Saturday, March 23, 2019

[PaleoOrnithology • 2019] Fully Fledged Enantiornithine Hatchling Revealed by Laser-Stimulated Fluorescence Supports Precocial Nesting Behavior


This  bird hatchling lived in a lake environment and may have been born on the ground like some other extinct enantiornithine birds.

in Kaye, Pittman, Marugán-Lobón, et al., 2019. 
 Illustration: Julius T. Csotonyi

Abstract
Laser-Stimulated Fluorescence (LSF) is used to identify fully fledged feathering in the hatchling enantiornithine bird specimen MPCM-LH-26189, supporting precocial nesting behavior in this extinct group. The LSF results include the detection of a long pennaceous wing feather as well as cover feathers around the body. The LSF technique showed improved detection limits over and above synchrotron and UV imaging which had both been performed on this specimen. The findings underscore the value of using a wide range of analytical techniques.



Figure 1 Spanish enantiornithine hatchling MPCM-LH-26189.
(A) White light image of the counterslab. (B) Laser-Stimulated Fluorescence (LSF) image of the slab and counterslab combined (composite image) reveals brown patches around the specimen. These comprise of clumps of elongate feathers associated with the neck and wings (upper arrows; see Figs 2 and 3 for close-up images) as well as a single long pennaceous feather associated with the left wing (lower arrow; see Fig. 2E,F for close-up image). (C) White light image of the slab. Scale = 5 mm.

A bird hatchling leaving its nest shortly after birth ~125 million years ago. This baby bird lived in a lake environment and may have been born on the ground like some other extinct enantiornithine birds.
 Illustration: Julius T. Csotonyi / HKU Vertebrate Palaeontology Laboratory. 


Thomas G. Kaye, Michael Pittman, Jesús Marugán-Lobón, Hugo Martín-Abad, José Luis Sanz and Angela D. Buscalioni. 2019. Fully Fledged Enantiornithine Hatchling Revealed by Laser-Stimulated Fluorescence Supports Precocial Nesting Behavior. Scientific Reports. 9, 5006. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-41423-7

Ancient birds out of the egg running  phys.org/news/2019-03-ancient-birds-egg.html via @physorg_com

[Paleontology • 2019] Cratopipa novaolindensis • A New Genus of Pipimorph Frog (Anura) from the early Cretaceous Crato Formation (Aptian) and the Evolution of South American Tongueless Frogs


Cratopipa novaolindensis
Carvalho, Agnolin, Rolando, Novas, Xavier-Neto, de Freitas & de Andrade, 2019


Highlights: 
• We describe a new species of Pipimorpha from the Crato Formation (Aptian, Early Cretaceous), Araripe Basin, Brazil.
Cratopipa novaolindensis nov. gen. et sp. is the oldest pipimorph fossil from South America.
• Phylogenetic analysis resulted in the nesting of the new taxon within a unrecognized endemic South American clade.
• The analysis sustains dispersal of pipimorphs through an island chain or continental bridge across the Atlantic Ocean.

Abstract
Pipimorpha is a clade of tongueless anurans with a wide fossil record. Furthermore, the oldest South American fossils come from the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian) of Patagonia, Argentina. The aim of the present contribution is to describe a new genus and species of Pipimorpha from the Crato Formation (Aptian, Early Cretaceous), Araripe Basin, Brazil. The new specimen consists of a nearly complete skeleton that shows several anatomical similarities with other fossils from South America. Phylogenetic analysis resulted in the nesting of the new taxon within a previously unrecognized endemic South American clade. Further, some traditional groupings within Pipimorpha were not recognized. The new phylogenetic analysis reinforces previous biogeographical hypotheses sustaining dispersal of pipimorph between Africa and South America through an island chain or continental bridge across the Atlantic Ocean.

Keywords: Crato Formation, Lower Cretaceous, Pipimorpha, Brazil, South America, Africa


Systematic palaeontology

Anura Rafinesque, 1815
Pipoidea Fitzinger, 1843
Pipimorpha Ford and Cannatella, 1993

Cratopipa novaolindensis nov. gen. et sp.


Derivation of the name. Crato, from Crato Formation, the lithostratigraphic unit in which the holotype specimen was found; Pipa, the type genus of the Pipidae family. The specific epithet novaolindensis refers to the county of Nova Olinda, Ceará State, Brazil, the site where the fossil was discovered. 


  Holotype specimen of Cratopipa novaolindensis nov. gen. et sp. (UFRJDG 05 A). 


Skeletal reconstruction of Cratopipa novaolindensis nov. gen. et sp. 


 life reconstruction of the Aptian Pipimorpha Cratopipa novaolindensis nov. gen. et sp. 
(Art by Deverson da Silva, Pepi).


Ismar de Souza Carvalho, Federico Agnolin, Mauro A. Aranciaga Rolando, Fernando E. Novas, José Xavier-Neto, Francisco Idalécio de Freitas and José Artur Ferreira Gomes de Andrade. 2019. A New Genus of Pipimorph Frog (Anura) from the early Cretaceous Crato Formation (Aptian) and the Evolution of South American Tongueless Frogs. Journal of South American Earth Sciences. 92; 222-233. DOI:  10.1016/j.jsames.2019.03.005 

Novo gênero de perereca fóssil é descoberto em Nova Olinda 
Batizado de Cratopipa Novaolindesis, a espécime habitou o Cariri há 110 milhões de anos. blogs.diariodonordeste.com.br/cariri/ciencia/novo-genero-de-perereca-fossil-e-descoberto-em-nova-olinda/22810  @diarioonline

    

[Botany • 2019] Uvaria botryoides (Annonaceae) • A New Species from Angola


Uvaria botryoides Paiva

in Paiva & Bárrios, 2019. 


 Summary
Uvaria botryoides Paiva, a new species from Angola is described and illustrated. The species distribution is mapped, and its conservation status assessed. It is compared to all species of the genus Uvaria that occur in Angola and a key to Angolan species is presented.

Key Words: Data Deficient, endemic, new taxa, red list, tribe Uvariae


Fig. 1 Uvaria botryoides.
 A habit; B fruit; C bud; D flower; E stamen; F carpel; G detail of pubescence on the pedicel surface; H detail from undersurface of petal; J detail from upper surface of petal; K detail from upper surface of leaf; L detail from undersurface of leaf; M calyx; N detail from upper (inner) surface of sepal; P detail from under (external) surface of sepal.
Drawn by Inês S. M. Carneiro.

Uvaria botryoides Paiva sp. nov.

Recognition. This species belongs to a complex, in which the species, Uvaria angolensis Oliv., U. botryoides, U. cuanzensis, U. lucida Benth. and U. versicolor Pierre ex Engl. & Diels are not easy to distinguish without flowers. Uvaria botryoides is the only one with a pubescent stigma.


Jorge Paiva and Sara Bárrios. 2019. Uvaria botryoides (Annonaceae), A New Species from Angola. Kew Bulletin. DOI: 10.1007/s12225-019-9794-5 

[Paleontology • 2019] Globidens simplex • Insights Into the Anatomy and Functional Morphology of Durophagous Mosasaurines (Squamata: Mosasauridae) from A New Species of Globidens from Morocco


Globidens simplex 
Leblanc, Mohr & Caldwell, 2019


Abstract
Durophagous mosasaurs are rare members of Late Cretaceous marine faunal assemblages and new fossil discoveries can shed light on their anatomy, functional morphology and evolutionary history. Here we describe a new species in the durophagous genus Globidens from the Maastrichtian phosphate deposits of Morocco, based on a partial disarticulated skull and cervical vertebral series. This new species shares many anatomical similarities with the only other described Maastrichtian species, G. phosphaticus, but differs in several key features, including the absence of pronounced swellings and sulci on the crushing teeth and the absence of cervical zygosphenes and zygantra. Histological thin sections of a rib from the holotype show that this was not a juvenile individual and reveal osteosclerotic-like bone compactness for the first time in a paddle-bearing mosasaurine. We interpret the highly compact ribs, as well as several peculiarities of the temporal arcade and lower jaws, as adaptations to a diet of benthic, hard-bodied prey.

Keywords: Cretaceous, fossil, Globidensini, histology, Mosasaurinae


Systematic palaeontology 
Reptilia Linnaeus, 1758 
Squamata Oppel, 1811 

Mosasauridae Gervais, 1853
 Mosasaurinae Gervais, 1853 

Globidens Gilmore, 1912 

Globidens simplex Leblanc, Mohr & Caldwell, sp. nov.

Etymology: The epithet simplex is Latin for ‘simple’ or ‘plain’, referring to the simple shapes of the large crushing tooth crowns relative to other species of Globidens, as well as the absence of accessory vertebral articulations (zygosphenes and zygantra) on the cervical vertebrae.

 Globidens simplex sp. nov. MHNM.KHG.221, holotype dental series

  Partial skull reconstruction of Globidens simplex sp. nov. Grey outline represents hypothetical soft tissue and life reconstruction, in addition to the maxilla and upper tooth row.  

 Globidens simplex sp. nov. MHNM.KHG.221, holotype rib, general histology.  


Aaron R. H. Leblanc, Sydney R. Mohr and Michael W. Caldwell. 2019. Insights Into the Anatomy and Functional Morphology of Durophagous Mosasaurines (Squamata: Mosasauridae) from A New Species of Globidens from Morocco. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. zlz008. DOI:  10.1093/zoolinnean/zlz008   

the inside of a rib of the newly discovered species of shell-crushing mosasaur, Globidens simplex. The ribs are almost completely filled with bone, making them very dense. This may have helped this animal sink to the seafloor and forage for food!


[Herpetology • 2019] Trachylepis raymondlaurenti • A New Long-tailed Skink (Scincidae: Trachylepis) from Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo


Trachylepis raymondlaurenti 
Marques, Ceríaco, Bandeira, Pauwels & Bauer, 2019

Laurent’s Long Tailed Skink || DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4568.1.3
Photo by Luis M. P. Ceríaco.

Abstract
Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo are relatively unknown in terms of their herpetological diversity. Based on specimens collected in the Congolese region of the Katanga and the northeast of Angola during the first decades of the twentieth century, de Witte and Laurent independently suggested, based on morphological and coloration differences, that populations of T. megalura of these regions could belong a new “race”. We compared specimens of T. megalura (including the type specimens of T. megalura and T. massaiana) with Angolan and Katangan museum specimens as well as newly collected specimens from Angola. Coloration pattern and morphological characters, in combination with substantial divergence in the 16S mitochondrial gene, confirm the distinctiveness of the west Central African form, and it is here described as a new species. Data regarding its natural history, ecology and global distribution are presented.

 Keywords: Reptilia, Taxonomy, Trachylepis raymondlaurenti sp. nov., Cangandala National Park, Upemba National Park, Central Africa, type-specimens, nomenclature


FIGURE 3. Live specimen of Trachylepis megalura (EBG 1408) from Lwiro, South Kivu Province, DRC. Note the prominent white flank stripe.
Photo by Eli B. Greenbaum.

Holotype of Trachylepis raymondlaurenti sp. nov. (CAS 258401) from Cangandala National Park, Angola in life.
Photo by Luis M. P. Ceríaco.

Trachylepis raymondlaurenti 
Marques, Ceríaco, Bandeira, Pauwels & Bauer sp. nov. 

 Mabuya megalura (de Witte 1953: 107) 
Mabuya megalura subsp. (Laurent 1964: 74) 
Trachylepis megalura (Broadley & Cotterill 2004: 42 [partim]) 
Trachylepis cf. megalura (Ceríaco et al. 2016b: 71; 2018b: 423; Marques et al. 2018: 264)

Etymology. The species is named after Raymond F. Laurent (1917–2005), Belgian herpetologist who specialized in African amphibians and reptiles and contributed significantly to current knowledge of the Angolan and Congolese herpetofaunas. 
We propose the English name "Laurent’s Long Tailed Skink", the Portuguese name "Lagartixa de Cauda Longa de Laurent", and the French name "Scinque à longue queue de Laurent".


 Mariana P. Marques, Luis M. P. Ceríaco, Suzana Bandeira, Olivier S. G. Pauwels and Aaron M. Bauer. 2019. Description of A New Long-tailed Skink (Scincidae: Trachylepis) from Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Zootaxa. 4568(1); 51–68. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4568.1.3

[Botany • 2018] Asplenium serratifolium (Aspleniaceae) • A New Fern Species from Central Vietnam Based on Morphological and Molecular Evidence

Asplenium serratifolium Li Bing Zhang & K.W. Xu

in Xu, Zhang, Lu & Zhang, 2018. 

Abstract
Asplenium serratifolium (Aspleniaceae), a new fern species from central Vietnam, is described and illustrated. The new species is characterized by plants 10–18 cm tall, laminae pinnatipartite, lobe margins entire or with shallow teeth, and veins simple or forked. Molecular phylogenetic analysis based on five plastid markers (atpB, rbcL, rps4, rps4-trnS, and trnL-F) indicate that the new species is closely related to A. ensiforme.


Asplenium serratifolium sp. nov. C. Plant. D. Abaxial lamina. E. Sulcatestipe, adaxial view. F. Stipe scales. G. Adaxial lamina showing the sulcate midrib. H. Portion ofabaxial lamina; red arrow shows the obscure, forked veins.

Asplenium serratifolium Li Bing Zhang & K.W. Xu, sp. nov.

Etymology.— Based on the Latin prefix, serrati-, serrate, and the Latin suffix, -folium, leaf, referring to the saw-toothed laminae of the new species.

Asplenium serratifolium sp. nov. A and B. Habit. C. Plant. D. Abaxial lamina. E. Sulcatestipe, adaxial view. F. Stipe scales. G. Adaxial lamina showing the sulcate midrib. H. Portion ofabaxial lamina; red arrow shows the obscure, forked veins.

Asplenium serratifolium sp. nov. A and B. Habit. 


Ke-Wang Xu, Liang Zhang, Ngan Thi Lu, and Li-Bing Zhang. 2018. Asplenium serratifolium (Aspleniaceae), A New Fern Species from Central Vietnam Based on Morphological and Molecular Evidence. American Fern Journal. 108(3); 65-75.  DOI: 10.1640/0002-8444-108.3.65

[Fungi • 2019] Megaphylogeny Resolves Global Patterns of Mushroom (Agaricomycetes) Evolution


 Phylogenetic relationships and diversification across 5,284 mushroom-forming fungi. 
in Varga, Krizsán, Földi, et al., 2019. 
   DOI: 10.1038/s41559-019-0834-1  

Mushroom-forming fungi (Agaricomycetes) have the greatest morphological diversity and complexity of any group of fungi. They have radiated into most niches and fulfil diverse roles in the ecosystem, including wood decomposers, pathogens or mycorrhizal mutualists. Despite the importance of mushroom-forming fungi, large-scale patterns of their evolutionary history are poorly known, in part due to the lack of a comprehensive and dated molecular phylogeny. Here, using multigene and genome-based data, we assemble a 5,284-species phylogenetic tree and infer ages and broad patterns of speciation/extinction and morphological innovation in mushroom-forming fungi. Agaricomycetes started a rapid class-wide radiation in the Jurassic, coinciding with the spread of (sub)tropical coniferous forests and a warming climate. A possible mass extinction, several clade-specific adaptive radiations and morphological diversification of fruiting bodies followed during the Cretaceous and the Paleogene, convergently giving rise to the classic toadstool morphology, with a cap, stalk and gills (pileate-stipitate morphology). This morphology is associated with increased rates of lineage diversification, suggesting it represents a key innovation in the evolution of mushroom-forming fungi. The increase in mushroom diversity started during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic radiation event, an era of humid climate when terrestrial communities dominated by gymnosperms and reptiles were also expanding.

Fig. 1: Phylogenetic relationships and diversification across 5,284 mushroom-forming fungi.
One of the 245 analysed maximum-likelihood trees was randomly chosen and visualized. Trees were inferred from nrLSU, rpb2, ef1-a sequences with a phylogenomic backbone constraint of deep nodes. Branches are coloured by net diversification (speciation minus extinction) rate inferred in Bayesian Analysis of Macroevolutionary Mixtures (BAMM). Warmer colours denote a higher rate of diversification. Significant shifts in diversification rate are shown by triangles at nodes. Only shifts present on >50% of ten trees, with a Bayesian posterior probability >0.5 and a posterior odds ratio >5 are shown. See Supplementary Data 6 for detailed discussion of shifts. Reconstructed probabilities of ancestral plant hosts for order-level clades are shown as pie charts partitioned by the inferred ancestral probability for gymnosperm (green) and angiosperm host (black). Pie charts are given for the most recent common ancestors of each order plus backbone nodes within the Agaricales—for small orders see Supplementary Data 3. Inner and outer bars around the tree denote extant substrate preference (black, angiosperm; green, gymnosperm; grey, generalist) and the placement of species used for inferring the 650-gene phylogenomic backbone phylogeny. Geological time scale is indicated with grey/white concentric rings.





Torda Varga, Krisztina Krizsán, Csenge Földi, Bálint Dima, Marisol Sánchez-García, Santiago Sánchez-Ramírez, Gergely J. Szöllősi, János G. Szarkándi, Viktor Papp, László Albert, William Andreopoulos, Claudio Angelini, Vladimír Antonín, Kerrie W. Barry, Neale L. Bougher, Peter Buchanan, Bart Buyck, Viktória Bense, Pam Catcheside, Mansi Chovatia, Jerry Cooper, Wolfgang Dämon, Dennis Desjardin, Péter Finy, József Geml, Sajeet Haridas, Karen Hughes, Alfredo Justo, Dariusz Karasiński, Ivona Kautmanova, Brigitta Kiss, Sándor Kocsubé, Heikki Kotiranta, Kurt M. LaButti, Bernardo E. Lechner, Kare Liimatainen, Anna Lipzen, Zoltán Lukács, Sirma Mihaltcheva, Louis N. Morgado, Tuula Niskanen, Machiel E. Noordeloos, Robin A. Ohm, Beatriz Ortiz-Santana, Clark Ovrebo, Nikolett Rácz, Robert Riley, Anton Savchenko, Anton Shiryaev, Karl Soop, Viacheslav Spirin, Csilla Szebenyi, Michal Tomšovský, Rodham E. Tulloss, Jessie Uehling, Igor V. Grigoriev, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Tamás Papp, Francis M. Martin, Otto Miettinen, David S. Hibbett and László G. Nagy. 2019. Megaphylogeny Resolves Global Patterns of Mushroom Evolution. Nature Ecology & Evolution.  DOI: 10.1038/s41559-019-0834-1   


Thursday, March 21, 2019

[Paleontology • 2019] Iberodactylus andreui • A New Crested Pterodactyloid from the Early Cretaceous of the Iberian Peninsula and the Radiation of the Clade Anhangueria


Iberodactylus andreui 
 Holgado, Pêgas, Canudo, Fortuny, Rodrigues, Company & Kellner. 2019

[C: Hamipterus tianshanensis] twitter.com/pterosaurios
Illustration by Hugo Salais @metazoastudio 

Abstract
The pterosaur record from the Iberian Peninsula is mostly scarce and undefined, but in the last few years some new taxa have been described from different Lower Cretaceous sites of Spain. Here we describe a new genus and species of toothed pterodactyloid pterosaur from the Barremian of the Iberian Peninsula, Iberodactylus andreui gen. et sp. nov., that shows a close and rather unexpected relationship with Hamipterus tianshanensis from China. A review of the phylogenetic relationships of the Anhangueria reveals a new family of pterodactyloid pterosaurs, the Hamipteridae fam. nov. being recovered as sister-group of the Anhangueridae. This latter clade can be in turn divided into the new clades Anhanguerinae and Coloborhynchinae. The close relationships of Iberodactylus and Hamipterus shows an interesting palaeobiogeographical correlation between the Chinese and Iberian pterosaur faunas during the Barremian (Lower Cretaceous). The discovery of Iberodactylus strongly suggests that the clade Anhangueria has clear ancestral ties in eastern Laurasia.


a life reconstruction of a flock of Iberodactylus andreui gen. et sp. nov. 

by Hugo Salais @metazoastudio 

Figure 3 Comparison of the rostrum of Iberodactylus andreui gen. et sp. nov. (MPZ-2014/1) with a cast of a skull of Hamipterus tianshanensis (specimen stored at the Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (MN), MN-7536-V). Pictures in right lateral (A,C) and palatal (B,D) views.

Systematic Palaeontology

Pterosauria Kaup, 1834.
Pterodactyloidea Plieninger, 1901.
Ornithocheiroidea Seeley, 1870 sensu Kellner (2003).
Pteranodontoidea Marsh, 1876 sensu Kellner (2003).

Lanceodontia Andres et al. (2014).
Ornithocheirae Seeley, 1870 sensu Andres et al. (2014).
Anhangueria Rodrigues & Kellner, 2013.

Hamipteridae fam. nov.

Branch-based definition: The most inclusive clade containing Hamipterus tianshanensis, but not Ludodactylus sibbickiColoborhynchus clavirostris, and Anhanguera blittersdorffi.

Diagnosis: Crested anhanguerian pterodactyloids with the following synapomorphies: well-defined parallel and forward curved striae and sulci on the anterior region of the premaxillary crest, and an anterior rounded expansion of the anterior margin of the premaxillary crest.

Included species: Hamipterus tianshanensis and Iberodactylus andreui gen. et sp. nov.


Iberodactylus andreui gen. et sp. nov.

Etymology: From the Iberian Peninsula and the Iberian System, where the specimen was recovered, and ‘dactylos’ (δάκτυλος), finger (ancient Greek), a common suffix in pterosaur names; in honour of Mr. Javier Andreu, a local collector who found the fossil.

Holotype: Museo de Ciencias Naturales de la Universidad de Zaragoza (MPZ, Zaragoza, Spain) MPZ-2014/1; an anterior portion of a rostrum, including premaxillae –with a premaxillary crest– and maxillae, both with alveoli and broken teeth.

Horizon and locality: Los Quiñones site, Morenillo limestones of the Blesa Formation, Barremian (Lower Cretaceous), Oliete sub-basin, Iberian Basin. Obón, Teruel Province, Aragón, northeast Spain.

Diagnosis: Hamipterid pterodactyloid with the following autapomorphies: relatively deep premaxillary tip, premaxillary crest with its anterior margin curvature at an angle of about 80°.

Figure 4 Skull characters of species from different lineages within Anhangueria. Each skull is based on the holotypes and paratypes (dark grey), and elements from other specimens (light grey) re-marked with broken lines. Hamipterus tianshanensis (IVPP V 18935.1), in righ lateral view (A) and palatal view (B) Ludodactylus sibbicki (specimen stored at the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe, Germany (SMNK), SMNK PAL 3828), in right lateral view (C) Caulkicephalus trimicrodon (specimen stored at the Isle of Wight County Museum Service, Sandown, Isle of Wight, England, United Kingdom (IWCMS), IWCMS 2002.189), in palatal view (D) Tropeognathus mesembrinus (specimen stored at the Bayerische Staatssammlung für Paläontologie und Geologie, Munich, Germany (BSP), BSP 1987 I 46), in right lateral view (E), and palatal view (F); Anhanguera blittersdorffi (MN 4805-V), in right lateral view (G), and palatal view (H) and Uktenadactylus wadleighi (specimen stored at the Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas, United States (SMU), SMU 73058), in right lateral view (I), and palatal view (J). Arrows show the character states in each skull. Scale bar 5 cm. See the Supplementary Information for details about number and state of characters.

Anhanguerinae clade nov.

Stem-based definition: The most inclusive clade containing Anhanguera blittersdorffi but not Coloborhynchus clavirostris.

Diagnosis: Anhanguerids with an enlarged fourth premaxillary tooth, larger than the fifth and sixth teeth and as large as or larger than the third tooth.

Content: AnhangueraCaulkicephalusCearadactylusGuidracoLiaoningopterusLudodactylus and Maaradactylus.


Coloborhynchinae clade nov.

Stem-based definition: The most inclusive clade containing Coloborhynchus clavirostris but not Anhanguera blittersdorffi or Ludodactylus sibbicki.

Diagnosis: Anhanguerids with a quadrangular expansion of the premaxillary tip and a flat anterior surface of the rostrum24.

Content: ColoborhynchusSiroccopteryx and Uktenadactylus.

Figure 5: Origin and radiation of the clade Anhangueria during the Early Cretaceous.
(A) Phylogenetic relationships of Iberodactylus andreui gen. et sp. nov. within Pterodactyloidea. Colours show their continental origin: Africa (brown), Asia (orange), Europe (red), North America (blue), and South America (green). Intermittent bars show uncertain temporal range.

(B) Barremian world map showing the distribution of the localities with Anhangueria remains: (1) Hastings Group (late Berriasian/Valanginian), England; (2) Hami, Tugulu Group (?Berriasian-Albian), Xinjiang, China; (3) Bol’shoi Kemchug, lower Ilek Formation (?Hauterivian-Barremian) Krasnoyarsk Krai, Russia; (4) Las Hoyas, La Huérgina Formation (Barremian), Cuenca, Spain; (5) Los Quiñones, Blesa Formation (Barremian), Teruel, Spain; (6) Isle of Wight, Wessex Formation (Barremian), England; 

(C) Albian world map showing the distribution of the localities with Anhangueria remains: (7) Mogoito, Murtoi Formation (Aptian), Buryatia, Russia; (8) Sekmenevka Formation (Aptian), Belgorod Oblast, Russia; (9) Jiufotang Formation (Aptian), Liaoning, China; (10) Elrhaz Formation (Aptian), Niger; (11) Krasnyi Yar, Khilok Formation (Aptian), Buryatia, Russia; (12) Pedra Furada, Recôncavo Basin, Marizal Formation? (Aptian), Bahia, Brazil; (13) Sierra de Perijá, Apón Formation (Aptian), Zulia, Venezuela; (13) Crato Formation (late Aptian), Ceará, Brazil; (15) Khuren–Dukh, Dzun–Bayin Formation (Aptian-Albian), Mongolia; (16) Sheskatovo, upper Ilek Formation (Aptian-Albian), Kemerovo Oblast, Russia; (17) Chenini Formation (early Albian), Tunisia; (18) Romualdo Formation (Albian), Ceará, Brazil; (19) Lightning Ridge, Griman Creek Formation (Albian), New South Wales, Australia; (20) Tarrant County, Paw Paw Formation (Albian), Texas, USA; (21) Boulia, Toolebuc Formation (Albian), Queensland, Australia; (22) Cortes de Arenoso, Utrillas Formation (Albian), Valencia, Spain; (23) Cambridge Greensand (Cenomanian, but fossils Albian in age), England; (24) Hughenden, Mackunda Formation (late Albian), Queensland, Australia. Rose indicates purported remains associated within the clade Anhangueria. Red indicates taxa (referenced each one in A) within the clade Anhangueria. Palaeogeographic world maps modified after PALEOMAP Project (www.scotese.com).

  
Borja Holgado, Rodrigo V. Pêgas, José Ignacio Canudo, Josep Fortuny, Taissa Rodrigues, Julio Company and Alexander W. A. Kellner. 2019. On A New Crested Pterodactyloid from the Early Cretaceous of the Iberian Peninsula and the Radiation of the Clade Anhangueria. Scientific Reports. volume 9, 4940. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-41280-4 

    

[Botany • 2019] Notes on the Genus Argostemma (Rubiaceae) from Lao PDR


Figure 1. Argostemma ebracteolatum. A. habitat, leaves and inflorescences; B. inflorescences and flowers. KS 728 (photos by K. Souvannakhoummane). 
A. pictum. C. habitat, leaves and inflorescences; D. inflorescences and flowers. Lanorsavanh 1075 (photos by S. Lanorsavanh).  

Figure 2. Argostemma verticillatum. A. habitat, leaves and inflorescences; B. inflorescences and flowers. Lanorsavanh 1085 (photos by S. Lanorsavanh).

in Lanorsavanh & Chantaranothai, 2019.  

ABSTRACT
Three species of Argostemma (Rubiaceae) are newly recorded for Lao PDR: A. ebracteolatum, A. pictum and A. verticillatum. Descriptions and photographs of the new records are provided, and a key to Argostemma in Lao PDR is presented.

KEYWORDSAgrostemma, key, new record, Lao PDR, taxonomy


INTRODUCTION
Argostemma Wall., a genus of Rubiaceae of ca 100 species in the Old World tropics, is largely confined to the South-East Asia (Robbrecht, 1988) but with two species in tropical West Africa (Sridith & Puff, 2000; Mabberley, 2008). For Lao PDR, Newman et al. (2007a) and Newman et al. (2007b) first recorded a species of the genus, A. laeve Benn., from Khammouan province. Lanorsavanh & Chantaranothai (2013, 2016) recorded three species A. laotica Lanors. & Chantar., A. neurocalyx Miq. and A. siamense Puff from Bolikhamxai province, and, most recently, Tagane et al. (2017) recorded an additional  species,  A.  lobbii Hook.f., from Bolikhamxai province.

During botanical surveys of the first author in northern Lao PDR, Luangphrabang Province in July 2014 with S. Souvanhnakhoummane, and Luangnamtha Province in August 2015 with C. Phongoudome and in the southern Attapeu Province in June 2014 with V. Lamxay, many unnamed specimens were collectedand identified and include new records for Lao PDR, viz Argostemma ebracteolatum E.T.Geddes, A. pictum Wall. and A. verticillatum Wall. In 1999, Sridith indicated the type specimens of A. ebracteolatum, A. pictum, A. pubescens, A. repens and A. rotundifolium were holotypes, but this is an error to be corrected to lectotypes, nevertheless the lectotypification was effectively done by him.


NEW RECORDS: 

1. Argostemma ebracteolatum E.T.Geddes, Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew  1927(4):  165.  1927.  
Type: Thailand, Chiang Mai, Mae Chaem (Me Cham), 14 Jul. 1922, Kerr 6276A (lectotype K! [K000760179], isolectotypes BK! [257307], BM! [BM000028695], designated by Sridith, 1999).

Ecology.— On limestone wet rock in mixed deciduous, deciduous and dry evergreen forests, 540–1,100 m alt.; flowering July and fruiting July to August.

Notes.— Argostemma ebracteolatum resembles A. thaithongae Sridith, endemic to Thailand, in the bell-shaped corolla and 5-merous flower, but differs in having not only being densely hairy on stem, leaves and inflorescence but also the exterior of the corolla. It is unlikely to be confused with other species in Laos as only A. neurocalyx has a bell-shaped corolla but is 4-merous.


2.  Argostemma  pictum Wall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. (ed. Carey & Wall.) 2: 327. 1824. 
Type: Malaysia, Penang, 1892, Wallich, Numer. List 8392 (lectotypeK! [K000172892]; isolectotypes K! [K000172894], K-W!  [K-W001125373]  designated  by  Sridith, 1999), non Korth., 1851.

Ecology.— On moist sandstone rocks with soil or on wet ground in evergreen forests, 100–410 m alt.; flowering June to July and fruiting June to August.

Notes.— Argostemma pictum resembles A. neurocalyx but it distinguished by the wheel-shaped corolla which is 5-merous, and very strongly recurved with the tip coiled.


3. Argostemma verticillatum Wall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind. (ed. Carey & Wall.),  2: 325. 1824; 
Type: Nepal, Moreko, July 1821, Wallich,  Numer.  List  8394A(holotype K-W! [K-W001125376]). Fig. 2.

Ecology.— On moist rocks near small water-fall in evergreen forests, 740–2,200 m alt., flowering and fruiting July to August.

Notes.— Argostemma verticillatum is recognized by its curved filaments which its fused around the middle and forming a short filament tube. Because the Chinese species have free filaments (Chen & Taylor, 2011), therefore, we exclude China from the distribution information; further study is needed to clarify this character.

Figure 1. Argostemma ebracteolatum. A. habitat, leaves and inflorescences; B. inflorescences and flowers. KS 728 (photos by K. Souvannakhoummane). A. pictum. C. habitat, leaves and inflorescences; D. inflorescences and flowers. Lanorsavanh 1075 (photos by S. Lanorsavanh). 

Figure 2. Argostemma verticillatum. A. habitat, leaves and inflorescences; B. inflorescences and flowers. Lanorsavanh 1085 (photos by S. Lanorsavanh).


Soulivanh Lanorsavanh and Pranom Chantaranothai. 2019. Notes on the Genus Argostemma (Rubiaceae) from Lao PDR.  Thai Forest Bulletin (Botany). 47(1); 29-33. DOI:  10.20531/tfb.2019.47.1.06

  

[Arachnida • 2019] Surazomus saturninoae • A New Species of Surazomus (Schizomida) from eastern Amazon, with Comments on Homology of Male Flagellum and Mating March Anchorage in the Genus


Surazomus saturninoae
Ruiz & Valente, 2019


Abstract
Surazomus saturninoae sp. nov. is described from eastern Amazon. The male has a pentagonal flagellum, similar to those of three other species in the genus. These four species are herein gathered as the arboreus-group of Surazomus. We present a brief synopsis of chaetotaxy description in hubbardiines and several homology proposals for the flagellum of the species in the arboreus-group: the posterior lobes may be homologous to the lateral lobes of hubbardiine species with trilobed flagella; the setal brush with 4–5 setae on the posterior lobe may be composed of one Dl2 seta and enlarged lobular microsetae; the single, median posterior coupling pocket may be homologous to the pair of posterior pockets seen in other hubbardiines; the single, median anterior coupling pocket may be homologous to the pair of pockets on the anterior border of the flagellum seen in other hubbardiines. Based on the morphology of these pockets and the chelicerae within Surazomus, we discuss the anchoring mechanism during the mating march.

Fig 1. Male holotype of Surazomus saturninoae sp. nov.
(A) Lateral view. (B) Dorsal view. (C) Ventral view.

The arboreus-group of Surazomus.

Within Surazomus, four species share features believed to be apomorphic and compose a species group, easily distinguished from the remaining species of the genus and traditionally recognized, but unnamed. To ease the discussion below, we herein propose the use of the informal name “the arboreus-group of Surazomus” to refer to that group.

List of species of the arboreus-group: Surazomus arboreus Cokendolpher & Reddell, 2000; Surazomus manaus Cokendolpher & Reddell, 2000; Surazomus paitit Bonaldo & Pinto-da-Rocha, 2007; and Surazomus saturninoae sp. nov.

Diagnosis. Species of the arboreus-group of Surazomus may be recognized by the males having pentagonal flagellum and bearing only two dorsal coupling pockets: one in front of Dm1 (AP), and another between Dm1 and Dm4 (PP), and by having a single large posterodorsal process on tergite XII (see Cokendolpher & Reddell [2000]: figs 11, 13, 20 and 23; Bonaldo & Pinto-da-Rocha [2007]: figs 2 and 3). Also, females have two pairs of slender, elongated spermathecal lobes with small bulbs followed by terminal constrictions (see Cokendolpher & Reddell [2000]: figs 14, 15, 24 and 25).


Surazomus saturninoae sp. nov.

Diagnosis from other species of the arboreus-group. Male: the overall shape of the flagellum of S. saturninoae sp. nov. is similar to that of S. arboreus, but the flagellum is as wide as long in S. arboreus (see Cokendolpher & Reddell [2000]: figs 11–13), while it is wider than long in S. saturninoae (Fig 6A). Also, the posterior dorsal hood (or dorso-median eminence) of S. arboreus is far from the posterior border of the flagellum, while it is close to the border in S. saturninoae (Fig 9D, in red). The widest portion of the flagellum in S. paitit is close to its middle length (see Bonaldo & Pinto-da-Rocha [24]: figs 2–4), while the widest portion of the flagellum in S. saturninoae is near its anterior border (Fig 6A). The posterodorsal process of abdominal segment XII of S. manaus (see Cokendolpher & Reddell [2000]: figs 20–23) and S. saturninoae (Fig 6A and 6C) is long, but the flagellum of S. manaus has parallel sides with the posterior lobes much longer than the flagellum body, while the flagellum in S. saturninoae has oblique sides and shorter posterior lobes. Female is unknown.

 Fig 2. Details of the male holotype of Surazomus saturninoae sp. nov.
(A) Peltidia, dorsal view. (B) Prosomal sterna, leg coxae and pedipalps, ventral view. (C-D) Abdomen: (C) dorsal view, (D) ventral view.

Fig 5. Pedipalp and flagellum of the male holotype of Surazomus saturninoae sp. nov. (A) Detail of left pedipalp, retrolateral view. (B-E) Flagellum: (B) dorsal view, (C) ventral view, (D) dorsolateral view, (E) and lateral view.

Fig 9. Mating march in Surazomus.
(A) Male dragging locked female by the flagellum (note female chelicerae in vertical position). (B) Hypothesis of the anchoring mechanism for the species with paired AP and paired PP (four supporting points). (C) Hypothesis of the anchoring mechanism for S. algodoal (three supporting points); (D) Hypothesis of the anchoring mechanism for the species of the arboreus-group (two supporting points). Color explanation: (green) male flagellum; (pink) female chelicerae (illustrated in lateral view for better visualization of the hypotheses of anchoring machanism); (orange) AP; (blue) PP; (red) hood.

Etymology. The specific epithet honors our friend, arachnologist Dr Regiane Saturnino, who collected the holotype. Noun in genitive case.

Natural history. The single specimen was collected with pitfall trap in primary upland Amazonian Rain forest (Terra Firme) from Bagre, municipality in eastern Amazon, state of Pará, Brazil. Surazomus saturninoae sp. nov. is the third species of the genus collected from eastern Amazon. The two others were also collected from state of Pará, Brazil, S. paitit from the upland Amazonian Rain forest of Caxiuanã, and S. algodoal from the dry forest (Restinga) of Algodoal Island.


 Gustavo R. S. Ruiz and Roberta M. Valente. 2019. Description of A New Species of Surazomus (Arachnida: Schizomida), with Comments on Homology of Male Flagellum and Mating March Anchorage in the Genus. PLoS ONE 14(3): e0213268.  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0213268