Sunday, April 23, 2017

[Botany • 2017] Paphiopedilum lunatum & P. bungebelangi • Two New Species of Paphiopedilum (Orchidaceae: Cypripedioideae) Section Barbata from Sumatra, Indonesia


Paphiopedilum lunatum  Metusala


Abstract
Two new species of Paphiopedilum from Sumatra, Indonesia, are described and illustrated. These two species belong in Paphiopedilum section Barbata and are so far known only from Aceh Province in the north of Sumatra.



Paphiopedilum lunatum Metusala, sp. nov. section Barbata

Etymology. From the Latin word lunatus, meaning bent like a crescent moon, in reference to the obviously crescent-shaped staminode of this species. 

Distribution. Indonesia, Sumatra, Aceh Province, Central Aceh Regency.

Habitat and ecology. Growing under shade as a terrestrial plant with roots in thick leaf litter or sphagnum moss. Its natural habitat ranges from open, flat areas dominated by forked fern (Dicranopteris sp.), low shrubs and grasses to slightly open forest on sloping hills dominated by rattan species, at 1300–1600 m altitude. 


 

Paphiopedilum bungebelangi Metusala, sp. nov. section Barbata

Etymology. The specific name is an adjective derived from the Gayo language (the Gayo people live in the highlands of Central Aceh), ‘bunge’ meaning flower and ‘belangi’ meaning beautiful, referring to the beautiful flower of this species.

 Distribution. Indonesia, Sumatra, Aceh Province, Central Aceh Regency. 

Habitat and ecology. Growing as a terrestrial plant with roots in thick leaf litter or sphagnum moss on sloping limestone hills from 1550–1650 m altitude. Plants were found growing in deep, shady forest with relatively low light intensity.  


  D. Metusala. 2017. Two New Species of Paphiopedilum (Orchidaceae: Cypripedioideae) Section Barbata from Sumatra, Indonesia.
 Edinburgh Journal of Botany. 74(1); 1-10. DOI:  10.1017/S0960428617000063


Peneliti BKT Kebun Raya Purwodadi Temukan Dua Spesies Baru Anggrek dari Pulau Sumatera, Indonesia


[Botany • 2017] Rhododendron stanleyi • A New Rhododendron Species (Ericaceae, Subgenus Vireya) from Papua New Guinea


Rhododendron stanleyi S.James & Argent


Abstract
Rhododendron stanleyi S.James & Argent is described as a new species from Mount Yule, Central Province, Papua New Guinea. Its morphological position in the subgenus is discussed and the differences given from the most closely similar species. A note on the habitat and conservation assessment is also provided.

Keywords: Ericaceae, new species, Papua New Guinea, Rhododendron, subgenus Vireya.

  

Etymology. Named in honour of Jonathan H. Stanley (1960–2006), an avid sailor and keen naturalist; and Evan R. Stanley (1895–1924), the first Government Geologist for the Territory of Papua, from 1911–1924.


S. A. James and G. Argent. 2017. Rhododendron stanleyi S. James &. Argent: A New Rhododendron Species (Ericaceae, Subgenus Vireya) from Papua New Guinea. Edinburgh Journal of Botany. DOI: 10.1017/S096042861700004X 

Rhododendron stanleyi S.James et Argent This new Vireya (section Hadranthe) is a shrubby tree to 2m and was discovered on the summit of Mt Yule, Central Province PNG

  

[Paleontology • 2017] Isaberrysaura mollensis • A New Primitive Neornithischian Dinosaur from the Jurassic of Patagonia with Gut Contents


 Isaberrysaura mollensis
Salgado, Canudo, Garrido, Moreno-Azanza, Martínez, Coria & Gasca, 2017

  
DOI: 10.1038/srep42778 

Abstract
We describe a new species of an ornithischian dinosaur, Isaberrysaura mollensis gen. et sp. nov. The specimen, consisting in an almost complete skull and incomplete postcranium was collected from the marine-deltaic deposits of the Los Molles Formation (Toarcian-Bajocian), being the first reported dinosaur for this unit, one of the oldest from Neuquén Basin, and the first neornithischian dinosaur known from the Jurassic of South America. Despite showing a general stegosaurian appearance, the extensive phylogenetic analysis carried out depicts Isaberrysaura mollensis gen. et sp. nov. as a basal ornithopod, suggesting that both Thyreophora and neornithischians could have achieved significant convergent features. The specimen was preserved articulated and with some of its gut content place in the middle-posterior part of the thoracic cavity. Such stomach content was identified as seeds, most of them belonging to the Cycadales group. This finding reveals a possible and unexpected role of this ornithischian species as seed-dispersal agent.


Figure 2: Isaberrysaura mollensis gen. et sp. nov. holotype.
 Skull in dorsal (a and b, photograph and drawing respectively), and left lateral (c and d, photograph and drawing respectively) views. (e) Premaxillary tooth; (f,g) maxillary teeth (g inverted).
amf, anterior maxillary fossa; aof, antorbital fossa; aso, anterior supraorbital; d, dentary; ef, elliptical fossa; f, foramina; fr, frontal; ift, infratemporal fenestra; j, jugal; mx, maxilla; n, nasals; o, orbit; pd, predentary; pdb, postdentary bones; pmx, premaxilla; po, postorbital; pso: posterior supraorbital; prf, prefrontal; qj, quadratojugal; sq, squamosal; stf, supratemporal fenestra. 1–7 denticles. 

Figure 3 Gut content of Isaberrysaura mollensis gen. et sp. nov.
(a–c), seeds of cycads (c), and other seeds (s); rib (r). (d,e) Detail of seeds of cycads: sarcotesta (sa), sclerotesta (sc), coronula (c), nucellus (n). (f) Location of the gut content in the reconstructed skeleton of Isaberrysaura mollensis gen. et sp. nov.  

Systematic palaeontology

Ornithischia Seeley, 1887
Genasauria Sereno, 1986

Neornithischia Sereno, 1986

Isaberrysaura mollensis gen. et sp. nov.

Etymology: In honour of Isabel Valdivia Berry, who reported the finding of the holotype material.

Holotype: MOZ-Pv 6459. A skeleton comprising a nearly complete skull, and a partial postcranium (still unprepared) consisting of 6 cervical vertebrae, 15 dorsal vertebrae, a sacrum with a partial ilium and an apparently complete pubis, 9 caudal vertebrae, part of a scapula, ribs, and unidentifiable fragments.

Type locality and horizon: The holotype comes from the locality of Los Molles (Neuquén Province, Argentina) (Fig. 1). The specimen was found in the marine-deltaic deposits of the Los Molles Formation (Toarcian-Bajocian), which in this sector reaches a thickness of approximately 1,042 m. The fossil-bearing level is composed of laminated pelites rich in ammonitiferous concretions and vertebrate remains, located some 40 m below the contact with the overlying unit (Lajas Formation, Bajocian-Bathonian). The presence of the ammonite Sonninia altecostata allows the fossil-bearing level to be situated biochronologically in the early Bajocian. In palaeoenvironmental terms, the sedimentary succession comprises a large-scale progradational deltaic system, dominated by wave action and the influence of storms. The dinosaur remains described here, the first reported from this unit, are among the oldest from Neuquén Basin.

  
Leonardo Salgado, José I. Canudo, Alberto C. Garrido, Miguel Moreno-Azanza, Leandro C. A. Martínez, Rodolfo A. Coria and José M. Gasca. 2017. A New Primitive Neornithischian Dinosaur from the Jurassic of Patagonia with Gut Contents. Scientific Reports. 7: 42778. DOI: 10.1038/srep42778

Saturday, April 22, 2017

[Mollusca • 2017] Discovery of Chemoautotrophic Symbiosis in the Giant Shipworm Kuphus polythalamia (Bivalvia: Teredinidae) Extends Wooden-Steps Theory



Significance
Certain marine invertebrates harbor chemosynthetic bacterial symbionts, giving them the remarkable ability to consume inorganic chemicals such as hydrogen sulfide (H2S) rather than organic matter as food. These chemosynthetic animals are found near geochemical (e.g., hydrothermal vents) or biological (e.g., decaying wood or large animal carcasses) sources of H2S on the seafloor. Although many such symbioses have been discovered, little is known about how or where they originated. Here, we demonstrate a new chemosynthetic symbiosis in the giant teredinid bivalve (shipworm) Kuphus polythalamia and show that this symbiosis arose in a wood-eating ancestor via the displacement of ancestral cellulolytic symbionts by sulfur-oxidizing invaders. Here, wood served as an evolutionary stepping stone for a dramatic transition from heterotrophy to chemoautotrophy.

Abstract
The “wooden-steps” hypothesis [Distel DL, et al. (2000) Nature 403:725–726] proposed that large chemosynthetic mussels found at deep-sea hydrothermal vents descend from much smaller species associated with sunken wood and other organic deposits, and that the endosymbionts of these progenitors made use of hydrogen sulfide from biogenic sources (e.g., decaying wood) rather than from vent fluids. Here, we show that wood has served not only as a stepping stone between habitats but also as a bridge between heterotrophic and chemoautotrophic symbiosis for the giant mud-boring bivalve Kuphus polythalamia. This rare and enigmatic species, which achieves the greatest length of any extant bivalve, is the only described member of the wood-boring bivalve family Teredinidae (shipworms) that burrows in marine sediments rather than wood. We show that K. polythalamia harbors sulfur-oxidizing chemoautotrophic (thioautotrophic) bacteria instead of the cellulolytic symbionts that allow other shipworm species to consume wood as food. The characteristics of its symbionts, its phylogenetic position within Teredinidae, the reduction of its digestive system by comparison with other family members, and the loss of morphological features associated with wood digestion indicate that K. polythalamia is a chemoautotrophic bivalve descended from wood-feeding (xylotrophic) ancestors. This is an example in which a chemoautotrophic endosymbiosis arose by displacement of an ancestral heterotrophic symbiosis and a report of pure culture of a thioautotrophic endosymbiont.

Keywords: symbiosis; shipworm; thioautotrophy; Teredinidae; chemoautotrophy



Fig. 1. Comparative anatomy and life position of Kuphus polythalamia and Lyrodus pedicellatus.
 
(A) Fresh specimen of K. polythalamia (PMS-1672Y) removed from its calcareous tube, (B) calcareous tube of K. polythalamia (PMS-1674K) removed from sediment, (C) diagram depicting the anatomy and life position of Kpolythalamia in sediment, and (D) Inset from box in C depicting the anatomy and life position of the wood-feeding shipworm Lyrodus pedicellatus in wood. (Scale bars: A–C, 5.0 cm; D, 0.5 cm.) b, bacteria; c, cecum; g, gill; HS−, hydrogen sulfide; m, mouth; p, pallet; s, siphon; t, calcareous tube; v, valve (shell); vm, visceral mass. Movie S1 shows a specimen of Kpolythalamia being removed from its tube and dissected. 

  


Daniel L. Distel, Marvin A. Altamia, Zhenjian Lin, J. Reuben Shipway, Andrew Han, Imelda Forteza, Rowena Antemano, Ma. Gwen J. Peñaflor Limbaco, Alison G. Tebo, Rande Dechavez, Julie Albanof, Gary Rosenberg, Gisela P. Concepcion, Eric W. Schmidt and Margo G. Haygood. 2017. Discovery of Chemoautotrophic Symbiosis in the Giant Shipworm Kuphus polythalamia (Bivalvia: Teredinidae) Extends Wooden-Steps Theory. PNAS.  DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1620470114

Science fiction horror wriggles into reality with discovery of giant sulfur-powered shipworm http://phy.so/411650289 via @physorg_com
 
This Alien Worm-Creature Will Haunt Your Nightmares | Gizmodo Australia (via @GizmodoAU) www.gizmodo.com.au/2017/04/this-alien-worm-creature-will-haunt-your-nightmares/


[Herpetology • 2017] Revision of the Phylogeny and Chorology of the Tribe Iphisini with the Revalidation of Colobosaura kraepelini Werner, 1910 (Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae)


Colobosaura kraepelini Werner, 1910


Abstract
The family Gymnophthalmidae contains nearly 235 species with a distribution range from southern Mexico to central Argentina as well as in the Antilles. Among gymnophthalmids, the genus Colobosaura is a member of the tribe Iphisini, and currently is considered monotypic (C. modesta). The diversity of the tribe was studied recently, with the erection of several new genera. In this work genetic and morphological data of specimens of Colobosaura recently collected in Paraguay were analyzed. Genetic (16S barcode) data indicate that these samples are not conspecific with C. modesta and they are allocated to the nominal species C. kraepelini. Because the original primary type of the latter taxon is considered to be lost, a neotype (SMF 101370) is designated for this species and a redescription provided based on our material. Colobosaura kraepelini is distributed in the Humid Chaco, being the only member of the whole tribe in this ecoregion.

Keywords: 16S barcodes, Humid Chaco, neotype, Paraguay, taxonomy


Figure 3. Neotype of Colobosaura kraepelini (SMF 101370) from the vicinity of Altos, Cordillera Department, Paraguay. 


Colobosaura kraepelini Werner, 1910

Colobosaura kraepelini Werner, 1910: 32 (neotype, SMF 101370 [by present designation] (Fig. 3); type locality: 2.5 km E of Altos (25.2588°S, 57.2850°W, ca 280 masl), Cordillera Department, Paraguay by neotype selection). Original type locality: Puerto Max, San Pedro Department, Paraguay.

Diagnosis: Colobosaura kraepelini differs from the other species of the family Gymnophthalmidae except for C. modesta, by a combination of the following characters: limbs short but well developed; Finger I vestigial, not clawed; dorsal and lateral body scales keeled; four longitudinal series of ventral scales; prefrontal present; occipital present; two pairs of chin shields. Colobosaura kraepelini differs from C. modesta by having two mid-central rows of immaculate scales (vs. four immaculate ventral rows in C. modesta); flanks completely dark (Fig. 3) (vs. clear mottling in that area in C. modesta, Fig. 4); and gular shields profusely suffused with dark reaching the midline (vs. dark mottling restricted to the external edge of the shields, Fig. 5).


Distribution and habitat: The species is distributed in the Humid Chaco. The environment is basically a savanna composed of palms (Copernicia alba), native bunch grasses, and scattered islands of semideciduous temperate forest. The area is adapted to periodical floods from the Paraguay River. The locality of Puerto Max (former type locality of C. kraepelini) consists of a small village and cattle farm with intense anthropic pressure. The new specimens (SMF 101370 and MNHNP 11726) came from the vicinities of the capital city, about 280 km (airline) southwards from the original type locality, also in Humid Chaco.

Figure 4. Specimen of Colobosaura modesta showing lateral coloration patter.
Image by Paul Smith (Fauna Paraguay). 


    Pier Cacciali, Nicolás Martínez and Gunther Köhler. 2017. Revision of the Phylogeny and Chorology of the Tribe Iphisini with the Revalidation of Colobosaura kraepelini Werner, 1910 (Reptilia, Squamata, Gymnophthalmidae).
 ZooKeys. 669; 89-105.  DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.669.12245

[Paleontology • 2017] New Specimens of Anchiornis huxleyi (Theropoda, Paraves) from the late Jurassic of northeastern China



Abstract

Four new specimens of Anchiornis huxleyi (PKUP V1068, BMNHC PH804, BMNHC PH822, and BMNHC PH823) were recently recovered from the late Jurassic fossil beds of the Tiaojishan Formation in northeastern China. These new specimens are almost completely preserved with cranial and postcranial skeletons. Morphological features of Anchiornis huxleyi have implications for paravian character evolution and provide insights into the relationships of major paravian lineages. Anchiornis huxleyi shares derived features with avialans, such as a straight nasal process of the premaxilla and the absence of an external mandibular fenestra in lateral view. However, Anchiornis huxleyi lacks several derived deinonychosaurian features, including a laterally exposed splenial and a specialized raptorial pedal digit II. Morphological comparisons strongly suggest Anchiornis is more closely related to avialans than to deinonychosaurians or troodontids. Anchiornis huxleyi exhibits many conservative paravian features, and closely resembles Archaeopteryx and other Jurassic paravians from Jianchang County, such as Xiaotingia and Eosinopteryx. The other Jianchang paravian, Aurornis xui, is likely a junior synonym of Anchiornis huxleyi.




Rui Pei, Quanguo Li, Qingjin Meng, Mark Norell and Keqin Gao. 2017. New Specimens of Anchiornis huxleyi (Theropoda, Paraves) from the late Jurassic of northeastern China. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 411.  URI: hdl.handle.net/2246/6707

  

[Herpetology • 2017] Species Delimitation of the Blue-spotted Spiny Lizard within A Multilocus, Multispecies Coalescent Framework, Results in the Recognition of A New Sceloporus Species; Sceloporus gadsdeni


 DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2017.04.004 

Highlights
• Reciprocal monophyly supported clades were found for Sceloporus cyanostictus.
• Parametric coalescent-based method confirms two different lineages.
• A new species of Sceloporus is recognized and described.

Abstract
Species delimitation is a major topic in systematics. Species delimitation methods based on molecular data have become more common since this approach provides insights about species identification via levels of gene flow, the degree of hybridization and phylogenetic relationships. Also, combining multilocus mitochondrial and nuclear DNA leads to more reliable conclusions about species limits. Coalescent-based species delimitation methods explicitly reveal separately evolving lineages using probabilistic approaches and testing the delimitation hypotheses for several species. Within a multispecies, multilocus, coalescent framework, we were able to clarify taxonomic uncertainties within S. cyanostictus, an endangered lizard that inhabits a narrow strip of the Chihuahuan Desert in Mexico. We included, for the first time in a phylogenetic analysis, lizards from the three populations of S. cyanostictus recognized so far (East Coahuila, West Coahuila and Nuevo León). Phylogenetic analysis corroborates the hypothesis of two separately evolving lineages, i.e. the East and West Coahuila populations, as proposed in a previous study. We also found a distant phylogenetic relationship between the lizards from Nuevo León and those of East and West Coahuila. Finally, based on the species delimitation results, we propose and describe a new species of SceloporusSceloporus gadsdeni sp. nov.

Keywords: BP&P; Chihuahuan Desert; Molecular data; Systematics; Sceloporus; Taxonomic uncertainties


Fig. 1. Known distribution of Sceloporus cyanostictus. 

Sceloporus gadsdeni Castañeda-Gaytán & Díaz-Cárdenas sp. nov. 
(Lagoon Spiny Lizard)

Diagnosis: This species differs from S. cyanostictus in the dorsal color pattern (live), which is completely green with two dominant tonalities (metallic green and turquoise). The ventral pattern has a blue patch that joins in the middle of the belly and the chest with black borders in males; in contrast, in Scyanostictus the chest and undersurfaces of arms are pale grayish blue with melanin specks, each flank has a poorly defined bluish black belly patch sometimes without contact in the middle of the belly. According to currently available published information, S. cyanostictus from eastern Coahuila has 6 superciliars and 6 infralabials (Axtell and Axtell, 1971), while S. gadsdeni has 4 superciliar scales on each side of the head and 5 infralabials with uncertainty on this character due to sample size (Table 2).

The distribution of S. gadsdeni is restricted to the Sierras Texas, Solis and San Lorenzo mountain ranges in southwestern Coahuila, and this species inhabits rock walls, boulders and canyons. These mountains are separated from the location of S. cyanostictus by ca. 190 km as the crow flies and immersed within the low Mayran Basin.


Etymology: This species is named in honor of Hector Gadsden, a researcher who has made praiseworthy contributions to the ecology and conservation of the herpetofauna of La Comarca Lagunera and the Chihuahuan Desert. The suggested common name alludes to its restricted distribution within the La Comarca Lagunera region.


Brenda Díaz-Cárdenas, Eduardo Ruiz-Sanchez, Patricia Castro-Felix, Gamaliel Castañeda-Gaytán, Sergio Ruiz-Santana and Héctor Gadsden. 2017. Species Delimitation of the Blue-spotted Spiny Lizard within A Multilocus, Multispecies Coalescent Framework, Results in the Recognition of A New Sceloporus Species. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. In Press.  DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2017.04.004

Friday, April 21, 2017

[Ichthyology • 2011] Fangfangia spinicleithralis • A New Genus and Species of Miniature Cyprinid Fish (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from the Peat Swamp Forests of Borneo


Fangfangia spinicleithralis 
Britz, Kottelat & Tan, 2011 

Fangfangia spinicleithralis, new genus, new species, is described from peat swamp forest habitats in Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo, Indonesia. It differs from all other cyprinids in having the anteroventral tip of the left cleithrum projecting into a strong anteriorly directed spine and a pointed posteriorly directed spine at the posteroventral aspect of each cleithrum. In addition, it can be diagnosed by the following characters: the base of the dorsal hemitrich of the first pectoral-fin ray with serrated margin, multicuspid pharyngeal teeth, ventrally directed lateral processes on vertebra 1, the high number of procurrent caudal-fin rays (14-18 dorsally, 11-15 ventrally), absence of scales with the exception of six or seven tubular lateral line ossicles, and the greatly elongated middle radials in the anal fin, which may reach half the length of proximal radials.


Fangfangia, new genus

Etymology. The new genus is named after the late Fang Fang, a passionate and productive cypriniform researcher, who left us too early, honouring her contribution to danionine taxonomy and phylogeny. Gender feminine.


 Fangfangia spinicleithralis, new species 

Distribution. Fangfangia spinicleithralis is presently known only from the type locality in Sebangau peat swamp forest, Kalimantan Tengah, Borneo, Indonesia.

Etymology. The species name spinicleithralis, an adjective, is derived from the Latin words spina, thorn, and cleithralis, belonging to the cleithrum (the main element of the dermal shoulder girdle). It refers to the unique pointed anterior and posterior spines on the cleithrum of this species.


Britz, R., Kottelat, M., & Tan, H.H. 2011. Fangfangia spinicleithralis, A New Genus and Species of Miniature Cyprinid Fish from the Peat Swamp Forests of Borneo (Teleostei: Cyprinidae).
 Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters. 22 (4): 327-335.

[Diplopoda • 2017] Revision of the Vietnamese Millipede Genus Annamina Attems, 1937 (Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae), with Descriptions of Three New Species


Figure 10. Annamina mikhaljovae sp. n., ♂ holotype (ZMUM).
A habitus, lateral view B anterior part of body, ventral view C midbody segments, dorsal view D segments 5–7, ventral view E caudal part of body, dorsal view.
Pictures taken not to scale. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.669.12561

Abstract
The hitherto monotypic diplopod genus Annamina contains now four species, including the revised type-species A. xanthoptera Attems, 1937, as well as Annamina attemsi sp. n.Annamina irinae sp. n. and Annamina mikhaljovae sp. n., all from central or southern Vietnam. The genus is rediagnosed and a key to its constituent species given.

Keywords: Diplopoda, Paradoxosomatidae, Annamina, taxonomy, new species, Vietnam

Figure 1. Annamina xanthoptera Attems, 1937, ♂ paralectotype (NHMW).
A habitus, lateral view B anterior part of body, lateral view C midbody segments, dorsolateral view. 

Figure 5. Annamina attemsi sp. n., ♂ paratype (NHMW).
A habitus, lateral view B anterior part of body, lateral view C midbody segments, dorsolateral view D caudal part of body, dorsolateral view. 

Figure 8. Annamina irinae sp. n., ♂ paratype (ZMUM).
A habitus, lateral view B anterior part of body, anteroventral view C midbody segments, dorsal view D caudal part of body, dorsal view E gonopods, ventral view. Pictures taken not to scale. 

Sergei I. Golovatch, Jean-Jacques Geoffroy and Nesrine Akkari. 2017. Revision of the Vietnamese Millipede Genus Annamina Attems, 1937, with Descriptions of Three New Species (Diplopoda, Polydesmida, Paradoxosomatidae).  ZooKeys. 669: 1-18. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.669.12561

[Ichthyology • 2017] Microphysogobio zhangi • A New Species of Microphysogobio (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from Guangxi Province, Southern China


Microphysogobio zhangi  
Huang, Zhao, Chen & Shao, 2017


Microphysogobio zhangi n. sp., a new cyprinid species is described from Guangxi Province, China. Morphological and molecular evidence based on mitochondrial DNA Cytochrome b (Cyt b) sequence were used for comparing this new species and other related species. The phylogenetic tree topology revealed that this new species is closely related to M. elongatus and M. fukiensis. We also observed the existence of a peculiar trans-river gene flow in the Pearl River and the Yangtze River populations, and speculated that it was caused by an ancient artificial canal, the Lingqu Canal, which forming a pathway directly connecting these two rivers.

Key words: Taxonomy, Gudgeon, Cytochrome b, Freshwater Fish, Pearl River.


Fig. 2. The specimen photographs of Microphysogobio zhangi n. sp.,
A, holotype, ASIZB 204677, 77.1 mm SL. B, the same individual, dorsal view of head. 

Etymology: The Latinized specific name, “zhangi” is derived from the name of the Chinese ichthyologist “Professor Chunguang Zhang” in recognition of his great contribution to the fish taxonomic studies in China.


Distribution: Known only from the middle reaches of the Yu River and the Li River, two tributaries of the Pearl River, and the Xiang River, a tributary of the Yangtze River, located in Guangxi and Hunan Provinces of China


Shih-Pin Huang, Yahui Zhao, I-Shiung Chen and Kwang-Tsao Shao. 2017. A New Species of Microphysogobio (Cypriniformes: Cyprinidae) from Guangxi Province, Southern China.
 Zoological Studies. 56:08. DOI: 10.6620/ZS.2017.56-08 


[Botany • 2017] Dioscorea irodensis • A New Species of Critically Endangered Edible Yam (Dioscoreaceae) Endemic to northern Madagascar and Its Conservation


 Dioscorea irodensis  Wilkin, Rajaonah & Randriamb.


Summary
Morphological character data are used to show that a distinct morphotype of Dioscorea L. from the Irodo valley (East of Sadjoavato) in Antsiranana Province of Madagascar is an undescribed species, differing in its leaf arrangement, pubescence form and male inflorescence structure from all other taxa. It is described as Dioscorea irodensis Wilkin, Rajaonah & Randriamb., illustrated and a distribution map and ecological information provided. It is known from three sites, but is likely to have been eradicated from one of them. The population that has been studied in the field contains a very low number of adult plants. Tubers have been extracted for use as food at a level that appears to be unsustainable. Thus its provisional IUCN conservation status assessment is that it is critically endangered (CR). Its vernacular name in Irodo is Bemandry.

Key Words: conservation, critically endangered, distribution, edible, ex situin situ, Madagascar, morphology, new species, yam 


Fig. 1 Vegetative and reproductive organ morphology in Dioscorea irodensis.
 A habit of fruiting plant, showing leaves borne in clusters of up to 7 on short herbaceous branches; B detail of coarse, erect to spreading indumentum; C dehisced capsule; D seed and seed wing; E habit of male flowering plant with leaves in early development; F part of a male inflorescence showing condensed cymules of flowers; G a single cymule showing the cymule bract and inflorescence axis indumentum; H side view of a male flower showing pubescent tepal external surfaces; J half male flower showing three stamens, torus morphology and pistillode; K flower viewed from above showing inner and outer tepal whorls and anther presentation; L tuber drawn following its usual orientation in the soil and curved apex that subtends a shoot.
Scale bars: A, E = 2.5 cm; B = 5 mm; C, D = 2 cm; F = 4 mm; G = 2 mm; H – K = 1.5 mm; L = 6 cm.
 drawn by Lucy Smith. 
 DOI: 10.1007/s12225-017-9677-6  

Fig. 2 Photographs of Dioscorea irodensis showing its vegetative morphology in fruit and underground organs.
A leaves and an infructescence reduced to a solitary submature capsule; B node with a cluster of leaves on a short lateral shoot showing an infructescence at dehiscence; C two tuber apices (current (marked a) and previous year (b)) and separated body of current year’s tuber (c) with stem and leaves disentangled from surrounding vegetation. The size and curved apex of the tuber (indicated by arrows) linked to its horizontal habit is shown. 

Dioscorea irodensis Wilkin, Rajaonah & Randriamb., sp. nov. 

Type: Madagascar, Antsiranana: Diana, Antsiranana II, Anivorano, Irodo, ala fady S of village towards Irodo river estuary, 12°39'6.3"S 49°31'38.2"E, ♀ fr. 8 Feb. 2015, P. Wilkin, J. A. Kennerley, F. Rakotonasolo, M. Hamido & M. Tsaratiana 1675 (holotype TAN!; isotype K!).

Recognition. Tuber horizontal in soil with a curved apex (derived from digging up two plants and inferring a similar position in others from the shape of extraction holes and the Malagasy vernacular name). Leaves in clusters of up to 7 on short herbaceous branches, clustered particularly towards bases of main vegetative stems (Fig. 1A, 2B), blades thin in texture, densely pubescent below and when immature but coarse and never forming a tomentum as in Dioscorea ovinala. Plants at the locality near Irodo represented by Wilkin et al. 1674 and 1675 often have white spotting on their leaf blades which has the appearance of pathogenic infection (see Fig. 2A). Male inflorescences (Fig. 1 E, F) with irregularly spaced, spirally arranged dense cymules of 2 – 8 pedicellate flowers or rarely solitary, vs flowers (sub)sessile, or rarely with a pedicel to 0.5 mm long and solitary or in groups of 2 – 4 (D. ovinala). Fruit not inflated and fleshy during development but thin-lobed and capsular throughout, single layered at dehiscence. Restricted to a small area East of Sadjoavato in Antsiranana Province.

Distribution and habitat. Endemic to the Irodo river Valley and Sahafary forest in Antsiranana Province (Map 1) at altitudes from 30 – 230 m. It is possible that the three collections from South of the village of Irodo represent two subpopulations on either side of the river as opposed to two distinct populations (the term population is used here in an ecological sense, except in the Conservation Status section), but the specimen from Sahafary forest is spatially isolated. At Irodo, it is found in semi-deciduous forest with a canopy to 10 m and a clear shrub layer, the principal canopy trees being Colvillea and Tamarindus, with Pachypodium in the shrub layer. Soil a brown sandy loam, possibly alluvial, or red sand over limestone bedrock. The Sahafary Forest specimen states that it was from scrub forest on red sand.


Etymology. Named for the village of Irodo and the Irodo River valley where this species is found.

Vernacular name. Bemandry in the village of Irodo. This name appears to be applied particularly to species with horizontal tubers, for example the element of Dioscorea soso Jum. & H. Perrier sensu lato with the same tuber habit.

Uses. Tuber edible cooked. Rather watery following cooking and thus not fully satisfying the appetite. Dioscorea maciba, known as batatala in Irodo, is the more sought after species of the two that are found in the Irodo valley and surrounding areas. Not believed to be sold in markets but consumed usually in March/April.


Paul Wilkin, James A. Kennerley, Mamy Tiana Rajaonah, Geodain Meva Huckël, Feno Rakotoarison, Tianjanahary Randriamboavonjy and Stuart Cable. 2017. A New Species of Critically Endangered Edible Yam Endemic to northern Madagascar, Dioscorea irodensis (Dioscoreaceae) and Its Conservation. Kew Bulletin. 72; 15.  DOI: 10.1007/s12225-017-9677-6


[Botany • 2016] Rhododendron longipedicellatum • A New Species (Ericaceae) from southeastern Yunnan, China


Rhododendron longipedicellatum Lei Cai & Y.P. Ma


Abstract

A new species of Rhododendron (Ericaceae) in sect. Vireya subsect. Pseudovireya from Malipo County, Southeast Yunnan, China, Rhododendron longipedicellatum, is described and illustrated. The new species is most similar to R. rushforthii but differs in its arrangement of leaves, the shape and color of the lamina, length of the petiole and the size of the calyx lobes. It also resembles R. trancongii and R. datiandingense, but differs in its color and shape of the lamina, the leaf apex, lengths of the petiole, pedicel and stamens, and the indumentum of the ovary.

Keywords: Ericaceae, Rhododendron, new species, China, Eudicots

FIGURE 2. Rhododendron longipedicellatum Lei Cai & Y.P. Ma. (A, C, E-J) and R. rushforthii (B & D)
A & B. Pressed branch with leaves and flowers; C. Branch with young fruits and flower; D. Flowering branch; E. Habitat and habit; F-G. Flowers; H. Lateral view of flowers showing corollas and pedicels; I-J. Fruiting branches. 


Etymology:— The epithet “longipedicellatum” refers to the relatively long pedicels of the new species. This species has almost the longest pedicels in R. subsect. Pseudovireya (Clarke) Sleumer. The Chinese name in Pinyin is “chang geng du juan”.  


 Lei Cai, Jens Neilsen, Zhi-Ling Dao and Yong-Peng Ma. 2016. Rhododendron longipedicellatum (Ericaceae), A New Species from southeastern Yunnan, China. Phytotaxa. 282(4); 296–300. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.282.4.7