylogeny and Historical Biogeography of the Leaf Insects (Phasmatodea: Phylliidae). Communications Biology. 4: 932. DOI: 10.1038/s42003-021-02436-z

[Ichthyology • 2021] Moenkhausia cambacica • A New Species of Moenkhausia (Characiformes: Characidae) from the rio Madeira basin, Brazil, with Comments on the Evolution and Development of the Trunk Lateral Line System in Characids

Moenkhausia cambacica
 Marinho, Ohara & Dagosta, 2021

A new species of Moenkhausia is described from the rio Machado drainage, Amazon basin, Brazil. It is diagnosed from congeners by its color pattern, consisting of the concentration of chromatophores on the anterior portion of body scales, the horizontally elongate blotch on caudal peduncle, a bright golden coloration of the dorsal portion of eye when alive, and a dark line crossing the eye horizontally. The new species has variable morphology regarding trunk lateral-line canals. Most fully grown individuals do not have enclosed bony tube in many lateral line scales, resembling early developmental stages of tube formation of other species. This paedomorphic condition is interpreted as a result of developmental truncation. Such evolutionary process may have been responsible for the presence of distinct levels of trunk lateral line reductions in small characids. Variation in this feature is common, even between the sides of the same individual. We reassert that the degree of trunk lateral-line tube development must be used with care in taxonomic and phylogenetic studies, because reductions in the laterosensory system may constitute parallel loss in the Characidae. We suggest the new species to be categorized Near Threatened due to the restricted geographical distribution and continuing decline in habitat quality.

Keywords: Developmental Truncation; Evolution; Intraspecific Variation; Paedomorphy; Scale

Live coloration of Moenkhausia cambacica, paratype, MZUSP 125793, Brazil, Rondônia State, Municipality of Vilhena, rio Madeira basin, upper rio Machado drainage.

Paratypes of Moenkhausia cambacica, MZUSP 125793, freshly collected, showing other aspects of its live coloration, Brazil, Rondônia State, Municipality of Vilhena, rio Madeira basin, upper rio Machado drainage.

Moenkhausia cambacica, new species
Diagnose. Moenkhausia cambacica is distinguished from all congeners, except M. chlorophthalma Sousa, Netto-Ferreira & Birindelli, 2010, M. petymbuaba Lima & Birindelli, 2006, M. plumbea Sousa, Netto-Ferreira & Birindelli, 2010, and M. parecis Ohara & Marinho, 2016 by the presence of a large dark blotch on each scale of the second to seventh longitudinal series of body which are formed by a higher concentration of cromatophores on the anterior portion of scales (vs. pigmentation absent or, when present, concentrated at the middle or posterior margin of scales, forming stripes or a reticulate pattern). Moenkhausia cambacica can be readily distinguished from all the aforementioned species by having a conspicuous, well-defined, horizontally elongate blotch on the caudal peduncle, extending to middle caudal-fin rays, not reaching the upper and lower edges of the caudal peduncle (vs. caudal peduncle blotch absent or poorly defined, continuous with the longitudinal stripe of body in M. clorophthalma, M. petymbuaba, and M. plumbea; round blotch in M. parecis). Additionally, it can be distinguished from M. petymbuaba by the absence of a conspicuous longitudinal black stripe on body (vs. black stripe present), from M. plumbea and M. clorophthalma by the absence of a dark, diffuse, slightly concave midlateral stripe on body in live specimens (vs. dark stripe present), and from M. parecis by a shorter upper jaw length (41.5–48.8% HL vs. 50.6–55.0% HL), and, in life, by having a bright golden coloration of the dorsal portion of the eye and a dark shaded line crossing the eye horizontally (vs. eye entirely bright blue, with no horizontal dark line).

Etymology. The specific name, cambacica, is after the one of the Brazilian popular name for Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758), a small neotropical bird whose coloration resembles that of the new species, which is bright yellow underparts, dark back coloration and a dark line crossing the region of the eye horizontally, contrasting with a light area above it. A noun in apposition.

Type-locality of Moenkhausia cambacica, tributary of igarapé Ávila, upper rio Machado, rio Madeira basin, Vilhena, Rondônia, Brazil.

Manoela Maria Ferreira Marinho, Willian Massaharu Ohara and Fernando Cesar Paiva Dagosta. 2021. A New Species of Moenkhausia (Characiformes: Characidae) from the rio Madeira basin, Brazil, with Comments on the Evolution and Development of the Trunk Lateral Line System in Characids. Neotropical Ichthyology. 19(2); DOI: 10.1590/1982-0224-2020-0118   

Resumo: Uma espécie nova de Moenkhausia é descrita da drenagem do rio Machado, bacia Amazônica, Brasil. É diagnosticada das congêneres pelo padrão de coloração, que consiste na concentração de cromatóforos na porção anterior das escamas do corpo, em uma mancha horizontalmente alongada no pedúnculo caudal, na coloração dourada brilhante da porção dorsal do olho quando vivo e na faixa escura que atravessa o olho horizontalmente. A nova espécie apresenta variação na morfologia do canal da linha lateral do corpo. A maioria dos indivíduos totalmente desenvolvidos não possuem tubo ósseo fechado em muitas escamas da linha lateral, assemelhando-se aos estágios iniciais do desenvolvimento da formação do tubo de outras espécies. Essa condição pedomórfica é interpretada como resultado do truncamento do desenvolvimento. Tal processo evolutivo pode ter sido responsável pelos diferentes níveis de redução do canal sensorial de pequenos caracídeos. A variação neste caráter é comum, até entre os lados do mesmo indivíduo. Por isso, reafirmamos que o grau de desenvolvimento do canal sensorial do corpo deve ser usado com cuidado em estudos taxonômicos e filogenéticos, porque reduções no sistema látero-sensorial podem significar perdas paralelas em Characidae. Sugerimos que a espécie nova seja categorizada como Quase Ameaçada devido à distribuição geográfica restrita e ao declínio contínuo da qualidade do habitat.
Palavras-chave: Desenvolvimento Truncado; Escama; Evolução; Pedomorfose; Variação Intraespecífica

[Herpetology • 2021] Phrynomantis newtoniCitizen Science meets Specimens in Old Formalin filled Jars: A New Species of Banded Rubber Frog, Genus Phrynomantis (Anura, Phrynomeridae) from Angola

(4) Phrynomantis newtoni sp. nov., (1) P. affinis;
(3) P. microps; (5) P. bifasciatus 

 Ceríaco, Santos, Marques, ... et Tiutenko, 2021

Three species of Phrynomantis Peters, 1867, have been historically recorded for Angola: P. affinis, P. annectens and P. bifasciatus. As noted by all authors who have dealt with specimens of P. bifasciatus from the country, the Angolan population is characterized by an odd coloration pattern for the species, which led Boulenger to consider it a different variety. A revision of the extant specimens of Angolan Phrynomantis available in natural history collections, specimens collected in recent field surveys, as well as recent sightings and photographs allows the recognition of the Angolan population of P. cf. bifasciatus as a new species, endemic to the coastal lowlands of western Angola. The new taxon is described solely based on its coloration pattern and morphology, and it is separated from nominotypic P. bifasciatus by more than one thousand kilometers. The revision of these historical specimens also allowed us to confirm a second record of P. affinis in the country and to contribute to an overall better understanding of the distribution of the species of the genus on the continent.

Figure 11. Species of the genus Phrynomantis Peters, 1867.
 1, P. affinis; 2, P. annectens; 3, P. microps; 4, Phrynomantis newtoni sp. nov.; 5, P. bifasciatus; 6, P. somalicus.
All depicted specimens are males.

Phrynomantis newtoni

  Luis Miguel Pires Ceríaco, Bruna Santos, Mariana Pimentel Marques, ... and Arthur Tiutenko. 2021. Citizen Science meets Specimens in Old Formalin filled Jars: A New Species of Banded Rubber Frog, Genus Phrynomantis (Anura, Phrynomeridae) from Angola. Alytes. 38(1–4); 18-48. 
A coloração peculiar de uma rã colhida em Angola no início do século XX por Francisco Newton levantou suspeitas. O exemplar desta nova espécie foi batizado com o nome do explorador tripeiro.

Wednesday, August 4, 2021

[Botany • 2021] Typhonium edule (Araceae) • A Remarkable New Aroid Species from Monywa District, Sagaing [Taxonomic Studies of Araceae in Myanmar II]

  Typhonium edule Naive & K.Z.Hein

in Naive & Hein, 2021. 
Recent fieldwork in Monywa District, Sagaing Region, Myanmar resulted in the discovery of a species new to science, Typhonium edule, which is herein described and illustrated. It superficially resembles T. lineare but differs in having wider spathe diameter, spathe limb 3–4 times longer than the tube, downwardly curved sickled-shaped staminodes and strongly stipitate appendix. Detailed description, colour plates, distribution map, phenology and ecology of this new Typhonium species are provided below.

Keywords: Aroideae, Biodiversity, Conservation, Southeast Asia, Tropical Botany, Monocots

  Typhonium edule Naive & K.Z.Hein


 Mark Arcebal K. Naive and Khant Zaw Hein. 2021. Taxonomic Studies of Araceae in Myanmar II: Typhonium edule, A Remarkable New Aroid Species from Monywa District, Sagaing Region. Phytotaxa. 513(2); 159-165. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.513.2.7


[Ichthyology • 2021] Badis kaladanensis • A New Fish Species (Teleostei: Badidae) from Mizoram, northeast India

 Badis kaladanensis
Ramliana, Lalronunga & Singh, 2021

Badis kaladanensis, a new percoid fish is described from the Kaladan basin of Mizoram, northeast India. It belongs to the Badis badis species group but can be easily distinguished from its congeners, except from B. kanabos and B. tuivaiei, in having a dark blotch on the dorsal fin between the base of 3rd to 5th spines. It is further distinguished from B. kanabos in having more scales in lateral row (27–30 vs. 25–26), more circumpeduncular scale rows (18–20 vs. 16–17) and smaller eye (7.5–8.9% SL vs. 9.5–12.7); and from B. tuivaiei in having fewer vertebrae (28–29 vs. 30–31) and more rakers on the first gill arch (9 vs. 6–8). The analysis of the mitochondrial DNA (coi and cytb) revealed the distinctness of B. kaladanensis from all other Badis species with the interspecific distance ranges from 5.4–20.4%. (coi) and 5.1–26.3% (cytb).

Fig 3. Badis kaladanensis
a) holotype, ZSI FF 5404, 48.6 mm SL;
b) Paratype, PUCMF 15002, 45.2 mm SL.

Fig 4. Live individual of Badis kaladanensis. PUCMF 15001, 44.8 mm SL.  

Badis kaladanensis sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Badis kaladanensis is distinguished from its congeners in having the following combination of characters: a post nuchal hump, a conspicuous dark blotch covering superficial part of cleithrum above pectoral-fin base, a dark anterior dorsal-fin blotch between 3rd to 5th spines (consistently present in live and preserved specimens), 27–30 scales in lateral row, 18–20 circumpeduncular scale rows, 28–29 vertebrae, 9 rakers on the first gill arch and lacking a dark blotch on the dorsolateral aspect of caudal peduncle.

Etymology. The species is named after the River drainage, the Kaladan River. An adjective.

Fig 5. Type locality of Badis kaladanensis (Palak River, Mizoram, India).

Distribution and habitat. Known from the Palak River (Fig 5) and Sala River, a tributary of the Kaladan basin, in the vicinity of Phurra village and Lungpuk village respectively in Siaha District of Mizoram, India (Fig 6). It is found associated with Olyra saginata, Pethia expletiforis, Rasbora rasbora and R. daniconius.

Lal Ramliana, Samuel Lalronunga and Mahender Singh. 2021. Badis kaladanensis, A New Fish Species (Teleostei: Badidae) from Mizoram, northeast India.  PLoS ONE 16(7): e0246466. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0246466

[Herpetology • 2021] Goniurosaurus chengzheng • A New Species of Leopard Gecko (Squamata: Eublepharidae) from Guangxi, China

Goniurosaurus chengzheng Zhu, Li & He 

in Zhu, Liu, ... et He, 2021.
Chengzheng Cave Gecko | 诚正睑虎 || 
Six species of geckos in the genus Goniurosaurus have been recorded from Guangxi, China. Here we describe a new species, Goniurosaurus chengzheng sp. nov. The new species is similar to allied species from Guangxi, but unique in a combination of the following characters: (1) four body bands with three between limb insertions; (2) precloacal pores 20; (3) body color reddish- brown; (4) snout to eye distance: eye to ear distance < 1. We used the mitochondrial genes 16S and cytb to confirm the distinctiveness of the species and place it within a molecular phylogeny of Goniurosaurus. The type specimens are deposited in the Museum of Biology, East China Normal University (ECNU).

Key words: gecko, taxonomy, molecular phylogeny, karst, Guangxi, China 

Goniurosaurus chengzheng sp. nov. from Guangxi, China.
 A. Adult female (photographed in 2017, but not collected); B. Scalation and coloration characters of the head of the holotype; C. Adult male, holotype.
(photos by Zhu Xiao-Yu)

Goniurosaurus chengzheng Zhu, Li & He sp. nov.

 Diagnosis. Goniurosaurus chengzheng sp. nov. differs from other congeners by a combination of the following characters: SE shorter than EE (Table 3); one nuchal loop, four body bands; number of precloacal pores 20; body color reddish brown in life (Table 4).

Distribution and Life History. Goniurosaurus chengzheng sp. nov. is only known from central Guangxi, China at 100-250 m elevation. The known distributions of G. chengzheng sp. nov. and G. gezhi are not overlapping and are separated by the Zuo River. Specimens of the new species were found on limestone and soil slopes near a swallet at night. Goniurosaurus chengzheng sp. nov. was found to co-occur with Moellendorf’s Rat Snake (Elaphe moellendorffi Boettger) and a terrestrial crab (Tiwaripotamon sp.) in the limestone area.

Etymology. The specific epithet chengzheng is from the Chinese phonetic alphabet 诚正, which was noted in the ancient work of Chinese literature Daxue around 2000 years ago. It means having true ideas to put one’s mind in a proper and well-ordered condition. The word chengzheng is often used in parallel with gezhi. Given this new species is sister to G. gezhi in our molecular phylogeny, we use chengzheng for the specific epithet. For the common name, we suggest “Chengzheng Cave Gecko, 诚正睑虎”.

Xiao-Yu Zhu, Yi-Jiao Liu, Yun Bai, Cristian Román-Palacios, Zheng Li and Zhu-Qing He. 2021. Goniurosaurus chengzheng sp. nov., A New Species of Leopard Gecko from Guangxi, China (Squamata: Eublepharidae). Zootaxa. 4996(3); 540-554. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4996.3.8

Xiao-Yu Zhu, Guang-Yu Chen, Cristian Román-Palacios, Zheng Li and Zhu-Qing He. 2020. Goniurosaurus gezhi sp. nov., A New Gecko Species from Guangxi, China (Squamata: Eublepharidae). Zootaxa. 4852(2); 211–222. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4852.2.6

[Ichthyology • 2020] Characidium iaquira • A New Rheophilic South American Darter (Characiformes: Crenuchidae: Characidium) from the rio Juruena Basin, Brazil, with Comments on Morphological Adaptations to Life in Fast‐flowing Waters

Characidium iaquira
Zanata, Ohara, Oyakawa & Dagosta, 2020

Characidium iaquira, a new species from the upper rio Juruena, rio Tapajós basin, Brazil, is described. The new species can be promptly distinguished from all congeners by having a unique v‐shaped dark mark lying along the caudal‐fin extension, in medium‐ and large‐sized specimens, and a remarkable iridescent green colouration in life. Characidium iaquira is closely related to Characidium crandellii and Characidium declivirostre by sharing unambiguous synapomorphies such as branchiostegal membranes united to each other across the isthmus, a scaleless area extending from the isthmus to the pectoral girdle, and dermal flaps surrounding anterior and posterior naris independent, but touching each other distally. Morphological specializations of the paired fins in the three riffle‐dwellers species are discussed, including the wing‐like shape, robustness, and inclination of the pectoral fin.

Keywords: Amazon, Characidium crandellii, Characidium declivirostre, Characiformes, pectoral fin
Live specimens of Characidium iaquira from rio Juruena sub basin, upper rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil:
 (a) holotype, MZUSP 125780, 64.6 mm standard length, lateral and dorsal views;
 (b) paratype, MZUSP 125644, 48.4 mm standard length, lateral view. 

Aquarium specimens of Characidium iaquira
(a) Characidium iaquira, holotype, MZUSP 125780, 64.6 mm standard length, rio Juruena sub basin, upper rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil, ventral view of the anterior portion of the body.
(b) Characidium cf. declivirostre, MZUSP 122324, 68.8 mm standard length, rio Juma basin, Amazonas, Brazil, ventral view of the anterior portion of the body.
(c) Characidium iaquira, holotype, dorsal view of the pectoral fin, white arrow indicates swollen membrane covering basal portion of fin and black arrow indicates posteriormost rays abutting body wall.

  Characidium iaquira sp. n.

Etymology: The specific name iaquira comes from the Tupi language, meaning green (Miranda, 1942), in allusion to the remarkable iridescent green colouration of body of the species in life. A noun in apposition.

Angela M. Zanata, Willian M. Ohara, Osvaldo T. Oyakawa and Fernando C. P. Dagosta. 2020. A New Rheophilic South American Darter (Crenuchidae: Characidium) from the rio Juruena Basin, Brazil, with Comments on Morphological Adaptations to Life in Fast‐flowing Waters. Journal of Fish Biology. DOI: 10.1111/jfb.14485 

[Botany • 2015 ] Stigmaphyllon mikanifolium (Malpighiaceae) • A New Species from Espírito Santo State, Brazil

Stigmaphyllon mikanifolium R. F. Almeida & Amorim,

in Almeida & Amorim, 2015. 

Stigmaphyllon mikanifolium is described and illustrated and its distribution, conservation status, and taxonomy are presented. S. mikanifolium can be distinguished from S. auriculatum and S. macedoanum by its leaf laminas with lobate margins, and filiform glands on the apex of each lobule, sessile discoid glands between the lobules, a petiole apex with a pair of cupulate glands, yellow posterior petals with reddish veins, and the styles parallel and straight.

Key Words: Malpighiales, Ryssopterys, semideciduous forest, taxonomy

Stigmaphyllon mikanifolium R. F. Almeida & Amorim
A flowering branch; B detail of the abaxial surface of the leaf; C leaf; D detail of cupuliform glands at the petiole apex; E reduced leaves associated with the inflorescence; F detail of glands at the petiole apex; G umbels disposed in a dichasium; H detail of floral morphology; J stamen opposite the anterior sepal; K stamens opposite the anterior-lateral petals, anterior-lateral sepals and posterior-lateral petals (from right to left respectively); L stamens opposite the anterior-lateral petals, anterior-lateral sepals and posterior-lateral petals (from left to right respectively); M stamens opposite the posterior sepals (marginal stamens) and the posterior petal (central stamen); N detail of gynoecium with glabrescent ovary.

Fig. 1. Stigmaphyllon auriculatum. A flowering branch; B detail of flower, frontal view;
Stigmaphyllon mikanifolium. C flowering branch; D detail of petiole showing a pair of glands; E detail of buds, lateral view; F detail of flower, frontal view; G posterior petal, frontal view; H detail of reproductive organs; I overview of the semideciduous forest in the Pedra do Elefante Environmental Protection Area, where S. mikanifolium is found.
 (Photographs A-B by L. Moura and C. Pessoa , C-H by C. N. Fraga, and I by R. Goldenberg).

Stigmaphyllon mikanifolium R. F. Almeida & Amorim, sp. nov. 

ETYMOLOGY. The specific epithet refers to its the morphology which resembles that of an Mikania Willd. (Asteraceae) leaf.

Rafael Felipe de Almeida and André Márcio Amorim. 2015. Stigmaphyllon mikanifolium (Malpighiaceae), A New Species from Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Kew Bulletin. 70: 47. DOI: 10.1007/S12225-015-9601-X

[Herpetology • 2021] Rhinella moralesi • A New Species of Toad (Anura: Bufonidae: Rhinella) from Northern Peru

Rhinella moralesi
Lehr, Cusi, Rodrigues, Venegas, García-Ayachi and Catenazzi, 2021

We describe a new species of Rhinella from montane forests between 1788 and 2305 m a.s.l. in the Departamentos Amazonas and San Martín, Peru. We tentatively assign the new species to the Rhinella festae species Group based on morphological similarities with its other 19 members. It is characterised by large size (maximum SVL 91.6 mm in females), a pointed and protruding snout that is posteroventrally inclined, absence of a visible tympanic annulus and tympanic membrane, long parotoid glands in contact with upper eyelid, presence of a dorsolateral row of enlarged tubercles, outer dorsolateral tarsus surface with a subconical ridge of fused tubercles, and absence of subgular vocal sac and vocal slits in males. One specimen from Departamento Amazonas tested positive for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

Keywords: amphibia; Rhinella festae species Group; earless; cloud forest; Departamento Amazonas; Departamento San Martín; Río Abiseo National Park; chytrid fungus

Figure 3. Life specimens in dorsolateral views of
(A) Rhinella moralesi sp. nov. (holotype, MUSM 15959, SVL 67.6 mm, male),
(B) R. chavin (MUSM 20027, SVL 64.9, female)
(C) R. yanachaga (MUSM 31100, juvenile), and
(D) R. multiverrucosa (MTD 44749, SVL 68.9 mm, female).
Photos by A. Catenazzi, (A) E. Lehr (B,C), and M. Lundberg (D).


Figure 6. Adult females and juveniles of Rhinella moralesi sp. nov.
Female (CORBIDI 20372, SVL 91.6 mm) in dorsal (A) and ventral (B) views,
female (CORBIDI 713, SVL 90.6 mm) in dorsal (E) and ventral (F) views.
Juvenile (CORBIDI 20301, SVL 26.9 mm) in lateral (C) and ventral (D) views, and
juvenile (CORBIDI 18862, SVL 41.3 mm) in lateral (G) and ventral (H) views.
Photos by P.J. Venegas (E–H) and L.A. García-Ayachi (A–D).


Family Bufonidae Gray, 1825

Genus Rhinella Fitzinger, 1826

Rhinella moralesi sp. nov. 
Lehr, Cusi, Rodrigues, Venegas, García-Ayachi and Catenazzi, 2021

Etymology: We dedicate the new species to our late colleague and friend Professor Victor Morales in recognition of his contributions to Neotropical herpetology.

 Edgar Lehr, Juan C. Cusi, Lily O. Rodriguez, Pablo J. Venegas, Luis A. García-Ayachi and Alessandro Catenazzi. 2021. A New Species of Toad (Anura: Bufonidae: Rhinella) from Northern Peru. Taxonomy. 1(3); 210-225. DOI: 10.3390/taxonomy1030015