Tuesday, July 17, 2018

[Herpetology • 2018] Phylogenomics of Montane Frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest is Consistent with Isolation in Sky Islands Followed by Climatic Stability

Brachycephalus investigated in the present study. 
Brachycephalus brunneusB. izecksohni; B. fuscolineatus B. auroguttatus

in Pie, Faircloth, Ribeiro, et al., 2018.

Despite encompassing a relatively small geographical area, montane regions harbour disproportionately high levels of species diversity and endemism. Nonetheless, relatively little is known about the evolutionary mechanisms that ultimately lead to montane diversity. In this study, we used target capture of ultraconserved elements to investigate the phylogenetic relationships and diversification patterns of Melanophryniscus (Bufonidae) and Brachycephalus (Brachycephalidae), two frog genera that occur in sky islands of the southern Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Specifically, we tested whether diversification of montane species in these genera could be explained by a single climatic shift leading to isolation in sky islands, followed by climatic stability that maintained populations in allopatry. In both genera, the topologies inferred using concatenation and coalescent-based methods were concordant and had strong nodal support, except for a few recent splits, which nevertheless tended to be supported by more informative loci. Estimation of divergence time of a combined dataset using both genera is consistent with a concordant timing of their diversification. These results support the scenario of diversification by isolation in sky islands and suggest that allopatry attributable to climatic gradients in montane regions is an important mechanism for generating species diversity and endemism in these regions.

Brachycephalus, coalescent, Melanophryniscus, target enrichment, ultraconserved elements

Figure 1. Examples of the species of Brachycephalus investigated in the present study.
E, Brachycephalus brunneus. F, Brachycephalus izecksohni. G, Brachycephalus fuscolineatus. H, Brachycephalus auroguttatus.
Photographs by L.F. Ribeiro.

Marcio R. Pie, Brant C. Faircloth, Luiz F. Ribeiro, Marcos R. Bornschein and John E Mccormack. 2018. Phylogenomics of Montane Frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest is Consistent with Isolation in Sky Islands Followed by Climatic Stability. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. bly093.   DOI: 10.1093/biolinnean/bly093   

Marcio R. Pie, Brant C Faircloth, Luiz Fernando Ribeiro, Marcos R. Bornschein and John McCormack. 2018. Phylogenomics of montane frogs of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest supports a scenario of isolation in sky islands followed by relative climatic stability. bioRxiv. 226159.  DOI: 10.1101/226159

[Botany • 2018] Orobanche javakhetica (Orobanchaceae) • A New Species from the Caucasus (Armenia)

Orobanche javakhetica Piwow., Ó. Sánchez & Moreno Mor.

in Piwowarczyk, Pedraja, Moral, et al., 2018. 

Orobanche javakhetica (Orobanchaceae) is described as a new, probably endemic, species from the Lesser Caucasus in Armenia. It grows on a subalpine meadow, where it parasitises Lomelosia caucasica (Dipsacaceae). The newly-described species is very characteristic and different from other known Orobanche, however some morphological similarity may exist with species from the Orobanche subsect. Curvatae, particularly with species of the Orobanche series Krylowianae. A detailed description, illustrations, a comparison with the most similar species with identification key, and phylogenetic analysis are provided.

Keywords: Lomelosia caucasica, Javakheti range, Lesser Caucasus, holoparasites, taxonomy, Orobanche, plant parasites, Eudicots

FIGURE 2. Inflorescences and general habit of Orobanche javakhetica.

 Photos by Renata Piwowarczyk.

Orobanche javakhetica Piwow., Ó. Sánchez & Moreno Mor., sp. nov.  

Etymology:― The epithet ‘javakhetica’ derives from the name of the Javakheti mountain range (Dzhavakheti range), where the new species was discovered.

Renata Piwowarczyk, Óscar Sánchez Pedraja, Gonzalo Moreno Moral , Magdalena Denysenko-Bennett and Grzegorz Góralski and Dagmara Kwolek. 2018. Orobanche javakhetica (Orobanchaceae): A New Species from the Caucasus (Armenia). Phytotaxa. 360(2); 135–144. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.360.2.5
Orobanche javakhetica Piwow., Ó. Sánchez & Moreno Mor. - nowy gatunek dla nauki z Armenii. Dzisiaj się ukazała publikacja w Phytotaxa,  mapress.com/j/pt/article/view/phytotaxa.360.2.5
Rośnie na około 2230 m n.p.m. i pasożytuje na Lomelosia caucasica (Dipsacaceae). Nazwę nadałam od pasma górskiego Javakheti, gdzie został znaleziony.

Renata Piwowarczyk

[Botany • 2018] Vaccinium cebuense • Taxonomic Novelties from Cebu: A New Species of Vaccinium (Ericaceae) and A New Record of Phaius (Orchidaceae) for the Philippines

Vaccinium cebuense  

in Salares, Obico, Ormerod, et al., 2018. 

Vaccinium cebuense (Ericaceae) from Nug-as forest (Alcoy) and the Central Cebu Protected Landscape (Balamban), two of the last remaining forested areas of Cebu Island, Philippines, is here described as a new species. This species is unique among the known species of this genus in displaying a unique combination of characters: leaves with marginal glands that are spaced along the entire length of the leaf, anthers with distinct and recurved dorsal spurs, and petioles that are adaxially grooved. Our fieldwork in Nug-as also resulted in the discovery of Phaius reflexipetalus (Orchidaceae), a new record for the Philippines previously only known from Borneo. These and other recent taxonomic novelties emphasize the conservation importance of the few and small remaining forests of Cebu.

Keywords: Epidendroideae, Phaius sect. Pesomeria, Taxonomy, Vaccinium sect. Bracteata, Visayas, Monocots

Val B. Salares, Jasper John A. Obico, Paul Ormerod, Julie F. Barcelona and Pieter B. Pelser. 2018. Taxonomic Novelties from Cebu: A New Species of Vaccinium (Ericaceae) and A New Record of Phaius (Orchidaceae) for the Philippines. Phytotaxa. 360(3); 255–262.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.360.3.5

A new species of #Philippines #Vaccinium from #Cebu and a new country record of #Phaius: recent taxonomic novelties emphasize #conservation importance of the few remaining forest fragments of Cebu.  ||  @UCNZscience @UCNZbiology #CDFP #Ericaceae #Orchidaceae  biotaxa.org/Phytotaxa/article/view/phytotaxa.360.3.5 …

[Entomology • 2018] Revision of the Genus Lamprima Latreille, 1804 (Coleoptera: Lucanidae)

FIGURES 97–105.  Habitus photographs of Lamprima Latreille, 1804, type material in Australian collections: 
97, L. krefftii W.J. MacLeay, 1871, holotype; 98, L. latreillii W.S. MacLeay, 1819, lectotype; 99, L. latreillii W.S. Macleay, paralectotype; 
100, L. latreillii sericea W.J. Macleay, 1885, lectotype; 101, L. latreillii sericea W.J. Macleay, paralectotype; 102, L. mandibularis W.J. Macleay, 1885, lectotype. 
 103, L. mandibularis W.J. Macleay, 1885, paralectotype; 104, L. minima W.J. Macleay, 1885, holotype; 105, L. nigripennis W.J. Macleay, 1885, holotype. 
Figures 98–105 courtesy of Cate Lemann, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation, 2017. All images to same scale. 

FIGURES 45–53. Male Lamprima species, mandibles, lateral view:
45, L. adolphinae (Gestro, 1875), elongate mandible form; 46, L. adolphinae, short mandible form; 47, L. aenea (Fabricius, 1792); 48, L. aurata Latreille, 1804, elongate mandible form, northern Queensland; 49, L. aurata, New South Wales, large male; 50, L. aurata, New South Wales, small male; 51, L. aurata, Western Australia; 52, L. imberbis Carter, 1926, holotype; 53, L. insularis W.J. Macleay, 1885. 
Figure 52 courtesy Peter Hudson, South Australian Museum.

in Reid, Smith & Beatson, 2018. 

The genus Lamprima Latreille, 1804 (Coleoptera: Lucanidae: Lampriminae: Lamprimini), is revised. Five species are recognised: one in New Guinea (L. adolphinae (Gestro, 1875)), two on isolated western Pacific islands (L. aenea Fabricius, 1792: Norfolk Island; L. insularis W.J. Macleay, 1885: Lord Howe Island), one in northeastern New South Wales (L. imberbis Carter, 1926) and a common widespread species in eastern and southern Australia, L. aurata Latreille, 1817. Lamprima aurata varies considerably morphologically and many of the different forms encompassed by this variation have been described as species. Our study of morphology does not support this classification. Therefore, Lamprima aurata is designated a senior synonym of the following 24 names: L. cuprea Latreille, 1817; L. latreillii W.S. MacLeay, 1819 (new synonym); L. pygmaea W.S. MacLeay, 1819 (new synonym); L. fulgida Boisduval, 1835; L. micardi Reiche, 1841 (new synonym); L. rutilans Erichson, 1842; L. splendens Erichson, 1842; L. viridis Erichson, 1842; L. nigricollis Hope in Westwood, 1845 (new synonym); L. purpurascens Hope in Westwood, 1845 (new synonym); L. sumptuosa Hope in Westwood, 1845 (new synonym); L. tasmaniae Hope in Westwood, 1845 (new synonym); L. varians Burmeister, 1847 (new synonym); L. cultridens Burmeister, 1847 (new synonym); L. amplicollis Thomson, 1862 (new synonym); L. krefftii W.J. MacLeay, 1871 (new synonym); L. violacea W.J. Macleay, 1885 (new synonym); L. mandibularis W.J. Macleay, 1885 (new synonym); L. sericea W..J Macleay, 1885 (new synonym); L. nigripennis W.J. Macleay, 1885 (new synonym); L. minima W.J. Macleay, 1885 (new synonym); L. mariae Lea, 1910; L. coerulea Boileau, 1913 (new synonym); L. insularis Boileau, 1913 (new synonym). Lamprima adolphinae is a senior synonym of L. bohni (Darge & Séguy, 1953) (new synonym). Lamprima schreibersi Hope in Westwood, 1845, is an unnecessary nomen novum for L. aenea redescribed by Schreibers in 1802 from the same material as Fabricius, and therefore an objective synonym of L. aenea. Lamprima puncticollis Dejean, 1833, L. coerulea Hope in Westwood, 1845, and L. insularis Hope in Westwood, 1845, are nomina nuda, the last two names first made available by Boileau in 1913. The five Lamprima species are redescribed and recommendations made for their conservation. Type specimens of the species of Lamprima described by William Sharpe MacLeay and William John Macleay are illustrated for the first time. Lectotypes are designated for Lamprima insularis, L. latreillii, L. latreillii sericea, and L. mandibularis.

Keywords: Coleoptera, stag beetle, synonymy, morphology, nomenclature, polymorphism, insect trade, island endemism, distribution

Chris A.M. Reid, Kindi Smith and Max Beatson. 2018. Revision of the Genus Lamprima Latreille, 1804 (Coleoptera: Lucanidae). Zootaxa. 4446(2); 151–202. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4446.2.1

[Botany • 2018] Agave maria-patriciae (Polycephalae Group: Asparagaceae) • A New Species from Central Coastal Veracruz, Mexico

Agave maria-patriciae Cházaro & Arzaba

in Arzaba-Villalba, Cházaro-Basáñez & Viveros-Colorado, 2018

Agave maria-patriciae Cházaro & Arzaba is described and illustrated here as a new species from the central coast of the state of Veracruz in Mexico. It belongs to the subgenus Littaea and Polycephalae group, which contains tropical and subtropical species from the American continent. Agave maria-patriciae is closely related to A. pendula, but differs from the latter by having smaller rosettes, shorter and suberect stems and smaller and subsessile flowers. It is only known from a small population in the oak forest from the mountains of Sierra de Monte de Oro in the municipality of Alto Lucero in eastern Mexico.

Keywords: Agave, endemic, new species, Polycephalae, Veracruz, Monocots

FIGURE 3. Agave maria-patriciae:
 A. habit, B. Flower, C. unripe fruits, D. detail of the rosette, E. leaf with central stripe.

FIGURE 2. Agave maria-patriciae.
A. Flower, B. Tepals, C. Sagittal view of flower, D. Capsules and bracteole, E. Transversal section of the capsule, F. seed, G. Leaf, H. Denticles at margin, I, J. Habit. Illustration by first author from C. Arzaba et al. 451, XAL—holotype. The numbers beside barscales denote centimeters.

Agave maria-patriciae Cházaro & Arzaba sp. nov. 

 Agave maria-patriciae is most similar to A. pendula by sharing lanceolate to oblong leaves with a central yellow stripe, but it differs in its shorter leaves, stems and floral scape; presence of continuous reddish margins along the leaves, thicker terminal spine and larger denticles, its smaller and succulent flowers with reflexed and not broadly cucullate tepals and subsessile capsules. 

Type:— MEXICO. Veracruz: municipality of Alto Lucero, summit of Cerro La Bandera, NE of La Yerbabuena village, 660 m, 07 January 2016 (fl. & fr.), C. Arzaba 451 et al. (holotype XAL!; isotypes CHAPA!, MEXU!).

Etymology:— The species name is dedicated to Mrs. María Patricia Hernández, wife of the second author, who in the 1980s and early 1990s was a great companion in numerous field trips even to remote areas. As a result, several hundreds of botanical specimens are labeled as “M. Cházaro & P. Hernández”, deposited in the main herbaria of Mexico and the USA. She also mounted hundreds of exsiccata at the WIS and IBUG herbaria, as well as coauthored several papers on succulent plants of Mexico.

Carlos Arzaba-Villalba, Miguel Cházaro-Basáñez and César Viveros-Colorado. 2018. Agave maria-patriciae (Polycephalae Group: Asparagaceae), A New Species from Central Coastal Veracruz, Mexico. Phytotaxa. 360(3); 263–268.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.360.3.6

Resumen: Agave maria-patriciae Cházaro & Arzaba es descrita e ilustrada como una nueva especie de la costa central del estado de Veracruz en México. Pertenece al subgénero Littaea y al grupo Polycephalae, el cual contiene especies tropicales y subtropicales del continente americano. A. maria-patriciae está estrechamente relacionado con A. pendula pero difiere de ésta última al poseer rosetas más pequeñas, tallos más cortos y suberectos y flores de menor tamaño y subsésiles. Solo se conoce de una pequeña población en bosque de encino en la Sierra de Monte de Oro, en el municipio de Alto Lucero, en el oriente de México. 
Palabras-clave: Agave, endémica, nueva especie, Polycephalae, Veracruz

[Herpetology • 2018] Selvasaura brava • Systematics of Neotropical Microteiid Lizards (Gymnophthalmidae, Cercosaurinae), with the Description of A New Genus and Species from the Andean Montane Forests

 Selvasaura brava
Moravec, Šmíd, Štundl & Lehr, 2018

Cercosaurine lizards (subfamily Cercosaurinae of the family Gymnophthalmidae) represent a substantial component of the reptile fauna in the Neotropics. Several attempts have been made to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships within this group, but most studies focused on particular genera or regions and did not cover the subfamily as a whole. In this study, material from the montane forests of Peru was newly sequenced. In combination with all cercosaurine sequences available on GenBank, an updated phylogeny of Cercosaurinae is provided. Monophyly was not supported for three of the currently recognised genera (Echinosaura, Oreosaurus, and Proctoporus). The genus Proctoporus is formed by five monophyletic groups, which should be used in future taxonomic revisions as feasible entities. Recognition of two previously identified undescribed clades (Unnamed clades 2 and 3) was supported and yet another undescribed clade (termed here Unnamed clade 4), which deserves recognition as an independent genus, was identified herein. Selvasaura brava, a new genus and new species of arboreal gymnophthalmid lizard is described from the montane forests of the Pui Pui Protected Forest, Provincia de Chanchamayo, Región Junín, Peru. The new species is characterised by its small size (SVL 42.1–45.9 mm), slender body, smooth head shields, presence of paired prefrontal shields, fused anteriormost supraocular and anteriormost superciliary shields, transparent not divided lower palpebral disc, slightly rugose subimbricate rectangular dorsal scales in adults (slightly keeled in juveniles), distinctly smaller but non-granular lateral scales, smooth squared to rectangular ventral scales, and hemipenial lobes large, distinct from the hemipenial body. Phylogenetic affinities of the new genus to the other cercosaurine genera, as well as basal phylogenetic relationships between the other cercosaurine genera remain unresolved.

Keywords: Andes, arboreality, phylogeny, reptile diversity, Selvasaura gen. n., Selvasaura brava sp. n., taxonomy

Family Gymnophthalmidae Fitzinger, 1826
Subfamily Cercosaurinae Gray, 1838

Genus Selvasaura gen. n.
Unnamed clade 3 (in Torres-Carvajal et al. 2016)

Type species: Selvasaura brava sp. n.

Diagnosis: Phenotypic synapomorphies are not known for this genus. Morphologically, Selvasaura gen. n. can be distinguished from all other genera of Cercosaurinae by the combination of the following characters: lower palpebral disc transparent, not divided (divided in Andinosaura, Euspondylus, Gelanesaurus, Oreosaurus, Petracola, Riama, and most Anadia and Placosoma species; opaque in Pholidobolus); dorsal scales slightly rugose (smooth in Anadia; keeled in Cercosaura; strongly keeled and tuberculate in Echinosaura, Gelanesaurus, Neusticurus, Potamites; minute tubercles on posterior dorsal scales in Placosoma); lateral scales distinctly smaller than dorsal scales (lateral scales not distinctly reduced in size in Macropholidus); lateral scales adjacent to ventrals non-granular (granular in Proctoporus) (see e.g., Oftedal 1974; Cadle and Chuna 1995; Altamirano-Benavides et al. 2013; Kok et al. 2013; Torres-Carvajal and Mafla-Endara 2013; Echevarría et al. 2015; Borges-Nojosa et al. 2016; Chávez et al. 2017; Sánchez-Pacheco et al. 2017b). Genetically, the genus is differentiated from the other cercosaurines by distances given in Table 3 and 4.

Definition: (1) head shields smooth; (2) frontoparietal and parietal shields paired; (3) frontonasal, frontal and interparietal shields single; (4) prefrontal shields present; (5) lower palpebral disc transparent, not divided; (6) loreal shield present; (7) scale organs on labials present; (8) anteriormost supraocular and anteriormost superciliary shields fused; (9) dorsal surface of the tongue covered by scale-like papillae; (10) nuchal scales smooth; (11) dorsal scales rectangular, slightly rugose; (12) ventral scales squared to rectangular, smooth; (13) limbs pentadactyl, digits clawed; (14) femoral pores present in males, absent in females; (15) hemipenial lobes large, distinct from the hemipenial body.

Content: Selvasaura brava sp. n. and undescribed species of Unnamed clade 3 (sensu Torres-Carvajal et al. 2016) whose formal descriptions are underway (see Torres-Carvajal et al. 2016).

Distribution: Peru: Región Junín, Provincia de Chanchamayo, Pui Pui Protected Forest (Selvasaura brava sp. n.); Región San Martin, Provincia Mariscal Cáceres, Laurel (Cercosaurinae sp. 3; Torres-Carvajal et al. 2016). Ecuador: Provincia de Zamora Chinchipe, El Pangui (Cercosaurinae sp. 3; Torres-Carvajal et al. 2016); Provincia de Napo, Wildsumaco Wildlife Sanctuary (Cercosaurinae sp. 3; Torres-Carvajal et al. 2016).

Etymology: The generic name Selvasaura is derived from the Spanish noun ‘selva’ (forest) and the Greek noun σαύρα (lizard; saura is the feminine form) and refers to the habitat (montane rainforest) of the type species.

Figure 6. Holotype of Selvasaura brava sp. n. (MUSM 32738) in life. Photographs by E. Lehr. 

Figure 7. Paratypes of Selvasaura brava sp. n. 
Dorsal (A) and ventral (B) view of adult male (NMP6V 75653) with a detail of an everted hemipenis (C)
D adult female (MUSM 32718) E – juvenile (NMP6V 75655). Note the generally uniform colouration of the female compared to the male and juvenile specimens. Photographs by J. Moravec.

Selvasaura brava sp. n.
 Suggested English name: Brave forest microtegu 
Suggested Spanish name: Microtegu selva brava

Diagnosis: A small gymnophthalmid (SVL 42.1–45.9 mm, n = 4), which can be characterised by the following combination of characters: 1) body slender, slightly depressed, maximum SVL 45.9 mm in males, 42.1 mm in a single female; 2) head relatively short, pointed, about 1.5 times longer than wide; 3) ear opening distinct, moderately recessed; 4) nasals separated by undivided frontonasal; 5) prefrontals, frontal, frontoparietals, parietals, postparietals and interparietal present; 6) parietals slightly longer than wide; 7) supraoculars four, anteriormost fused with anteriormost superciliar; 8) superciliar series complete, consisting of four scales; 9) nasal shield divided above and below or behind the nostril; 10) loreal separated or in contact with second supralabial; 11) supralabials seven; 12) genials in four pairs, first and second pair in contact; 13) collar present, containing 9–11 enlarged scales; 14) dorsals in 33–36 transverse rows, rectangular, nearly twice as long as wide, subimbricate, rugose in adults, slightly keeled in juveniles; 15) ventrals in 22–25 transverse rows, squared to rectangular, smooth, juxtaposed; 16) scales around mid-body 32–34; 17) lateral scales at mid-body reduced in 4–7 lines; 18) limbs pentadactyl, all digits clawed, forelimb reaching anteriorly to third supralabial; 19) subdigital lamellae under Finger IV 14–16, under Toe IV 18–22; 20) femoral pores in males 7–9; 21) four large preanal plate scales; 22) tail about 1.5–1.7 times longer than body (in juveniles); 23) caudals subimbricate, rugose to slightly keeled dorsally in adults, slightly keeled in juveniles, smooth ventrally; 24) lower palpebral disc transparent, undivided; 25) in life, dorsal surface of head, body and limbs light brown with fine dark brown speckling, dorsal surface of tail light brown with a reddish tint or reddish-brown markings; a tan or yellowish brown vertebral stripe bordered laterally by dark brown, vertebral stripe extends on head anteriorly and on tail caudally (inconspicuous in the female); a narrow dirty white to tan dorsolateral line extending on each side from above the tympanum to pelvic region (discontinuous caudally from the level of forelimbs in adults, reaching posterior edge of orbit in some individuals); a narrow dirty white to tan stripe running from above the orbit across parietals and first postparietals up to the neck (connected with the dorsolateral line in some individuals); a narrow white stripe extending from below of orbit to insertion of forelimbs (bordered dorsally by black in juveniles and some adults); minute ocelli-like white spots on flanks (most conspicuous at forearm insertion, absent in some adults); ventrolateral parts of flanks whitish brown; throat and belly creamy white with fine dark grey speckling inside the individual scales (yellowish white with black speckling in juveniles); ventral surfaces of limbs, anal area and tail yellowish white in males and juveniles, white in the female; iris tan with orange tint in males, tan in the female.

Etymology: The species epithet brava is derived from the Spanish adjective bravo (brave, courageous, wild; brava the feminine form) and refers to Río Bravo, the largest river in the area of occurrence of the new species, as well as to the fearless nature of the lizard to share shelter with people.

Distribution, natural history, and threat status: Selvasaura brava sp. n. is known from two localities lying at the northeastern border of the Pui Pui Protected Forest, ca. 18 km (straight airline distance) NW of the town of Satipo (Fig. 1). Both localities are located in the valley of the tributary of Río Bravo (on opposite banks of the tributary) about 500 m (straight distance) from each other. The valley and its slopes are covered by a primary montane rainforest characterized by 15–20 m high canopy and frequent occurrence of bromeliads, ferns, and epiphytic mosses (see also Lehr and Moravec (2017). All specimens of S. brava sp. n. were collected during the day within roofs of provisional camp shacks consisting of dried palm leaves and built by locals on small forest clearings (Fig. 8; MorphoBank picture: M485681). The roofs of the shacks were placed on 1.5–4 m pillars made of tree trunks and stood in an open space fully exposed to sun. The activity of all observed specimens seemed correlated with the intensity of solar radiation. During the sunny hours, the animals emerged from their shelters in the leaf layer, climbed and basked on the roof surface and searched for prey. As agile climbers, the lizards were able to climb up thin vertical tree trunks and jump between the palm leaves. These observations indicate that S. brava sp. n. represents an arboreal heliothermic species. Other gymnophthalmid species found at the type locality in sympatry with S. brava sp. n. included Potamites sp. (not included in the genetic analyses), which inhabited banks of small forest brooks, and Proctoporus sp. 4 (sensu this publication, Fig. 3) collected on the ground in the open clearing. With respect to the sparse data available, we suggest classifying S. brava as “Data Deficient” according to the IUCN red list criteria.

Figure 8. Type locality of Selvasaura brava sp. n. The lizards were active during the day basking and foraging in the leaves of the roof and on the shack pillars. They used the leaves on the roof as a refuge to hide in. Photograph by J. Moravec.


Jiří Moravec, Jiří Šmíd, Jan Štundl and Edgar Lehr. 2018. Systematics of Neotropical Microteiid Lizards (Gymnophthalmidae, Cercosaurinae), with the Description of A New Genus and Species from the Andean Montane Forests. ZooKeys. 774: 105-139.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.774.25332

[Ichthyology • 2018] Trimma blematium & T. meityae • Two New Species of Blue-eyed Trimma (Pisces; Gobiidae) from New Guinea

Trimma blematium
Winterbottom & Erdmann, 2018 

Two new species of Trimma are described from New Guinea, one at the southeastern end at Normanby Island (Milne Bay Province), the other from Cendrawasih Bay, West Papua, on the north-east coast. The dorsal surface of the eye of both species is blue in life, a characteristic not reported elsewhere in the genus. Although the two species look very similar in life, and both occupy similar mesophotic rubble habitats in the 50-70 m depth range, they are separated both genetically (7.7% pairwise genetic distance in COI) and morphologically. Trimma blematium has 16 pectoral fin rays, a branched 5th pelvic fin ray, and 7 papillae in row p, whereas T. meityae has 17–18 pectoral fin rays, an unbranched 5th pelvic fin ray, and 8 papillae in row p. In live specimens, the blue colour over the top of the eyes is much darker in T. blematium than in T. meityae. The type localities are separated by almost 2,000 km (straight-line distance).

Keywords: Pisces, taxonomy, Western Pacific, coral reef gobies, COI gene

 Richard Winterbottom and  Mark V. Erdmann. 2018. Two New Species of Blue-eyed Trimma (Pisces; Gobiidae) from New Guinea.  Zootaxa.  4444(4); 471–483. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4444.4.7

Monday, July 16, 2018

[Botany • 2018] Hippeastrum lunaris & H. mauroi • Two New Critically Endangered Species of Hippeastrum (Amaryllidaceae) from the Brazilian Cerrado

Hippeastrum lunaris Campos-Rocha & Meerow

in Campos-Rocha, Meerow & Dutilh, 2018. 
Monographic work on the genus Hippeastrum in Brazil has revealed two new species endemic to the Cerrado biome, here described and illustrated. Hippeastrum lunaris is a species restricted to the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros; H. mauroi is so far found only in Chapada dos Guimarães. Detailed descriptions, illustrations and taxonomic comments on the conservation status of these species are provided, in addition to comparisons with morphologically similar species. An identification key to the species of Hippeastrum occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado is presented, accompanied by photographs of these species in their natural habitats.

Keywords: Endemism, Hippeastreae, taxonomy, threatened species, Monocots

Hippeastrum lunaris Campos-Rocha & Meerow sp. nov. 
 Hippeastrum lunaris is similar to H. morelianum Lemaire (1845: 37) and can be separated readily by underground bulb (vs. exposed) and the paraperigone of free and loose fibrae (vs. fimbrae partially connate). It appears related to H. leucobasis (Ravenna 1978: 90) Dutilh in Meerow et al. (1997: 18) but differs by the staminal filaments shorter than the perigone and its trifid stigma (vs. filaments exceeding the perigone and a capitate stigma in H. leucobasis). 

Type:— BRAZIL. Goiás: Colinas do Sul, campo sujo com mata inundável adjacente, área a ser inundada, 18 December 1996, L.B. Bianchetti 1502 (holotype CEN [photo!]; isotype UB!; UEC!).

Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to the Vale da Lua, to where the species is confined. The area is so named because of its rock formations along the banks of the ribeirão São Miguel, considered similar to lunar craters

FIGURE 2. Hippeastrum lunaris.
 A, B. Flowering plants in habitat. C. Details of leaves and inflorescence. D. Detail of flower.
Photos A: J. Costa. B–D: H. Moreira.


FIGURE 5. Hippeastrum mauroi.
 A. Plants flowering ex situ. B. Flower, lateral view. C. Flower, frontal view. A: A. Campos-Rocha & G. Bellozi 1215.
Photos A: A. Campos-Rocha. B, C: M. Peixoto.

Hippeastrum mauroi Campos-Rocha & Dutilh, sp. nov. 

Hippeastrum mauroi is similar to H. puniceum and H. reginae (Linnaeus 1759: 977) Herbert (1821: 31) but can be distinguished from both by its uniflorous inflorescence (vs. 2–4, except rarely one in H. puniceum), different color pattern at the base of the tepals, the paraperigone devoid of fimbrae (vs. fimbrae present), and the style up to 1/2 of the perigone length (vs. 2/3 or more).

 Type:— BRAZIL. Mato Grosso: Chapada dos Guimarães, área de Cerrado ralo próxima ao Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães; florescimento em cultivo no Jardim Botânico Plantarum, 21 August 2013, A. Campos-Rocha & G. Bellozi 1215 (holotype UEC!).

Etymology:— The specific epithet is in honor of our friend Mauro Peixoto, who collected and introduced us to this and so many other plants new to science. Mauro has a unique knowledge about Brazilian native plants, a result of decades of study and observation in the field, having collaborated actively with various scientists over the years.

 Antonio Campos-Rocha, Alan William Meerow and Julie Henriette Antoinette Dutilh. 2018. Two New Critically Endangered Species of Hippeastrum (Amaryllidaceae) from the Brazilian Cerrado. Phytotaxa. 360(2); 91–102.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.360.2.1

[Herpetology • 2018] Vermicella parscauda • A New Species of Bandy-bandy (Vermicella: Serpentes: Elapidae) from the Weipa Region, Cape York, Australia

Vermicella parscauda
Derez, Arbuckle, Ruan, Xie, Huang, et al., 2018

Bandy-bandies (genus Vermicella) are small (50–100cm) black and white burrowing elapids with a highly specialised diet of blindsnakes (Typhlopidae). There are currently 5 recognized species in the genus, all located in Australia, with Vermicella annulata the most encountered species with the largest distribution. Morphological and mitochondrial analyses of specimens collected from the Weipa area, Cape York, Queensland reveal the existence of a new species, which we describe as Vermicella parscauda sp. nov. Mitochondrial DNA analysis (16S and ND4) and external morphological characteristics indicate that the closest relatives of the new species are not V. annulata, which also occurs on Cape York, but rather species from Western Australia and the Northern Territory (V. intermedia and V. multifasciata) which, like V. parscauda, occupy monsoon habitats. Internasal scales are present in V. parscauda sp. nov., similar to V. annulata, but V. intermedia and V. multifasciata do not have nasal scales. V. parscauda sp. nov. has 55–94 black dorsal bands and mottled or black ventral scales terminating approximately 2/3rds of the body into formed black rings, suggesting that hyper-banding is a characteristic of the tropical monsoon snakes (V. intermedia, V. multifasciata and V. parscauda). The confined locality, potential habitat disruption due to mining activities, and scarcity of specimens indicates an urgent conservation concern for this species.

Keywords: Reptilia, Australian Monsoonal Tropics, mtDNA, taxonomy, Vermicella parscauda sp. nov.

FIGURE 1. Dorsal and head view of Vermicella parscauda sp. nov. holotype QM J95678. Male collected from boat ramp Weipa, Cape York, Queensland, in August 2014 by FJ Vonk and BG Fry.
Photos by F.J. Vonk.


Vermicella parscauda sp. nov.
Etymology. The specific epithet is modified from the Latin words pars (part) and cauda (tail) in reference to the tail length and formed bands on the tail.

Chantelle M. Derez, Kevin Arbuckle, Zhiqiang Ruan, Bing Xie, Yu Huang, Lauren Dibben, Qiong Shi, Freek J. Vonk and Bryan G. Fry. 2018. A New Species of Bandy-bandy (Vermicella: Serpentes: Elapidae) from the Weipa Region, Cape York, Australia. Zootaxa. 4446(1); 1–12. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4446.1.1 

[Entomology • 2018] A Taxonomic Review of the Genus Callilanguria Crotch, 1876 (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae)

Callilanguria weiweii Huang & Yang

in Huang, Han & Yang, 2018.

A worldwide review of the genus Callilanguria is presented. Three new species are described: Callilanguria weiweii Huang & Yang, sp. nov. from Sabah, Malaysia; C. helleri Huang & Yang, sp. nov. from Panay, the Philippines; and C. nigripes Huang & Yang, sp. nov. from Samar Island, the Philippines. Callilanguria scrupulosa Heller, 1918 is transferred to the genus Doubledaya. The other species are C. eximia Fowler, 1885; C. gorhami Villiers, 1945; C. asymmetrica Heller, 1900; C. ruficeps Achard, 1923; C. milloti Villiers, 1945; C. stenosoma (Harold, 1879); C. flaviventris Fowler, 1886; C. wallacii Crotch, 1876; and C. luzonica Crotch, 1876. In total, twelve species are recognized in the genus Callilanguria, and a key to the described species of the genus is provided.

Keywords: Coleoptera, Cucujoidea, new species, new combination, Doubledaya, Oriental region

Zheng-Zhong Huang, Xin-Yu Han and Xing-Ke Yang. 2018. A Taxonomic Review of the Genus Callilanguria Crotch, 1876 (Coleoptera: Erotylidae: Languriinae). Zootaxa. 4446(1); 97–110. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4446.1.7

[Ichthyology • 2018] Platichthys solemdali • A New Flounder Species (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes) From the Baltic Sea

Platichthys solemdali 
Momigliano, Denys,  Jokinen & Merilä, 2018
photo: Mats Westerbom 

The European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) displays two contrasting reproductive behaviors in the Baltic Sea: offshore spawning of pelagic eggs and coastal spawning of demersal eggs, a behavior observed exclusively in the Baltic Sea. Previous studies showed marked differences in behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits of flounders with pelagic and demersal eggs. Furthermore, a recent study demonstrated that flounders with pelagic and demersal eggs represent two reproductively isolated, parapatric species arising from two distinct colonization events from the same ancestral population. Using morphological data we first established that the syntypes on which the original description of P. flesus was based belong to the pelagic-spawning lineage. We then used a combination of morphological and physiological characters as well as genome-wide genetic data to describe flounders with demersal eggs as a new species: Platichthys solemdali sp. nov. The new species can be clearly distinguished from P. flesus based on egg morphology, egg and sperm physiology as well as via population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. While the two species do show some minor morphological differences in the number of anal and dorsal fin rays, no external morphological feature can be used to unambiguously identify individuals to species. Therefore, we developed a simple molecular diagnostic test able to unambiguously distinguish P. solemdali from P. flesus with a single PCR reaction, a tool that should be useful to fishery scientists and managers, as well as to ecologists studying these species.

Family Pleuronectidae Rafinesque 1815

Genus Platichthys Girard 1854

Platichthys solemdali sp. nov.
  Baltic flounder

Diagnosis: Platichthys solemdali sp. nov. is diagnosable from P. stellatus by the absence of stripes on the dorsal and anal fin rays [Figures 6A, 2B; vs. presence of stripes for P. stellatus (Morrow, 1980)]. It can be distinguished with more than 99.999% certainty from P. flesus using genotypes of at least three of the outlier loci which were genotyped in this study (Loci 886, 3599, and 1822) by comparison with publically available reference data deposited in the Dryad digital repository (Momigliano et al., 2017a). P. solemdali sp. nov. (N = 50) has 46–59 dorsal fin rays vs. 51–66 for P. flesus recorded in this study, in Voronina (1999) and in Galleguillos and Ward (1982), and 35–41 anal fin rays vs. 35–45 in P. flesus from this study, Voronina (1999) and Galleguillos and Ward (1982). Hence, none of these meristic characters provide unambiguous species diagnosis. However, reproductive traits (viz. egg morphology and buoyancy, as well as sperm physiology) are unambiguous diagnostic characters. Eggs of P. solemdali sp. nov. become neutrally buoyant at salinities between 16 and 21.5 psu and are 0.99 ± 0.05 mm in diameter (Table 6; Figure 7), whereas the eggs of P. flesus in the Baltic Sea are larger (1.3–1.5 mm) and reach neutral buoyancy between 11 and 18 psu (Table 6; Nissling et al., 2002). Spermatozoa of P. solemdali sp. nov. activate at minimum salinities between 2 and 4 psu, in contrast to a required salinity above 10 psu for P. flesus (Table 7).

Geographic distribution:   P. solemdali sp. nov. is endemic to the Baltic Sea, where it has a wide distribution in coastal and bank areas across the region up to the Gulf of Finland and the southern Bothnian Sea. Confirmed individuals of P. solemdali sp. nov. have been sampled as far south as Öland (SD 27) (species identity confirmed via genetic analyses, Figure 1) and Hanö Bay (SD 25) (based on egg morphology, see Wallin, 2016; Nissling et al., 2017). In a recent paper Orio et al. (2017) suggested that environmental conditions in the entire southern Baltic Sea are suitable for demersal spawning flounders, and already Mielck and Künne (1935) reported ripe female flounders with small eggs from shallow low-saline (6–7‰) areas in the southern Baltic Sea (Oder Bank, SD 24). However, the current occurrence of Psolemdali sp. nov. in the southern regions is poorly known and, hence, it is still unclear whether the species is found throughout the coastal Baltic Sea area.

Habitat: P. solemdali sp. nov. lives in brackish water of varying salinities in the coastal zone at 0.5–50 m depth on soft and hard bottoms.

Etymology: This species is dedicated to Per Solemdal (1941–2016) who was the first researcher to study the Baltic Sea flounder's eggs and sperm in connection to salinity and discovered that “the specific gravity of the eggs is a fixed population characteristic which is almost unchangeable” (Solemdal, 1973) laying the foundations on which many subsequent studies on local adaptation and speciation of Baltic Sea marine fishes were built.

Paolo Momigliano, Gaël P. J. Denys, Henri Jokinen and Juha Merilä. 2018. Platichthys solemdali sp. nov. (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes): A New Flounder Species From the Baltic Sea.  Frontiers in Marine Science.  DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00225

Sunday, July 15, 2018

[Botany • 2018] Argyreia gyrobracteata • Species Delimitation of Some Argyreia (Convolvulaceae) Using Phenetic Analyses: Insights from Leaf Anatomical Data Reveal A New Species from northeastern Thailand

Argyreia gyrobracteata Traiperm & Chitchak

in Chitchak, Traiperm, Staples, et al., 2018. 
   DOI:  10.1139/cjb-2017-0108 

Argyreia Lour. is one of the most taxonomically complex genera of the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae). The number of named species is now 135, and new species are regularly being described. There are several species complexes that are morphologically similar and difficult to tell apart. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the species identification criteria for Argyreia, especially new sources for taxonomically informative characters. Ten accessions representing three morphologically similar Argyreia operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were collected and their anatomical characters were investigated using the leaf peeling technique and paraffin sectioning method. Anatomical character states were analyzed using two phenetic analysis methods: clustering analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Three distinct clusters were clearly separated in both PCA and CA at the internal similarity coefficient of 0.48 with a high R-value of 0.89757. Nineteen effectively distinguishable character states were derived from the high loadings of the first two components. In conclusion, two of the separated groups were matched with known species, and the third separated group is here delineated as a new species. Therefore, a new species, Argyreia gyrobracteata Traiperm & Chitchak, is described and illustrated together with ecological data and a preliminary conservation assessment.

Keywords: cluster analysis, cryptic species, morphometrics, principal component analysis, species delimitation

Fig. 7. Argyreia gyrobracteata Traiperm & Chitchak sp. nov.:
 (A) flower in front view; (B) flower in side view; (C) interaction with an insect visitor, oriental carpenter bee (Xylocopa nasalis); (D) plant habit
(all photos taken by P. Rattanakrajang from live plants vouchered as P. Rattanakrajang et al. 104).

Argyreia gyrobracteata Traiperm & Chitchak, sp. nov. 

TYPE: Thailand. Ubon Ratchathani, Sirindhorn district, ..., in the edge of dipterocarp forest, August 2016, P. Rattanakrajang, N. Chitchak & P. Traiperm 110 (holotype BKF!; isotypes K!, QBG!)

DIAGNOSIS: The new species is similar to A. mekongensis in having a white campanulate corolla, but differs from that species by the linear-oblong to narrowly lanceolate bract shape (versus lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate), the curly or twisted bract orientation (versus falcate), the larger sepals, and the multicellular, uniseriate, villous trichomes restricted to a small, dense, triangular patch on the adaxial side of the filaments, above the insertion point of the filaments on the corolla tube (versus dispersed in a band 3–5 mm wide surrounding the free filament, above the insertion point on the corolla tube).

DISTRIBUTION: Known so far from discrete populations in two different districts within Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. One population is close to the border of Thailand–Laos and possibly A. gyrobracteata occurs across the border in Laos.

ETYMOLOGY: The specific epithet refers to the curly/twisted bracts of this species, which have not been observed in any other known species of Argyreia

 Natthaphong Chitchak, Paweena Traiperm, G. Staples, Pantamith Rattanakrajang and Pirada Sumanona. 2018. Species Delimitation of Some Argyreia (Convolvulaceae) Using Phenetic Analyses: Insights from Leaf Anatomical Data Reveal A New Species. Botany. 96(4); 217-233.  DOI:  10.1139/cjb-2017-0108