Wednesday, April 23, 2014

[Herpetology • 2014] Mating Systems, Reproductive Success, and Sexual Selection in Secretive Species: A Case Study of the Western Diamond-Backed Rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox

Figure 1. Sexual behavior in Crotalus atrox.
(a) Pair of C. atrox in coitus. Unknown male (left) with female CA-3, September 13, 2001.
Photo: Roger Repp. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090616.g001

Long-term studies of individual animals in nature contribute disproportionately to our understanding of the principles of ecology and evolution. Such field studies can benefit greatly from integrating the methods of molecular genetics with traditional approaches. Even though molecular genetic tools are particularly valuable for species that are difficult to observe directly, they have not been widely adopted. Here, we used molecular genetic techniques in a 10-year radio-telemetric investigation of the western diamond-backed rattlesnake (Crotalus atrox) for an analysis of its mating system and to measure sexual selection. Specifically, we used microsatellite markers to genotype 299 individuals, including neonates from litters of focal females to ascertain parentage using full-pedigree likelihood methods. We detected high levels of multiple paternity within litters, yet found little concordance between paternity and observations of courtship and mating behavior. Larger males did not father significantly more offspring, but we found evidence for size-specific male-mating strategies, with larger males guarding females for longer periods in the mating seasons. Moreover, the spatial proximity of males to mothers was significantly associated with reproductive success. Overall, our field observations alone would have been insufficient to quantitatively measure the mating system of this population of C. atrox, and we thus urge more widespread adoption of molecular tools by field researchers studying the mating systems and sexual selection of snakes and other secretive taxa.

Figure 1. Sexual behavior in Crotalus atrox.
(a) Pair of C. atrox in coitus. Unknown male (left) with female CA-3, September 13, 2001.
(b) Pair of C. atrox in courtship below a den site. The lower body and tail of unknown male is wrapped over and around tail of female CA-44 (painted rattles), March 2012.
Photo: Roger Repp. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090616.g001

Rulon W. Clark, Gordon W. Schuett, Roger A. Repp, Melissa Amarello, Charles F. Smith and Hans-Werner Herrmann. 2014. Mating Systems, Reproductive Success, and Sexual Selection in Secretive Species: A Case Study of the Western Diamond-Backed Rattlesnake, Crotalus atrox. PLoS ONE. 9(3): e90616. DOI:

Tuesday, April 22, 2014

[Herpetology • 2014] Taxonomic Assessment of Alligator Snapping Turtles (Chelydridae: Macrochelys), with the description of two new species(; Macrochelys apalachicolae & M. suwanniensis) from the southeastern United States

FIGURE 7. Variation of carapace morphology in western (A; UF 21746), central (B; UF 52676), and Suwannee (C; UF 57967) lineages of Macrochelys. Most of the gross variation in post-cranial morphology is present within the caudal region of the carapace.
Macrochelys temminckii | M. apalachicolae M. suwanniensis

The Alligator Snapping Turtle, Macrochelys temminckii, is a large, aquatic turtle limited to river systems that drain into the Gulf of Mexico. Previous molecular analyses using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA suggested that Macrochelys exhibits significant genetic variation across its range that includes three distinct genetic assemblages (western, central, and eastern = Suwannee). However, no taxonomic revision or morphological analyses have been conducted previously. In this study, we test previous hypotheses of distinct geographic assemblages by examining morphology, reanalyzing phylogeographic genetic structure, and estimating divergence dating among lineages in a coalescent framework using Bayesian inference. We reviewed the fossil record and discuss phylogeographic and taxonomic implications of the existence of three distinct evolutionary lineages. We measured cranial (n=145) and post-cranial (n=104) material on field-captured individuals and museum specimens. We analyzed 420 base pairs (bp) of mitochondrial DNA sequence data for 158 Macrochelys. We examined fossil Macrochelys from ca. 15–16 million years ago (Ma) to the present to better assess historical distributions and evaluate named fossil taxa. The morphological and molecular data both indicate significant geographical variation and suggest three species-level breaks among genetic lineages that correspond to previously hypothesized genetic assemblages. The holotype of Macrochelys temminckii is from the western lineage. Therefore, we describe two new species as Macrochelys apalachicolae sp. nov. from the central lineage and Macrochelys suwanniensis sp. nov. from the eastern lineage (Suwannee River drainage). 
Our estimates of divergence times suggest that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of M. temminckii (western) and M. apalachicolae (central) existed 3.2–8.9 Ma during the late Miocene to late Pliocene, whereas M. temminckii-M. apalachicolae and M. suwanniensis last shared a MRCA 5.5–13.4 Ma during the mid-Miocene to early Pliocene. Examination of fossil material revealed that the fossil taxon M. floridana is actually a large Chelydra. Our taxonomic revision of Macrochelys has conservation and management implications in Florida, Georgia, and Alabama.

Keywords: Macrochelys, Chelydridae, Morphology, Conservation, Fossil, Genetics, Phylogeography, Suwannee River, Apalachicola River

FIGURE 1. Map of sampling localities of Macrochelys used for morphological analyses. Multiple specimens were often collected from the same localities.

Macrochelys apalachicolae sp. nov.
 Apalachicola Alligator Snapping Turtle

Distribution. Restricted to river drainages bounded by the Choctawhatchee and Ochlockonee rivers in Florida, Georgia, and Alabama.
Etymology. Specific epithet refers to the new Latin apalachicol– (referring to the Apalachicola River) and the Latin –ae (treating the name of the river as a Latin cognate in the First Declension, genitive case), combined to form the composite noun apalachicolae.

Macrochelys suwanniensis sp. nov.
 Suwannee Alligator Snapping Turtle

Distribution. Restricted to the Suwannee River drainage in Florida and Georgia.

Etymology. Specific epithet refers to combination of the new Latin suwanni– (referring to the Suwannee River) and the Latin –ensis (belongs to the) to form the composite noun suwanniensis.

Thomas, Travis M., Michael C. Granatosky, Jason R. Bourque, Kenneth L. Krysko, Paul E. Moler, Tony Gamble, Eric Suarez, Erin Leone, Kevin M. Enge & Joe Roman. 2014. Taxonomic Assessment of Alligator Snapping Turtles (Chelydridae: Macrochelys), with the description of two new species from the southeastern United States. Zootaxa. 3786(2): 141–165.

Extremely rare Texas dino turtle even more endangered than first thought 

Saturday, April 19, 2014

[Mollusca • 2014] Revision of the Carnivorous Snail genus Indoartemon Forcart, 1946 and a new genus Carinartemis from Thailand (Pulmonata: Streptaxidae)

Fig. 2. Living snails of:
B, Carinartemis vesperus, new species, paratype CUMZ 6201 (shell width about 10 mm);
C, Carinartemis striatus, new species, paratype CUMZ 6205 (shell width about 12 mm).


Carnivorous land snails attributed to the genera Indoartemon Forcart, 1946 and Carinartemis, new genus, are recorded from Thailand for the first time. Indoartemon eburneus (Pfeiffer, 1861), I. prestoni (Gude, 1903) and I. medius, new species, were collected from central and northeastern Thailand. These two genera are easily distinguished: Carinartemis, new genus, possesses a distinctive sharp and wide peripheral keel that does not occur in Indoartemon. We provide the first description of the internal anatomy of Indoartemon and Carinartemis, new genus, and establish the presence of several distinctive characters. The new genus has two new distinctive species, Carinartemis vesperus, new species, and Carinartemis striatus, new species, from isolated limestone hills in western Thailand.
Key words. systematics, biodiversity, genitalia, predator, Streptaxidae, Thailand

Fig. 2. Living snails of: A, Indoartemon medius, new species, paratype CUMZ 5017 (shell width about 8 mm); B, Carinartemis vesperus, new species, paratype CUMZ 6201 (shell width about 10 mm); C, Carinartemis striatus, new species, paratype CUMZ 6205 (shell width about 12 mm).

Fig. 1. Distribution map of Indoartemon spp. and Carinartemis spp.
Indoartemon spp (white circle): (1) Indoartemon cingalensis (Benson, 1853); (2) Indoartemon layardianus (Benson, 1853); (3) Indoartemon glacilis (Collett, 1898); (4) Indoartemon eburneus (Pfeiffer, 1861); (5) Indoartemon fuchsianus (Gredler, 1881); (6) Indoartemon bidens (Möllendorff, 1883); (7) Indoartemon tridens (Möllendorff, 1898); (8) Indoartemon laevis (Blanford, 1899); (9) Indoartemon prestoni (Gude, 1903); and (10) Indoartemon medius, new species.
Carinartemis spp. (black circle): (1) Carinartemis vesperus, new species; and (2) Carinartemis striatus, new species. 

Thanit Siriboon, Chirasak Sutcharit, Fred Naggs, Ben Rowson & Somsak Panha. 2014. Revision of the carnivorous snail genus Indoartemon Forcart, 1946 and a new genus Carinartemis from Thailand (Pulmonata: Streptaxidae). RAFFLES BULLETIN OF ZOOLOGY. 62: 161–174 

Friday, April 18, 2014

[Botany • 2014] Billolivia, a new genus of Gesneriaceae from Vietnam with five new species

Billolivia longipetiolata
photo: Lưu Hồng Trường |

Based on molecular and morphological data, the new genus Billolivia with five new species, B. longipetiolata, B. minutiflora, B. poilanei, B. vietnamensis and B. violacea, is described. IUCN conservation assessments are provided for the species.

Key words: Bayesian inference, Cyrtandra, ITS, maximum parsimony, molecular phylogeny, trnLF

David J. Middleton, Hannah Atkins, Luu Hong Truong, Kanae Nishii & Michael MÖller. 2014. Billolivia, a new genus of Gesneriaceae from Vietnam with five new species. Phytotaxa. 161(4): 241–269.

Wednesday, April 9, 2014

[Ornithology • 2014] Molecular Phylogenetics and the Diversification of Hummingbirds

• We present a time-calibrated multilocus phylogeny for 284 species of hummingbirds
• Hummingbird diversification began ∼22 million years ago
• Hummingbirds diversified rapidly, but via heterogeneous clade-specific processes
• Invasion of new land areas such as the Andes and North America spurred diversification

The tempo of species diversification in large clades can reveal fundamental evolutionary mechanisms that operate on large temporal and spatial scale. Hummingbirds have radiated into a diverse assemblage of specialized nectarivores comprising 338 species, but their evolutionary history has not, until now, been comprehensively explored. We studied hummingbird diversification by estimating a time-calibrated phylogeny for 284 hummingbird species, demonstrating that hummingbirds invaded South America by ∼22 million years ago, and subsequently diversified into nine principal clades. Using ancestral state reconstruction and diversification analyses, we (1) estimate the age of the crown-group hummingbird assemblage, (2) investigate the timing and patterns of lineage accumulation for hummingbirds overall and regionally, and (3) evaluate the role of Andean uplift in hummingbird speciation. Detailed analyses reveal disparate clade-specific processes that allowed for ongoing species diversification. One factor was significant variation among clades in diversification rates. For example, the nine principal clades of hummingbirds exhibit ∼15-fold variation in net diversification rates, with evidence for accelerated speciation of a clade that includes the Bee, Emerald, and Mountain Gem groups of hummingbirds. A second factor was colonization of key geographic regions, which opened up new ecological niches. For example, some clades diversified in the context of the uplift of the Andes Mountains, whereas others were affected by the formation of the Panamanian land bridge. Finally, although species accumulation is slowing in all groups of hummingbirds, several major clades maintain rapid rates of diversification on par with classical examples of rapid adaptive radiation.

Jimmy A. McGuire, Christopher C. Witt, J.V. Remsen Jr., Ammon Corl, Daniel L. Rabosky, Douglas L. Altshuler and Robert Dudley. 2014. Molecular Phylogenetics and the Diversification of Hummingbirds. Current Biology.

Hummingbird Family Tree
In a 12-year-long study of 284 of the world’s 338 known hummingbird species, an international team of ornithologists has mapped the 22-million-year-old family tree of these tiny birds.

Tuesday, April 8, 2014

[Mammalogy • 2014] Distribution of the Malay Civet Viverra tangalunga (Carnivora: Viverridae) across Southeast Asia: Natural or Human-mediated Dispersal?

Malay civet Viverra tangalunga
photo croix.gagnon

The Malay civet Viverra tangalunga Gray, 1832 is a fairly large viverrid that has a wide distribution in both the Sundaic and Wallacea regions of Southeast Asia. We investigated the genetic diversity of V. tangalunga by analysing the mitochondrial DNA of 81 individuals throughout its range in order to elucidate the evolutionary history of this species and to test the hypotheses of natural dispersal and/or potential human introductions to some islands and regions. Our phylogenetic analyses revealed that V. tangalunga has a low matrilinear genetic diversity and is poorly structured geographically. Borneo is likely to have served as the ancestral population source from which animals dispersed during the Pleistocene. Viverra tangalunga could have naturally dispersed to Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, and Belitung, and also to several other Sunda Islands (Bangka, Lingga, and Bintang in the Rhio Archipelago), and to Palawan, although there is possible evidence that humans introduced V. tangalunga to the latter islands. Our results strongly suggested that V. tangalunga was transported by humans across Wallace's Line to Sulawesi and the Moluccas, but also to the Philippines and the Natuna Islands. Our study has shown that human-mediated dispersal can be an important factor in understanding the distribution of some species in this region.  

Keywords: biogeography; Carnivora; human introduction; phylogeography; Southeast Asia; Sunda Shelf

Viverra tangalunga from Borneo, Sabah
photo: Kalyan Varma

Malay Civet Viverra tangalunga photographed by a camera trap at night
Gunung Palung Natioanl Park, West Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia.
photo: Tim Laman

Geraldine Veron, Maraike Willsch, Victor Dacosta, Marie-Lilith Patou, Adrian Seymour, Celine Bonillo, Arnaud Couloux, Siew Te Wong, Andrew P. Jennings, Jörns Fickel and Andreas Wilting. 2014. The Distribution of the Malay Civet Viverra tangalunga (Carnivora: Viverridae) across Southeast Asia: Natural or Human-mediated Dispersal? Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 170(4); 917–932 

Monday, April 7, 2014

[Herpetology • 2014] Calluella capsaRed Hot Chili Pepper: A New Calluella Stoliczka, 1872 (Anura: Microhylidae) from Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo)

Calluella capsa Das, Min, Hsu, Hertwig & Haas 2014

A new brightly-coloured (olive and red) species of microhylid frog of the genus Calluella Stoliczka 1872 is described from the upper elevations of Gunung Penrissen and the Matang Range, Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo). Calluella capsa, new species, is diagnosable in showing the following combination of characters: SVL up to 36.0 mm; dorsum weakly granular; a faint dermal fold across forehead; toe tips obtuse; webbing on toes basal; lateral fringes on toes present; outer metatarsal tubercle present; and dorsum greyish-olive, with red spots; half of venter bright red, the rest with large white and dark areas. The new species is the eighth species of Calluella to be described, and the fourth known from Borneo. A preliminary phylogeny of Calluella and its relatives is presented, and the new taxon compared with congeners from Malaysia and other parts of south-east Asia.

Key words: Calluella capsa sp. nov., Microhylidae, systematics, new species, Gunung Penrissen, Matang Range, Malaysia

Das, Indraneil, Pui Y. Min, Wayne W. Hsu, Stefan T. Hertwig & Alexander Haas. 2014. Red Hot Chili Pepper. A New Calluella Stoliczka, 1872 (Lissamphibia: Anura: Microhylidae) from Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo). Zootaxa. 3785(4): 550–560.

Sunday, April 6, 2014

[Ichthyology • 2014] Complementary Redescription of Anacanthobatis ori (Wallace, 1967) and its assignment to Indobatis n. g. (Elasmobranchii, Anacanthobatidae), with comments on other legskates

Indobatis ori (WALLACE, 1967) Black legskate


Anacanthobatis ori is one of the least known species of the family Anacanthobatidae with only four juvenile specimens reported. The species remained assigned to the genus Anacanthobatis sensu lato due to the lack of an adult male as external and skeletal clasper characters are the essential diagnostic features for the differentiation of genera and subgenera within the family Anacanthobatidae. Since an adult male of A. ori became available, along with an adult female and six further juveniles, the authors reinvestigated the species and present its so far unknown diagnostic characters of clasper morphology and skeleton and scapulocoracoid. The clasper turned out to be the most complex one of all known anacanthobatids as the external components flag, slit, pseudosiphon-like cavity, pecten, and two sentinas are not known from any other anacanthobatid species. Furthermore, a dorsal terminal 1 cartilage is present but displaced proximally of the terminal clasper skeleton, the outer edge of dorsal terminal 2 is deeply serrated, the ventral terminal has a very long, curved, strap-like process, and the proximal part of accessory terminal 1 is embedded in the cavity of the baseball-glove-like head of accessory terminal 2. Due to the strong differences in external and internal clasper characters to all other known anacanthobatid species, A. ori is placed in its own, newly erected genus, Indobatis.

Keywords: leg skates, western Indian Ocean, deep water, generic status, clasper features, Crurirajidae

Weigmann, Simon, Matthias F. w. Stehmann & Ralf Thiel. 2014. Complementary Redescription of Anacanthobatis ori (Wallace, 1967) and its assignment to Indobatis n. g. (Elasmobranchii, Anacanthobatidae), with comments on other legskates. Zootaxa. 3779 (2): 101–132

[Ichthyology • 2014] Osteology of Kryptoglanis shajii, a stygobitic catfish (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from Peninsular India with a diagnosis of the new family Kryptoglanidae

Kryptoglanis shajii was recently described from a public well in Kerala, India. Its systematic position among catfishes has remained unresolved partly due to lack of morphological information. We present here a detailed osteological description of the skeleton of K. shajii and discuss its unusual skeletal features. Unlike most other catfishes Kryptoglanis has a fifth vertebra that is well-separated from the Weberian complex, a character shared only with the Diplomystidae, Helogenes and with the troglobitic or phreatic ictalurids Trogloglanis, Prietella and Satan. There is no trace of the dorsal fin or its supporting skeleton and the caudal fin skeleton consists of a single hypural plate articulating with five rays. Kryptoglanis has a number of reductive features, which may be interpreted as developmental truncations. It lacks the vomer, metapterygoid, all infraorbital bones except the antorbital, the mesocoracoid, and the pectoral fin spine.
 The phylogenetic position of Kryptoglanis remains unclear, even though the reduced condition of the palatine may point to a closer relationship with the Siluridae. Our osteological analysis of Kryptoglanis demonstrates that this genus cannot be accommodated into any known catfish family and we therefore propose the new family Kryptoglanidae for it.

 Vincent, M. & Thomas, J. 2011. Kryptoglanis shajii, an enigmatic subterranean-spring catfish (Siluriformes, Incertae sedis) from Kerala, India. Ichthyological Research, 58 (2): 161-165.
Britz, R., Kakkassery, F. & Raghavan, R. 2014. Osteology of Kryptoglanis shajii, a stygobitic catfish (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from Peninsular India with a diagnosis of the new family Kryptoglanidae. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters. 24 (3) [2013]: 193-207.

Saturday, April 5, 2014

[Herpetology • 2013] Behavioral Ecology and Microhabitat Use by Lyriocephalus scutatus (Linnaeus, 1758): A Monotypic Genus in Sri Lanka (Reptilia: Agamidae: Draconinae) with Notes on the Taxonomy

Lyriocephalus scutatus is an endemic, relict and near threatened arboreal agamid lizard species representing a monotypic genus, Lyriocephalus of Sri Lanka, which is found in forests, plantations and home gardens in the wet and intermediate zones below 900 m a.s.l. This work is mainly based on examination of Iconotype, WHT collec-tion as well as published literature and our observations in last decade. The analysis of habitat data has shown that this species is widely spread within the well shading natural forested areas and poorly in the home gardens. The re-sults of this survey indicate that L. scutatus lays about 2 – 4 eggs in range 23.1 – 25.1 mm (mean 24.2 ± 0.55) long and 14.6 – 15.3 mm (mean 15.0 ± 0.22) wide from February – April and October – December. These lizards' natu-ral predators are arboreal colubrid snakes, slender loris, civet cats, toque monkeys and many birds of prey. The current habitat destruction is the huge threat to this species. The paper present parameters may helpful in ex situ conservation of L. scutatus, especially in captive breeding programs.

D M S Suranjan Karunarathna, A A Thasun Amarasinghe. 2013. Behavioral Ecology and Microhabitat Use by Lyriocephalus scutatus (Linnaeus, 1758): A Monotypic Genus in Sri Lanka (Reptilia: Agamidae: Draconinae) with Notes on the Taxonomy. Russian Journal of Herpetology. 20(1): 1-15.

[Invertebrate • 2014] Floresorchestia samroiyodensis • A New Species of Landhopper (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae) from Thailand

Figure 2. Live Floresorchestia samroiyodensis sp. n. in their natural habitat
photo: Komson Hongphattharakeeree.

A new species of landhopper from Thailand is described. Its main diagnostic features are its large eyes; antenna 1 short; antenna 2 slender; maxilliped palp article 4 reduced, button-shaped; mandible right lacinia mobilis 6-dentate; gnathopod 1 subchelate with palmate lobes on the carpus and propodus; gnathopod 2 subchelate; pereopods cuspidac-tylate, with dactylus of pereopod 4 thickened and pinched; epimera 2-3 with stridulating organ just above ventral margins; uropod 1 outer ramus with a row of 3-4 robust setae; telson apically incised.

Key Words: Amphipoda, Talitridae, Thailand, new species, Floresorchestia samroiyodensis, taxonomy

B A R Azman, K Wongkamhaeng, P Dumrongrojwattana. 2014. Description of Floresorchestia samroiyodensis, A New Species of Landhopper (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Talitridae) from Thailand. Zoosystematics and Evolution. 90(1):7-19. DOI:

Wednesday, April 2, 2014

[Herpetology • 2014] Gracixalus lumarius | Thorny Tree Frog | Ếch cây gai • A Striking New Species of Phytotelm-Breeding Tree Frog (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve in Kon Tum Province, central Vietnam

Gracixalus lumarius
Dorsolateral view of Gracixalus lumarius sp. nov. in life showing variation in skin texture (A) male holotype AMS R 176202, (B) male paratype AMS R 173890.
FIGURE 7. (B) phyptotelm in which holotype of Gracixalus lumarius sp. nov. (AMS R 176202) and eggs (AMS R 176213) were collected. 

We describe a distinctive new species of phytotelm-breeding rhacophorid frog from central Vietnam. Gracixalus lumarius sp. nov. is distinguished from all other rhacophorids in Indochina by a combination of (1) medium body size (adult males 38.9–41.6 mm; adult female 36.3 mm), (2) dorsum brown diurnally and yellow nocturnally, (3) venter pink, (4) tympanum and supratympanic fold indistinct (5) iris dark gold with a dense, relatively uniformly distributed network of black reticulations, (6) dorsum with distinctive white conical tubercles in males, and (7) eggs deposited on wall of a phyptotelm. The new species is known from montane bamboo and montane evergreen forest in Ngoc Linh Nature Reserve in Kon Tum Province, between ~1845–2160 m elevation. 
Key words: Amphibian, montane, Southeast Asia

FIGURE 2. Dorsolateral view of Gracixalus lumarius sp. nov. in life showing variation in skin texture (A) male holotype AMS R 176202,
(B) male paratype AMS R 173890, (C) male paratype AMS R 173889.

Etymology. Specific name from lumarius L., meaning of thorns, in reference to the extensive conical tubercles over the dorsal surface of the new species.
Suggested common name. Thorny Tree Frog (English), Ếch cây gai (Vietnamese)

Ecology. The holotype was found underwater in a tree hole with conspecific eggs on the wall of the phyptotelm (Fig 7B). All other specimens were found on arboreal vegetation, away from streams or ponds in montane evergreen or bamboo forest (eg. Fig 7A). The advertisement call and larvae of the new species are 
unknown. At present, the species is only known from montane bamboo and evergreen forest (>1800 m) on Mount Ngoc Linh and adjacent peaks, with less than 20 km between the farthest localities. The distribution of the species is unknown, but is likely to be restricted to high-elevation forest on Mount Ngoc Linh and adjacent peaks.

The fauna of Mount Ngoc Linh and surrounding peaks is characterized by high endemism (Jenkins et al. 2007), and Gracixalus lumarius sp. nov. is among several high-elevation (>1700 m) frog species known only from this area. Both Leptobrachium ngoclinhense (Orlov) and Theloderma nebulosum Rowley Le, Hoang, Dau & Cao were described from Ngoc Linh and adjacent peaks, and currently appear to be endemic to them. This is perhaps not surprising given the isolation of this area from other high elevation (>1800 m) forest.

Frogs that breed in phytotelmata represent only ~2% of currently recognized anuran taxa (Lehtinen et al. 2004). Within the family Rhacophoridae, at least nine species of obligate phytotelm breeders with free living larvae are known (Lehtinen et al. 2004). These species currently fall within the genera Chiromantis, Kurixalus, Nyctixalus and Theloderma. Although tadpoles were not observed, Gracixalus lumarius sp. nov. is almost certainly an obligate phytotelm breeder and has free-living tadpoles, given the observed oviposition above water, and relatively small, pigmented ova (R. Altig pers. comm). Phyptotelm breeding is generally interpreted as a strategy to avoid predation, competition, or unfavourable abiotic conditions in the ancestral water body (Crump 1982; Duellman & Trueb 1986). However, the relatively high availability of water-filled tree-holes and rarity of streams or pools above 1800 m in the study area may indicate that the species is simply taking advantage of the most available water source.

The distinctive, white conical asperities on the dorsum of the new species are unique among known species in the family Rhacophoridae, however similar conspicuous asperities on the dorsum of males are known in some species of Afrixalus (Hyperoliidae), Boophis (Mantellidae), and Osteocephalus (Hylidae). Previous authors have speculated that sexual dimorphism in skin texture may facilitate sex recognition in frogs (Jungfer & Hoedl 2002), and at least in Osteocephalus, males only display tuberculate dorsal skin with keratinized spicules during the breeding season, while females have a more or less smooth dorsum Jungfer et al. 2013). Based on the type series, it appears that only male Gracixalus lumarius sp. nov. have a tuberculate dorsum with distinctive, white conical asperities, and that the size of asperities may be associated with breeding readiness. The male holotype collected in the dry season (April) with distinct nuptial pads and found with conspecific eggs also had the most distinctive asperities. In contrast, the two adult males collected in the wet season (July), had no distinct nuptial pads and less obvious (but still very distinct) white conical asperities, suggesting that the asperities remain present but are less distinct in the non-breeding season.

JODI J. L. ROWLEY, DUONG THI THUY LE, VINH QUANG DAU, HUY DUC HOANG & TRUNG TIEN CAO. 2014. A Striking New Species of Phytotelm-Breeding Tree Frog (Anura: Rhacophoridae) from central Vietnam. Zootaxa3785(1);  25–37.