Sunday, July 15, 2018

[Botany • 2018] Argyreia gyrobracteata • Species Delimitation of Some Argyreia (Convolvulaceae) Using Phenetic Analyses: Insights from Leaf Anatomical Data Reveal A New Species from northeastern Thailand

Argyreia gyrobracteata Traiperm & Chitchak

in Chitchak, Traiperm, Staples, et al., 2018. 
   DOI:  10.1139/cjb-2017-0108 

Argyreia Lour. is one of the most taxonomically complex genera of the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae). The number of named species is now 135, and new species are regularly being described. There are several species complexes that are morphologically similar and difficult to tell apart. Therefore, the aim of this study is to explore the species identification criteria for Argyreia, especially new sources for taxonomically informative characters. Ten accessions representing three morphologically similar Argyreia operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were collected and their anatomical characters were investigated using the leaf peeling technique and paraffin sectioning method. Anatomical character states were analyzed using two phenetic analysis methods: clustering analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Three distinct clusters were clearly separated in both PCA and CA at the internal similarity coefficient of 0.48 with a high R-value of 0.89757. Nineteen effectively distinguishable character states were derived from the high loadings of the first two components. In conclusion, two of the separated groups were matched with known species, and the third separated group is here delineated as a new species. Therefore, a new species, Argyreia gyrobracteata Traiperm & Chitchak, is described and illustrated together with ecological data and a preliminary conservation assessment.

Keywords: cluster analysis, cryptic species, morphometrics, principal component analysis, species delimitation

Fig. 7. Argyreia gyrobracteata Traiperm & Chitchak sp. nov.:
 (A) flower in front view; (B) flower in side view; (C) interaction with an insect visitor, oriental carpenter bee (Xylocopa nasalis); (D) plant habit
(all photos taken by P. Rattanakrajang from live plants vouchered as P. Rattanakrajang et al. 104).

Argyreia gyrobracteata Traiperm & Chitchak, sp. nov. 

TYPE: Thailand. Ubon Ratchathani, Sirindhorn district, ..., in the edge of dipterocarp forest, August 2016, P. Rattanakrajang, N. Chitchak & P. Traiperm 110 (holotype BKF!; isotypes K!, QBG!)

DIAGNOSIS: The new species is similar to A. mekongensis in having a white campanulate corolla, but differs from that species by the linear-oblong to narrowly lanceolate bract shape (versus lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate), the curly or twisted bract orientation (versus falcate), the larger sepals, and the multicellular, uniseriate, villous trichomes restricted to a small, dense, triangular patch on the adaxial side of the filaments, above the insertion point of the filaments on the corolla tube (versus dispersed in a band 3–5 mm wide surrounding the free filament, above the insertion point on the corolla tube).

DISTRIBUTION: Known so far from discrete populations in two different districts within Ubon Ratchathani province, Thailand. One population is close to the border of Thailand–Laos and possibly A. gyrobracteata occurs across the border in Laos.

ETYMOLOGY: The specific epithet refers to the curly/twisted bracts of this species, which have not been observed in any other known species of Argyreia

 Natthaphong Chitchak, Paweena Traiperm, G. Staples, Pantamith Rattanakrajang and Pirada Sumanona. 2018. Species Delimitation of Some Argyreia (Convolvulaceae) Using Phenetic Analyses: Insights from Leaf Anatomical Data Reveal A New Species. Botany. 96(4); 217-233.  DOI:  10.1139/cjb-2017-0108 

[Botany • 2018] Odontochilus putaoensis (Orchidaceae) • A New Species from Myanmar

Odontochilus putaoensis X.H. Jin, L.A. Ye & A.T. Mu

in Ye, Mu & Jin, 2018.  

Odontochilus putaoensis, a new species of Orchidaceae, is described and illustrated from Putao Township, Kachin State, Myanmar. Odontochilus putaoensis is close to O. duplex, but can be easily distinguished from the latter by having a light yellow lip, a bisaccate hypochile with a small, erect, blade-like and emarginate callus within each sac, a mesochile with a pair of dentate-pectinate flanges and a bilobed epichile with a pair of widely diverging lobes that are erect and concave. An identification key to the Southeast Asian species of Odontochilus and colour photographs of O. putaoensis are provided. A preliminary conservation assessment according to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria is given for the new species.

Keywords: Cranichideae, Kachin State, key, new species, southeast Asia, terrestrial orchid

Figure 1. Odontochilus putaoensis X.H.Jin, L.A.Ye & A.T.Mu.
 A Habit of Odontochilus putaoensis B Front view of flower, showing lip epichile with a pair of erect and concave lobes C Hypochile of Odontochilus putaoensis, indicating small, erect, blade-like, emarginate callus within each sac D Dissected flower, showing pedicel and ovary, column, sepals, petals, lip and a pair of clavate pollinia E Dorsal view of flower, showing dorsal sepal forming a hood with petals. Photographed by X.H. Jin.

Odontochilus putaoensis X.H. Jin, L.A. Ye & A.T. Mu, sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Odontochilus putaoensis is similar to O. duplex, but can be easily distinguished from the latter by having a light yellow lip composed of a bisaccate hypochile with a small, erect, blade-like and emarginate callus within each sac, a mesochile with a pair of dentate-pectinate flanges and bilobed epichile with a pair of widely diverging lobes that are erect and concave.

Type: MYANMAR. Kachin State: Putao Township, Hponkanrazi Wildlife Sanctuary, subtropical, evergreen, broad-leaved, montane forest, 2000 m a.s.l., 20 October 2014, Xiaohua Jin et al, PT-ET 959 (Holotype, PE!).


Etymology: The new species is named after Putao, the northernmost town of Myanmar, near which it was discovered in a vast area of undisturbed mountain forest.

Distribution and habitat: Odontochilus putaoensis grows in shaded and damp humus in humid, broad-leaved, evergreen forest, at an elevation of about 1500-2000 m. At present, O. putaoensis is only known from the type locality.

Ye Lwin Aung, Aye Thin Mu and Xiaohua Jin. 2018. Odontochilus putaoensis (Cranichideae, Orchidaceae), A New Species from Myanmar. PhytoKeys. 103: 19-26.   DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.103.25913


Saturday, July 14, 2018

[Botany • 2018] Thismia kinabaluensis (Thismiaceae) • A New Species from Mt. Kinabalu, Sabah, Borneo

 Thismia kinabaluensis

in Nishioka, Suetsugu, Repin & Kitayama, 2018 

A new species of Thismia (Thismiaceae), Thismia kinabaluensis, is described from Mt. Kinabalu, Sabah, Borneo. Thismia kinabaluensis is clearly placed in section Thismia subsect. Odoardoa, in having its creeping vermiform roots and free and equal perianth lobes, and it is distinguished from the other members of this subsection by three anther appendages (one filiform appendage between two club shaped ones) and a pale-blue perianth tube with transverse bars inside. A key to the Malaysian Thismia is provided for easy identification of these mycoheterotrophic plants.

Keywords: Burmanniaceae, mycoheterotrophy, taxonomy, tropical rain forest, Monocots

Tatsuki Nishioka, Kenji Suetsugu, Rimi Repin and Kanehiro Kitayama. 2018.  Thismia kinabaluensis (Thismiaceae), A New Species from Mt. Kinabalu, Sabah, Borneo. Phytotaxa. 360(2); 174–178.  DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.360.2.10

[Ichthyology • 2018] Platichthys solemdali • A New Flounder Species (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes) From the Baltic Sea

Platichthys solemdali 
Momigliano, Denys,  Jokinen & Merilä, 2018
photo: Mats Westerbom 

The European flounder Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758) displays two contrasting reproductive behaviors in the Baltic Sea: offshore spawning of pelagic eggs and coastal spawning of demersal eggs, a behavior observed exclusively in the Baltic Sea. Previous studies showed marked differences in behavioral, physiological, and life-history traits of flounders with pelagic and demersal eggs. Furthermore, a recent study demonstrated that flounders with pelagic and demersal eggs represent two reproductively isolated, parapatric species arising from two distinct colonization events from the same ancestral population. Using morphological data we first established that the syntypes on which the original description of P. flesus was based belong to the pelagic-spawning lineage. We then used a combination of morphological and physiological characters as well as genome-wide genetic data to describe flounders with demersal eggs as a new species: Platichthys solemdali sp. nov. The new species can be clearly distinguished from P. flesus based on egg morphology, egg and sperm physiology as well as via population genetic and phylogenetic analyses. While the two species do show some minor morphological differences in the number of anal and dorsal fin rays, no external morphological feature can be used to unambiguously identify individuals to species. Therefore, we developed a simple molecular diagnostic test able to unambiguously distinguish P. solemdali from P. flesus with a single PCR reaction, a tool that should be useful to fishery scientists and managers, as well as to ecologists studying these species.

Family Pleuronectidae Rafinesque 1815

Genus Platichthys Girard 1854

Platichthys solemdali sp. nov.
  Baltic flounder

Diagnosis: Platichthys solemdali sp. nov. is diagnosable from P. stellatus by the absence of stripes on the dorsal and anal fin rays [Figures 6A, 2B; vs. presence of stripes for P. stellatus (Morrow, 1980)]. It can be distinguished with more than 99.999% certainty from P. flesus using genotypes of at least three of the outlier loci which were genotyped in this study (Loci 886, 3599, and 1822) by comparison with publically available reference data deposited in the Dryad digital repository (Momigliano et al., 2017a). P. solemdali sp. nov. (N = 50) has 46–59 dorsal fin rays vs. 51–66 for P. flesus recorded in this study, in Voronina (1999) and in Galleguillos and Ward (1982), and 35–41 anal fin rays vs. 35–45 in P. flesus from this study, Voronina (1999) and Galleguillos and Ward (1982). Hence, none of these meristic characters provide unambiguous species diagnosis. However, reproductive traits (viz. egg morphology and buoyancy, as well as sperm physiology) are unambiguous diagnostic characters. Eggs of P. solemdali sp. nov. become neutrally buoyant at salinities between 16 and 21.5 psu and are 0.99 ± 0.05 mm in diameter (Table 6; Figure 7), whereas the eggs of P. flesus in the Baltic Sea are larger (1.3–1.5 mm) and reach neutral buoyancy between 11 and 18 psu (Table 6; Nissling et al., 2002). Spermatozoa of P. solemdali sp. nov. activate at minimum salinities between 2 and 4 psu, in contrast to a required salinity above 10 psu for P. flesus (Table 7).

Geographic distribution:   P. solemdali sp. nov. is endemic to the Baltic Sea, where it has a wide distribution in coastal and bank areas across the region up to the Gulf of Finland and the southern Bothnian Sea. Confirmed individuals of P. solemdali sp. nov. have been sampled as far south as Öland (SD 27) (species identity confirmed via genetic analyses, Figure 1) and Hanö Bay (SD 25) (based on egg morphology, see Wallin, 2016; Nissling et al., 2017). In a recent paper Orio et al. (2017) suggested that environmental conditions in the entire southern Baltic Sea are suitable for demersal spawning flounders, and already Mielck and Künne (1935) reported ripe female flounders with small eggs from shallow low-saline (6–7‰) areas in the southern Baltic Sea (Oder Bank, SD 24). However, the current occurrence of Psolemdali sp. nov. in the southern regions is poorly known and, hence, it is still unclear whether the species is found throughout the coastal Baltic Sea area.

Habitat: P. solemdali sp. nov. lives in brackish water of varying salinities in the coastal zone at 0.5–50 m depth on soft and hard bottoms.

Etymology: This species is dedicated to Per Solemdal (1941–2016) who was the first researcher to study the Baltic Sea flounder's eggs and sperm in connection to salinity and discovered that “the specific gravity of the eggs is a fixed population characteristic which is almost unchangeable” (Solemdal, 1973) laying the foundations on which many subsequent studies on local adaptation and speciation of Baltic Sea marine fishes were built.

Paolo Momigliano, Gaël P. J. Denys, Henri Jokinen and Juha Merilä. 2018. Platichthys solemdali sp. nov. (Actinopterygii, Pleuronectiformes): A New Flounder Species From the Baltic Sea.  Frontiers in Marine Science.  DOI: 10.3389/fmars.2018.00225

Friday, July 13, 2018

[Botany • 2018] Begonia hinnamnoensis & B. khammouanensis • Two New Species of Begonia L. (Begoniaceae) from central Laos

ສົ້ມກຸ້ງຄັນຄາກ Begonia hinnamnoensis Souvann. & Lanors. &
ສົ້ມກຸ້ງໃບບົວ Begonia khammouanensis Souvann. & Lamxay,

in Souvannakhoummane, Lanorsavanh & Lamxay, 2018

Two new species of Begonia are described and illustrated from Hin Nam No National Protected Area in the Khammouan Province, Central Laos. Begonia hinnamnoensis Souvann. & Lanors. and Begonia khammouanensis Souvann. & Lamxay, both belonging to Begonia sect. Diploclinium (Lindl.) A. DC. The two new species are endemic to the Khammouan limestone karst. The provisional IUCN status of both new species is here assessed as ‘Vulnerable’.

Keyword: Begonia hinnamnoensis, Begonia khammouanensis, Begoniaceae, Limestone flora, Laos, Taxonomy

Fig. 1. Begonia hinnamnoensis Souvann. & Lanors.
 A, Habit in nature; B, habit; C, inflorescences (bud); D. staminate flowers; E, pistillate flowers. (A & E photo by K. Souvannakhoummane; B-D photo by S. Lanorsavanh, all from Lamxay et al. HNN 227).
Begonia hinnamnoensis Souvann. & Lanors., sp. nov. 
ສົ້ມກຸ້ງຄັນຄາກ | Som Koung Khan Khak [Bufo begonia]
Sect. Diploclinium

Differs from the allied Begonia gesneriifolia Aver. in having a denser indumentum over all vegetative parts and fruit wings narrowly triangular (B. gesneriifolia has short scurfy hairs, sub-glabrous petioles, glabrous leaf lamina, inflorescenceand flowers, and fruit wings distinctly larger). Also differs from Begonia cladotricha M. Hughes in having a stout rhizome, upper surface of lamina bullate between veins giving a rugose appearance and pistillate flowers smaller fruit wings (B. cladotricha has tuberous rhizome, upper surface of lamina not bullate between veins and pistillate flowers larger fruit wings). 
− Type: Laos, Khammouan province, Boualapha district, Hin Nam No National Protected Area, ..., 240 m, 9 October 2017, Lamxay et al. HNN 227 (holo HNL, iso FOF, E, SING).  

Distribution. Endemic to Khammouan province, Boualapha district, Hin Nam No National Protected Area, only know from type locality. 

Habitat and ecology. Occurring on limestone rock crevices in seasonally dry evergreen forest at 240 m elevation. Flowering September to October; fruiting October to January. 

Notes. Begonia hinnamnoensis is closely allied with B. cladotricha and B. gesneriifolia, as shown by characters of reniform lamina and pistillate flowers with 5-tepals. The basally-branched hair type of this species is the same as in B. cladotricha (Hughes, 2008b). The specific epithet hinnamnoensis refers to the type locality

Fig. 3. Begonia khammouanensis Souvann. & Lamxay,
 A, habit in nature; B, habit; C, upper part of inflorescences; D. staminate flowers; E, pistillate flowers. A, C, E photo by K. Souvannakhoummane; B, D photo by S. Lanorsavanh from Lamxay et al. HNN 138.

Begonia khammouanensis Souvann. & Lamxay, sp. nov. 
ສົ້ມກຸ້ງໃບບົວ |  Som Koung Bai Boua [Lotus leaf begonia] 
Sect. Diploclinium

A distinct species, closest to Begonia crassula Aver. in having succulent leaves, the same number of tepals in male and female flowers and bifid, axile placentae. It differs in being stemless (not succulent caulescent), and in having a symmetric reniform lamina, (not strongly asymmetric and narrowly ovate), and lanceolate and acuminate apex of tepals (not reniform and rounded apex of tepals).
− Type: Laos, Khammouan province, Boualapha district, Hin Nam No National Protected Area, ..., 259 m,, 10 October 2017, Lamxay et al. HNN 138 (holo HNL, iso FOF, E, SING). 

Distribution. Endemic to central Laos; Hin Nam No National Protected Area with three additional populations in Boualapha district, Khammouan province. 

Habitat and ecology. This species occurs on wet steep rocky slopes in limestone mixed deciduous forest and dry evergreen forest at 230-400 m elevation. Flowering September to October; fruiting October to January. 

Notes. This species is distinct in its glabrous and glossy symmetrical reniform lamina, and petioles and inflorescences with glandular hairs. The specific epithet khammouanensis refers to the type locality. 

Keooudone Souvannakhoummane, Soulivanh Lanorsavanh and Vichith Lamxay. 2018. Two New Species of Begonia L. (Begoniaceae) from central Laos. Taiwania. 63(3); 188-194.  DOI:  10.6165/tai.2018.63.188


[Ornithology • 2018] Molecular Phylogenetics and Species Limits in A Cryptically Coloured Radiation of Australo-Papuan Passerine Birds (Pachycephalidae: Colluricincla)

in Marki, Fjeldså, Irestedt & Jønsson, 2018.

• A time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of all shrikethrushes (Colluricincla).
C. megarhyncha consists of seven unrecognized species.
 • A new taxonomy for C. megarhyncha is proposed.
 • C. megarhyncha melanorhyncha belongs in the genus Pachycephala.

Detailed knowledge of species limits is an essential component of the study of biodiversity. Although accurate species delimitation usually requires detailed knowledge of both genetic and phenotypic variation, such variation may be limited or unavailable for some groups. In this study, we reconstruct a molecular phylogeny for all currently recognized species and subspecies of Australasian shrikethrushes (Colluricincla), including the first sequences of the poorly known C. tenebrosa. Using a novel method for species delimitation, the multi-rate Poisson Tree Process (mPTP), in concordance with the phylogenetic data, we estimate species limits in this genetically diverse, but phenotypically subtly differentiated complex of birds. In line with previous studies, we find that one species, the little shrikethrush (C. megarhyncha) is characterized by deep divergences among populations. Delimitation results suggest that these clades represent distinct species and we consequently propose a new classification. Furthermore, our findings suggest that C. megarhyncha melanorhyncha of Biak Island does not belong in this genus, but is nested within the whistlers (Pachycephala) as sister to P. phaionota. This study represents a useful example of species delimitation when phenotypic variation is limited or poorly defined.

Keywords: Passerine birds, Corvides, Australia, New Guinea, Cryptic species, Species delimitation

Fig. 2. A time-calibrated maximum clade credibility tree of Colluricincla shrikethrushes derived from the divergence estimation of the one mitochondrial gene and three nuclear introns in BEAST. Posterior probabilities are shown for major nodes. Error bars show the 95% highest posterior density intervals for the divergence time estimates. Vertical bars indicate the species identified by the mPTP-approach. Species names reflect the new taxonomy proposed in this study. Illustrations are watercolours by Jon Fjeldså and show all eleven delimited species. For species that exhibit significant within-species morphological variation, multiple illustrations are shown.

Fig. 1. Sampling localities for the 129 sequences included in this study. Colours and taxon names refer to the eleven species delimited in this study. 

In this study, we present a densely sampled molecular phylogeny for the Australasian shrikethrushes. Our results suggest that species diversity within this complex is underestimated, and we consequently propose a revised classification. Nonetheless, we view our proposed taxonomy as preliminary and hope that this study may stimulate further study of species limits in this group. In particular, we believe that increased study of behaviour, contact zone dynamics and vocalizations coupled with the analysis of genome-wide data are likely to be promising in this respect.

 Petter Z. Marki, Jon Fjeldså, Martin Irestedt and Knud A. Jønsson. 2018. Molecular Phylogenetics and Species Limits in A Cryptically Coloured Radiation of Australo-Papuan Passerine Birds (Pachycephalidae: Colluricincla). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 124; 100-105. DOI: 10.1016/j.ympev.2018.02.029 

[Herpetology • 2018] Megophrys lancip • A Megophrys Kuhl and Van Hasselt (Amphibia: Megophryidae) from southwestern Sumatra, Indonesia

Megophrys lancip 
 Munir, Hamidy, Farajallah & Smith, 2018 

Megophrys lancip sp. nov., from the Bukit Barisan mountain range of southwestern Sumatra, Indonesia, is described on the basis of molecular and morphological evidence. The new species is distinguished from its congeners in Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and the Philippines by having a medium-sized body, snout with an extremely pointed rostral appendage, a medium-sized triangular eyelid appendage, a dorsolateral fold extending from just behind the eye to the groin, vomerine teeth, vocal slits, nuptial pads on the dorsomedial surface of the first and second fingers in males, and in lacking a Y, X, or H-shaped fold on the dorsum. Morphologically, the new species is most similar to M. montana, but it has a longer rostral appendage, shorter eyelid appendages, and less developed toe webbing. We also evaluate the taxonomic status of M. parallela and comment on the occurrence of M. aceras in Sumatra.

Keywords: Amphibia, Megophrys lancip, new species, Sundaland

FIGURE 3. Holotype of Megophrys lancip sp. nov. in life (adult male; MZB Amph 22233), dorsolateral view.
Photos by E. N. Smith.

Megophrys lancip sp. nov.

Etymology. The species name lancip is the Indonesian word for “pointed”, used as an adjective, and reflects the extremely pointed rostral appendage of the new species.

Suggested English common name. Pointed Horned Frog.
Suggested Indonesian common name. Katak-tanduk lancip.

Distribution and Natural History. The new species is known from the provinces of Lampung and Bengkulu in southwestern Sumatra. Larval, acoustic and other ecological data are unknown. The holotype was collected from a coffee plantation near the edge of secondary forest..... This new species of Megophrys can be found sympatrically with M. nasuta in Kubu Prahu, Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park. Habitat loss and exploitation for the pet trade are likely be the main threats for the new species.

Misbahul Munir, Amir Hamidy, Achmad Farajallah and Eric N. Smith. 2018.  A New Megophrys Kuhl and Van Hasselt (Amphibia: Megophryidae) from southwestern Sumatra, Indonesia. Zootaxa. 4442(3); 389–412. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4442.3.3

Wednesday, July 11, 2018

[Botany • 2018] Brachystelma ananthapuramense (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae) • A New Species from Andhra Pradesh, India

Brachystelma ananthapuramense K. Prasad, A. Naray. & Meve

in Prasad, Swamy & Meve, 2018.
Photos by K. Prasad & A. N. Swamy. 

A new species of Brachystelma from the Southern Deccan plateau of Gorantla hills, Andhra Pradesh is described and illustrated. This taxon, named Brachystelma ananthapuramense, is morphologically similar to the B. kolarense complex but differs by its small habit, short internodes, large flowers with more than 1.5 cm long corolla lobes, globular cage and densely pubescent corona. A key to the B. kolarense complex, including the proposed new species in India is provided.

Keywords: Ananthapuramu, Ceropegieae, Gorantla hills, Southern Deccan plateau

Fig. 1. Brachystelma ananthapuramense
A habit; B flowering plant; C flower bud; D flowers; E tuber; F & G calyx lobes; H – K details of corona; L pollinia; M gynostegium; N follicles; P seeds.
Photos: K. Prasad & A. N. Swamy.

Fig. 2. Brachystelma ananthapuramense.
 A habit; B flower bud; C calyx lobe; D flower; E flower without hairs; F corona top view; G corona side view; H pollinia; J gynostegium.
Drawn BY K. Prasad.

Brachystelma ananthapuramense K. Prasad, A. Naray. & Meve, sp. nov. 
Type: India, Andhra Pradesh, Ananthapuramu distr., Gorantla hills, 800 m, 8 June 2014, A. N. Swamy & K. Prasad 44922 (holotype CAL!; isotype SKU!).

Recognition: Brachystelma ananthapuramense is closely allied to B. naorojii P. Tetali et al., but differs by having a much smaller habit, 4 – 5 cm (vs 30 – 55 cm in B. naorojii), corolla lobes uniformly linear, 1.5 – 2.5 cm long (vs triangular at base, c. 1 cm long in B. narojii), cage globular (vs cage conical in B. narojii) and staminal corona lobes pubescent and not exceeding the coronal cup (vs staminal corona lobes glabrous and exceeding the coronal cup in B. naorojii). 

Etymology: The new species is named after the type locality Ananthapuramu, which is a part of the Southern Deccan plateau of Andhra Pradesh.

K. Prasad, A. Narayana Swamy and U. Meve. 2018. Brachystelma ananthapuramense (Apocynaceae: Asclepiadoideae), A New Species from Andhra Pradesh, India. Kew Bulletin. 73(1); DOI: 10.1007/s12225-018-9740-y


[Ichthyology • 2018] Trimma blematium & T. meityae • Two New Species of Blue-eyed Trimma (Pisces; Gobiidae) from New Guinea

Trimma blematium
Winterbottom & Erdmann, 2018 

Two new species of Trimma are described from New Guinea, one at the southeastern end at Normanby Island (Milne Bay Province), the other from Cendrawasih Bay, West Papua, on the north-east coast. The dorsal surface of the eye of both species is blue in life, a characteristic not reported elsewhere in the genus. Although the two species look very similar in life, and both occupy similar mesophotic rubble habitats in the 50-70 m depth range, they are separated both genetically (7.7% pairwise genetic distance in COI) and morphologically. Trimma blematium has 16 pectoral fin rays, a branched 5th pelvic fin ray, and 7 papillae in row p, whereas T. meityae has 17–18 pectoral fin rays, an unbranched 5th pelvic fin ray, and 8 papillae in row p. In live specimens, the blue colour over the top of the eyes is much darker in T. blematium than in T. meityae. The type localities are separated by almost 2,000 km (straight-line distance).

Keywords: Pisces, taxonomy, Western Pacific, coral reef gobies, COI gene

 Richard Winterbottom and  Mark V. Erdmann. 2018. Two New Species of Blue-eyed Trimma (Pisces; Gobiidae) from New Guinea.  Zootaxa.  4444(4); 471–483. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4444.4.7

Tuesday, July 10, 2018

[Paleontology • 2018] Ingentia prima • An Early Trend Towards Gigantism in Triassic Sauropodomorph Dinosaurs

Ingentia prima
 Apaldetti, Martínez, Cerda, Pol & Alcober, 2018

Illustration: Jorge A. Gonzalez

Dinosaurs dominated the terrestrial ecosystems for more than 140 Myr during the Mesozoic era, and among them were sauropodomorphs, the largest land animals recorded in the history of life. Early sauropodomorphs were small bipeds, and it was long believed that acquisition of giant body size in this clade (over 10 tonnes) occurred during the Jurassic and was linked to numerous skeletal modifications present in Eusauropoda. Although the origin of gigantism in sauropodomorphs was a pivotal stage in the history of dinosaurs, an incomplete fossil record obscures details of this crucial evolutionary change. Here, we describe a new sauropodomorph from the Late Triassic of Argentina nested within a clade of other non-eusauropods from southwest Pangaea. Members of this clade attained large body size while maintaining a plesiomorphic cyclical growth pattern, displaying many features of the body plan of basal sauropodomorphs and lacking most anatomical traits previously regarded as adaptations to gigantism. This novel strategy highlights a highly accelerated growth rate, an improved avian-style respiratory system, and modifications of the vertebral epaxial musculature and hindlimbs as critical to the evolution of gigantism. This reveals that the first pulse towards gigantism in dinosaurs occurred over 30 Myr before the appearance of the first eusauropods.

Fig. 1: Skeletal anatomy of Ingentia prima gen. et sp. nov. from the Quebrada del Barro Formation, northwestern Argentina.
a–k, Holotype (PVSJ 1086). l–s, Referred material (PVSJ 1087). a–d, Mid-posterior cervical vertebrae, C5–C10 articulated series (a), close up of the pneumatic fossa with internal subfossae on the centrodiapophyseal fossa (cdf)26 of C8 (b) and C9 (c), and a complex of subfossae on the prcdf26 of C10 (d). e, Right partial scapula. f–i, Right forelimb: humerus (f), and the radius and ulna in proximal (g) and anterior (h) view, and distal articulation (i). j, Right manus in plantar view. k,l, Metacarpal I in proximal (k) and dorsal (l) view. m,n, Radius and ulnae with respective proximal ulna: right radius-ulna (m) and left radius-ulna (n) in posterior view. o, Left proximal end of fibula. p–r, Right partial pes: distal tarsal III–IV in proximal view (p), metatarsal I and II in dorsal view (q) and isolated phalanges (r). s, Four anterior caudal vertebrae and a distal one (bottom left).

 cen, centrum; dp, diapophysis; dt, distal tubercles of radius-ulna; f-sf, fossa-subfossae complex; ft, fibular tubercle; nc, neural canal; ol, olecranum; pm, posteromedial margin of the ulna; prz, prezygapophysis; rf, radial fossa; rib, rib. Scale bars: 10 cm in a and i–s; 2 cm in b–d; 20 cm in e–h; 120 cm for the skeleton. Red, holotype; yellow, referred specimen; orange, holotype and referred specimen.

Systematic palaeontology
Dinosauria Owen, 1842 
Saurischia Seeley, 1888 
Sauropodomorpha von Huene, 1932 

Lessemsauridae clade nov. 

Etymology. Related to Lessemsaurus sauropoides Bonaparte, 1999. 

Definition. The clade Lessemsauridae is defined here as L. sauropoides Bonaparte, 1999 and Antetonitrus ingenipes Yates and Kitching, 2003, and all the descendants from their most common ancestor. 

Ingentia prima gen. et sp. nov. 

Etymology. Ingentia’, huge (fem., Latin); ‘prima’, first (fem. Latin), referring to the large body size acquired during the early evolution of Dinosauria.


Cecilia Apaldetti, Ricardo N. Martínez, Ignacio A. Cerda, Diego Pol and Oscar Alcober. 2018. An Early Trend Towards Gigantism in Triassic Sauropodomorph Dinosaurs. Nature Ecology & Evolution.  DOI: 10.1038/s41559-018-0599-y

Huge new gentle giant dinosaur the size of a double decker bus discovered via @MetroUK

[Botany • 2018] Reassessing Protocarnivory – How Hungry are Triggerplants?

Reassessing Protocarnivory – How Hungry are Triggerplants?

Nge & Lambers, 2018. 

Stylidium species (triggerplants) are claimed to be protocarnivorous based on the presence of glandular hairs, observations of trapped small organisms, and induction of proteinase activity. However, these traits might serve alternative functions. We aimed to re-assess and quantify the degree of carnivory for Stylidium species in an ecological context, by comparing the natural abundance (δ15N) of Stylidium species with co-occurring carnivorous (Drosera species) and non-carnivorous plants in their natural habitats. We hypothesised that the δ15N signature of Stylidium species would more closely match co-occurring carnivorous plant species than their non-carnivorous counterparts if they rely on captured organisms as a nutrient source, since there is an increase in fractionation by 3–5 ‰ per trophic level. Our results show that the Stylidium species sampled had δ15N signatures that matched more closely with co-occurring non-carnivorous plants than with carnivorous Drosera species. This does not support the claim that they rely on captured organisms as a nitrogen source, or the source is negligible. Other studies have shown that protocarnivorous species have a δ15N signature that is more similar to that of co-occurring carnivorous than that of non-carnivorous species. Therefore, our findings question the protocarnivory status of Stylidium species.

 keywords: carnivorous plants, Drosera, insectivorous plants, protocarnivorous plants, stable nitrogen isotopes, Stylidium, Stylidiaceae.

Francis J. Nge and Hans Lambers. 2018. Reassessing Protocarnivory – How Hungry are Triggerplants? Australian Journal of Botany.  Online Early. DOI: 10.1071/BT18059

[Crustacea • 2018] Paratya compressa • On the Taxonomic Status of Amphidromous Shrimp Paratya borealis Volk, 1938 (Decapoda: Atyidae) from the south of the Russian Far East

Paratya compressa (De Haan, 1844 [in De Haan, 1833-1850])

in Marin, 2018. 

One of the most northern representatives of the family Atyidae, an amphidromous shrimp Paratya borealis Volk, 1938 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae), is considered as a junior synonym of Paratya compressa (De Haan, 1844 [in De Haan, 1833-1850]) based on morphological and genetic investigations of the specimens collected in rivers flowing into Peter the Great Bay and Posyeta Bay along the Russian coasts of the Sea of Japan. The study greatly increases the area of distribution of P. compressa to north for more than 1000 km and suggests that the species probably inhabit rivers flowing into the Sea of Japan also along North and South Korean coasts.

Keywords: Crustacea, Decapoda, Atyidae, shrimp, Paratya borealisParatya compressa, junior synonym, freshwaters, Russian Far East, Russia, northern Asia

  Alive coloration of Paratya compressa (De Haan, 1844)
 from Volchanka river (ZMMU Ma3575) (the Peter the Great Bay of the Sea of Japan):
(upper, middle) female, (lower) male.

Ivan Marin. 2018. On the Taxonomic Status of Amphidromous Shrimp Paratya borealis Volk, 1938 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Atyidae) from the south of the Russian Far East. Zootaxa.  4444(2); 154–162. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4444.2.4

[Entomology • 2018] Moriphila furva • A New Jumping Plant-louse (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Homotomidae) from Korea associated with Morus australis (Moraceae)

Moriphila furva  Burckhardt & Cho

in Burckhardt, Cho & Lee, 2018. 

Moriphila furva Burckhardt & Cho, gen. and sp. nov., is described from the mountain region in north eastern South Korea. Adults were collected on Morus australis which is a likely host. We provide morphological evidence that the new monotypic genus constitutes the probable sister group of the afrotropical Phytolyma whose species develop on Milicia and Morus (Moraceae). Differences between the two genera are detailed and the phylogenetic relationships to other members of Homotomidae: Macrohomotominae, to which the new genus belongs, are discussed. The host relationships of Psylloidea associated with Moraceae are reviewed. The latter constitutes the fifth most important host taxon of Psylloidea even though it is only a moderately large family of angiosperms in terms of constituent species. Moraceae have been colonised by psyllids at least five times independently. Following new combinations are proposed: Homotoma brevis (Li, 1993), comb. nov. and Homotoma microphyllae (Li & Yang, 1991), comb. nov. (both from Caenohomotoma Yang & Li, 1981).

Keywords: Hemiptera, psyllids, taxonomy, Macrohomotominae, Phytolymini, South Korea, new taxa, host relationships

Daniel Burckhardt, Geonho Cho and Seunghwan Lee. 2018. Moriphila furva gen. and sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Psylloidea: Homotomidae), A New Jumping Plant-louse from Korea associated with Morus australis (Moraceae). Zootaxa. 4444(3); 299–315. DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4444.3.5