Wednesday, August 15, 2018

[Botany • 2018] Andinia tingomariana (Orchidaceae, Pleurothallidinae) • A New Species of Andinia from Huánuco, Peru, and The First Peruvian Locality for Andinia schizopogon

Andinia tingomariana A.Diaz & Mark Wilson

in Diaz Hernández, Horna, Godo & Wilson, 2018.
 DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.361.2.7 

A new species of Andinia in subgenus Andinia from Tingo María National Park is described, illustrated and compared to the most similar species pair.  Andinia tingomariana is distinguished by unguiculate, reniform, ciliate petals, a longer column without the terminal dilation and a trilobed, ciliate lip in which the narrow, semi-auriculate lateral lobes project upward around the column, adnate in the middle, creating a furrowed surface. The floral morphology of the new species is compared to that of the phylogenetically unrelated Salpistele group of Stelis and possible convergent evolution of pollination syndromes is discussed. Finally, the first confirmed locality of A. schizopogon is reported and a preliminary list of Andinia species in Peru is provided.

Keywords: Andinia, Peruvian orchid flora, Salpistele, Stelis, pleurothallid taxonomy, Monocots

Andinia tingomariana A.Diaz & Mark Wilson, sp. nov.

Etymology:— Named for the type locality in Parque Nacional Tingo María, Huánuco, Peru.

FIGURE 2. Andinia tingomariana; Partial side view, Lateral view and Rear view.
 Photographs by Alex Diaz.

 FIGURE 3. Andinia tingomariana in situ on a liana.
Photograph by Alex Diaz.

Tingo Maria National Park in the central Amazonian forest of Peru

Alex Gustavo Diaz Hernández, Luis Antonio Ocupa Horna, Luis Enrique Yupanqui Godo and Mark Wilson. 2018. A New Species of Andinia (Orchidaceae, Pleurothallidinae) from Huánuco, Peru, and The First Peruvian Locality for Andinia schizopogonPhytotaxa. 361(2); 222–232.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.361.2.7

Esta es la nueva especie de orquídea descubierta en la selva de Huánuco | FOTOS via @elcomercio_peru
Andinia tingomariana: Una nueva orquídea en la selva de Perú  @lavanguardia
New species of orchid discovered in Peruvian jungle via @YahooNews

[Entomology • 2018] Notes on Ditomina, with Description of Two New Genera [Parapenthus & Indocarterus gen. n.] and A New Species [I. inexspectatus sp. n.] (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from the Middle East and India

Parapenthus solitarius (Peyron, 1858)

in Kataev & Wrase, 2018. 

Two new monotypical genera of the subtribe Ditomina are described: Parapenthus gen. n. for Ditomus solitarius Peyron, 1858 from the Middle East, which was treated previously either within Penthus Chaudoir, 1843 or within Penthophonus Reitter, 1900, and Indocarterus gen. n. for I. inexspectatus sp. n. from the west of the Indian state of Maharashtra (type locality: Wai env., 70 km S of Pune). The possible genesis of Indocarterus gen. n. is discussed because it is the single genus of the subtribe distributed in the Oriental (Indo-Malayan) region in isolation from the other Ditomina which all occur in the West Palaearctic. It is assumed that the ancestor of this genus was isolated in the Indian Peninsula from the Tethyan area probably during the early stages of the diversification of Ditomina. In addition, the enigmatic genus Proditomus Schauberger, 1934 and its single species, P. mirus Schauberger, 1934, known only from the female holotype, are re-described and illustrated. Setation of the parameres and medial lobe in Ditomina is described for the first time. Previously, setae on the aedeagus of Carabidae, mostly on the parameres, were observed only in many basal lineages and, as exception, within Harpalinae, in some Lebiini and Panagaeini. A key to the genera and subgenera of Ditomina is provided.

Keywords: Coleoptera, Carabidae, Harpalini, Ditomina, Parapenthus gen. n., Indocarterus gen. n., Proditomus, setation of aedeagus, India, Middle East, new genus, new species, key to genera and subgenera

Boris M. Kataev and David W. Wrase. 2018. Notes on Ditomina, with Description of Two New Genera and A New Species (Coleoptera, Carabidae) from the Middle East and India. Zootaxa. 4459(2); 350–368. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4459.2.8

[Botany • 2018] Bauhinia proboscidea (Fabaceae: Cercidoideae) • A New Species from Costa Rica and Panama, with notes on B. beguinotii, B. gorgonae and B. pansamalana

Bauhinia proboscidea P. Juárez, R. Flores & M.A. Blanco

in Juárez, Flores & Blanco, 2018. 

Bauhinia proboscidea, a new species from Costa Rica and Panama, is described and illustrated, and compared to the closely related B. pansamalana of southern Mexico, Guatemala and Honduras. It is also compared with B. beguinotii, with which has been confused in herbaria. Bauhinia gorgonae, endemic to Gorgona Island in Colombia and which has been classified as a variety of B. beguinotii, is here considered a separate species. A key to the Neotropical species of Bauhinia with three fertile stamens is provided. Some observations on the morphology and reproductive biology of B. proboscidea are presented. Global-level assessments of the conservation status according to IUCN Red List criteria indicate that B. proboscidea and B. beguinotii (which was previously assessed using some misidentified records) should both be considered as species of Least Concern (LC), B. gorgonae should be considered as Endangered (EN), and B. pansamalana should be considered Not Threatened (NT). Country-level conservation assessments are also provided for all four species. The homology of the “intrastipular spines” of Bauhinia is briefly discussed.

Keywords: Central America, conservation, intrastipular spines, IUCN Red List categories, taxonomy, reproductive biology, Eudicots

FIGURE 2. Bauhinia proboscidea
A. Staminate flower. B. Perfect (hermaphrodite) flower. C. Apex of fertile stamens of staminate flower with incurved filaments and open anthers. D. Detail of perfect flower, showing recurved fertile anthers and pistil with incurved style. E. Detail of staminodes (red and yellow, with white abortive anthers), filaments of fertile stamens (dark red) and pistillode (green) in staminate flower. F. Immature fruits. G. Two-flowered inflorescence, with one perfect flower and one staminate flower; the perfect flower (left) has already shed its petals. H. Detail of stem node showing intrastipular spine with liquid secretion.
F from Flores et al. 3835 (PMA) by R. Flores; all other photos from Juárez 1241 (USJ) by P. Juárez.

FIGURE 1. Bauhinia proboscidea.
A. Fruiting branch. B. Perfect (hermaphrodite) flower; note recurved fertile stamens and incurved style. C. Staminate flower; note apically incurved fertile stamens. D. Apex of staminodes and bases of free portion of filaments of fertile stamens in staminate flower. E. Apex of fertile stamen filaments and anthers of staminate flower. F. Floral diagram of perfect flower. G. Pair of intrastipular spines at a node (leaf scar on opposite side of stem, not visible), with liquid secretion. A based on type specimen (Juaìrez 420, USJ, CR, MO); B–F based on photographs of Juárez 1241 (USJ).
Drawn by P. Juaìrez.

Bauhinia proboscidea P. Juárez, R. Flores & M.A. Blanco, sp. nov.

Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to the prominent staminal tube and the projecting pistil (the latter in hermaphroditic flowers), which together resemble a snout or proboscis of an animal. The recurved fertile stamens of hermaphroditic flowers also bear a superficial resemblance to the tusks of elephants Loxodonta spp., order Proboscidea).





Pedro Juárez, Rodolfo Flores and Mario A. Blanco. 2018.  Bauhinia proboscidea (Fabaceae: Cercidoideae), A New Species from Costa Rica and Panama, with notes on B. beguinotiiB. gorgonae and B. pansamalana.  Phytotaxa. 361(1); 25-40. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.361.1.2


Resumen: Se describe e ilustra Bauhinia proboscidea, una nueva especie de Costa Rica y Panamá, y se compara con la cercanamente emparentada B. pansamalana del sur de México, Guatemala y Honduras. También se compara con B. beguinotii, con la cual se ha confundido en los herbarios. Bauhinia gorgonae, endémica de la Isla Gorgona en Colombia, se considera aquí como una especie independiente de B. beguinotii, de la cual se ha clasificado como una variedad. Se brinda una clave para las especies neotropicales de Bauhinia con tres estambres fértiles. Se presentan algunas observaciones sobre la morfología y biología reproductiva de B. proboscidea. Evaluaciones a nivel global del estado de conservación de acuerdo con los criterios de la Lista Roja de UICN, indica que tanto B. proboscidea como B. beguinotii (que había sido previamente evaluada usando algunos registros mal identificados) deben ser consideradas como especies de Preocupación Menor (LC), B. gorgonae debe considerarse como En Peligro (EN), y B. pansamalana debe considerarse como No Amenazada (NT). También se presentan evaluaciones de conservación a nivel de país para las cuatro especies. Se discute brevemente la homología de las “espinas intraestipulares” de Bauhinia.

[Herpetology • 2018] Theloderma petilum | ปาดหลังยาวภูสวนทราย (Anura, Rhacophoridae) • A New Country Record for Thailand

Theloderma petilum (Stuart & Heatwole, 2004)

in Phusaensri, Kaewboribut, Phummisutthigoon, et al., 2018. 
ปาดหลังยาวภูสวนทราย  ||

We here report the first finding of a specimen of the treefrog Theloderma petilum (Stuart & Heatwole, 2004) in Thailand. To date, only four other individuals of this species were known from Laos and Vietnam. The female specimen of T. petilum collected at Huay Tap Ko Sod of Baan Huay Nam Phak, Na Haeo District, Loei...

ปาดหลังยาวภูสวนทราย Theloderma petilum (Stuart & Heatwole, 2004) เพศเมีย

Alytes. 36(1-4)  

ปาดหลังยาวภูสวนทราย เป็นชนิดสัตว์สะเทินน้ำสะเทินบกที่พบครั้งแรกในประเทศไทย ถือเป็นบันทึกแหล่งการกระจายแหล่งที่ 3 เพิ่มเติมจากที่พบในสาธารณรัฐสังคมนิยมเวียดนาม และสาธารณรัฐประชาธิปไตยประชาชนลาว 
ในประเทศไทยถูกค้นพบโดย คณะวิจัยที่มีประกอบด้วย ผศ. ดร. ประทีป ด้วงแค คณะวนศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตร์ ร่วมกับนักวิชาการจากรมอุทยานแห่งชาติ สัตว์ป่า และพันธุ์พืช และ มหาวิทยาลัยขอนแก่น ได้รับตีพิมพ์ในวารสาร Alytes 36 (1-4) ระหว่างหน้าที่ 289-299 ในปี พ.ศ. 2561

Samret Phusaensri, Thanawhat Kaewboribut, Sukpaporn Phummisutthigoon, Nithina Kaewtongkum, Montri Youjaruen, Pongsathorn Tongpun, Hathaipat Khongcharoensuk, Pechrkawin Nurngsomsri, Chantip Chuaynkern, Prateep Duengkae and Yodchaiy Chuaynkern. 2018. Theloderma petilum (Anura, Rhacophoridae): A New Country Record for Thailand. Alytes. 36(1-4); 289–299.

การค้นพบพืชชนิดใหม่ของโลก และชนิดสัตว์สะเทินน้ำสะเทินบกครั้งแรกในประเทศไทย
ระหว่างเดือนมิถุนายน ถึงเดือนสิงหาคม พ.ศ. 2561
ของอาจารย์ภาควิชาชีววิทยาป่าไม้ คณะวนศาสตร์ มหาวิทยาลัยเกษตรศาสตร์

Abstract: A small rhacophorid, Philautus petilus known from only the female holotype, is recorded for the first time outside of the type locality in Laos. Three specimens, containing the first known males of the species, were collected from Muong Nhe Nature Reserve in Dien Bien Province, northwestern Vietnam. The Vietnamese specimens are identified as P. petilus based on morphological similarities with the holotype from Laos. In addition, our molecular data verify the transfer of this species from Philautus to the genus Theloderma.

Keywords: Philautus, Theloderma, New record, Phylogeny, Taxonomy, Muong Nhe Nature Reserve, Dien Bien Province

 Tao Thien Nguyen, Dzung Trung Le, Son Hung Lan Nguyen, Masafumi Matsui and Truong Quang Nguyen. 2014. First Record of Philautus petilus Stuart and Heatwole, 2004 (Amphibia: Anura: Rhacophoridae) from Vietnam and Its Phylogenetic Position. Current Herpetology. 33(2); 112-120. 

Bryan L. Stuart and Harold Heatwole. 2004. A New Philautus (Amphibia: Rhacophoridae) from northern Laos. Asiatic Herpetological Research. 10: 17-21. 

Tuesday, August 14, 2018

[Diplopoda • 2018] A Redescription of the Poorly Known Cave Millipede Skleroprotopus membranipedalis Zhang, 1985 (Diplopoda, Julida, Mongoliulidae), with An Overview of the Genus Skleroprotopus Attems, 1901

Skleroprotopus membranipedalis Zhang, 1985

inVagalinski, Meng, Bachvarova & Stoev, 2018. 

We redescribe the poorly known Chinese millipede Skleroprotopus membranipedalis Zhang, 1985 recorded from Shi-Hua (Stone Flower) Cave, Fangshan County, Beijing. The species’ original description is in Chinese in an obscure outlet which significantly hampers its recognition from its congeners. Here, based on newly collected material, we provide the first scanning electron micrographs of important taxonomic traits. In addition to its type locality, we report the species also from Yun-Shui (Cloud Water) Cave, situated in the same county, some 18 km away. We propose the genus Senbutudoiulus Miyosi, 1957 to be a junior subjective synonym of Skleroprotopus Attems, 1901, syn. n., and introduce the following new combination: Skleroprotopus platypodus (Miyosi, 1957), comb. n. (former Senbutudoiulus).

Keywords: China, new record, new synonymy, troglobiomorphism

Figure 2. Living specimens of Skleroprotopus membranipedalis in Shi-Hua Cave.

Genus Skleroprotopus Attems, 1901
Mongoliulus Pocock, 1903
Paraprotopus Verhoeff, 1939
Nesoprotopus Verhoeff, 1939
Senbutudoiulus Miyosi, 1957, syn. n.

Diagnosis: A genus of Mongoliulidae, most similar to the genus Ansiulus Takakuwa, both sharing a number of characters such as: ozopores in all body-rings, an anterior gonopod with an unsegmented telopodite (except for S. schmidti) and a slightly to considerably higher coxite carrying a well-developed flagellum, and a bifid (except for S. simplex) posterior gonopod consisting of a slender solenomerital process and a broader, shield-like, apically setose, caudal process. Differs from Ansiulus mostly by the complete absence of telopodites on posterior gonopods and by the strongly reduced telopodites of male leg-pair 7 (except for S. sidegatakedensis).

Skleroprotopus membranipedalis Zhang, 1985
Skleroprotopus membranipedalis Zhang, 1985: 154–156, figs 1–8.

Diagnosis: Differs from congeners mostly by the flattened, blade-like, basolateral process on the caudal face of the anterior gonopod, and by the completely pigmentless ocelli.

Redescription: Measurements: males 49–51 mm in length, 2.5–2.6 mm in height at mid-body, body ring formula 62+(1–2)+T; females 49–60 mm, 2.4–2.8 mm, and (61–67)+(1–2)+T, respectively.

Colouration in life (Fig. 2): light brown-beige, head whitish; metazonites with darker, narrow, concentric bands, passing just behind the ozopores; repugnatorial glands reddish-brown in living specimens, becoming brown-greyish in ethanol.

 Boyan Vagalinski, Kaibaryer Meng, Darina Bachvarova and Pavel Stoev. 2018. A Redescription of the Poorly Known Cave Millipede Skleroprotopus membranipedalis Zhang, 1985 (Diplopoda, Julida, Mongoliulidae), with An Overview of the Genus Skleroprotopus Attems, 1901. Subterranean Biology.  26: 55-66.  DOI:  10.3897/subtbiol.26.26225

[Paleontology • 2018] Caelestiventus hanseni • extends the Desert-dwelling Pterosaur Record Back 65 Million Years

Caelestiventus hanseni 
Britt, Dalla Vecchia, Chure, Engelmann, Whiting & Scheetz, 2018

Illustration: Michael Skrepnick 

Pterosaurs are the oldest known powered flying vertebrates. Originating in the Late Triassic, they thrived to the end of the Cretaceous. Triassic pterosaurs are extraordinarily rare and all but one specimen come from marine deposits in the Alps. A new comparatively large (wing span >150 cm) pterosaur, Caelestiventus hanseni gen. et sp. nov., from Upper Triassic desert deposits of western North America preserves delicate structural and pneumatic details not previously known in early pterosaurs, and allows a reinterpretation of crushed Triassic specimens. It shows that the earliest pterosaurs were geographically widely distributed and ecologically diverse, even living in harsh desert environments. It is the only record of desert-dwelling non-pterodactyloid pterosaurs and predates all known desert pterosaurs by more than 65 Myr. A phylogenetic analysis shows it is closely allied with Dimorphodon macronyx from the Early Jurassic of Britain.

Fig. 4: Reconstructions of Caelestiventus hanseni  and Dimorphodon macronyx.
a, Schematic silhouette of a dimorphodontid pterosaur in dorsal view. b, Preserved skull and mandible elements of Chanseni. The left maxillojugal is completed with the premaxillary process from the right maxilla. The right mandibular ramus is mirrored and is completed with the rostral end from the left ramus. Missing teeth have been reconstructed. The right nasal and frontoparietal are mirrored. c, Skull and mandible of the largest D. macronyx reconstructed (from Sangster, 2003) and modified incorporating our observations.

 Scale bars: 0.5 m in a and 10 mm in b and c. 
a, angular; aof, antorbital fenestra; d, dentary; fr, frontal; j, jugal; l, lacrimal; mx, maxilla; mdf, medially deflected flange; n, nasal; nvf, neurovascular foramen; pa, parital; pmx, premaxilla; sa, surangular; utf, upper temporal fenestra; vf, ventral flange.

Systematic palaeontology. 
Pterosauria Kaup, 1834 
Dimorphodontidae Seeley, 1870 

Caelestiventus hanseni gen. et sp. nov. 

Etymology. Caelestiventus hanseni comes from the Latin language: caelestis, ‘heavenly or divine’, and ventus, ‘wind’, referring to the volant nature of pterosaurs, and ‘hanseni’, honouring Robin L. Hansen, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) geologist, who facilitated work at the Saints & Sinners Quarry


Illustration: Michael Skrepnick 

Caelestiventus hanseni is the first record of a desert-dwelling, non-pterodactyloid pterosaur, predating by >65Ma all known desert occurrences of pterosaurs. It shows that in the Late Triassic—early in their evolution and diversification—pterosaurs were widely distributed and lived in a broad range of habitats, including inland deserts far (>800 km) from the sea. Despite their morphological similarity, C. hanseni and D. macronyx lived in very different environments. Dimorphodon was an island dweller45 in a humid climate46 and was preserved in the marine Blue Lias (Hettangian–Sinemurian) of southern England (Sangster, 2003). C. hanseni indicates that dimorphodontids originated by the Late Triassic and survived the end-Triassic extinction event

Brooks B. Britt, Fabio M. Dalla Vecchia, Daniel J. Chure, George F. Engelmann, Michael F. Whiting and Rodney D. Scheetz. 2018.  Caelestiventus hanseni gen. et sp. nov. Extends the Desert-dwelling Pterosaur Record Back 65 Million Years. Nature Ecology & Evolution.  DOI: 10.1038/s41559-018-0627-y

Rare triassic pterosaur discovered by BYU paleontologists via @@BYU
Utah Pterosaur Was Desert-Dwelling Badass...Pelican? - Dead Things

[Herpetology • 2018] Rhadinaea nuchalis • A New Rare Species of the Rhadinaea decorata group (Squamata, Colubridae) from the Sierra Madre del Sur of Guerrero, Mexico

Rhadinaea nuchalis 
García-Vázquez, Pavón-Vázquez, Blancas-Hernández, Blancas-Calva & Centenero-Alcalá, 2018

A new species of the Rhadinaea decorata group is described based on two specimens from the Sierra Madre del Sur, Guerrero, Mexico. The new species differs from all other members of the genus Rhadinaea by having: eight supralabials; 149–151 (male) ventrals; 63–77 (male) subcaudals; two large pale nuchal blotches, forming an incomplete collar that occupies two scales laterally and is bissected along the dorsal midline; a postocular pale marking consisting of a well-defined, narrow line beginning behind the upper posterior margin of the eye and extending posteriorly nearly horizontally until connecting with the nuchal blotches; and the dark ground color of the flanks extending to the lateral portion of the ventrals. The large nuchal blotches distinguish the new species from the other members of the R. decorata group, except for R. cuneata and some individuals of R. hesperia (pale nuchal marking one-scale wide in R. marcellae, absent in the other species). The condition of the postocular pale marking distinguishes it from R. cuneata and R. hesperia (postocular pale marking wedge-shaped in R. cuneata, not connected with the pale post-cephalic markings in R. hesperia). Furthermore, the number of subcaudals and the coloration of the lateral portion of the ventrals distinguish it from R. omiltemana and R. taeniata, the remaining congeners found in Guerrero (85–90 in males of R. omiltemana and 91–121 in R. taeniata; dark color of the flanks not reaching ventrals in the former species, occasionally and faintly in R. taeniata). Additionally, a new combination for R. stadelmani is proposed. The new species is the first described in the genus Rhadinaea in more than 40 years.

Keywords: Description, reptile, snake, systematics, taxonomy

Figure 1. Head of Rhadinaea nuchalis sp. n. Holotype (MZFC-HE 22161) in dorsal (A), left lateral (B), and ventral (C) views.

Figure 3. Rhadinaea nuchalis sp. n., holotype (MZFC-HE 22161) in life.

Rhadinaea nuchalis sp. n. 

Diagnosis: A colubrid snake of the Rhadinaea decorata group (sensu Myers 1974) that may be distinguished from all other members of the genus Rhadinaea by the following combination of character states: eight supralabials; 149–151 ventrals in males; 63–77 subcaudals in males; presence of two large pale nuchal blotches, forming an incomplete collar that occupies two scales laterally and bissected along the dorsal midline; postocular pale marking consisting of a well-defined and narrow line beginning anteriorly behind the upper posterior margin of the eye and extending posteriorly nearly horizontally until connecting with the nuchal blotches; and ground color of the flanks extending to the lateral portion of the ventrals.

Etymology: The specific name nuchalis comes from the Latin nucha, meaning nape. It makes reference to the large nuchal blotches present in the new species.

Figure 7. Habitat of Rhadinaea nuchalis sp. n. in the type locality.

 Uri Omar García-Vázquez, Carlos J. Pavón-Vázquez, Jean Cristian Blancas-Hernández, Epifanio Blancas-Calva and Eric Centenero-Alcalá. 2018. A New Rare Species of the Rhadinaea decorata group from the Sierra Madre del Sur of Guerrero, Mexico (Squamata, Colubridae). ZooKeys. 780: 137-154.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.780.25593

[Botany • 2018] Cryptocoryne joshanii (Araceae) • A New Species Serendipitously Discovered in Sulu archipelago, Philippines

 Cryptocoryne joshanii Naive & Villanueva 

in Naive & Villanueva, 2018. 
Photos by: M.A.K. Naive. 

 A new species, Cryptocoryne joshanii Naive & Villanueva, from the island of Basilan, Philippines, is herein described and illustrated. It is comparable to C. usteriana, but differs significantly in having lanceolate leaves, acicular, outwardly recurved, purplish red stigmas and an erect spathe limb. Information on the geographical distribution, ecological data, phenology and conservation status as well as an identification key to the Philippine Crytocoryne species are provided.

 KEY WORDS: Aroids, Basilan, Cryptocoryne, Mindanao, New species, Sulu archipelago, Philippines. 

Fig. 1. Cryptocoryne joshanii Naive & Villanueva 
A. Habit B. Spathe C. Leaf D. Cataphyll E. Kettle F. Tube, limb G. Spadix showing the male and female flowers. 

Photos by: M.A.K. Naive. 
Scale bar: C, D = 5 cm; E, F = 2 cm; G = 1 cm.

Cryptocoryne joshanii Naive & Villanueva, sp. nov. 

 Type: PHILIPPINES, Mindanao Region, Sulu Archipelago, Basilan Island, elev. 850 m, May 2013. R.J. Villanueva 001/2017 (holo HNUL, iso USTH) - Full locality data withheld owing to the risk of potential exploitation of wild populations for commercial purposes. 

Diagnosis: Somewhat similar to C. usteriana in the spathe, but it differs significantly in having an acicular, outwardly recurved, purplish red stigmas and an erect smooth limb. The leaves are clearly different by being smooth, light green with markings. 

Distribution: This Philippine endemic species has only been observed and documented in Sulu archipelago, particularly on the island of Basilan, Philippines. It is very local and despite of extensive survey along the stream and in other areas, it occurs only on the site where the sample was collected. 

Ecology: The population of this species was found growing in a slow flowing montane forest stream in the interior of Basilan Island. The forest is relatively dense with only 40% sunlight reaching the stream bed. The population grows on volcanic rock in the stream several meters from the waterfall at elevations of about 800– 1000 m a.s.l. The roots and rhizomes were noted to penetrate deep into the pebble/sandy substrate rich with decaying leaves. The entire clump was submerged or partly submerged with leaves exposed. 

Eponomy: Named after Joshan Vlad A. Villanueva, son of the discoverer/second author.  

Notes: Based on overall morphology, Cryptocoryne usteriana, appears to be the closest ally of C. joshanii. However, C. joshanii differs significantly in having these following characters: lanceolate leaves, an erect apex of the limb and in having acicular, outwardly recurved, purplish red stigmas.

Mark Arcebal K. Naive and Reagan Joseph T. Villanueva. 2018.  Cryptocoryne joshanii (Araceae), A New Species Serendipitously Discovered in Sulu archipelago, Philippines. Taiwania. 63(3); 248-250.  DOI: 10.6165/tai.2018.63.248 

[Botany • 2018] Vanilla denshikoira (Orchidaceae) • A New Species of Vanilla from the North West Amazon in Colombia

Vanilla denshikoira Flanagan & Ospina-Calderón

in Flanagan, Ospina-Calderón, Agapito, Mendoza & Mateus, 2018
Photographs by Nicola Flanagan; 
Illustration by Nhora Helena Ospina-Calderón

distinctive species, Vanilla denshikoira, is described from the North West Amazon, in Colombia, within the Guiana Shield region. The species has morphological features similar to those of species in the Vanilla planifolia group. It is an important addition to the vanilla crop wild relatives, bringing the total number of species in the V. planifolia group to 21. Vanilla denshikoira is a narrow endemic, known from only a single locality, and highly vulnerable to anthropological disturbance. Under IUCN criteria it is categorized CR. The species has potential value as a non-timber forest product. We recommend a conservation program that includes support for circa situm actions implemented by the local communities.

FIGURE 1. Vanilla denshikoira Flanagan & Ospina-Calderón. Clockwise from top left,
A. Inflorescence B. Plant habit C. Flower D. Labellum. E. Tuft of tuberculate trichomes on the labellum apical surface F. Transversal view of central canal and a tuberculous keel running from the base to the apex of the labellum.
(Illustration by Nhora Helena Ospina-Calderón).

Figure 2. Vanilla denshikoira Flanagan & Ospina-Calderón in the field.
A. Vegetation physiognomy of plant habitat. B. Vegetative habit of plant. C. Inflorescence of the Vanilla denshikoira with two flowers open simultaneously. D. The whole flower showing the longitudinal keel on outer petal surface, and the concave lip. E. Detail of the lip apex of the Vanilla denshikoira showing the caliptriform nature of the lateral lobes with ondulate margins in the apical zone, and the conspicuously reflexed midlobe apex with an enlarged tuft of tuberculated trichomes covering most of apical surface.
(Photographs by Nicola Flanagan).

Vanilla denshikoira Flanagan & Ospina-Calderón sp.nov. 

Diagnosis:—The new species is similar to Vanilla aspericaulis, V. capixaba, and V. cristagalli, sharing with them a concave lip base, a more or less tri-lobed lip, and a conspicuous tuft of trichomes on the recurved lip apex that is connected to the penicillate callus by a central area of tuberculate papillae and trichomes. The new species may be easily distinguished by the external longitudinal canal running from the lip base to the apex of the reflexed midlobe, and the papillae and elongated trichomes on the ventral lip surface covering the tuberculous keel and central veins from the base to the penicillate callus.

Etymology:— The epithet refers to the name of a female figure in the mythology of the Puinave indigenous community, native to the department of Guainía, Colombia. The name ´Denshikoira´ translates in English to “perfumed woman”. Denshikoira, also known as the Princess Inírida, occupies a central position in Puinave culture, with her myth representing the freedom and equality of women. The name was chosen by Lucy Teresita García Agapito, a member of the Puinave Indigenous community of Remanso-Chorrobocón.

Distribution and habitat:— Vanilla densikoira is known only from the two fertile plants in the Type locality, the first close to the River Inírida, in seasonally-flooded, medium-height (between 10–20 m), open (< 60% canopy cover) forest at 100 m elevation, and the second also in medium-height, open forest on an igneous outcrop, at 265 m elevation. The floristic composition of these sites is notable for the presence of the following tree species: Clusia columnaris Engler in Martius (1888: 432), Casearia javitensis Kunth in Humboldt, von Bonpland & Kunth (1821: 366), Tapirira guianensis Aublet (1775: 188), and Chrysophyllum bombycinum Penn (1990: 588).

Conservation status:— Vanilla denshikoira has an apparent highly restricted distribution, apparent rarity, and both known individuals are highly vulnerable to human activities. Based on the IUCN criteria the species is categorized as Critically Endangered-CR: A3c; B1ab (i,ii,iii,iv).

Nicola S. Flanagan, Nhora Helena Ospina-Calderón, Lucy Teresita García Agapito, Misael Mendoza and Hugo Alonso Mateus. 2018. A New Species of Vanilla (Orchidaceae) from the North West Amazon in Colombia. Phytotaxa. 364(3); 250–258. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.364.3.4


[Fungi • 2018] Lactarius nigricans & L. verrucosporus • Two New Species of Lactarius (Russulaceae) from southern China

Lactarius nigricans 
in Wang, Song, Li, Xia & Qiu, 2018 

Two new species of Lactarius from Dinghu Mountain, Guangdong Province in southern China were described based on both morphological characters and phylogenetic analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Lactarius verrucosporus sp. nov. is characterized by reddish brown pileus with white and decurved margin, pale cream lamellae, globose to subglobose basidiospores with isolated warts, thin pileipellis composed of globose subterminal cells and inflated terminal elements. Lactarius nigricans sp. nov. is recognized by greyish brown pileus, beige lamellae, amyloid basidiospores with high ridges, subcylindrical to subfusiform caulocystidia, thick pileipellis with long terminal cells. Both molecular and morphological analysis consistently confirm that L. verrucosporus and L. nigricans belong to Lactarius subgenera Russularia and Plinthogalus, respectively, and both species are distinct from all described species of these two subgenera. The morphological differences of these two novel species with their closely related taxa are discussed.

Keywords: Fungi, Lactarius, new taxa, phylogeny, taxonomy

Geng-Shen Wang, Yu Song, Jing-Wei Li, Shi-Yao Xia and Li-Hong Qiu. 2018. Lactarius verrucosporus sp. nov. and L. nigricans sp. nov., Two New Species of Lactarius (Russulaceae) from southern China. Phytotaxa. 364(3); 227–240.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.364.3.2