Boubli, Byrne, Silva, Silva-Júnior, Araújo, et al. 2019.
• We describe a new species of Plecturocebus of the Eastern Amazon Clade.
• Genomic (ddRADseq) and mitochondrial data support monophyly of the new species.
• The new species is sister to P. moloch+P. vieirai..
• We predict a total loss of 86% of the new species habitat in the next 24 years.
• The new species can be categorised as Critically Endangered under IUCN A3c criterion.
The taxonomy of the titi monkeys (Callicebinae) has recently received considerable attention. It is now recognised that this subfamily is composed of three genera with 33 species, seven of them described since 2002. Here, we describe a new species of titi, Plecturocebus, from the municipality of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We adopt an integrative taxonomic approach that includes phylogenomic analyses, pelage characters, and locality records. A reduced representation genome-wide approach was employed to assess phylogenetic relationships among species of the eastern Amazonian clade of the Plecturocebus moloch group. Using existing records, we calculated the Extent of Occurrence (EOO) of the new species and estimated future habitat loss for the region based on predictive models. We then evaluated the species’ conservation status using the IUCN Red list categories and criteria. The new species presents a unique combination of morphological characters: 1) grey agouti colouration on the crown and dorsal parts; 2) entirely bright red-brown venter; 3) an almost entirely black tail with a pale tip; and 4) light yellow colouration of the hair on the cheeks contrasting with bright red-brown hair on the sides of the face. Our phylogenetic reconstructions based on maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods revealed well-supported species relationships, with the Alta Floresta taxon as sister to P. moloch + P. vieirai. The species EOO is 10,166,653 ha and we predict a total habitat loss of 86% of its original forest habitat under a “business as usual” scenario in the next 24 years, making the newly discovered titi monkey a Critically Endangered species under the IUCN A3c criterion. We give the new titi monkey a specific epithet based on: 1) clear monophyly of this lineage revealed by robust genomic and mitochondrial data; 2) distinct and diagnosable pelage morphology; and 3) a well-defined geographical distribution with clear separation from other closely related taxa. Urgent conservation measures are needed to safeguard the future of this newly discovered and already critically endangered primate.
Keywords: Callicebinae, Plecturocebus moloch, New species, Alta Floresta, Amazon
| Plecturocebus grovesi, Alta Floresta titi monkey.|
Photo by Fabiano Melo.
Plecturocebus grovesi sp. nov.
Alta Floresta titi monkey
Etymologyซ We named the Alta Floresta taxon after Professor Colin P. Groves (1942–2017) in recognition of his lifelong, preeminent contributions to mammalian taxonomy and systematics, and in particular, primate taxonomy.
|Fig. 19. Extent-of-occurrence for Plecturocebus grovesi sp. nov. in the Juruena/Arinos – Teles-Pires interfluvium, and the current and predicted future habitat loss for the species due to deforestation by 2042 under the “Business as Usual” scenario.|
Our decision to give new species status to the Alta Floresta taxon was based on: 1) clear monophyly of this lineage revealed by robust genomics data and analysis; 2) an exclusive combination of diagnosable pelage characters; and 3) a well defined geographic distribution with clear separation from other closely related taxa. All lines of evidence indicate that Plecturocebus grovesi sp. nov. is a separately evolving lineage in agreement with the unified species concept of de Queiroz (2007), and also with what Mayden (1997, p. 407) refers to as the “diagnosable and monophyly version” of the Phylogenetic Species Concept (sensu Cracraft, 1983). The new species is found in one of the areas of Brazil where forest is most rapidly disappearing due to the advancing agricultural frontier. Urgent conservation measures are thus needed to safeguard the future of Plecturocebus grovesi sp. nov.
Jean P. Boubli, Hazel Byrne, Maria N.F. da Silva, José Silva-Júnior, Rodrigo Costa Araújo, Fabrício Bertuol, Jonas Gonçalves, Fabiano R. de Melo, et al. 2019. On A New Species of Titi Monkey (Primates: Plecturocebus Byrne et al., 2016), from Alta Floresta, southern Amazon, Brazil. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 132; 117-137. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2018.11.012