Tuesday, September 25, 2018

[Ichthyology • 2018] Tosanoides aphrodite • A New Species (Perciformes, Serranidae, Anthiadinae) from Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems of St. Paul’s Rocks, Mid Atlantic Ridge

 Tosanoides aphrodite
 Pinheiro, Rocha & Rocha, 2018

During a recent expedition to St. Paul’s Rocks, Atlantic Ocean, a distinctive and previously unknown species of Anthiadinae was collected at a depth of 120 m. A genetic analysis indicated the undescribed species is a member of the genus Tosanoides, which was only known to occur in the Pacific Ocean. This new taxon is distinguishable from all other Tosanoides species by the following combination of characters: soft dorsal fin rays 15–16; anal fin rays 9; ventral scale rows 9–10; last dorsal spine the longest (instead first through fourth). Here Tosanoides aphrodite sp. n. is described and illustrated, only known from St. Paul’s Rocks.

Keywords: Brazil, coral reefs, deep reefs, fish endemism, oceanic island, rebreather diving

Figure 3. Fresh specimens of Tosanoides aphrodite sp. n. collected in St. Paul’s Rocks, Brazil. A Male B Female. Photographs by LA Rocha. 

Tosanoides aphrodite sp. n.

Diagnosis: The new species differs from all other Anthiadinae by the following combination of characters: Dorsal-fin spines X; last dorsal spine the longest, 1.8–2.2 in head length; dorsal-fin rays 15–16; 7th dorsal ray the longest, 2.65–2.80 in head length; anal-fin rays 9; pored lateral-line scales 32–35; ventral scale rows 9–10; body slender and compressed, greatest depth 2.96–3.18 in SL, and the width 1.77–2.09 in depth. Our phylogenetic analysis shows the new species belongs to Tosanoides Kamohara 1953, from which it differs of the other known species by: a divergence of at least 12.35% at the cytochrome oxidase I gene, last dorsal spine the longest (instead first through fourth), fewer dorsal-fin rays (15–16 vs. 16–17), and more anal-fin rays (9 vs. 8 in the other Tosanoides).

Figure 4. Tosanoides aphrodite sp. n.  in its natural environment, photographed at a depth of 120 m in St. Paul’s Rocks, Brazil. Photograph by LA Rocha.

Etymology: The name “aphrodite” refers to the ancient Greek goddess of love and beauty. While we were collecting the Aphrodite anthias, a large Six-gill shark (Hexanchus griseus) came very close to both of us (HTP and LAR), but that didn’t divert our attention from the new exquisitely beautiful species, and we never even saw the shark (youtu.be/pSZrmoEwR0Q). The beauty of the Aphrodite anthias enchanted us during its discovery much like Aphrodite’s beauty enchanted ancient Greek gods.

Distribution and habitat: Tosanoides aphrodite is only known from Saint Paul’s Rocks, off Brazil. It was found on mesophotic coral ecosystems of the island, observed between 100 and 130 m depth while rebreather diving, and a single observation at 260 m depth, taken from a submersible dive. The species inhabits small crevices of complex rocky reefs (Figure 4). The ambient seawater temperature at the collecting depth (~ 120 m) varied between 13 and 15 °C during the two-week period we stayed in the area.

 Hudson T. Pinheiro, Claudia Rocha and Luiz A. Rocha. 2018. Tosanoides aphrodite, A New Species from Mesophotic Coral Ecosystems of St. Paul’s Rocks, Mid Atlantic Ridge (Perciformes, Serranidae, Anthiadinae). ZooKeys. 786: 105-115.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.786.27382

[PaleoOrnithology • 2018] Jinguofortis perplexus • A New Clade of Basal Early Cretaceous Pygostylian Birds and Developmental Plasticity of the Avian Shoulder Girdle

Jinguofortis perplexus
Wang, Stidham & Zhou, 2018

(artwork by Chung-Tat Cheung)

We report the second most basal clade of the short-tailed birds (Pygostylia) from the Early Cretaceous. The new family Jinguofortisidae exhibits a mosaic assembly of plesiomorphic nonavian theropod characteristics, particularly of the fused scapulocoracoid and more derived flight-related features, further increasing the known ecomorphological diversity of basal avian lineages. We discuss the evolution of the scapula and coracoid in major tetrapod groups and early birds and hypothesize that the fused scapulocoracoid in some basal avian lineages, although rare, results from an accelerated rate of ossification and that the avian shoulder girdle likely was transformed by developmental plasticity along an evolutionary lineage leading to the crown group of birds.

Early members of the clade Pygostylia (birds with a short tail ending in a compound bone termed “pygostyle”) are critical for understanding how the modern avian bauplan evolved from long-tailed basal birds like Archaeopteryx. However, the currently limited known diversity of early branching pygostylians obscures our understanding of this major transition in avian evolution. Here, we describe a basal pygostylian, Jinguofortis perplexus gen. et sp. nov., from the Early Cretaceous of China that adds important information about early members of the short-tailed bird group. Phylogenetic analysis recovers a clade (Jinguofortisidae fam. nov.) uniting Jinguofortis and the enigmatic basal avian taxon Chongmingia that represents the second earliest diverging group of the Pygostylia. Jinguofortisids preserve a mosaic combination of plesiomorphic nonavian theropod features such as a fused scapulocoracoid (a major component of the flight apparatus) and more derived flight-related morphologies including the earliest evidence of reduction in manual digits among birds. The presence of a fused scapulocoracoid in adult individuals independently evolved in Jinguofortisidae and Confuciusornithiformes may relate to an accelerated osteogenesis during chondrogenesis and likely formed through the heterochronic process of peramorphosis by which these basal taxa retain the scapulocoracoid of the nonavian theropod ancestors with the addition of flight-related modifications. With wings having a low aspect ratio and wing loading, Jinguofortis may have been adapted particularly to dense forest environments. The discovery of Jinguofortis increases the known ecomorphological diversity of basal pygostylians and highlights the importance of developmental plasticity for understanding mosaic evolution in early birds.

Keywords: bird, development, Mesozoic, plasticity, phylogeny

 Jinguofortis perplexus gen. et sp. nov., IVPP V24194.
 Photographs of counter slab and main slab.

Systematic Paleontology 
Aves Linnaeus, 1758 
Pygostylia Chiappe, 2002

  Jinguofortisidae fam. nov.

Jinguofortis perplexus gen. et sp. nov. 

Holotype: A complete and articulated skeleton with feathers is housed at the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) under the collect number IVPP V24194 (Fig. 1 and SI Appendix, Figs. S1–S7 and Table S1). 

Etymology: The generic name is derived from “jinguo” (Mandarin), referring to female warrior, and “fortis”, Latin for brave; the specific name is derived from Latin “perplexus,” referring to the combination of plesiomorphic and derived characters present in the holotype specimen. 

Locality and Horizon: IVPP V24194 was collected near the village of Shixia, Weichang County, Hebei Province, China; Lower Cretaceous Dabeigou Formation of the Jehol Biota (127 ± 1.1 Ma).

Reconstruction of  Jinguofortis perplexus, second earliest member of the short-tailed birds Pygostylia
(artwork by Chung-Tat Cheung)

Fig. 3. Changes to the scapula and coracoid in vertebrates with a focus on basal avian clades. A simplified tree of vertebrates (Left) shows the scapula (colored in blue) and coracoid (in green) fused into a scapulocoraocid (in gray) in most major tetrapod clades (see SI Appendix, SI Text, for details). Simplified cladogram of basal Aves (Right) shows the changes to the shoulder girdle and manus (see SI Appendix, Fig. S8, for complete phylogenetic result). Thick green lines near each clade denote temporal range with the first-appearance datum denoted. Major changes to the shoulder girdle and manus across basal avian phylogeny are summarized: (1) in most nonavian theropods, the scapula and coracoid are fused into a scapulocoracoid at an obtuse angle, and they have a manual phalangeal formula of 2–3-4; (2) scapula and coracoid become separated and form an angle of ∼90°; (3, 4) independent evolution of a fused scapulocoracoid in the Confuciusornithiformes and Jinguofortisidae; (6) minor digit is reduced resulting in a manual phalangeal formula of 2–3-2; (7) scapula and coracoid are decoupled and form an acute angle with further manual digit reduction evolving in derived ornithuromorphs; (8) alternatively, it is equally parsimonious that a fused scapulocoracoid evolved at the base of Pygostylia and was lost in pygostylians crownward of Jinguofortisidae (5).

 Min Wang, Thomas A. Stidham and Zhonghe Zhou. 2018. A New Clade of Basal Early Cretaceous Pygostylian Birds and Developmental Plasticity of the Avian Shoulder Girdle. PNAS. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1812176115
Min Wang, Xiaoli Wang, Yan Wang and Zhonghe Zhou. 2016. A New Basal Bird from China with implications for Morphological Diversity in Early Birds. Scientific Reports. 6: 19700. DOI:  10.1038/srep19700

Chinese Cretaceous fossil highlights avian evolution  eurekalert.org/e/8pkg via @EurekAlert

[Ichthyology • 2018] Flexor incus • A New Genus and Species of Clingfish (Teleostei, Gobiesocidae) from the Rangitāhua Kermadec Islands of New Zealand

Flexor incus 
Conway, Stewart & Summers, 2018

Flexor incus, new genus and species, is described from 15 specimens (14.0–27.2 mm SL) collected from shallow (0–9 meters) intertidal and sub-tidal waters of the Rangitāhua Kermadec Islands, New Zealand. The new taxon is distinguished from all other members of the Gobiesocidae by a combination of characters, including a heterodont dentition comprising both conical and distinct incisiviform teeth that are laterally compressed with a strongly recurved cusp, an oval-shaped opening between premaxillae, a double adhesive disc with a well-developed articulation between basipterygia and ventral postcleithra, and many reductions in the cephalic lateral line canal system. The new taxon is tentatively placed within the subfamily Diplocrepinae but shares a number of characteristics of the oral jaws and the adhesive disc skeleton with certain members of the Aspasminae and Diademichthyinae.

Keywords: Acanthomorpha, Aspasminae, Diademichthyinae, Diplocrepinae, taxonomy

Figure 1. Flexor incus, NMNZ P.060717, holotype, 20.8 mm SL;
New Zealand, Kermadec Islands, Raoul Island. 

Figure 2. Flexor incus, Te konui Point, Raoul Island, Kermadec Islands, 28 meters depth, photographed by R. Robinson (www.depth.co.nz) during the 2011 Kermadec Islands Biodiscovery Expedition, a project led by the Auckland Museum. Specimen not retained.

Flexor gen. n.

Diagnosis: A genus of the Gobiesocidae differing from all other genera by a combination of characters, including: head and anteriormost part of body similar in width; a relatively elongate body with a small, double adhesive disc located beneath anteriormost part of body; an oval-shaped gap between premaxillae formed by a semicircular indentation along medial edge of premaxilla; premaxilla with a single row of teeth, comprising 2–3 peg-like, conical teeth anteriorly at, and adjacent to, symphysis and 10–12 strongly laterally compressed, incisiviform teeth with strongly recurved cusp, along outer margin of bone; lower jaw with a single row of 14–16 small, conical teeth with sharply pointed and slightly recurved tip; posterior tip of basipterygium expanded and articulating with anteromedial edge of ventral postcleithrum via a shallow concave facet; mandibular portion of preoperculo-mandibular lateral line canal absent; lachrymal canal with two pores; upper and lower lip simple, uniform in thickness along jaw margin.

Etymology: New Latin, anatomical term for muscles, from the Latin flexus, past participle of flectere, to bend. In reference to the great flexibility of clingfishes, many of which have the ability to bend the body so that the tail end comes to lie close to the head. Masculine.

Type species: Flexor incus, new species

Aspasmogaster sp.: Stewart 2015: 1539, 1544; 
Trnski et al. 2015: 473, 476, Table 1.

Etymology. Incus is the Latin word for anvil, in reference to the anvil-like outline of Raoul Island, the largest island in the Kermadec archipelago and type locality of the new species. A noun in apposition.

Figure 11. Distribution of Flexor incus. Type locality in red.

Distribution and habitat. Known to date only from intertidal and subtidal waters of the Kermadec Islands (Figure 11), including Raoul Island (type locality) and L’Esperance Rock. The majority of available specimens were collected from rock pools and from shallower subtidal areas (down to 9 meters) over rock and coral rubble substrates using ichthyocides (Stewart 2015). However, a single specimen of the new species has been observed (and photographed) at 28 meters in depth (Figure 2).

Kevin W. Conway, Andrew L. Stewart and Adam P. Summers. 2018. A New Genus and Species of Clingfish from the Rangitāhua Kermadec Islands of New Zealand (Teleostei, Gobiesocidae).  ZooKeys. 786: 75-104.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.786.28539

[Botany • 2018] Amyema lisae (Loranthaceae) • A New Species from Negros Island, the Philippines

Amyema lisae

in Pelser, Olimpos, O'Byrne & Barcelona, 2018. 
DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.371.1.3 

Our recent fieldwork in the island of Negros, Philippines resulted in the discovery of a species new to science, Amyema lisae (Loranthaceae), and a new record for the Philippines, Gastrodia sabahensis (Orchidaceae), which we describe and report here. Amyema lisae differs from similar species with verticillate phyllotaxy and inflorescences of simple umbels by having relatively smaller leaves and 5-merous flowers that are yellow and tomentose. This new species is named in honor of Lisa J. Paguntalan, a champion of biodiversity conservation in the Philippines. In the same island, we also collected Gastrodia sabahensis, previously only known to occur in Borneo. Our specimens differ from typical plants of this species by having larger flowers with column bases that are slightly broader and stelidia that are broad with blunt apices.

Keywords: Balinsasayao - Twin Lakes Natural Park, Gastrodia verrucosa complex, mistletoe, Northern Negros Natural Park, parasitic plant, taxonomy, Eudicots

Pieter B. Pelser, Shiella Mae B. Olimpos, Peter O'Byrne and Julie F. Barcelona. 2018. A New Species of Amyema (Loranthaceae) and A New Gastrodia (Orchidaceae) Record for the Philippines from Negros Island.  Phytotaxa. 371(1); 25–32. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.371.1.3
New mistletoe species found only in Negros Oriental named after Philippine wildlife biologist t.co/tpC5Jp9n0g @cebudailynews 

[Botany • 2018] Miconia rheophytica (Melastomataceae: Miconieae) • A New and Endangered Species from the Magdalena Medio Region of Colombia

Miconia rheophytica Posada‒Herrera & Almeda

in Posada-Herrera & Almeda, 2018

Miconia rheophytica is described, illustrated, and compared with presumed relatives in the Octopleura clade. It is distinguished by its narrowly elliptic to ovate-lanceolate leaf blades with entire to subentire margins that have evenly spaced spreading smooth eglandular trichomes 0.8−1.4 mm long, an indumentum of dendritic trichomes with short axes and terete radiating arms on distal internodes, adaxial petiole surfaces, and primary and secondary veins on abaxial leaf surfaces, unribbed hypanthia that are constricted and tapered distally below the torus and covered with a mixture of basally roughened trichomes and dendritic trichomes with short axes, anthers with two ± truncate apical pores, eglandular anther appendages, 3-locular ovary, and berries that are bright blue at maturity. It is known only from flash-flooded riverbanks in three river canyons in the Magdalena Medio region of Antioquia, Colombia. A conservation assessment of “Endangered” is recommended for this species based on IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria.

Keywords: Andes, rheophyte, endangered species, neotropics, Octopleura clade, Eudicots

Figure 1. A. Habit. B. Cauline node and internode enlargement. C. Leaf apex, showing evenly spaced smooth marginal trichomes. D. Dendritic trichome with terete radiating arms. E. Simple axillary dichasium. F. Flower at anthesis (profile view). G. Elongated trichome with roughened base. H. Petal, showing reflexed posture. I. Stamen (profile view). J. Seeds, dorsal view (lower) and profile view (upper). All drawn from the holotype.

Figure 2. Images of Miconia rheophytica.
A. Habit with immature and mature berries. B. Flower and immature berries. C. Flower (at anthesis) and flower bud. D. Berry at maturity. Image credits: A, C, Rodrigo Bernal; B, D, Saúl E. Hoyos-Gómez.

Miconia rheophytica Posada‒Herrera & Almeda, sp. nov. 

Type:— COLOMBIA. Antioquia: Municipio de San Luis, río Samaná Norte, 2 km abajo del puente de la carretera Medellín‒Bogotá. ..., 430 m, 18 diciembre 2016 (fl, fr), S. E. Hoyos-Gómez 3105 (holotype: HUA!). Figs. 1, 2. 

Diagnosis: Unusual and unique among species of the Octopleura clade in being rheophytic and in having a combination of narrowly elliptic to ovate-lanceolate leaf blades with entire to subentire margins that have evenly spaced spreading smooth eglandular trichomes 0.8−1.4 mm long, unribbed hypanthia covered with a mixture of basally roughened trichomes and dendritic trichomes with short axes, anthers with two ± truncate apical pores, eglandular anther appendages, 3-locular ovary, and berries that are bright blue at maturity.

Distribution and habitat:— Miconia rheophytica appears to be largely restricted to the Magdalena Medio region of Colombia where it is known only from the Department of Antioquia (Fig. 3). It grows along rocky banks of Río Nechí, and in the Río Samaná Norte and Río Claro river canyons in the municipalities of Anorí and San Luis at elevations of 110−600 m.

 Etymology:— The specific epithet is derived from the word rheophyte, a plant that grows along margins of fast moving river currents with frequent flooding. This is an environment that is particularly harsh for many organisms. 

Juan Mauricio Posada-Herrera and Frank Almeda. 2018. Miconia rheophytica (Melastomataceae: Miconieae), A New and Endangered Species from the Magdalena Medio region of Colombia. Phytotaxa. 371(1); 55–61. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.371.1.7

[Entomology • 2018] High Species Diversity of the Genus Neopanorpa (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) in Yunnan Province, China

Neopanorpa quadristigma 
Wang & Hua, 2018

Neopanorpa van der Weele, 1909 is the second largest genus of Panorpidae, and is endemic to the Oriental Region. Yunnan, a province in the southwestern region of China, is well-known as a biodiversity hotspot and abundant in Neopanorpa species. However, only sixteen species of Neopanorpa have been described from Yunnan hitherto and the taxonomic study of Neopanorpa in Yunnan has lagged far behind as compared with studies performed in neighboring regions. In the present study, notably high diversity of Neopanorpa species is found in the Hengduan Mountains of Yunnan. Seven species of Neopanorpa are described as newNeopanorpa semiorbiculata, N. tincta, N. triangulata, N. diancangshanensis, N. magnatitilana, N. longistipitataand N. quadristigma spp. n. Neopanorpa spatulata Byers, 1965, originally described from Thailand, is recorded from China for the first time. Neopanorpa dimidiata Navás, 1930 is a synonym of N. brisi (Navás, 1930). Keys to species of Neopanorpa in Yunnan are provided. The phylogenetic relationships of Neopanorpa species from the Hengduan Mountains, the Indochinese Peninsula, and the eastern Himalayas are briefly discussed.

Keywords: Mecoptera, taxonomy, Insecta, China, Oriental Region, fauna

  Neopanorpa quadristigma sp. n., male.
Photo by Ji-Shen Wang

Meng Wang and Bao-Zhen Hua. 2018. High Species Diversity of the Genus Neopanorpa (Mecoptera: Panorpidae) in Yunnan Province, China. Zootaxa. 4483(1); 36–66.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4483.1.2

Monday, September 24, 2018

[Chilopoda • 2018] Scolopendra paradoxa • A Phylogenetic Approach to the Philippines Endemic Centipedes of the Genus Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758 (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae), with the Description of A New Species

Scolopendra paradoxa Doménech

in Doménech, Barbera & Larriba, 2018

The genus Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758 is represented in the Philippines’ fauna by five species, two of which are endemic. Mitochondrial DNA sequences of gene cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) were obtained from six Scolopendra specimens belonging to two endemic species and a new one, described here as Scolopendra paradoxa Doménech sp. nov. These sequences were analyzed together with another forty-one sequences from GenBank, including additional species of Scolopendra and a few representatives of other Scolopendridae genera. Phylogenetic trees inferred from the COI analysis using maximum likelihood and neighbor joining showed the three Philippines Scolopendra endemic species as a polyphyletic group coherent with their respective morphologies, although the position of S. spinosissima Kraepelin, 1903 varied within the obtained trees. Species delimitation based on standard external morphological characters was also concordant with the observed genetic distances, monophyly and node support, confirming S. subcrustalis Kronmüller, 2009 and S. paradoxa sp. nov. as separate species also at the molecular level, while only the position of S. spinosissima could not be properly established with any of the statistical methods used. In addition, the male genitalia of the three studied species were found to lack gonopods and a penis. Remarks on the ultimate legs prefemoral spinous formula of S. spinosissima plus a key to the species of the genus Scolopendra in the Philippines are provided.

Keywords: Myriapoda, Chilopoda, scolopendromorph, Scolopendra paradoxaScolopendra spinosissimaScolopendra subcrustalis, barcode, cytochrome oxidase I

FIGURE 13. Scolopendra paradoxa sp. nov. specimen found underwater in a Mindoro's forest stream. Observe that the specimen is partial covered by rocks and river’s sand, showing probably an attempt of underwater concealment, which has been previously described only in S. cataracta (Siriwut et al. 2016).

Family Scolopendridae Newport, 1844 
Subfamily Scolopendrinae Kraepelin, 1903 

Genus Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758 
Scolopendra paradoxa Doménech sp. nov. 

Etymology. From “paradoxon”, meaning contradiction, because the new species’ author initially identified this new taxon as a color variant of S. spinosissima. Nevertheless, the genetic divergence between these two species contrasted with earlier identifications. 

Suggested common name. Philippine’s cyan leg centipede.

Carles Doménech, Victor M. Barbera and Eduardo Larriba. 2018. A Phylogenetic Approach to the Philippines Endemic Centipedes of the Genus Scolopendra Linnaeus, 1758 (Scolopendromorpha, Scolopendridae), with the Description of A New Species. Zootaxa. 4483(3); 401–427.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4483.3.1

[Ichthyology • 2018] Speolabeo hokhanhi • A New Cavefish (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from Central Vietnam

Speolabeo hokhanhi
Tao, Cao, Deng & Zhang, 2018

Hokhanh’s Blind-cavefish  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4476.1.10 

Speolabeo hokhanhi, new species, is here described from Hang Va Cave in Phong Nha-Ke Bang National Park (Son River basin) in Central Vietnam. It can be distinguished from S. musaei by having no papillae on the lower lip, no hump immediately behind the head, a duckbilled snout, a shorter caudal peduncle (length 16.8–18.6% SL), and the pelvic fin inserted closer to the snout tip than to the caudal-fin base.

Keywords: Pisces, Speolabeo, new species, cavefish, Central Vietnam

FIGURE 2. Speolabeo hokhanhi sp. nov., fresh individual immediately after capture. Lateral view.

Speolabeo hokhanhi sp. nov.

Diagnosis. Speolabeo hokhanhi can be easily distinguished from S. musaei by having a lower lip without papillae (vs. with a band of papillae along its anterior margin), no hump immediately behind the head (vs. present), a duckbilled (vs. pyramidal) snout, the pelvic fin inserted closer to the snout tip than to the caudal-fin base (vs. midway between the snout tip and caudal-fin base) and a shorter (vs. longer) caudal peduncle (length 16.8–18.6% SL vs. 19.6–22.7). All data here used for S. musaei are from Kottelat and Steiner (2011).

Etymology. The specific epithet is named in honor of Mr. Ho Khanh who discovered many caves in Phong Nha–Ke Bang National Park. He was a local guide of the cavefish survey conducted by the first author during 2014 into the cave where the type specimens were collected and provided detailed information about the collection site.
 As common names, we suggest Hokhanh’s Blind-cavefish (English) 
and cá mù hang va hồ-khanh (Vietnamese).

 FIGURE 4. Distribution of Speolabeo hokhanhi (▲).

Distribution and habitat. Speolabeo hokhanhi is known only from the type locality (Fig. 4). Hang Va Cave is roughly 35 km south of Phong Nha village, rather close to Hang Son Doong, the world’s largest known cave that is 5 km long, 200 m high and 150 m wide. A 24 km southward drive along the West Ho–Chi–Minh highway starting from the tourism center of the Phong Nha–Ke Bang National Park leads to the point closest to the cave site of the Hang Son Doong. From there, roughly 1.5 hours’ northward walk following a narrow stony track through thick forest arrives at Hang Va Cave. Its entrance is about 30 meters above the ground. A descent of 15 m from the entrance reaches a cave passage containing a subterraneous stream. Downstream for approximately 200 meters, there is a shallow water pool with many stalagmites, usually 2–3 m tall (Fig. 5), where the type specimens of the new species were collected during the dry season. At this time, the pool had a muddy substrate and was 0.5–1.5 m in depth, 10 m wide, and 25 m long. More than 30 individuals of about the same size were observed in the pool; only six were captured using a hand-net. The fishes were swimming slowly and haphazardly, rather close to the water surface; when disturbed, they swam deeper, but did not seek shelter. A new shrimp species was found to sympatrically occur with the cavefish (Do & Nguyen 2014).

Nguyen Dinh Tao, Liang Cao, Shuqing Deng and E Zhang. 2018. Speolabeo hokhanhi, A New Cavefish from Central Vietnam (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Zootaxa. 4476(1); 109–117.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4476.1.10

Saturday, September 22, 2018

[Herpetology • 2018] Adelophryne michelin • Diversity of Miniaturized Frogs of the Genus Adelophryne (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae: Phyzelaphryninae): A New Species from the Atlantic Forest of northeast Brazil.

Adelophryne michelin  
Lourenço-de-Moraes, Dias, Mira-Mendes, Oliveira, Barth, Ruas, Vences, Solé & Bastos, 2018

The number of species of frogs in the South American genus Adelophryne has increased in recent years, and it has become apparent that this group contains a substantial amount of undescribed diversity. Currently the genus contains nine described species and five candidate species. Here we describe the tenth species of the genus Adelophryne from the municipality of Igrapiúna, southern Bahia state, Brazil. The new species is characterized by its small body size, indistinct tympanum, and two phalanges in the finger IV. The species of the genus are distributed in three groups, Northern Amazonia Clade, Northern Atlantic Forest Clade and Southern Atlantic Forest Clade. The new species is phylogenetically related to species of the Northern Atlantic Forest Clade of Adelophryne and restricted to forested habitat, as typical for other Adelophryne. The species is restricted to the pristine forests in the type locality, and we consider its conservation status as Near Threatened. New morphological and molecular data of other Adelophryne species are presented, extending the distribution of Adelophryne sp. 2, Adelophryne sp. 4, Adelophryne mucronata and Adelophryne glandulata. However, a more comprehensive revision of the diversity and phylogenetic position of most Adelophryne species is needed, and the evolutionary relationships of A. meridionalis and A. pachydactyla remain unknown.

Adelophryne michelin sp. nov.
Adelophryne sp. (Mira-Mendes et al. [2018])

Etymology: The name “michelin” honors the Reserva Ecológica Michelin that has been supporting our researches for more than 10 years in the municipality of Igrapiúna, Bahia. The name is used as an invariable noun in apposition to the generic name.

Common name: Michelin Flea Frog or rãzinha-pulga-da-Michelin (in Portuguese).

Diagnosis: The new species is included in the subfamily Phyzelaphryninae because of the molecular evidence and by the presence of apically pointed digits; its leaf litter habitat; its terminal digits either barely or not expanded, and the SVL not exceeding 23 mm in SVL. In addition to the results of molecular analysis, the generic assignment of Adelophryne michelin sp. nov. is based on the possession of a head narrower than body, cranial crests absent, small size, with subdigital pad and mucronate tip on the fingers and toes, toes III and IV with discs and mucronate tips, and terminal phalanges of toes and fingers T-shaped.

The new species can be distinguished from species in the genus Phyzelaphryne by the absence of subarticular tubercles on fingers, for presenting indistinct tympanum, and reduction of the phalanges in the Finger IV. Phyzelaphryne has subarticular tubercles, distinct tympanum and no reduction of the phalanges.

The new taxon is diagnosed by the following combination of character states: (1) snout–vent length smaller than 11.5 mm (males 7.6–9.1 mm, N = 7; females 10.0–11.4 mm, N = 12); (2) tympanum indistinct without visible membrane; (3) tympanic annulus absent; (4) dentigerous processes of vomers present; (5) fingers without terminal discs, with mucronate tips, terminal phalanges T-shaped; (6) toes with terminal discs or circumferential grooves and mucronate tips; (7) terminal phalanges of toes T-shaped and sharply reduced; (8) Finger I shorter than Finger II; (9) Finger IV with two phalanges; (10) Toe III longer than Toe V; (11) subarticular tubercles absent on the fingers and toes (subdigital pads present); (12) belly skin smooth; (13) dorsum skin smooth; (14) anal flap absent.

Fig 4. Adult individuals of Adelophryne michelin sp. nov. in life (A) female paratype MBML 10498 and (B) paratype but not identified. Individual (A) showing an unusual bluish coloration and (B) showing common coloration.

Fig 5. Phylogenetic relationship of genus Adelophryne through 16S mitochondrial rRNA fragment gene (798 bp). Bayesian Posterior Probabilities and Maximum Likehood Bootstrap values are indicated above and below the branches. Asterisk = ≥ 0.99 and values below 0.50 are not shown (see methods for analysis details).
Abbreviations are: NAFC = Northern Atlantic Forest Clade; NAMC = Northern Amazonia Clade and SAFC = Southern Atlantic Forest Clade representing the clades proposed by Fouquet et al. [9]. The paratype of Adelophryne glandulata (MZUESC 12180) has number MH304347 in the tree. Photos not to scale.

Geographic distribution: Adelophryne michelin sp. nov. is known only from the type locality, at the Reserva Ecológica Michelin (REM), municipality of Igrapiúna, Bahia—Brazil (Fig 6).

Natural history, ecology and status conservation: Adelophryne michelin sp. nov. occurs in the leaf litter of primary forest. Two large ovarian eggs (2.0 mm) were found in one female of Adelophryne michelin sp. nov. (ZUFG 10697). We dissected five specimens of Adelophryne michelin sp. nov. one specimens there was nothing (ZUFG 10696) and four specimens revealed ants in their stomachs (ZUFG 10695 and 10697, MZUESC 17506, MBML10498). Beetles were found in stomachs of A. glandulata and ants were also found in A. glandulata [8] in A. gutturosa [5] and in A. mucronata [6]. We recorded a new population of A. mucronata and A. sp. 2 (sensu Fouquet et al. [9]), both species living sympatrically and syntopically with A. michelin sp. nov. in the REM.

Adelophryne michelin sp. nov has only been recorded at the type locality, in the Atlantic Forest biome of southeast Bahia, being restricted to well preserved forests. Based on the forest remnants size of landscape its area of occupancy is <500 km². As such, this new species can be included under criterion B2a of IUCN Red List [28]. Because we do not have data on habitat decline [11] or population data, we felt unable to fit the species into a threat category given that at least two of three conditions of criterion "B" need to be fulfilled for including a species into a threat category. Thus, we suggest that Adelophryne michelin sp. nov. should be listed as Near Threatened (NT) under the criterion B2a.

 Ricardo Lourenço-de-Moraes, Iuri R. Dias, Caio V. Mira-Mendes, Renan M. de Oliveira, Adriane Barth, Danilo S. Ruas, Miguel Vences, Mirco Solé and Rogério P. Bastos. 2018. Diversity of Miniaturized Frogs of the Genus Adelophryne (Anura: Eleutherodactylidae): A New Species from the Atlantic Forest of northeast Brazil.   PLoS ONE. 13(9): e0201781.  DOI:  10.1371/journal.pone.0201781

[Entomology • 2018] A Contribution to the Systematics of the Genus Manota Williston (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) in Brazil

Manota sp.

Kurina, Hippa & Souza Amorim, 2018. 

A total of 286 male specimens of Manota from 38 different collecting sites in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest were analysed. They belong to 32 different species, including 20 described as new to science and 12 recognized as previously described species. The new species are Manota abbreviata sp. n., M. atlantica sp. n., M. carioca sp. n., M. cavata sp. n., M. hirta sp. n., M. lamasi sp. n., M. lanei sp. n., M. nordestina sp. n., M. oliveirai sp. n., M. paniculata sp. n., M. papaveroi sp. n., M. periotoi sp. n., M. perparva sp. n., M. pseudoiota sp. n., M. rostrata sp. n., M. sanctavirginae sp. n., M. securiculata sp.n., M. silvai sp. n., M. tavaresi sp. n. and M. unispinata sp. n. The taxonomic context of the newly described species is discussed. Manota palpalis Lane, 1948, the type of which is considered lost, is redescribed and discussed, based on the original description, the original illustrations, and the type-locality. Our specimens of the previously described species belong to M. aligera Hippa, Kurina & Sääksjärvi, 2017, M. anfracta Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. appendiculata Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. caribica Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. diversiseta Jaschhof & Hippa, 2005, M. micula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. panda Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. pustulosa Hippa, Kurina & Sääksjärvi, 2017, M. quantula Hippa & Kurina, 2013, M. serrulata Hippa, Kurina & Sääksjärvi, 2017 and M. subaristata Kurina, Hippa & Amorim, 2017. Among the species dealt with here, ten have a wide distribution in South America or the Neotropics, six are known from only a single site, nine are widespread along the Atlantic Forest, and seven are known only from southern Brazil/northwestern Argentina. A discrepancy between the distribution patterns of Manota species and the general areas of endemism known for flies in the Atlantic Forest is discussed, and a non-destructive sequencing reverse workflow protocol for Manota specimens proposed.

        Including the species described here, the Neotropical region closely approaches the Oriental region in terms of the number of described species (92 and 102, respectively), while the genus now includes 300 species worldwide.

Keywords: Diptera, Sciaroidea, Neotropical region, Atlantic Forests, taxonomy, new species

Olavi Kurina, Heikki Hippa and Dalton de Souza Amorim. 2018. A Contribution to the Systematics of the Genus Manota Williston (Diptera: Mycetophilidae) in Brazil. Zootaxa. 4472(1); 1–59.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4472.1.1
Scientists discovered 20 new gnat species in Brazil 
bit.ly/2OLXD2c via @EurekAlert

 Olavi Kurina, Heikki Hippa and Dalton de Souza Amorim. 2017. New species and new records of Manota Williston from Colombia, Brazilian Amazonia, and Costa Rica (Diptera, Mycetophilidae). ZooKeys. 668: 83-105.  DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.668.11350

[Botany • 2018] Scleria aureovillosa (Cyperaceae) • A New Species of Scleria P.J.Bergius from North-Eastern Thailand

Scleria aureovillosa Kiaosanthie & K.Wangwasit

in Kiaosanthie, Wangwasit & Chaisongkram, 2018. 
กกลูกขนทอง  || DOI: 10.20531/tfb.2018.46.2.01 

Scleria aureovillosa Kiaosanthie & K.Wangwasit, a new species of Cyperaceae from North-Eastern Thailand, is described and illustrated. It is closely related to S. benthamii C.B.Clarke but differs in the leaf and culm surfaces, culm shape, the absence of wings at the leaf sheath, contraligule features, nutlet morphology and micromorphology, and leaf and culm anatomy. An emended section of the key to the species in the Flora of Thailand account of Scleria is provided.

KEYWORDS:  anatomy, nutlet, Scleria aureovillosa, taxonomy, Thailand

Figure 2. Scleria aureovillosa Kiaosanthie & K.Wangwasit.
A‒B. part of inflorescence; C. nutlet; D. disk 3-lobed; E. rhizome; F. habitat.

Scleria aureovillosa Kiaosanthie & K.Wangwasit, sp. nov.

Similar to Scleria benthamii C.B.Clarke but differs in having trigonous culms (vs triquetrous in S. benthamii), an obtuse contraligule (vs rounded to truncate) and nutlets 2.1‒2.5 mm long (vs 2.6‒2.9 mmlong), subglobose to globose, terete, with a black, apiculate apex (vs ovoid, subterete to trigonous and obtuse apex) (Fig. 3 & Table 1). 
Type: Thailand, Loei, Phu Rua, 1,155 m, 12 Nov. 2012, Kiaosanthie WK 0152012 (holotype BKF [194620!]; isotypes KKU!, QBG!) (Figs. 1, 2 & 3A‒C).

Ecology.― Growing in seasonally wet, open grassy places on hillsides and on sandy soil; 100‒1155 m alt.

Vernacular.― Kok luk khon thong (กกลูกขนทอง).The Thai name translates as ‘sedge with golden hairs on the nutlet surface’.

Etymology.― The specific epithet of this new species is taken from the Latin aureus and villus, which refers to the distinctive feature of the species having golden villous hairs on the mature nutlet surface.

Wipawan Kiaosanthie, Kamolhathai Wangwasit and Wanwipha Chaisongkram. 2018. A New Species of Scleria P.J.Bergius (Cyperaceae) from North-Eastern Thailand. THAI FOREST BULLETIN (BOTANY). 46(2); 113–122.  DOI: 10.20531/tfb.2018.46.2.01


Friday, September 21, 2018

[Herpetology • 2018] Hemiphyllodactylus ywanganensis & H. uga • Two More New Species of Hemiphyllodactylus Bleeker (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Shan Hills of eastern Myanmar

 (A) Hemiphyllodactylus ywanganensis &  (B and C) H. uga

Grismer, Wood, Zug, Thura, Grismer, Murdoch, Quah & Lin, 2018

An integrative phylogenetic analysis recovers two new species of the gekkonid genus Hemiphyllodactylus (Bleeker) from the Shan Hills of eastern Myanmar. Hemiphyllodactylus ywanganensis sp. nov. and H. uga sp. nov. are nested within the eastern Myanmar clade of a previous genus-wide phylogenetic analysis and form a more exclusive monophyletic group with H. linnwayensis. These species differ from each other and all other Hemiphyllodactylus in having unique combinations of character states involving postmental and subcaudal scale morphology; maximum SVL; digital formulae; numbers of chin scales, circumnasals, intersupranasals (=postrostrals), labials, longitudinally arranged dorsal and ventral scales, and pore-bearing femoroprecloacal scales; as well as subtle differences in coloration and pattern. The phylogenetic affinities of the eastern Myanmar clade are similar to those of an endemic clade of Cyrtodactylus from the Shan Hills in that both are more closely related to Indochinese taxa east of Myanmar as opposed to other Indo-Burmese species. The discovery of these new species underscores the underappreciated herpetological diversity of limestone ecosystems as well as the remote nature of the rugged uplands of the Shan Hills and emphasizes the need for continued field work in this region. 

Key words: Indochina, systematics, new species, Gekkonidae, Burma

FIGURE 4. A. Adult female paratype (LSUHC 13138) of Hemiphyllodactylus ywanganensis sp. nov. from 2.7 km southwest of Ywangan, Ywangan Township, Taunggyi District, Shan State, Myanmar
(Photo by L. L. Grismer).
 B and C: Adult male holotype (USNM 570733) and adult female paratype (USNM 570734) of Hemiphyllodactylus uga sp. nov., respectively, from the Pyin Oo Lwin, Kandawgyi National Gardens, Pyin Oo Lwin, Mandalay Region, Myanmar
(Photos by G. R. Zug). 

Hemiphyllodactylus ywanganensis sp. nov. 
Ywangan Slender Gecko

Etymology. The specific epithet, ywanganensis, is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality being near the town of Ywangan, Shan State.

Hemiphyllodactylus uga sp. nov. 
Uga’s Slender Gecko  
Hemphyllodactylus sp. nov. 8. Grismer et al. 2013:872, Grismer et al. 2014a:67, Grismer et al. 2014b:490, Ngo et al. 2014:541, Grismer et al. 2015:861
Hemiphyllodatylus cf. linnwayensis. Grismer et al. 2017b:31

Etymology. The specific name recognizes and honors the late U Uga. He was a conservationist and a former director of the Nature and Wildlife Conservation Division (NWCD), Myanmar Forestry Department. He encouraged Joseph B. Slowinski and George R. Zug to do an all-country herpetofaunal survey and established the administrative protocol to establish and support survey teams of NWCD wildlife rangers. These teams working independently and with CAS and USNM collaborators were the essential factor for the high productivity and success of the Myanmar Herpetological Survey (MHS).

 L. L. Grismer, Perry L. Wood, Jr., George R. Zug, Myint K. Thura, Marta S. Grismer, M. L. Murdoch, Evan S. H. Quah and Aung Lin. 2018. Two More New Species of Hemiphyllodactylus Bleeker (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Shan Hills of eastern Myanmar (Burma). Zootaxa. 4483(2); 295–316. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4483.2.4