Saturday, May 21, 2022

[Herpetology • 2022] Trimeresurus mayaae • A New Cryptic Species of Green Pit Viper of the Genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Serpentes: Viperidae) from northeast India


Trimeresurus mayaae   
Rathee, Purkayastha, Lalremsanga, Dalal, Biakzuala, Muansanga & Mirza, 2022

Maya’s Pit Viper  ||  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0268402
photos by H. T. Lalremsanga & J. Purkayastha.

Abstract
A new cryptic species of green pit viper is described from northeast India, based on specimens collected from the state of Mizoram and Meghalaya. The new species is a member of the subgenus Viridovipera and is sister to Trimeresurus medoensis based on molecular data for mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, whereas resembles Trimeresurus gumprechti morphologically. A combination of characters helps delimit the new species from its congeners. Description of the new species highlights the need for dedicated surveys across northeast India to document its reptilian diversity, as this represents the third new species of the genus to be described in the past three years.

Trimeresurus mayaae sp. nov. in life
(a) holotype male NCBS NRC-AA-0012,  
(b) uncollected male , 
(c) uncollected female 
photos by Hmar Tlawmte Lalremsanga & Jayaditya Purkayastha.

Trimeresurus mayaae sp. nov.
Trimeresurus stejnegeri in part Malhotra & Thorpe 2004: 230
Trimeresurus yunnanensis in part Malhotra & Thorpe 2004: 230
Trimeresurus gumprechti David & Mathew 2005: 87

Diagnosis: A species of the genus Trimeresurus, characterized by (1) hemipenes short and strongly spinose; (2) body green in both males and females; (3) interstitial skin black; (4) moderate size, with maximum total length of 750mm; (5) conspicuous bicolored postocular stripe in males, thin and white below, wide and bright red above, faint white or no postocular stripe present in female (6) vivid, wide bicolored ventrolateral stripe, deep red below/white above in males, extending along the lower half of the tail, white in females; (7) eyes rust coloured in males, green in females; (8) tail mostly rusty or reddish-brown (9) V: 157–162; SC: 54–67 in males and V: 153; SC: 54–55 in females; (10) first supralabial distinct from nasal; (11) 19 or 21 dorsal scale rows at midbody, moderately keeled; (12) snout covered with rather enlarged juxtaposed scales; (13) internasals never in contact, separated by 1–2 scale; (14) supraoculars narrower than internasals, separated by 9–10 smooth cephalic scales.

Etymology: The species epithet is an eponym honouring late Maya Singh Rathee, mother of Yashpal Singh Rathee. English name: Maya’s Pit Viper.

 
Yashpal Singh Rathee, Jayaditya Purkayastha, Hmar Tlawmte Lalremsanga, Siddharth Dalal, Lal Biakzuala, Lal Muansanga and Zeeshan A. Mirza. 2022. A New Cryptic Species of Green Pit Viper of the Genus Trimeresurus Lacépède, 1804 (Serpentes, Viperidae) from northeast India. PLoS ONE. 17(5): e0268402. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0268402

[Mammalogy • 2022] Cacajao amuna • Molecular Phylogeny and Systematics of Bald Uakaris, Genus Cacajao Lesson, 1840 (Primates: Pitheciidae), with the Description of A New Species


Cacajao amuna
 Silva, Amaral, Roos, Bowler, Röhe, Sampaio, Janiak, Bertuo, Santana, Souza Silva, Rylands, Gubili, Hrbek & Boubli, 2022
 

Cacajao amuna
Kanamari White Uakari

Highlights
• We revised the taxonomic classification of bald-headed uakaris, genus Cacajao.
• The use of a single mitochondrial marker did not recover the shallower relationships.
• ddRADseq phylogenetic analyses retrieved five lineages of bald-headed uakaris.
• We proposed a taxonomic arrangement with five species of bald-headed uakaris.
• A new species is described based on molecular and morphological information.

Abstract
Bald uakaris, genus Cacajao, are Amazonian primates currently classified as one species and four subspecies based on the patterns of pelage coloration. In this study, we test if their current taxonomy is represented by the phylogenetic relationship of the main lineages retrieved from molecular data. We included, for the first time, all bald uakari taxa in a mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and genome-wide (ddRAD) phylogenetic analyses. We also examined the pattern of pelage colouration in specimens from zoological collections. Having determined the number of lineages using Maximum Likelihood and the species tree using coalescent analyses, we test their divergence time using a Bayesian approach. While the cytochrome b analysis only recovered two clades, the ddRAD analysis supported the reciprocal monophyly of five lineages of bald uakaris, with all clades including only individuals with distinct and exclusive diagnostic phenotypic characters. We found that species diversification in Cacajao occurred during the last 300 Kya and may have been influenced by the formation of rivers and flooded forests in western Amazonia. We propose that the four bald uakari subspecies currently recognised can be upgraded to species level and we describe the white uakaris from the basin of the Rio Tarauacá as a new species.
 
Keywords: Amazon rainforest, Neotropical primates, Phylogenetic Species Concept, Pitheciinae, species delimitation



 Cacajao calvus (I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, 1847) – White Bald Uakari

Cacajao rubicundus (I. Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire and Deville, 1848) – Red Bald Uakari

 Cacajao ucayalii Thomas, 1928 – Ucayali Bald Uakari

Cacajao novaesi Hershkovitz, 1987 – Novaes’ Bald Uakari



Cacajao amuna sp. n.

  Etymology: The new species is named in tribute to the Amuna-dyapas, a Kanamari subgroup of the Kanamaris do Rio Juruá Indigenous Territory (TI Kanamaris do Rio Juruá), on the right bank of the Rio Taraucá. “Amuna” is a Katukina vocative that means “uakari monkey”. We suggest the common name “the Kanamari White Uakari”.


Felipe Ennes Silva, João Valsecchi do Amaral, Christian Roos, Mark Bowler, Fabio Röhe, Ricardo Sampaio, Mareike Cora Janiak, Fabrício Bertuol, Marcelo Ismar Santana, José de Souza Silva Júnior, Anthony B. Rylands, Chrysoula Gubili, Tomas Hrbek, Allan D. McDevitt and Jean P. Boubli. 2022. Molecular Phylogeny and Systematics of Bald Uakaris, Genus Cacajao Lesson, 1840 (Primates: Pitheciidae), with the Description of A New Species. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. In Press, 107509. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2022.107509 


[Botany • 2022] Begonia kimlongii (Begoniaceae, sect. Petermannia) • A New Species from Dak Lak, Central Highlands, Vietnam


Begonia kimlongii T.S. Hoang, V. C. Nguyen & C.W. Lin, 

in Nguyen, Hoang, Lin & Nguyen, 2022. 

Abstract

Begonia kimlongii is described as a new species endemic to Vietnam, from the montane forests of Dak Lak Province. It is mostly similar with Begonia cucphuongensis but can be distinguished by the oblanceolate to obovate leaves, terminal inflorescence with dimorphic bracts and 5-tepaled pistillate flowers. Using IUCN criteria, B. kimlongii is proposed to be Data Deficient (DD).

Keywords: biodiversity, endemism, taxonomy, Eudicots

 

Begonia kimlongii 


Van Canh Nguyen, Thanh Son Hoang, Che-Wei Lin and Van Khuong Nguyen. 2022. Begonia kimlongii (B. sect. Petermannia, Begoniaceae), A New Species from Dak Lak, Central Highlands, Vietnam.  Phytotaxa. 547(2); 193-200. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.547.2.7

[Botany • 2022] Curcuma achrae (Zingiberaceae, sect. Ecomata) • A New Species from Central Thailand


Curcuma achrae Saensouk & Boonma, 

 in Saensouk, Boonma & Saensouk, 2022. 
ขมิ้นทอง ||  Rheedea. 32(1) rheedea.in
photos by Thawatphong Boonma

Abstract
Curcuma achrae Saensouk & Boonma, a new species of Curcuma subgenus Ecomata (Zingiberaceae) from Nakhon Nayok province, Central Thailand is described and illustrated along with photographs, notes on its distribution and habitat. A revised identification key to 68 species of the genus Curcuma in Thailand is also presented.

Keywords: Curcuma flaviflora, C. xanthella, Nakhon Nayok province, Taxonomy.

Curcuma achrae Saensouk & Boonma:
a. Habit–oblique top view; b. Flower–side view; c. Lateral staminodes; d. Labellum; e. Flower– front view; f. Stamen–side view; g. Dorsal corolla lobe; h. Lateral corolla lobes; i. Floral tube with ovary, calyx, and front view of stamen; j. Bract; k. Bracteole; l. Calyx; m. Ovary with epigynous glands; n. Inflorescence with flowers, rhizome, and tuberous roots
(from T. Boonma 24; drawn by Thawatphong Boonma).

Curcuma achrae Saensouk & Boonma:
a. Plants in natural habitat; b. Pseudostem–top view; c. Pseudostem–side view; d. Distal part of sheathing bract–side view; e. Young inflorescence–side view; f. Anthesis in natural habitat
(a–c in September 2019; d in late April 2020; f. e & f in late March 2020, 2021 respectively; 
photos by Thawatphong Boonma).

Curcuma achrae Saensouk & Boonma:
 a. Flower, (upper row) dorsal corolla lobe and lateral corolla lobes, (lower row) two lateral staminodes, labellum, calyx, cross-section of flower, ovary with epigynous glands, bracteole, flower bud, and bract; b. Reddish V-shaped patch at base of staminode; c. Stamen–side, oblique side, front and back view; d. Inflorescence with rhizome, spike varied in sizes and colours–side view; e. Inflorescence–oblique top view; f. Close up flower–front view
 (photos by Thawatphong Boonma).

Curcuma achrae Saensouk & Boonma, sp. nov. 

Similar to Curcuma xanthella Škornik. but differs. C. achrae having pubescent petioles (vs. glabrous), green with a reddish tinge (vs. green); adaxially sparsely hairy leaves with fine hairs along the midrib (vs. glabrous on both surfaces); fertile bracts connate in the lower 1/7 (vs. connate in the lower 1/4), apex mucronate (vs. narrowly acute); base of labellum white, middle and apical part golden yellow, with embossed two golden yellow median band running along the midrib from tip to base and divided into two Y-shaped patches at base (vs. base of labellum white to light yellow, middle and apical part warm yellow, with two yellow-orange swollen bars running across the center); staminodes irregularly ovate, apex acute, golden yellow gradually fades to pale yellow at base, with reddish V-shaped or triangle patch at base of staminodes (vs. staminodes irregularly oblong, apex obtuse, bright warm yellow without red patch); anther appear almost straight (vs. anther appear as L-shaped), spurs c. 3 mm long (vs. spurs c. 6 mm long), crest 3–4 mm long with apex acute to rounded or slightly truncate (vs. crest not obvious).

Habitat: Occurring at elevations of 60–152 m, growing in sandy loam soil at the boundary, close to the watercourse, in semi-open area in a deciduous forest.

 Distribution: Curcuma achrae is known from the southwestern part of the Sankamphaeng mountain range in Mueang Nakhon Nayok district, Nakhon Nayok province, Central Thailand (Fig. 4). 

Etymology: The specific epithet “achrae” is chosen to honour Assistant Professor Dr. Achra Thammathaworn (botanist of Khonkaen University), who is a specialist in botany and teacher of many Thai botanists.
Vernacular name: Khamin Thong -- ขมิ้นทอง. 


 
Surapon Saensouk, Thawatphong Boonma and Piyaporn Surapon Saensouk. 2022. Curcuma achrae (Zingiberaceae), A New Species from Central Thailand.  Rheedea. 32(1); 30-45. DOI: 10.22244/rheedea.2022.32.01.03


[Botany • 2022] Dendrobium fuscifaucium (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae: Dendrobieae) • A New Species from Laos


Dendrobium fuscifaucium Souvann. & Kumar, 

in Souvannakhoummane, Kumar & Phonepaseuth, 2022. 
 facebook.com: ແກ້ວອຸດອນ ສຸວັນນະກຸມມານ

Abstract
Dendrobium fuscifaucium is described here as a new species from Laos PDR. This species was found at a local nursery and was claimed to have been collected from the limestone mountains of Kasi District (Vientiane Province). Detailed description and comparison, comparison with its allied species, D. hekouense, D. luoi and D. wangliangii is provided, along with flowering phenology and information on habitat. Multiple attempts have failed to locate this species in the wild.

Keywords: orchid trade, new taxa, section Dendrobium, epiphytic, taxonomy, Monocots

 Dendrobium fuscifaucium Souvann. & Kumar, 
 A–C. Habit. D. Flower, side view. E. Flower, front view. F. Sepals, petals and column. G. Labellum. H. Anther cap, dorsal view. I. Anther cap, ventral view. J. Anther cap, posterior view.
All from (KS1400) by K. Souvannakhoummane.

Dendrobium fuscifaucium Souvann. & Kumar, 
A. Habit. B. Flower, front view. C. Flower, side view. D. Flower, ventral view. E. Young fruit. F. Sepals, petals and column. G. Labellum. H. Anther cap, dorsal view. I. Anther cap, ventral view. J. Anther cap, posterior view. K. Pollinium.
All drawn from live plant (KS1400) by K. Souvannakhoummane.


Dendrobium fuscifaucium Souvann. & Kumar, sp. nov.

Etymology:— Refering to dark brown colour on the disc of the labellum.

 Vernacular name:— ເຜິ້ງຊັອກໂກແລັດ [Ueang Sok Ka Lat, 
chocolate-lipped dendrobium]


Keooudone Souvannakhoummane, Pankaj Kumar and Phongphayboun Phonepaseuth. 2022. Dendrobium fuscifaucium (Orchidaceae: Epidendroideae: Dendrobieae), A New Laotian Species only known in cultivation. Phytotaxa. 541(3); 285-290. DOI: 
ດອກເຜິ້ງຊະນິດໃໝ່ຂອງໂລກ

   

[Botany • 2022] Nephoanthus prostratus & N. nubigenus (Melastomataceae: Sonerileae) • A New Genus segregated from Phyllagathis s.l., with A New Species from Southern Vietnam


Nephoanthus nubigenus C.W. Lin, Luu & T.C. Hsu

in Lin, Hsu, Luu, Yang & Li, 2022. 

Abstract
A new genus, Nephoanthus, is established based on morphological and molecular data. It comprises two species distributed in montane forests of central to southern Vietnam and Hainan Island: the type species N. prostratus and a new species N. nubigenus. Nephoanthus is morphologically similar to Phyllagathis but phylogenetically remote from the type species of Phyllagathis in the analyses of both plastid genome and nrITS sequences. Nephoanthus is genetically associated to but significantly morphologically distinct from Driessenia, Heteroblemma, Medinilla and Tigridiopalma. A detailed morphological comparison of Nephoanthus and related taxa is provided.

Keywords: Asia, biodiversity, endemism, taxonomy, phylogeny, morphology, Eudicots



  Nephoanthus prostratus (C.Hansen) C.W. Lin & T.C. Hsu



Nephoanthus nubigenus C.W. Lin, Luu & T.C. Hsu




Che-Wei Lin, Tian-Chuan Hsu, Hong Truong Luu, Tsung-Yu Aleck Yang and Chia-Wei Li. 2022. Nephoanthus (Melastomataceae: Sonerileae), A New Genus segregated from Phyllagathis s.l., with A New Species from Southern Vietnam. Phytotaxa. 547(1); 66-76. DOI:  10.11646/phytotaxa.547.1.6

    

[Botany • 2022] Wurfbainia ellipticarpa, W. geostachyoides, W. parviflora, etc. • Six New Species of Wurfbainia (Zingiberaceae) from Thailand


Wurfbainia yingyongii Kaewsri, 

in Kaewsri & Sangvirotjanapat, 2022. 

ABSTRACT
Six new species are described from Thailand: Wurfbainia ellipticarpa, W. geostachyoides, W. globosa, W. longiflora,  W. parviflora and W. yingyongii. A line drawing and photographs, information on phenology,  distribution, ecology and etymology, and a proposed IUCN conservation category are provided for each species. A key to the species of Wurfbainia in Thailand is also provided.
 
Keywords: AmomumCardamom, Ginger, Flora, Taxonomy

Wurfbainia ellipticarpa Kaewsri, sp. nov.
 A, Ligule; B, leaves; C, inflorescence; D, mature infructescence; E, young infructescence.
All photographs of the type collection (Kaewsri 024), taken by W. Kaewsri.

Wurfbainia ellipticarpa Kaewsri, sp. nov.

Similar to Wurfbainia villosa (Lour.) Škorničk. & A.D.Poulsen but differs in its narrower labellum (c.1 cm vs c.1.5 cm), inflorescence lax (vs congested) and fruit ellipsoid (vs globose to ovoid).

Habitat. Thrives in dry evergreen forest in light gaps at 800 m altitude.

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the ellipsoid fruit. 


 Wurfbainia geostachyoides Kaewsri, sp. nov.
 A, Habit; B, stilt roots and inflorescences; C, ligule; D, leaves; E, flower; F, flowers; G, young fruits; H, ripe fruits.
All photographs of the type collection (Kaewsri 223), taken by W. Kaewsri.

Wurfbainia geostachyoides Kaewsri, sp. nov.

Similar to Wurfbainia microcarpa (C.F.Liang & D.Fang) Škorničk. & A.D.Poulsen but differs in its shorter ligule (c.2 mm vs 7–10 mm), abaxial blade surface glabrous (vs tomentose) and lateral staminode apex truncate (vs rounded and hooded).

Habitat. Dry evergreen and tropical rain forest under shrubs or trees or on hill slopes at 260–950m altitude.

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the distinctly woody rhizome raised above ground with stilt roots, which recalls the genus Geostachys (Baker) Ridl.


  Wurfbainia globosa Kaewsri, sp. nov.
 A, Leaves; B, inflorescence and infructescence; C, flower; D, bract; E, bracteole; F, calyx; G, corolla (dissected); H, labellum; I, stamen; J, stigma; K, fruit.
Drawn from Kaewsri 027 by W. Kaewsri.

Wurfbainia globosa Kaewsri, sp. nov.

Similar to Wurfbainia villosa (Lour.) Škorničk. & A.D.Poulsen but differs in its ligule apex bilobed (vs round or emarginate), calyx apex bilobed (vs trilobed) and labellum apex bilobed (vs shallowly trilobed).

Habitat. Dry evergreen forest under shrubs or trees at 215m altitude.

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the globose fruit.


Wurfbainia longiflora Kaewsri, sp. nov.

Similar to Wurfbainia uliginosa (J.Koenig) Škorničk. & A.D.Poulsen but differs in its shorter leafy shoot (0.6–1.7 m vs 2.4–4.1 m), inflorescence size (3 × 1.2 cm vs 3–5 × 2–3 cm), longer floral tube (3.7–4.2 cm long including ovary vs c.2.5 cm long including ovary) and young fruit white (vs green).

Habitat. Tropical rain and evergreen forest under shrubs and trees at 215 m altitude.

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the distinct long floral tube.


Wurfbainia parviflora Kaewsri, sp. nov.

Similar to Wurfbainia micrantha (Ridl.) Škorničk. & A.D.Poulsen but differs in its blade size (11–21 × 2–4 cm vs 15–30 × 0.6–2 cm), blade pubescent on both sides (vs glabrous on both sides) and calyx tube apex bilobed (vs trilobed).

Habitat. Dry evergreen forest in light gaps at c.800 m altitude.

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the small flower.


Wurfbainia yingyongii Kaewsri, sp. nov.
A, Young leafy shoot; B, pseudostem base; C, ligule; D, leaves; E, inflorescence; F, infructescence; G, fruit (cross-section).
All photographs of the type collection (Kaewsri 001), taken by W. Kaewsri.

Wurfbainia yingyongii Kaewsri, sp. nov.

Similar to Wurfbainia biflora (Jack) Škorničk. & M.F.Newman but differs in its labellum ovate (vs obovate) and orange middle band on labellum (vs mid-red to dark red band).


Habitat. Dry evergreen forest, under shade of shrubs and trees, c.400 m altitude.

Etymology. The specific epithet honours Associate Professor Dr Yingyong Paisooksantivatana, who dedicated his life to the study of Amomum sensu lato in Thailand.

 
W. Kaewsri and S. Sangvirotjanapat. 2022. Six New Species of Wurfbainia (Zingiberaceae) from Thailand. EDINBURGH JOURNAL OF BOTANY. 79; Article 369 (1–23). DOI: 10.24823/EJB.2022.369


Friday, May 20, 2022

[PaleoMammalogy • 2022] First Records of extinct kentriodontid and squalodelphinid Dolphins from the Upper Marine Molasse (Burdigalian Age) of Switzerland and A Reappraisal of the Swiss Cetacean Fauna


 the dolphins from the Upper Marine Molasse chasing a group of eurhinodelphinids: Kentriodon (foreground), a squalodelphinid (background, left) and a physeterid (background, right).

in Aguirre-Fernández​, Jost & Hilfiker, 2022. 
Life restoration by Jaime Chirinos.

Abstract 
The Swiss Upper Marine Molasse (OMM) documents a transgression event dated to around 21 to 17 million years in which dolphin and other vertebrate remains have been reported. We revised the whole cetacean (whales and dolphins) OMM assemblage available in main collections, focusing on the identification and interpretation of periotics (bone that contains the inner ear). Periotics are rare, but they provide the richest taxonomic information in the sample and hint to environmental associations. Micro-computerized tomography allowed the reconstruction of bony labyrinths for comparisons and environmental interpretations. Three families are represented by periotics: Kentriodontidae, Squalodelphinidae and Physeteridae. The cetacean taxonomic composition of the Swiss OMM reinforces biogeographical patterns reported for the Mediterranean and Paratethys during the Burdigalian at a regional scale and the Calvert cetacean fauna of the northwest Atlantic at oceanic scale.


Life restoration of the dolphins from the Upper Marine Molasse chasing a group of eurhinodelphinids: Kentriodon (foreground), a squalodelphinid (background, left) and a physeterid (background, right).
Artwork: Jaime Chirinos.

 
 
Gabriel Aguirre-Fernández​, Jürg Jost and Sarah Hilfiker. 2022. First Records of extinct kentriodontid and squalodelphinid Dolphins from the Upper Marine Molasse (Burdigalian Age) of Switzerland and A Reappraisal of the Swiss Cetacean Fauna. PeerJ. 10:e13251. DOI: 10.7717/peerj.13251

[Paleontology • 2022] Maomingosuchus acutirostris • A New Species of Maomingosuchus from the Eocene of the Na Duong Basin (northern Vietnam) sheds new light on the Phylogenetic Relationship of Tomistomine Crocodylians and their Dispersal from Europe to Asia


Maomingosuchus acutirostris 
 Massonne, Augustin, Matzke, Weber & Böhme, 2022
 

Abstract
Maomingosuchus acutirostris sp. nov. is a new tomistomine crocodile from the middle–upper Eocene deposits (late Bartonian–Priabonian age, 39–35 Ma) of the Na Duong Basin in northern Vietnam. M. acutirostris can be differentiated from the type species Maomingosuchus petrolicus by having an acute anterior tip of the premaxilla. Both species differ from another Maomingosuchus from Krabi (Thailand) by differences in the surangular–dentary suture and maxillary alveoli. According to our phylogenetic results, M. acutirostris seems to be the sister species to the group M. petrolicus + Krabi-Maomingosuchus. The close relationship between those three tomistomines is supported in the present phylogenetic analysis by three synapomorphies. In our phylogenetic analysis, Maomingosuchus was retrieved in a basal position forming the sister group to Paratomistoma + Gavialosuchus + Melitosaurus + Tomistoma, including the extant Tomistoma schlegelii. This phylogeny indicates three different dispersal events of Tomistominae from Europe towards eastern Asia: 1) for the stem lineage of Maomingosuchus, no later than the late Eocene; 2) for the stem lineage of Penghusuchus pani + Toyotamaphimeia machikanensis, no later than the early–middle Miocene; and (3) for the stem lineage of T. schlegelii, during the Neogene.
 
Keywords: Eocene, Crocodylia, Asia, phylogeny, biogeography

 
Maomingosuchus acutirostris sp. nov.
 

Tobias Massonne, Felix J. Augustin, Andreas T. Matzke, Erich Weber and Madelaine Böhme. 2022. A New Species of Maomingosuchus from the Eocene of the Na Duong Basin (northern Vietnam) sheds new light on the Phylogenetic Relationship of Tomistomine Crocodylians and their Dispersal from Europe to Asia. Journal of Systematic Palaeontology.  DOI: 10.1080/14772019.2022.2054372

Previously unknown crocodile species lived in Asia 39 million years ago
 phys.org/news/2022-05-previously-unknown-crocodile-species-asia.html
 

[Ichthyology • 2022] Pangio pathala • A New Diminutive Subterranean Eel Loach Species of the Genus Pangio (Teleostei: Cobitidae) from southern India



Pangio pathala
 Sundar, Arjun, Sidharthan, Dahanukar & Raghavan, 2022
 

Abstract
A second subterranean species of Pangio is described from an old dug-out well in Kerala, Southern India. The new species, Pangio pathala is unique within the genus in possessing the highest number (27) of caudal vertebrae. Pangio pathala is distinguished from P. bhujia, the only subterranean Pangio species known so far, in having four pectoral-fin rays (vs. three), five anal-fin rays (vs. six), 67 vertebrae (40 abdominal and 27 caudal vertebrae) (vs. 62–63), and a raw genetic distance of 8.1–8.7% in the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 gene. This paper also provides an additional record of Pangio bhujia from a location 40 km south of the type locality.

Keywords: Pisces, freshwater fish, groundwater, Taxonomy, Western Ghats 



 Pangio pathala holotype (KUFOS.FT.2020.1, 32.1 mm SL) in life 

Pangio pathala, new species

Etymology. The species name is based on the Sanskrit word pâtâla, which means ‘below the feet’, denoting the subterranean realms of the universe—which are located under the earth’s surface. A noun in apposition.




Remya L. Sundar, C.P. Arjun, Arya Sidharthan, Neelesh Dahanukar and Rajeev Raghavan. 2022. A New Diminutive Subterranean Eel Loach Species of the Genus Pangio (Teleostei: Cobitidae) from Southern India. Zootaxa. 5138(1); 89-97. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.5138.1.9

To Find the Fish, Find the People: How Scientists Came Upon the Pathala Eel Loach