Friday, April 19, 2024

[Paleontology • 2024] A Reassessment of the historical Fossil Findings from Bahia State (Northeast Brazil) reveals A diversified Dinosaur Fauna in the Lower Cretaceous of South America

faunal components of the Marfim Formation (Valanginian–Hauterivian), the Recôncavo Basin during Lower Cretaceous
Tietasaura derbyiana
Bandeira, Navarro, Pêgas, Brilhante, Brum, de Souza, da Silva & Gallo, 2024

Supposed dinosaur remains were collected between 1859 and 1906 in the Lower Cretaceous Recôncavo Basin (Northeast Brazil). Since these materials remained undescribed, and most were considered lost. Recently, some of these historical specimens were rediscovered in the Natural History Museum of London, providing an opportunity to revisit them after 160 years. The specimens come from five different sites, corresponding to the Massacará (Berriasian-Barremian) and Ilhas (Valanginian-Barremian) groups. Identified bones comprise mainly isolated vertebral centra from ornithopods, sauropods, and theropods. Appendicular remains include a theropod pedal phalanx, humerus, and distal half of a left femur with elasmarian affinities. Despite their fragmentary nature, these specimens represent the earliest dinosaur bones discovered in South America, enhancing our understanding of the Cretaceous dinosaur faunas in Northeast Brazil. The dinosaur assemblage in the Recôncavo Basin resembles coeval units in Northeast Brazil, such as the Rio do Peixe Basin, where ornithopods coexist with sauropods and theropods. This study confirms the presence of ornithischian dinosaurs in Brazil based on osteological evidence, expanding their biogeographic and temporal range before the continental rifting between South America and Africa. Additionally, these findings reinforce the fossiliferous potential of Cretaceous deposits in Bahia State, which have been underexplored since their initial discoveries.

KEYWORDS: Recôncavo Basin, Massacará Group, Ilhas Group, Ornithischia, Sauropoda, Theropoda



 Paleontographical reconstruction of the hypothetical paleoenvironment of the Recôncavo Basin during Lower Cretaceous: A, faunal components of the Marfim Formation (Valanginian–Hauterivian); B, faunal components of the Pojuca Formation (Hauterivian–Barremian). The Salvador Formation is partially synchronous with both units, sharing coeval components.
Artwork by Matheus Gadelha.

Dinosauria Owen Citation1842
Ornithischia Seeley Citation1888
Genasauria Sereno Citation1986

Neornithischia Cooper Citation1985
Cerapoda Sereno Citation1986

Ornithopoda Marsh Citation1881
Elasmaria Calvo et al. Citation2007

Tietasaura gen. nov. 

Etymology: The generic epithet is a combination of Tieta (nickname for Antonieta in Portuguese) and -saura (σαύρα), the genitive form of -saurus and meaning lizard in ancient Greek. The name Tieta honours the main character from the homonymous novel ‘Tieta do Agreste’ by the famous author Jorge Amado, who was born in Bahia and lived in Salvador City. The name Antonieta further means ‘priceless’, alluding to the value of Tietasaura derbyiana sp. nov. as the first nominal ornithischian species from Brazil.

Tietasaura derbyiana sp. nov.

Etymology: The specific epithet is an eponym honouring Orville A. Derby (1851–1915), founder and the first director from Brazilian Mineralogical and Geological Commission (Serviço Geológico e Mineralógico do Brasil, nowadays SGB), being also the former director of the National Museum of Rio de Janeiro (MN) and one of the pioneers of palaeontology in the Recôncavo Basin. Despite all tragedies in his life and the blatant lack of governmental support, Derby valiantly fought for the scientific progress of the Brazilian geosciences.

Holotype: NHM-PV R.3424, represented by a distal half of a small left femur.

Diagnosis: Small sized elasmarian ornithopod exhibiting an unique combination of character states on the femur (putative autapomorphies marked with an asterisk): presence of a marked anterior linea muscularis followed by several longitudinal striae converging distally towards the intercondylar extensor groove; broad but shallow intercondylar extensor groove; stout supracondylar ridges that extends medially; fibular supracondylar ridge sinuous and bearing a lateral fossa*; hemispherical distal femoral condyles in the posterior view, being the tibial condyle twice as large as fibular condyle; distinct prominent crest in the median margin of the tibial condyle*; fibular condyle with straight lateral margin and continuous in the distal view, lacking an indentation formed by a condyloid (rectangular) process; presence of an offset condylid, medial to the fibular condyle; broad and deep intercondylar flexor fossa, subtriangular in shape and much extending into the diaphysis.

Type locality and horizon: The holotype of Tietasaura derbyiana was recovered at a beach near the Plataforma Station (Locality 3), Salvador City, Bahia State. The shale facies outcropping in this locality are associated with the Valanginian – Hauterivian Marfim Formation (Ilhas Group, Recôncavo Basin).

Kamila L. N. Bandeira, Bruno A. Navarro, Rodrigo V. Pêgas, Natan S. Brilhante, Arthur S. Brum, Lucy G. de Souza, Rafael C. da Silva and Valéria Gallo. 2024. A Reassessment of the historical Fossil Findings from Bahia State (Northeast Brazil) reveals A diversified Dinosaur Fauna in the Lower Cretaceous of South America. Historical Biology: An International Journal of Paleobiology. DOI: 10.1080/08912963.2024.2318406

[Crustacea • 2024] Indochinamon datii • A New Species of the Genus Indochinamon Yeo & Ng, 2007 (Brachyura: Potamoidea: Potamidae) and a new country record from Northern Vietnam

Indochinamon datii 
Dang, Hoang & Do, 2024

A new species of freshwater crab, Indochinamon datii n. sp. is described from Xuan Son National Park, Phu Tho Province, Northern Vietnam. The new species external morphology is most similar to I. kimboiense (Dang, 1967) and I. bavi Naruse, Nguyen & Yeo, 2011. However, it can be distinguished from the other species by characters of the carapace, telson and male first gonopod. Indochinamon malipoense Zhang & Sun in Zhang, Pan, Hao & Sun, 2020 is also recorded for the first time in Vietnam.

Crustacea, Xuan Son National Park, Phu Tho Province, new record, taxonomy, Potamiscinae, Indochinamon malipoense, Indochinamon ahkense, karsts

 Indochinamon datii n. sp.

Khai Dang, Anh Tram Hoang and Cuong Do. 2024. A New Species of the Genus Indochinamon Yeo & Ng, 2007 (Crustacea: Brachyura: Potamoidea: Potamidae) and a new country record from Northern Vietnam.  Zootaxa. 5437(4); 560-570. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.5437.4.8

[Botany • 2024] Begonia dakrongensis (Begoniaceae) • A New Species from Dakrong Nature Reserve, Quang Tri Province, Central Vietnam


Begonia dakrongensis C.H. Nguyen, T.A. Le & C.W. Lin,

in Nguyen, Le, Ha et Lin, 2024. 
A new species of Begonia (Begoniaceae), B. dakrongensis, from Central Vietnam is described and illustrated. B. dakrongensis resembles B. abbreviata in its rhizomatous habit, short cymose-paniculate inflorescence with congested bracts, 4-tepaled staminate flowers, and 5-tepaled pistillate flowers. However, the new species markedly differs by having obtriangular-spathulate to oblong-obovate or widely obovate lamina (vs. ovate to broadly ovate), not oblique or nearly so (vs. oblique), widely obovate anthers (vs. narrowly obovate), and trigonous-globose ovary (vs. trigonous-ellipsoid).

endemism, Plant Diversity, Plant Taxonomy, Quang Tri Province, Dakrong Nature Reserve, Eudicots 

Cuong Huu Nguyen, Anh Tuan Le, Van Bac Ha and Che Wei Lin. 2024. Begonia dakrongensis (Begoniaceae), A New Species from Dakrong Nature Reserve, Quang Tri Province in Central Vietnam. Phytotaxa 645(1); 85-90. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.645.1.8

[Diplopoda • 2024] Scolopocryptops longisetosus • Taxonomic Re-appraisal of Scolopocryptops quadristriatus (Verhoeff, 1934) (Chilopoda: Scolopendromorpha: Scolopocryptopidae) and A Description of A New Species from Japan and Taiwan

Scolopocryptops longisetosus 
Jonishi & Nakano, 2024

Centipedes of the genus Scolopocryptops Newport, 1844 are blind species mostly described from the New World and East Asia. In this study, a Japanese species, S. quadristriatus (Verhoeff, 1934), which is characterised by four longitudinal keels on the tergites, is re-described, based on the likely holotype preserved in the Zoologische Staatssammlung München and specimens newly collected from near the type locality. In addition, S. longisetosus sp. nov., a new species that bears tergal keels like S. quadristriatus, is described from the Ryukyu Islands in Japan and Taiwan. Although the presence of four keels on tergites is unique to these two species, phylogenetic analyses using nuclear and mitochondrial markers showed that S. longisetosus sp. nov. is not sister to S. quadristriatus. The obtained phylogeny indicates that the tergal longitudinal keels evolved in parallel within Scolopocryptops or that the presence of keels represents a plesiomorphic character of the clade containing these species.

Key Words: molecular phylogeny, nomenclature, plesiomorphic character, Ryukyu Islands, tergal keels

Scolopocryptops longisetosus sp. nov., holotype, ♂ (KUZ Z5107: A, C–E) and non-type specimen from Yonaguni Island, ♂ (KUZ Z5124: B).
A, B. Cephalic plate and tergite 1, dorsal view; C. Distal part of article 2, article 3 and pretarsus of left second maxilla, medial view; D. Article 3 and pretarsus of left second maxilla, lateral view; E. Head, ventral view. Abbreviations: am — anterior margin of forcipular coxosternite; bs — basal suture on forcipular trochanteroprefemoral process; db — dorsal brush on article 3 of second maxilla; ds — dorsal spur on article 2 of second maxilla; pt — pretarsus of second maxilla; ptr — process of forcipular trochanteroprefemur. Scale bars: 1 mm (A, B, E); 0.2 mm (C, D).

Scolopocryptops longisetosus sp. nov., paratype, ♂ (KUZ Z5119: B), non-type specimen from Yonaguni Island, ♂ (KUZ Z5124: C) and habitat near the type locality. 
 A. Habitat (laurel tree forest) on Okinawa Island; B, C. Live specimen, dorsal view. Scale bars: 10 mm.

 Scolopocryptops longisetosus sp. nov.
 Suggested Japanese name: Kuromadara-akamukade

Diagnosis: Antenna with sparse hairs and setae of various lengths dorsally on two basal articles, subsequent articles densely covered with long setae and minute setae. Cephalic plate with complete lateral marginal sulci. Tergites lacking paramedian sutures, tergites 5–20 with four longitudinal keels and median depression bordered by paramedian keels.
Etymology: The specific name is derived from the Latin compound adjective, “longus” (long) and “setosus” (hairy), referring to the long antennal setae of this new species.

 Taro Jonishi and Takafumi Nakano. 2024. Taxonomic Re-appraisal of Scolopocryptops quadristriatus (Verhoeff, 1934) and A Description of A New Species from Japan and Taiwan (Chilopoda, Scolopendromorpha, Scolopocryptopidae). Zoosystematics and Evolution. 100(2): 405-423. DOI: 10.3897/zse.100.119297

Thursday, April 18, 2024

[Funga • 2024] Cystolepiota flavolamellata (Agaricales: Verrucosporaceae) • A New Species from Southeast Asia

 Cystolepiota flavolamellata Salichanh, Sysouph., & Luangharn, 

in Salichanh, Sysouphanthong, Thongklang et Luangharn. 2024.  
We present Cystolepiota flavolamellata a new species discovered in the tropical regions of Thailand and Laos. Morphological characters and multigene phylogenetic analyses, which encompass ITS, LSU, rpb2, and tef1 sequences, distinguish this species. Cystolepiota flavolamellata exhibits the following unique set of characteristics: basidiomata covered with light brown to brown granules or large pyramidal squamules; free yellowish white to light yellow lamellae; broadly ellipsoid to oblong-amygdaliform to ovoid basidiospores; absence of pleurocystidia; variably shaped cheilocystidia, i.e., oblong, clavate with or without appendicular apex, conical to utriform, fusiform; an epithelium for the pileus and stipe covering; and presence of clamp connections. Molecular analyses based on multiple genes confirm its separation from other known and sequenced Cystolepiota species.

 fungi, fungal diversity, litter-inhabiting fungi, taxonomy 

 Cystolepiota flavolamellata Salichanh, Sysouph., & Luangharn

Thaviphone Salichanh, Phongeun Sysouphanthong, Naritsada Thongklang and Thatsanee Luangharn. 2024. Cystolepiota flavolamellata (Verrucosporaceae, Agaricales), A New Species from Southeast Asia.  Phytotaxa 645(1); 18-28. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.645.1.2

[Botany • 2024] Gynoxys revolutifolia (Asteraceae: Senecioneae) • A New Species from southern Ecuador

Gynoxys revolutifolia R. Arias, Espinosa-Ortega & Revilla, 

in Arias, Espinosa-Ortega, Revilla, Ansaloni et Tomasello, 2024.
Gynoxys is a very diverse genus of Asteraceae with an Andean distribution from Venezuela to northern Argentina. It comprises about 130 species, 34 of which are recorded in Ecuador. In the present study, we describe Gynoxys revolutifolia, a new species occurring in Ecuador between Loja and Zamora-Chinchipe provinces. The new species is a shrub or treelet characterized by coriaceous leaves with a strongly revolute margin. After an accurate revision of the main Ecuadorian herbaria and field surveys, we provide a comprehensive comparison of G. revolutifolia with the species it was previously misidentified as. We also provide information concerning the chemical composition, distribution range and conservation status of the new species.

Keywords: Andes, Compositae, Loja, Taxonomy, Zamora-Chinchipe

Lankester Composite Dissection Plate of Gynoxys revolutifolia R. Arias, Espinosa-Ortega & Revilla
A. Flowering branch. B. Leaf: abaxial surface (left), adaxial surface (right). C. Synflorescence. D. Capitulum, front view. E. Capitulum, cross-section. F. Calycle. G. Bracteoles: abaxial surface (left), adaxial surface (right). H. Outer phyllaries: abaxial surface (left), adaxial surface (right). I. Inner phyllaries: abaxial surface (left), adaxial surface (right). J. Ray floret (pappus removed). K. Ray floret style. L. Disc floret (pappus removed). M. Disc floret style. N. Anther. O. Achene (immature). P. Pappus bristles.
Photos and preparation by N. Espinosa-Ortega based on the isotype (QCA249764).

 Gynoxys revolutifolia.
A. Habit, shrub in shrubby páramo, Cerro Toledo-Loja/Zamora Chinchipe border. (R. Ansaloni & N. Espinosa-Ortega 310).
B. Habit, treelet in elfin forest, Yangana-Cerro Toledo road, Loja (R. Ansaloni & N. Espinosa-Ortega 311).
Photos by N. Espinosa-Ortega

Gynoxys revolutifolia R. Arias, Espinosa-Ortega & Revilla, sp. nov. 

Diagnosis:—The new species differs from all other congeners by having coriaceous leaves with strongly revolute margins (giving it a concave shape) and conspicuous primary and secondary veins (8–12 pairs) on both leaf surfaces, simple and T-shaped trichomes covering the abaxial side of the leaves, involucre with 8 phyllaries with ferruginous unicellular trichomes, 4–5 ray florets with limbs 10–11 mm long and 8–9(–12) disc florets. 

Etymology:—The specific epithet of the new species refers to the strong revolute leaf margins.

Ruth Arias, Nelson Espinosa-Ortega, Italo Revilla, Raffaella Ansaloni and Salvatore Tomasello. 2024. Gynoxys revolutifolia (Senecioneae, Asteraceae): A New Species from southern Ecuador.  Phytotaxa. 644(3); 211-219. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.644.3.4

[Botany • 2024] Impatiens neo-uncinata (Balsaminaceae) • A New Species from southern Western Ghats of Kerala, India


Impatiens neo-uncinata V.S.A.Kumar & Sindhu Arya, 

in Sindhu et Kumar, 2024. 

A new species, Impatiens neo-uncinata, belonging to section Scorpioidae is described and illustrated from Thiruvananthapuram district of Kerala in the southern Western Ghats. It is morphologically similar to Impatiens unicinata, but can easily be distinguished in having milky white distal lobe of keel petal, deltoid shape of standard petals and 1–2 seeded capsules. Furthermore, the SEM analysis of pollen and seed also delineate the taxa. Impatiens neo-uncinatais assessed here as Endangered based on the categories and criteria of the IUCN Red List.

Eudicots, Agasthyamala biosphere reserve, Impatiens, Scorpioidae, taxonomy


Impatiens neo-uncinata V.S.A.Kumar & Sindhu Arya

Arya Sindhu and Venugopalan Nair Saradhamma Anil Kumar. 2024. Impatiens neo-uncinata (Balsaminaceae), A New Species from southern Western Ghats of Kerala, India.  Phytotaxa. 644(1); 1-9. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.644.1.1


[Entomology • 2024] Becquartina bicolor • Discovery of the Cicada Genus Becquartina Kato, 1940 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadinae) in India with the Description of A New Species from Meghalaya


 Becquartina bicolor 
Sarkar, Thangkhiew, Mahapatra, Mohapatra, Nair & Hajong, 2024

The genus Becquartina Kato, 1940 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) is reported for the first time from India with a new species, Becquartina bicolor sp. nov., along with records of two distinct colour forms, from the northeastern Indian state of Meghalaya and located within the Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot. This paper provides an account of its natural history and bioacoustics. The present discovery extends the distributional range of the genus Becquartina from Southeast Asia into Northeast India and increases the total number of known Becquartina species to seven.

Hemiptera, Indo-Burma Biodiversity hotspot, cicada, species discovery, natural history, Meghalaya, India

Vivek Sarkar, Rodeson Thangkhiew, Cuckoo Mahapatra, Pratyush P. Mohapatra, Manoj V. Nair and Sudhanya R. Hajong. 2024. Discovery of the Cicada Genus Becquartina Kato, 1940 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadinae) in India with the Description of A New Species from Meghalaya. Zootaxa. 5432(1); 96-108. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.5432.1.7

[Entomology • 2023] Phragmacossia bozanoi • A New Species (Lepidoptera: Cossidae: Zeuzerinae) from southern Greece with some notes on Phragmataecia and Phragmacossia

Phragmacossia bozanoi
Saldaitis, Prozorov, Müller & Yakovlev, 2023

The taxonomic relationship between the genera Phragmataecia Newman, 1850 and Phragmacossia Schawerda, 1924 is considered. Diagnostic characters and distribution of the species Phragmataecia castaneae (Hübner, 1790), Phragmataecia albida (Erschoff, 1874), Phragmacossia ariana (Grum-Grshimailo, 1899), Phragmacossia territa (Staudinger, 1879), and Phragmacossia minos Reisser, 1963 are studied in detail. A new species, Phragmacossia bozanoi sp. n., is described from the Peloponnese Peninsula and the South Greek mainland.

Lepidoptera, biodiversity, Central Asia, Crete, fauna, Middle east, new species for europe, Peloponnes, taxonomy

  Map with collecting localities of Phragmacossia minos (29, green) and Ph. bozanoi sp. n. (29, red), habitat (30–31) and adults of Ph. bozanoi sp. n. in nature (32–33, pictures of L. Sattin Luca).

 Phragmacossia bozanoi sp. n.: adults, dorsal view.
Depositories of the specimens: 14 in WIGJ; 15 in MWM/ZSM; 16 in GMM; 17 in TMF; 18 in AMM. Scale bar—1 cm.

Aidas Saldaitis, Alexey M. Prozorov, Günter C. Müller, Roman V. Yakovlev. 2023.  Phragmacossia bozanoi—A New Species from southern Greece with some notes on Phragmataecia and Phragmacossia (Lepidoptera, Cossidae, Zeuzerinae).  Zootaxa. 5374(2); 211-228. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.5374.2.3

[Botany • 2024] Thaigardenia (Rubiaceae: Gardenieae) • A New Genus distributed from Thailand to South China

T. similis (Craib) K.M.Wong & L.Neo comb. nov.
T. collinsiae (Craib) K.M.Wong, Teerawat. & Sungkaew comb. nov.,

Thaigardenia Sungkaew, Teerawat., Chamch. & K.M.Wong, gen. nov.
in Sungkaew, Arthan, Teerawatananon, Chamchumroon, Neo et Wong, 2024. 
Photos: D. Prathumthong, A. Teerawatananon and K.M. Wong.

Identified as Gardenia over a century ago, three known species from Thailand to south China differ considerably from typical members of that genus, from which growth habits, aspects of branch architecture and corolla shape set them apart. They form a new genus, here named Thaigardenia, the species of which are scrambling to thicket-forming shrubs to sometimes treelets or small trees. They have typically unequal (asymmetric) development of each internode that offsets what began as opposite pairs of axillary buds (and potential axillary branches) from subtending leaf axils at the same level, and small infundibular corollas with insignificant tubular bases. In contrast, typical Gardenia are non-scrambling shrubs or trees, often have extra-axillary buds or branches that consistently continue to develop at the same level (i.e., remaining opposite); and showy hypocrateriform (salverform) corollas with elongate tubular bases. The unequal development of different sides of an internode that brings an initially opposite pair of axillary buds (branches) to different levels, so that they do not appear paired subsequently, is, as far as is known, unique and unknown in other Rubiaceae or opposite-leaved plants; this shared feature is a key synapomorphic character for species of the newly recognised genus.

Keywords: Branch architecture, Gardenia, hypocrateriform, infundibular

Open flower (inset) and fruiting twig of Thaigardenia similis (Craib) K.M.Wong & L.Neo, showing narrowly triangular lobes on a short calyx tube.
Photos: D. Prathumthong (flower) and A. Teerawatananon.

Thaigardenia Sungkaew, Teerawat., Chamch. & K.M.Wong, gen. nov.

Thaigardenia is a new genus of the Rubiaceae, allied to Gardenia J.Ellis, differing in the species being shrubs with a scrambling to thicket-forming habit or small trees with crooked sympodial trunks (vs Gardenia s.s. which are mostly trees with monopodial trunks or non-thicket forming bushes), developing extra-axillary buds and branches at different distances from a leaf-pair at the same node on stems and branches (sometimes these extra-axillary buds more than one per leaf axil) (vs with extra-axillary buds and branches always at the same level, and solitary buds in Gardenia), broad-triangular stipules fused along their edges (vs typical Gardenia spp. with stipules fused into a cylindric sheath split slightly on one side), infundibular corolla with insignificant tubular bases much shorter than the inflated upper portion (vs hypocrateriform corollas with relatively long basal tubes with a hardly widened uppermost portion in Gardenia), and pollen issued as tetrads. 

Type: Thaigardenia collinsiae (Craib) K.M.Wong, Teerawat. & Sungkaew.

Etymology.— The name Thaigardenia refers to Thailand, where studies into the taxonomy of this group were initiated, and where the generic type can be abundantly found, as well as Gardenia, the genus in which its species were earlier placed. Thailand has been eponymously included in the nomenclature of two other plant genera: Thaia Seidenf. (Orchidaceae) (Seidenfaden, 1975) and Thailentadopsis Kosterm. (Leguminosae) (Kostermans, 1977), both of which continue to be in use (Lewis & Schrire, 2003; Xiang et al., 2012).

Thaigardenia cambodiana (Pit.) K.M.Wong & Chamch., comb. nov.

Thaigardenia collinsiae (Craib) K.M.Wong, Teerawat. & Sungkaew, comb. nov.

Thaigardenia similis (Craib) K.M.Wong & L.Neo, comb. nov.

Incompletely understood taxon: Thaigardenia ‘Nhatrang’ 

Sarawood Sungkaew, Watchara Arthan, Atchara Teerawatananon, Voradol Chamchumroon, Louise Neo and Khoon Meng Wong. 2024. Thaigardenia (Rubiaceae: Gardenieae), A New Genus distributed from Thailand to South China.  Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany). 52(1), 25–43. DOI:10.20531/tfb.2024.52.1.04

[Entomology • 2024] Panolcus filirostris • A second species of the Genus Panolcus Gerstaecker 1860 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Cryptorhynchini) from French Guiana and Suriname with Taxonomic Changes in Cryptorhynchini

Panolcus filirostris
Anderson. 2024

A second species of the genus Panolcus Gerstaecker, 1860 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Cryptorhynchini) from French Guiana and Suriname is described and compared with Panolcus scolopax Gerstaecker, 1860. Diagnostic characters and images are provided to facilitate identification. Adults were collected in a fruit of Duguetia surinamensis R.E. Fr. (Annonaceae). The genus Panolcus is transferred from Aedemonina (Cryptorhynchini) to Cryptorhynchina (Cryptorhynchini). The type species of Thrasyomus Pascoe, 1880 is here designated as Thrasyomus tumens Pascoe, 1880 and the species Thrasyomus uniformis Champion, 1905 is transferred from the genus Thrasyomus to Eubulus Kirsch, 1869 as Eubulus uniformis (Champion, 1905), new combination.

Coleoptera, biodiversity, species discovery, weevils

female Panolcus filirostris, ventral.

 7–12. Panolcus male habitus and aedeagus images.
7, Panolcus filirostris habitus, lateral; 8, Panolcus filirostris habitus, dorsal; 9, Panolcus filirostris habitus, ventral; 10, Panolcus filirostris aedeagus, dorsal view; 11, Panolcus filirostris aedeagus, lateral view; 12, Panolcus scolopax aedeagus, dorsal view.

 Mature fruit of Duguetia surinamensis R.E. Fr. (Annonaceae) from which Panolcus filirostris specimens were collected (photograph by G. Bittencourt-Silva) 

Panolcus filirostris Anderson, new species 

Diagnosis:  Body  length  10.8–11.0  mm  in  females,  9.5–9.8  mm  in  males,  width  5.0–5.5  mm  in  females,  4.8–5.0 mm in males. Rostrum in female about twice as long as elytra, apex of rostrum reaching far beyond apex of elytra (by almost length of elytra) when in repose, of male, reaching to level of posterior margin of mesocoxae. Pronotum very strongly tubulate anteriorly in female, less so in male. Femora and tibiae proportionally slenderer in both sexes (although slightly less so in male), profemora about 4 x as long as width at base, protibiae about 7–8 x as long as maximum width. Protarsus with tarsomere 1 longer than tarsomeres 2–5 in female, shorter than tarsomeres 2–5 in male. Aedeagus with lateral margins subparallel, each with acute angle (but no tooth) at point of constriction.

Robert S. Anderson. 2024. A second species of the Genus Panolcus Gerstaecker 1860 (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Molytinae: Cryptorhynchini) from French Guiana and Suriname with Taxonomic Changes in Cryptorhynchini.  Zootaxa. 5437(1); 15-20. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.5437.1.2

[Entomology • 2022] Paleogene Forest Fragmentation and Out-of-Africa Dispersal explain Radiation of the Paleotropical Dung Beetle tribe Epactoidini trib. nov. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae)

Species illustrated: (a) Ochicanthon hanskii Krikken & Huijbregts, (b) O. woroae Ochi, Ueda & Kon, (c) O. crypticus Krikken & Huijbregts, (d) O. devagiriensis Sabu & Latha, (e) O. ceylonicus Cuccodoro, (f) Grebennikovius basilewskyi (Balthasar), (g) Epactoides giganteus, (h) E. madecassus (Paulian), (i) E. major (Paulian), (j) E. frontalis (Montreuil).

 Epactoidini trib. nov.
Rossini, Grebennikov, Merrien, Miraldo, Viljanen & Tarasov, 2022

Paleotropical clades with largely disjunct distributions are ideal models for biogeographic reconstructions. The dung beetle genera Grebennikovius Mlambo, Scholtz & Deschodt, Epactoides Olsouffief and Ochicanthon Vaz-de-Mello are distributed in Tanzania, Madagascar and Réunion, and the Oriental region, respectively. We combine morphology and molecular dataset to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships between these taxa. Our analyses corroborate previous hypotheses of monophyly of the group, which is here described as new tribe Epactoidini trib. nov. Grebennikovius is recovered as sister to Epactoides, while Ochicanthon emerges as sister to them both. The disjunct distribution of our focal clade is unusual within the subfamily Scarabaeinae. Bayesian divergence time estimates and ancestral range reconstructions indicate an African origin of the crown group of the tribe Epactoidini trib. nov. in the early mid Eocene, ca. 46 Ma. The divergence between Epactoides and its sister is dated to 32.3 Ma, while the crown age for the genus Ochicanthon is dated to 27 Ma. We investigate the factors that may have shaped the current distribution of the tribe Epactoidini trib. nov. The formation of the Gomphotherium landbridge, along with favourable environmental conditions would have allowed dry-intolerant organisms, such as Ochicanthon, to disperse out of Africa. Remarkable climatic stability of the Eastern Arc Mountains was critical for the retention of the monotypic genus Grebennikovius. We suggest two subsequent overwater dispersal events: the migration of the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Epactoides from Africa to Madagascar (32.3–29.5 Ma); the lately dispersal of the MRCA of the today's extinct Epactoides giganteus Rossini, Vaz-de-Mello & Montreuil to Réunion island from Madagascar (3.4 Ma). We suggest that the high potential of dispersal of Epactoidini trib. nov. dung beetles and the strict association to forest habitat might have triggered two major radiations, one in Madagascar and one in the Oriental Region.

Keywords: biogeography, evolution, phylogenetics

Epactoidini trib. nov. 

Type genus: Epactoides Olsouffief, 1947

Genera: Epactoides Olsouffief, 1947
Grebennikovius Mlambo et al., 2019
Ochicanthon Vaz-de-Mello, 2003.

Distribution: Tanzania (Uluguru Mountains); Madagascar; Réunion Island; Oriental Region: from southern India to southern Philippines. 

Diagnosis: The tribe Epactoidini is supported by the following diagnostic characters (Figure 2): (i) elytra with 9–10 striae; (ii) besides epipleural carina, elytra with one or two additional lateral carinas; (iii) endophallus without frontolateral peripheral (FLP) endophallite; (iv) radial posterior (RP1) sclerite of hindwings (when present) approaches the posterior side the radial anterior (RA4) sclerite.

Ancestral range reconstruction of Epactoidini trib. nov. BioGeoBEAR tree and map showing suggested dispersal routes of Epactoides and Ochicanthon from Afrotropical ancestors, including date estimation. Nodal support values are expressed as UFBS and SH-aLRT. Bars at nodes indicate 95% CI of estimated ages. Distribution areas of Epactoidini members: Eastern Arc Mountains (EAMs) (red); Madagascar (light blue); Réunion (purple); Oriental (green).
Species illustrated: (a) Ochicanthon hanskii Krikken & Huijbregts, (b) O. woroae Ochi, Ueda & Kon, (c) O. crypticus Krikken & Huijbregts, (d) O. devagiriensis Sabu & Latha, (e) O. ceylonicus Cuccodoro, (f) Grebennikovius basilewskyi (Balthasar), (g) Epactoides giganteus, (h) E. madecassus (Paulian), (i) E. major (Paulian), (j) E. frontalis (Montreuil).


Michele Rossini, Vasily Grebennikov, Thomas Merrien, Andreia Miraldo, Heidi Viljanen and Sergei Tarasov. 2022. Paleogene Forest Fragmentation and Out-of-Africa Dispersal explain Radiation of the Paleotropical Dung Beetle tribe Epactoidini trib. nov. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeinae). Systematic Entomology. DOI: 10.1111/syen.12564