Thursday, May 25, 2017

[Ichthyology • 2017] Compsaraia iara • A New Species of Deep-Channel Electric Knifefish Compsaraia (Apteronotidae, Gymnotiformes) from the Amazon River

Compsaraia iara
Bernt & Albert, 2017
  DOI: 10.1643/CI-16-529 
The deep channels of large rivers throughout the humid Neotropics are occupied by diverse and abundant assemblages of electric knifefishes. Historically this habitat has been poorly sampled, but extensive benthic trawling efforts in the Brazilian Amazon in the 1990s produced large numbers of electric fishes especially in the family Apteronotidae. A large number of these specimens, initially identified as Porotergus, have been found to belong within Compsaraia, a genus with two species described from the Orinoco and western Amazon. From this material we describe a new species, from the Amazon River in Brazil, and provide a new diagnosis for the genus. This species is readily distinguished from congeners by a short, rounded snout and small, subterminal mouth with reduced dentition. This species inhabits large rivers in the Eastern and Central Amazon between Ilha Grande de Gurupá and the mouth of the Rio Içá. This description brings the total number of valid apteronotid species to 95.

Fig. 3. Detail of head and pigmentation for Compsaraia samueli (top), MUSM 37172, 241 mm TL, and Compsaraia iara, FMNH 128428, 235 mm TL in lateral view (A), dorsal view (B), and ventral view (C). Scale bar equals 1 cm. 

Compsaraia iara, new species

Etymology.— This species is named for the Iara, a water nymph from Tupi-Brazilian folklore said to reside in the rivers of the Brazilian Amazon and often blamed for the disappearance of fishermen. A noun in apposition. 

Maxwell J. Bernt and James S. Albert. 2017. A New Species of Deep-Channel Electric Knifefish Compsaraia (Apteronotidae, Gymnotiformes) from the Amazon River.
 Copeia. 105(2); 211-219.  DOI: 10.1643/CI-16-529

[Botany • 2017] Macrosolen brunsing • A A New Hemiparasitic Shrub (Loranthaceae)from Brunei Darussalam [Novitates Bruneienses, 8]

Macrosolen brunsing  Y.W.Low & Ariffin

 Macrosolen brunsing Y.W.Low & Ariffin is described and illustrated here as a new species of aerial hemiparasite based on two collections from the Ladan Hills Forest Reserve, Tutong, Brunei Darussalam. The new species differs from all Macrosolen taxa enumerated in Borneo by its distinct linear leaves ((4–)8–14.5 cm long, 0.1–0.2(–0.25) cm wide). 

Keywords. Borneo, endemic, linear-leaved, Malesia, new species

Fig. 2. Macrosolen brunsing Y.W.Low & Ariffin.
A. Pendulous flowering branch showing distichous almost needle-like linear leaves and a terminal inflorescence. B. Close-up of mature flower buds that somewhat resemble bowling pins. C. Close-up of open flowers. D. Close-up of fruits. All from type Y.W. Low et al. LYW 1081. (Photos: Y.W. Low) 

Macrosolen brunsing Y.W.Low & Ariffin, sp. nov. 
Similar to Macrosolen brevitubus Barlow but differs in having narrow linear leaves ((4–)8–14.5 cm long, 0.1–0.2(–0.25) cm wide), and inflorescence a raceme of two opposite pairs of flowers.

– TYPE: Brunei, Tutong District, Rambai, Ladan Hills Forest Reserve, Nyamokning Dam, BRUN-SING botanical exploration campsite on the edge of forest near water body, lowland mixed dipterocarp forest on yellow sandy clay soils, 75 m asl, 22 August 2016, Y.W. Low, M.I. Siti Nur Bazilah, A.K. Muhd. Ariffin, A. Watu, E. Jangarun, P. Azlan, K. Muhd. Khairul Nizam & Z.A. Muhd. Wafiuddin LYW 1081 (holotype BRUN (including spirit material as part of a single specimen); isotypes E, K, L, SAN, SAR, SING [[SING0166300] & spirit material [SING0202921]). (Fig. 1, 2)

Etymology. The epithet brunsing is composed by merging two herbaria acronyms together, namely BRUN (the Brunei National Herbarium) and SING (Herbarium of the Singapore Botanic Gardens). This new species is named for the two herbaria to celebrate the close working relationship between the two herbaria that can be traced back to the early 80’s. The on-going MoU programme “The Botanical Survey of Brunei Darussalam” continues this cooperation.

 Y.W. Low, A.K. Muhammad Ariffin, A.A. Joffre and D. Duratul Ain. 2017. Novitates Bruneienses, 8. Macrosolen brunsing (Loranthaceae), A New Hemiparasitic Shrub from Brunei Darussalam. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore. 69(1); 67–73.


[Botany • 2017] Begonia ignita • A New Species (sect. Petermannia, Begoniaceae) with Orange Flowers from Sulawesi, Indonesia

Begonia ignita  C.W.Lin & C.I Peng

 Begonia ignita C.W.Lin & C.I Peng, a new species of Begonia sect. Petermannia from Sulawesi, Indonesia, is here described and illustrated. It is distinct from other species in Begonia section Petermannia by a character combination including a procumbent stem ascending only at the apex, symmetric or subsymmetric leaves, the presence of a pale band or maculation running parallel to the leaf margin, and orange tepals. A detailed comparison with a morphologically similar species, the Sulawesi endemic Begonia mendumiae M.Hughes, is provided. 

Keywords. Begonia ignitaBmendumiae, Indonesia, new species, Sulawesi

Fig. 2. Begonia ignita C.W.Lin & C.I Peng.
A, B. Habit, showing variation in leaf colours. C, D. 5-tepaled pistillate flower (occasional), face and side views. E. Inflorescence, showing 2-tepaled staminate flowers. F. Staminate flower, face view. G. 4-tepaled pistillate flower in inflorescence. H. 2-tepaled pistillate flower (occasional). I. Cross section of ovary showing axile, bilamellate placentae. (Photos: Y.-Z. Siaw) 

Begonia ignita C.W.Lin & C.I Peng, sp. nov. § Petermannia 

This species is distinct from other species in Begonia section Petermannia by a character combination including a procumbent stem ascending only at the apex, symmetric or subsymmetric leaves, the presence of a pale band or maculation running parallel to the leaf margin, and orange tepals.
 TYPE: Collected in Indonesia, Sulawesi, precise locality unknown, grown in cultivation in Bogor Botanic Gardens and vouchered on 9 October 2016 as Wisnu H. Ardi WI 117 (holotype BO; isotype SING). (Fig. 1, 2)

Distribution. Only known from cultivation; likely endemic to Sulawesi (see Notes). 

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the flame-coloured tepals (Latin: igneus – flame-coloured).

C.-W. Lin, D.C. Thomas, W.H. Ardi and C.-I Peng. 2017. Begonia ignita (sect. Petermannia, Begoniaceae), A New Species with Orange Flowers from Sulawesi, Indonesia. Gardens’ Bulletin Singapore. 69(1); 89–95. DOI: 10.3850/S2010098116000081

[Invertebrate • 2017] Overview of the Ferdina-like Goniasteridae (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) Including A New Subfamily, Ferdininae, Three New Genera and Fourteen New Species

Ferdina mena  Mah, 2017


Recent assignment of some goniasterid-like Ophidiasteridae into the Goniasteridae has led to further re-evaluation of other ophidiasterids as possible goniasterids. This led to the discovery of new genera and species supported by a distinctive set of characteristics which support a new subfamily, the Ferdininae, a group originally outlined by Marsh and Price (1991) within the Goniasteridae. The historical Ophidiasteridae is paraphyletic and includes several nominal ophidiasterid genera (e.g., Fromia, Neoferdina, etc.). Newly described material has led to the inclusion of six genera,within this group, of which three, Bathyferdina n. gen.Eosaster n. gen., and Kanakaster n. gen.are newly describedFourteen new species in five genera are described. This includes Bathyferdina aireyae n. gen., n. sp.Eosaster nadiae n. gen., n. sp.Ferdina mena n. sp.Kanakaster balutensis n. gen., n. sp.Kanakaster convexus n. gen., n. sp.Kanakaster discus n. gen., n. sp.Kanakaster larae n. gen., n. sp.Kanakaster plinthinos n. gen., n. sp.Kanakaster solidus n. gen., n. sp.Neoferdina annae n. sp.Neoferdina antigorum, n. sp.Neoferdina momo, n. sp.Neoferdina oni, n. sp., and Paraferdina plakos, n. sp. Identification keys, synopses, and description of these taxa are included.

Keywords: New species, mesophotic zone, Ophidiasteridae, New Caledonia, South Africa, Indian Ocean, Eosaster n. gen., Ferdina, Bathyferdina n. gen., Kanakaster n. gen., Neoferdina, Paraferdina, Echinodermata

  In situ image of living Ferdina mena (not collected) Aliwal Shoal, South Africa
 (image by Georgina Jones). 

  Ferdina mena nov. sp.

 Etymology. The species descriptor is taken from the Malagasy word mena for red, alluding to this species’ red spots in each interradius. 

Christopher L. Mah. 2017. Overview of the Ferdina-like Goniasteridae (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) Including A New Subfamily, Three New Genera and Fourteen New Species. Zootaxa. 4271(1); 1–72.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4271.1.1

[Ichthyology • 2017] Pempheris familia • A New Species of Pempheris (Perciformes: Pempheridae) endemic to the Ogasawara Islands, Japan

Pempheris familia  Koeda & Motomura, 2017

    DOI:  10.1007/s10228-017-0586-3 

Pempheris familia sp. nov. is described on the basis of two specimens collected from the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. The new species is most similar to Pempheris japonica Döderlein in Steindachner and Döderlein 1883, endemic to Japanese and Korean waters, in having adherent scales with strong ctenii on the lateral and ventral surfaces of the body, each scale expanded basally and distally due to central narrowing, the abdomen with a U-shaped cross-sectional outline, a large ventral fenestra between the coracoid and cleithrum, 10 dorsal-fin soft rays and 35 or 36 anal-fin soft rays. However, Pempheris familia can be distinguished from P. japonica by the following combination of characters: 84–88 pored lateral-line scales; 14 or 15 scale rows above the lateral line; 50–55 predorsal scales; 26 circumpeduncular scales; and a distinct blackish blotch on the pectoral-fin base. Pempheris familia appears to be endemic to the Ogasawara Islands.

Keywords: Sweeper, Taxonomy, Morphology, New species, Coral reefs 

Fig. 1 Fresh specimens of Pempheris familia sp. nov. from Ototo-jima Island, Ogasawara Islands, Japan.
KAUM–I. 74713, holotype, 153.1 mm SL (upper); NSMT-P 124563, paratype, 139.5 mm SL (lower); photo by K. Kuriiwa  

Pempheris familia sp. nov.
(Standard Japanese name: Bonin-hatampo) 

Diagnosis. A species of Pempheris with the following combination of characters: lateral and ventral body scales strongly ctenoid, adherent, with distinct basal and distal portions; abdomen cross-sectional outline U-shaped; large ventral fenestra between coracoid and cleithrum; 10 dorsal-fin soft rays; 35–36 anal-fin soft rays; 84–88 pored lateral-line scales; 14–15 scale rows above lateral line; 50–55 predorsal scales; 26 circumpeduncular scales; body orange-copper; blackish blotch on fins limited to tip of dorsal, anal and caudal fins; distinct blackish blotch on pectoral-fin base.

Etymology. The specific name of the new species, familia, means “family” in Greek. The Ogasawara Islands include ca. 30 islands, many of them having been given family-like names; for example, Chichi-jima = father island, Haha-jima = mother island, Ane-jima = older sister island. Ototo-jima, where the type specimens were collected, and Ani-jima, where the underwater photographs were taken, refer to younger and older brothers, respectively.

Fig. 2 Underwater photographs of Pempheris familia sp. nov. from Ani-jima Island, Ogasawara Islands, Japan.
Single individual (upper); school in an underwater rock recess (lower) (ca. 10 individuals) 

 Keita Koeda and Hiroyuki Motomura. 2017. A New Species of Pempheris (Perciformes: Pempheridae) endemic to the Ogasawara Islands, Japan.
  Ichthyological Research.  DOI:  10.1007/s10228-017-0586-3

Wednesday, May 24, 2017

[Cnidaria • 2017] Sinularia mesophotica • Search for Mesophotic Octocorals (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) and Their Phylogeny. II. A New Zooxanthellate Species from Eilat, northern Red Sea

Sinularia mesophotica 
Benayahu, McFadden, Shoham & van Ofwegen, 2017   

An octocoral survey conducted in the mesophotic coral ecosystem (MCE) of Eilat (Gulf of Aqaba, northern Red Sea) yielded a new species of the speciose reef-dwelling genus Sinularia. It features encrusting colony morphology with a thin, funnel-shaped polypary. Sinularia mesophotica sp. n. (family Alcyoniidae) is described and compared to the other congeners with similar morphology. Both the morphological and molecular examination justified the establishment of the new species, also assigning it to a new genetic clade within Sinularia. The results highlight its unique phylogenetic position within the genus, and this is the first described species of a mesophotic zooxanthellate octocoral.

Keywords: Octocorallia, taxonomy, new species, mesophotic coral ecosystem, Eilat, Red Sea

Figure 4. Underwater photographs of Sinularia mesophotica sp. n. A patch of colonies 

Systematic description

Order Alcyonacea Lamouroux, 1912
Family Alcyoniidae Lamouroux, 1912

Genus Sinularia May, 1898

Sinularia mesophotica sp. n.

Figure 1. Sinularia mesophotica sp. n.; A Holotype ZMTAU Co 37425 B paratypes ZMTAU Co 37492.
Scale bar: 1 cm (A also applies to B). 

Diagnosis: The holotype is part of an encrusting colony with a thin, funnel-shaped polypary, also featuring a curly margin (Fig. 1A). In a side-view its maximum dimensions are 5 × 2.5 cm. Polyps with tentacle rods and collaret sclerites (Fig. 2A–C). Tentacle rods up to 0.10 mm long (Fig. 2A). Collaret consists of almost straight spindles, up to 0.20 mm long (Fig. 2B), and shorter bent ones, up to 0.14 mm long (Fig. 2C). Surface layer of the polypary with clubs (Fig. 2D), some featuring a central wart, while in others it is less discernible, or even absent. Clubs vary from 0.10 mm long to 0.25 mm long, and a few with poorly developed heads attain 0.27 mm (Fig. 2E). Surface layer of the colony base contains clubs up to 0.22 mm; some similar to those of polypary, and others have wide heads (Fig. 3A). Polypary and base interior bear spindles, some branched, up to 3.2 mm long (Fig. 3B), with well-spaced simple tubercles (Fig. 3C).

Etymology: The new species name reflects its mesophotic habitat.

Figure 4. Underwater photographs of Sinularia mesophotica sp. n.  B funnel-shaped morphology of colonies. 

Yehuda Benayahu, Catherine S. McFadden, Erez Shoham and Leen P. van Ofwegen. 2017. Search for Mesophotic Octocorals (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) and Their Phylogeny. II. A New Zooxanthellate Species from Eilat, northern Red Sea. ZooKeys. 676: 1-12.  DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.676.12751

[Invertebrate • 2017] Pseudoceros auranticrinis, Pseudoceros vishnui & Prostheceraeus fuscolineatus • Two New Pseudoceros (Polycladida: Pseudocerotidae) and A Prostheceraeus (Polycladida: Euryleptidae) from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India

Pseudoceros auranticrinis 
Dixit, Raghunathan & Chandra, 2017 



Polyclads are free-living marine flatworms known for their striking colour and patterns. These animals though frequently encountered are still understudied in the Indian context. The present paper describes three new species, two belonging to the genus Pseudoceros Lang, 1884 and one to the genus Prostheceraeus Schmarda, 1859. Pseudoceros auranticrinis sp. nov. is characterised by whitish cream background colour, brown mottling with numerous white and dark brown spots all over the body except margins and a smooth dorsal surface with orange pseudotentacles, Pseudoceros vishnui sp. nov. is characterised by having purple to violet spots on dorsum with margin made up of blue spots, while Prostheceraeus fuscolineatus sp. nov. is characterised by presence of brown longitudinal lines on dorsum and black erected tentacles. This is the first description of any species under the genus Prostheceraeus from central Indo-Pacific as well as Indian Ocean. Some insights on feeding behaviour of P. vishnui sp. nov. are also provided.

Keywords: Polyclad, Pseudoceros, Prostheceraeus, new species, taxonomy, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, India, Platyhelminthes

Sudhanshu Dixit, C. Raghunathan and Kailash Chandra. 2017. Two New Pseudoceros (Polycladida: Pseudocerotidae) and a Prostheceraeus (Polycladida: Euryleptidae) from Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. 
4269(4); 495–512.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4269.4.5

[Ornithology • 2017] The Role of Niche Divergence and Geographic Arrangement in the Speciation of Eared Pheasants (Crossoptilon, Hodgson 1938)

 Wang, Liu, Liu, Chang, Wang & Zhang, 2017  DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2017.05.003 

• The phylogenetic relationship of Eared Pheasants was resolved based on 45 loci.
• Asymmetric historical gene flow occurred between both parapatric and allopatric sister species.
• Allopatric sister species exhibit significantly divergent ecological niches whereas parapatric sister species show niche conservatism.
• Ecological divergence may have been the main factor that promoted ecological niche divergence.

One of the most contentious theories in current ecology is the ecological niche conservatism, which is defined as conservatism among closely related species; however, the ecological niche can also be shifted, as documented in several cases. Genetic drift and ecological divergent selection may cause ecological niche divergence. The current study aims to test whether the ecological niche is conserved or divergent and to determine the main factor that drives ecological niche divergence or conservation. We analyzed the phylogenetic relationship, ecological niche model (ENM) and demographic history of Eared Pheasants in the genus Crossoptilon (Galliformes: Phasianidae) to test niche conservatism with respect to different geographically distributed patterns. The phylogenetic relationship was reconstructed using ∗BEAST with mitochondrial cytochrome b (cyt b) and 44 unlinked autosomal exonic loci, and ENMs were reconstructed in MAXENT using an average of 41 occurrence sites in each species and 22 bioclimatic variables. A background similarity test was used to detect whether the ecological niche is conserved. Demographic history was estimated using the isolation with migration (IM) model. We found that there was asymmetric gene flow between the allopatric sister species Crossoptilon mantchuricum and C. auritum and the parapatric sister species C. harmani and Ccrossoptilon. We found that ecological niches were divergent, not conserved, between Cmantchuricum and Cauritum, which began to diverge at approximately 0.3 million years ago. However, the ecological niches were conserved between C. crossoptilon and C. harmani, which gradually diverged approximately half a million years ago. Ecological niches can be either conserved or divergent, and ecological divergent selection for local adaptation is probably an important factor that promotes and maintains niche divergence in the face of gene flow. This study provides a better understanding of the role that divergent selection has in the initial speciation process. The platform combined demographic processes and ecological niches to offer new insights into the mechanism of biogeography patterns.

Keywords: Crossoptilon; Eared-pheasant; Divergent selection; Ecological niche modeling; Genetic drift; Gene flow

Fig. 1. Map of the study area indicating the occurrence points used in for the background similarity test of Ecological Niche Models (ENMs) and the location of DNA samples used in demographic analyses. (The occurrence points (circles) were from bird-watching records (, the Global Biodiversity Information Facility ( and our unpublished survey data. Occurrence points that were far from each other (at least 10 km) and were randomly chosen in ArcGIS software were used for the background similarity test. The study area was the minimal convex polygon of those occurrence points with an additional 200 km. Triangles represent the locations of DNA samples. The area surrounded by the black dashed line was the study area used for the background similarity test. 

Pengcheng Wang, Yang Liu, Yinong Liu, Yajing Chang, Nan Wang and Zhengwang Zhang. 2017. The Role of Niche Divergence and Geographic Arrangement in the Speciation of Eared Pheasants (Crossoptilon, Hodgson 1938). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. In Press. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2017.05.003

[Botany • 2017] Phrynium yunnanense • A New Species (Marantaceae) from Yunnan, China

Phrynium yunnanense    Y.S.Ye & L.Fu


Phrynium yunnanense, a new species from Yunnan, China, is described and illustrated. It is closely related to P. hainanense T.L.Wu & S.J.Chen and P. pedunculiferum D.Fang, but it is distinguished by having long peduncle (20–45 cm), bright orange bracts and fruits. A comparison table and the line illustration are presented.

Keywords: new species, Phrynium hainanense, Phrynium pedunculiferum, taxonomy, Monocots

Phrynium yunnanense Y.S.Ye & L.Fu, sp. nov.  

 Etymology:— The specific epithet refers to Yunnan Province in China.

Lin Fu, Yu-Shi Ye and Jing-Ping Liao. 2017. Phrynium yunnanense (Marantaceae), A New Species from Yunnan, China.  Phytotaxa. 307(1); 89-94. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.307.1.9


[Botany • 2017] Hibiscus contortus | ชบาหุบ • A New Species of Hibiscus (Malvaceae-Malvoideae) from Thailand

ชบาหุบ |  Hibiscus contortus  Phuph. & S.Gardner


A new speciesHibiscus contortus Phuph. & S.Gardner, is described and contrasted to its nearest ally, H. floccosus Mast.

KEYWORDS: Malvaceae-Malvoideae; Hibiscus; new species; conservation; Thailand

Hibiscus L. comprises approximately 200 species distributed almost worldwide, mostly in the tropics and subtropics, with a few species in temperate regions (Bayer & Kubitzki, 2003). The Thai species of Hibiscus were enumerated by Phuphathanaphong et al. (1989), totalling 17 species (7 exotic species), and recently 19 species (9 exotic species) were recognized by Pooma & Suddee (2014). Further study of Malvaceae-Malvoideae for the Flora of Thailand by the first author found interesting fertile material of Hibiscus from Surat Thani and Songkhla provinces, southern Thailand, which we describe here as Hibiscus contortus Phuph. & S.Gardner. Borssum Waalkes (1966) recognized 9 sections of tribe Hibisceae and this new species belongs to section Azanza. Most species in this section are trees with broad stipules and palminerved leaves. Hibiscus contortus is most similar to Hibiscus floccosus Mast. which occurs in Peninsular Malaysia

Hibiscus contortus Phuph. & S.Gardner, sp. nov. 

Allied to Hibiscus floccosus Mast. but differs in leaves not lobed, not scabrous (vs angular or lobed, scabrous); pedicel 2–2.5 cm long, jointed (vs 0.5–1 cm long, without joint); petals pale pink to pale orange with darker pink base (vs yellow to orange with red veins from base); stamen filaments 5–7 mm long (vs 2–2.5 mm long). 
Type: Thailand, Surat Thani, Don Sak, alt. 5 m, 19 Dec. 2006, Pooma et al. 6460 (holotype BKF; isotypes A, BKF, E, L). Figs. 1–2. 

Etymology.— The specific epithet ‘contortus’ is derived from Latin, in reference to the overlapped and twisted petals.
Vernacular.— Chaba hup (ชบาหุบ). 

Leena Phuphathanaphong and Simon Gardner. 2017. A New Species of Hibiscus (Malvaceae-Malvoideae) from Thailand. THAI FOREST BULL., BOT. 45(1); 6–9.  DOI: 10.20531/tfb.2017.45.1.02

[Botany • 2017] Kalanchoe hypseloleuce • A New Species (Crassulaceae) from eastern Ethiopia

Kalanchoe hypseloleuce  Friis & M. G. Gilbert

A new species of Kalanchoe, Kalanchoe hypseloleuce Friis & M. G. Gilbert, was found during field work in Ethiopia in 2015, and is established here. It is characterised by its tall stature (2 – 3 m), entire, sessile, lanceolate leaves and pure white flowers with abaxially minutely papillose corolla lobes (otherwise, the plant is glabrous). It is not obviously related to any previously known species, but an earlier, incomplete specimen has been cited as K. prittwitzii Engl. in the literature. K. hypseloleuce was collected on limestone in Acacia-Commiphora woodland and bushland at c. 1400 m a.s.l. It occurs in the southern part of the eastern Ethiopian escarpment in the Arsi and Eastern Harerghe zones of the Oromo Regional State. K. hypseloleuce is documented with images and maps, its climate envelope has been modelled, and a conservation assessment made. With the current level of threat, this could be Vulnerable to Near Threatened (VU-NT). Given the threat from habitat degradation is not imminent, we recommend the species to be listed as Near Threatened (NT).

Key Words: Acacia-Commiphora bushland, Afromontane forest, conservation, limestone, monocarpic, taxonomy, transitional semi-evergreen bushland 

Fig. 1.  Kalanchoe hypseloleuce
flowering specimens in E Arsi zone, Ethiopia; in the background fruiting Acacia senegal and flowering and fruiting Grewia schweinfurthii; in the foreground flowering Rhus natalensisdetail of inflorescence. 

Kalanchoe hypseloleuce Friis & M. G. Gilbert, sp. nov.

ETYMOLOGY. Our new epithet, hypseloleuce, is a compound of two Greek adjectives. The first, ψηλός, ή, όν, ‘high, lofty, (metaphorically) stately’, refers to the impressive height of the plant, it being one of the tallest known species of Kalanchoe in Africa. The second, λευκός, -ή, -όν, ‘light, bright, (of colour) white’, refers to the pure white flowers. The connecting vowel –o– is in agreement with Rec. 60G(a2) of the Code (McNeill et al. 2012). The generic name, Kalanchoe Adans. (Adanson 1763: 248), is said to be an adaptation of a Chinese name for a species in the genus (Harvey 1862) or derived from a Hindi word ‘kalanka’, meaning ‘rust’ or ‘spot’ (Quattrocchi 2000). In botanical literature, Kalanchoe is treated as feminine and, in agreement with Art, 23.5 of the Code, the feminine form of the terminal adjective is used. 

Ib Friis, Michael G. Gilbert, Paulo van Breugel, Odile Weber and Sebsebe Demissew. 2017. Kalanchoe hypseloleuce (Crassulaceae), A New Species from eastern Ethiopia, with Notes on its Habitat. Kew Bulletin. 72:30.  DOI:  10.1007/s12225-017-9704-7

Tuesday, May 23, 2017

[Ichthyology • 2017] Psammogobius pisinnus • A New Species of Reef Goby (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from Papua New Guinea and Australia

Psammogobius pisinnus  Allen, 2017

A new miniature species of gobiid fish, Psammogobius pisinnus n. sp., is described from West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea on the basis of 10 specimens, 10.8–17.9 mm SL. Diagnostic features include dorsal-fin rays VI + I,9 (rarely I,10), the third dorsal-fin spine sometimes with a short, filamentous extension; anal-fin rays I,9 (rarely I,8); pectoral-fin rays 16–19 (usually 17); the pelvic fins reaching the anal-fin origin; the pelvic frenum weakly developed; longitudinal scales 25–28; the tongue distinctly bilobed, and a live color pattern that is generally light gray to whitish with three broad brown saddles on the dorsal half of the body. The new species differs from the three previously described species of Psammogobius (P. biocellatus, P. knysnaensis, and P. viet) on the basis of its tiny adult size (less than 20 mm vs, about 70–80 mm SL), fully marine habitat (vs. brackish estuaries and tidal streams), possession of cheek and opercular scales (scaleless in other species, except P. biocellatus with scales on the upper portion of the opercle), only 5–7 predorsal scales (vs. 10–16), and color pattern. The new species is also reported from the northern Great Barrier Reef of Australia on the basis of a single specimen.

Key words: taxonomy, systematics, ichthyology, coral-reef fishes, Indo-Pacific Ocean

Figure 3. Psammogobius pisinnus, underwater photographs, approx. 13–17 mm SL, all West New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea (G.R. Allen), except lower right taken at Flynn Reef, Great Barrier Reef, Australia (M. Onishi). 

Psammogobius pisinnus, n. sp.
Sandslope Goby

Diagnosis. A species of Psammogobius with the following combination of characters: dorsal-fin rays VI+I,9 (rarely I,10), third dorsal-fin spine sometimes with short filamentous extension; anal-fin rays I,9 (rarely I,8); pectoral-fin rays 16–19 (usually 17); pelvic fins reaching anal-fin origin; pelvic frenum weakly developed; longitudinal scales 25–28; predorsal scales 5–7; cheek and opercle scaled; tongue distinctly bilobed with a deep cleft between lobes; small maximum size of less than 20 mm SL. Color in life light gray to whitish with three broad brown saddles on dorsal half of body, the anteriormost darkest and positioned below first dorsal fin; operculum and cheek mottled dark brown; whitish streak on middle pectoral-fin rays. Inhabits sand slopes near coral reefs.

Etymology. The species is named pisinnus (Latin: small or little) with reference to the exceptionally small maximum size in comparison to congeners. 

 Gerald R. Allen. 2017. Psammogobius pisinnus, A New Species of Reef Goby (Teleostei: Gobiidae) from Papua New Guinea and Australia. Journal of the Ocean Science Foundation. 26, 80–85.  DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.571211

[Botany • 2016] Begonia suaviola & B. silverstonii • Two New Species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from the Colombian Western Cordillera

Begonia suaviola Jara


Two New species of Begonia section Semibegoniella (C.DC) Barkley & Baranov (Begoniaceae) are described from the Colombian Western Cordillera. Illustrations of distinguishing characters, photos of living plants and a key to the Colombian Begonias with tepals fused are included.

Keywords: Begonia suaviolaBegonia silverstonii, Western Cordillera, Eudicots

Begonia suaviola Jara sp. nov.

Etymology:— The epithet come from the Latin word suavium (=kiss), because the common name of this plant in Valle del Cauca is “besito”, the Spanish word for kiss.

Begonia silverstonii Jara sp. nov. 

Etymology:— The epithet honors the botanist Philip A. Silverstone-Sopkin, who has collected and studied intensely the Valle del Cauca flora, from his position in the Herbarium (CUVC) in Cali (Valle del Cauca, Colombia).  

O. A. Jara-Muñoz. 2016. Two New Species of Begonia (Begoniaceae) from the Colombian Western Cordillera. Phytotaxa. 257(1); 81 – 88. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.257.1.6

[Entomology • 2016] Three New Species and One New Subspecies of Deserticossus Yakovlev, 2006 (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia, with World Catalogue of the Genus

Deserticossus pulverulentus (Püngeler, 1898)


Three new species and one new subspecies of the genus Deserticossus Yakovlev, 2006 are described: Deserticossus doroshkini Yakovlev & Witt sp. nov. from eastern Kazakhstan (Tarbagatai Mts.), D. selevini Yakovlev & Witt sp. nov. from southeastern Kazakhstan (Malye Boguty Mts.), D. kamelini Yakovlev & Witt sp. nov. from Kyrgyzstan (Fergana Valley), and D. tsingtauana didenkoi Yakovlev & Witt subsp. nov. from Russia (Southern Siberia, Buryatia Republic). The described species and subspecies of Deserticossus are listed, with notes on the type material, synonymies, and distribution for each taxon.
Keywords: Cossidae, fauna, new species, Deserticossus, Lepidoptera, Russia

Roman V. Yakovlev and Thomas J Witt. 2017. Three New Species and One New Subspecies of Deserticossus Yakovlev, 2006 (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) from Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia, with World Catalogue of the Genus. Zootaxa.  4269(3); 379–395.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4269.3.3

Monday, May 22, 2017

[Entomology • 2017] Phylogeny and Diversification of the Cloud Forest Morpho sulkowskyi Group (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) in the Evolving Andes


The monophyletic Morpho sulkowskyi butterfly group, endemic of Andean cloud forests, was studied to test the respective contributions of Mio-Pliocene intense uplift period and Pleistocene glacial cycles on Andean biodiversity. We sampled nine taxa covering the whole geographical range of the group. Two mitochondrial and two nuclear genes were analysed using a Bayesian method. We established a dated phylogeny of the group using a relaxed clock method and a wide-outgroup approach. To discriminate between two hypotheses, we used a biogeographical probabilistic method. Results suggest that the ancestor of the M. sulkowskyi group originated during the Middle–Late Miocene uplift of the Eastern Cordillera in northern Peru. Biogeographical inference suggests that the M. sulkowskyi and Morpho lympharis clades diverged in the northern Peruvian Andes. The subsequent divergences, from the Late Miocene to the Late Pliocene, should have resulted from a dispersal towards the Northern Andes (M. sulkowskyi clade), after the closure of the West Andean Portal separating the Central and Northern Andes, and a southwards dispersal along the Peruvian and Bolivian Eastern Cordilleras (M. lympharis clade). Only a few divergences occurred at the very end of the Pliocene or during the Pleistocene, a period when the more recent uplifts interfered with Pleistocene glacial cycles.

Figure 1.  Map of the region where field studies were carried out, with habitus of the taxa calderoni, zachi and nieva (m: male; f: female; f1 and f2: female morphs within the calderoni population). N1 and N2: sampling areas along the upper Río Nieva. Other localities where specimens were collected: AP: Abra Patricia; EF: El Afluente; OP: Oso Perdido; PM: Abra Pardo Miguel; V: Venceremos. Two specimens of nieva were also collected at Santa Cruz del Mirador (M), at ca. 20 km ESE from El Afluente. 

Simple relationships between Andean uplift and the diversification of various plant and animal groups, implying pre-Pleistocene driving processes, have been supposed by various authors. Doan (2003), for example, proposed the south-to-north speciation hypothesis, where the process of speciation should be related to the south-to-north progression of uplift throughout the Andes. Other authors emphasized the possible role of a rapid uplift that occurred during the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene, but often without establishing clear links between dated divergences and local geologic events (e.g. Casner & Pyrcz 2010; Mulch et al. 2010; Matos-Maraví et al. 2013; Lagomarsino et al. 2016). From a geological point of view, the concept of a progressive, general south-to-north uplift is an oversimplified view of a much more complex reality (Sempere et al. 2008). In the Central Andes, palaeo-elevation histories differ not only between the south and the north, but also between the western and the eastern cordilleras, notably in northern Peru (Picard et al. 2008; Eude et al. 2015; Margirier et al. 2015). The idea that the Northern Andes, as a whole, uplifted later than the Central Andes, as suggested by Doan (2003), and often admitted by other authors, is not supported by geological studies that also demonstrate that the timing of palaeo-elevation differed between the three Colombian Cordilleras (Restrepo- Moreno et al. 2009). Consistent with many other examples, notably the clearwing Oleriina butterflies (De-Silva et al. 2016), the M. sulkowskyi group illustrates the diversity of diversification histories throughout the Andes. It also demonstrates that Mio-Pliocene orogenic and Pleistocene climatic diversification drivers should not be opposed.

Romain Nattier, Claire Capdevielle-Dulac, Catherine Cassildé, Arnaud Couloux, Corinne Cruaud, Gilbert Lachaume, Gerardo Lamas, Jean-François Silvain and Patrick Blandin. 2017. Phylogeny and Diversification of the Cloud Forest Morpho sulkowskyi Group (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae) in the Evolving Andes.  Zoologica Scripta.  DOI: 10.1111/zsc.12226


Sunday, May 21, 2017

[Ichthyology • 2017] Cryptic Diversity in the Indian Clade of the Catfish Family Pangasiidae Resolved by the Description of A New Species, Pangasius silasi

Pangasius silasi 
Dwivedi, Gupta, Singh, Mohindra, Chandra, Easawarn, Jena & Lal, 2017 

Among 22 species of the genus Pangasius, distributed in Southeast and South Asia, only one species, Pangasius pangasius, is known to exist in South Asia. Phylogenetic analysis based upon COI and Cytb sequences suggested that the P. pangasius species clade consists of two subclades. Based upon the genetic and the following morphological evidence, we conclude that these DNA sequence based sister subclades represent two distinct species, P. pangasius and an undescribed species from river Krishna, named as Pangasius silasi. Morphologically, P. silasi is differentiated from its congener P. pangasius by a combination of characters, such as vomero-palatal teeth confluent as an uninterrupted curved band (vs two lunate vomero-palatal teeth patches on each side with a wide gap in the center) and vertebral count of 48 (vs 44). For several morphological characters, P. silasi is also distinct from P. myanmar, which is reported from Myanmar and has overlapping distribution with P. pangasius. Finally, the vomero-palatine dentition in P. silasi is distinct from the dentition structures reported for all the other Pangasius species. The biogeographical significance of finding this new species, P. silasi, in a river of the Indian peninsula is also discussed in this report.

Keywords: Pangasius, River Krishna, DNA sequences, Molecular phylogeny, Morphology, Biogeography

Fig. 4: Lateral view of the Pangasius silasi (a) holotype (NBFGR/PP 76, 321.2 mm SL) Fresh condition and (b) Formalin Preserved. c Paratype, fresh condition (NBFGR/PP 78, 379.5 mm SL) 

 Pangasius silasi sp. nov
The specimens of Pangasius sp. nov., (named as Pangasius silasi) PP 72–78 and PSH 01 (eight specimens.), 247.8–407.4 mm SL, were collected through the fish landings from Krishna River at Nagarjuna Sagar Dam, 16°53′N 79°26′E; Guntur District, Andhra Pradesh, India; Lal et al., 3 May 2013 (Fig. 4). This water body is shared between the Two Indian states, Andhra Pradesh (district Guntur) and Telangana (district Nalgonda). These specimens were studied for morphomeristic measurements and DNA sequence analysis. For future reference, the designated holotype PP 76 (321.2 mm SL) and paratype PP 78 (SL 379.5 mm SL) are preserved in NBFGR repository. Paratype (NBFGR Acc. No. NBFGR/PP 71) has been deposited with Museum of Zoological Survey of India, Kolkatta (ZSI FF 5621).

Distribution: At present P. silasi is known only from the type locality, the Krishna River at Nagarjuna Sagar Dam in Telangana, India.

Etymology of Nomenclature: The species name of P. silasi is derived from the name of Dr. E.G. Silas, who has made important contributions to taxonomy of Indian fish species, their biogeography and evolutionary divergence with the eminent scientist Prof. S. L. Hora.

Arvind K. Dwivedi, Braj Kishor Gupta, Rajeev K. Singh, Vindhya Mohindra, Suresh Chandra, Suresh Easawarn, Joykrushna Jena and Kuldeep K. Lal. 2017. Cryptic Diversity in the Indian Clade of the Catfish Family Pangasiidae Resolved by the Description of A New Species. Hydrobiologia. DOI: 10.1007/s10750-017-3198-z