Saturday, December 1, 2018

[Entomology • 2018] Revision of the Genus Megacraspedus Zeller, 1839 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae), A Challenging Taxonomic Tightrope of Species Delimitation


[73-74]  Megacraspedus gallicus sp. n.[75-76] Mribbeella (Caradja, 1920), [77-78] M. libycus sp. n. 

Huemer & Karsholt, 2018

Abstract
The taxonomy of the Palearctic genus Megacraspedus Zeller, 1839 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae) is revised, based on external morphology, genitalia and DNA barcodes. An integrative taxonomic approach supports the existence of 85 species which are arranged in 24 species groups (disputed taxa from other faunal regions are discussed). Morphology of all species is described and figured in detail. For 35 species both sexes are described; for 46 species only the male sex is reported, in one species the male is unknown, whereas in three species the female adult and/or genitalia morphology could not be analysed due to lack of material.

DNA barcode sequences of the COI barcode fragment with > 500 bp were obtained from 264 specimens representing 62 species or about three-quarters of the species. Species delimitation is particularly difficult in a few widely distributed species with high and allegedly intraspecific DNA barcode divergence of nearly 14%, and with up to 23 BINs in a single species. Deep intraspecific or geographical splits in DNA barcode are frequently not supported by morphology, thus indicating a complex phylogeographic history or other unresolved molecular problems.

The following 44 new species (22 of them from Europe) are described: Megacraspedus bengtssoni sp. n. (Spain), M. junnilaineni sp. n. (Turkey), M. similellus sp. n. (Bulgaria, Romania, Turkey), M. golestanicus sp. n. (Iran), M. tokari sp. n. (Croatia), M. neli sp. n. (France, Italy), M. faunierensis sp. n. (Italy), M. gredosensis sp. n. (Spain), M. bidentatus sp. n. (Spain), M. fuscus sp. n. (Spain), M. trineae sp. n. (Portugal, Spain), M. skoui sp. n. (Spain), M. spinophallus sp. n. (Spain), M. occidentellus sp. n. (Portugal), M. granadensis sp. n. (Spain), M. heckfordi sp. n. (Spain), M. tenuiuncus sp. n. (France, Spain), M. devorator sp. n. (Bulgaria, Romania), M. brachypteris sp. n. (Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Montenegro), M. barcodiellus sp. n. (Macedonia), M. sumpichi sp. n. (Spain), M. tabelli sp. n. (Morocco), M. gallicus sp. n. (France, Spain), M. libycus sp. n. (Libya, Morocco), M. latiuncus sp. n. (Kazahkstan), M. kazakhstanicus sp. n. (Kazahkstan), M. knudlarseni sp. n. (Spain), M. tenuignathos sp. n. (Morocco), M. glaberipalpus sp. n. (Morocco), M. nupponeni sp. n. (Russia), M. pototskii sp. n. (Kyrgyzstan), M. feminensis sp. n. (Kazakhstan), M. kirgizicus sp. n. (Afghanistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan), M. ibericus sp. n. (Portugal, Spain), M. steineri sp. n. (Morocco), M. gibeauxi sp. n. (Algeria, Tunisia), M. multipunctellus sp. n. (Turkey), M. teriolensis sp. n. (Croatia, Greece, Italy, Slovenia), M. korabicus sp. n. (Macedonia), M. skulei sp. n. (Spain), M. longivalvellus sp. n. (Morocco), M. peslieri sp. n. (France, Spain), M. pacificus sp. n. (Afghanistan), and M. armatophallus sp. n. (Afghanistan). Nevadia Caradja, 1920, syn. n. (homonym), Cauloecista Dumont, 1928, syn. n., Reichardtiella Filipjev, 1931, syn. n., and Vadenia Caradja, 1933, syn. n. are treated as junior synonyms of Megacraspedus. Furthermore the following species are synonymised: M. subdolellus Staudinger, 1859, syn. n., M. tutti Walsingham, 1897, syn. n., and M. grossisquammellus Chrétien, 1925, syn. n. of M. lanceolellus (Zeller, 1850); M. culminicola Le Cerf, 1932, syn. n. of M. homochroa Le Cerf, 1932; M. separatellus (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1843), syn. n. and M. incertellus Rebel, 1930, syn. n. of M. dolosellus (Zeller, 1839); M. mareotidellus Turati, 1924, syn. n. of M. numidellus (Chrétien, 1915); M. litovalvellus Junnilainen, 2010, syn. n. of M. imparellus (Fischer von Röslerstamm, 1843); M. kaszabianus Povolný, 1982, syn. n. of M. leuca (Filipjev, 1929); M. chretienella (Dumont, 1928), syn. n., M. halfella (Dumont, 1928), syn. n., and M. arnaldi (Turati & Krüger, 1936), syn. n. of M. violacellum (Chrétien, 1915); M. escalerellus Schmidt, 1941, syn. n. of M. squalida Meyrick, 1926. Megacraspedus ribbeella (Caradja, 1920), comb. n., M. numidellus (Chrétien, 1915), comb. n., M. albella (Amsel, 1935), comb. n., M. violacellum (Chrétien, 1915), comb. n., and M. grisea (Filipjev, 1931), comb. n. are newly combined in Megacraspedus.

Keywords: Brachyptery, DNA barcoding, Gelechiidae, Lepidoptera, Megacraspedus, new species, Palearctic, taxonomy

Figures 25–30. Megacraspedus adults in dorsal view.
25 M. similellus sp. n. – Holotype, male (RCJJ) 26 M. similellus sp. n. – Paratype, female (RCJJ) 27 M. golestanicus sp. n. – Paratype, male (TLMF) 28 M. tokari sp. n. – Holotype, male, Croatia (RCZT) 29 M. dolosellus (Zeller, 1839) – male, Slovenia (RCZT) 30 M. dolosellus (Zeller, 1839) – female (form dolosellus), Slovenia (RCZT). 

Figures 37–42. Megacraspedus adults in dorsal view.
37 M. dolosellus (Zeller, 1839) – male (form incertellus), Bulgaria (RCZT) 38 M. dolosellus (Zeller, 1839) – male, Greece (ZMUC) 39 M. neli sp. n. – Holotype, male, France (TLMF) 40 M. faunierensis sp. n. – Paratype, male, Italy (TLMF) 41 M. faunierensis sp. n. – Paratype, female, Italy (TLMF) 42 M. gredosensis sp. n. – Paratype, male, Spain (TLMF).

 Figures 73–78. Megacraspedus adults in dorsal view.
 73 Megacraspedus gallicus sp. n. – Holotype, male, Spain (TLMF) 74 M. gallicus sp. n. – Paratype, female, France (TLMF) 75 M. ribbeella (Caradja, 1920) – male, Spain (ZMUC) 76 M. ribbeella (Caradja, 1920) – female, Spain (NHMW) 77 M. libycus sp. n. – Holotype, male, Libya (ZMUC) 78 M. libycus sp. n. – Paratype, female, Morocco (ZSM).

Peter Huemer and Ole Karsholt. 2018. Revision of the Genus Megacraspedus Zeller, 1839, A Challenging Taxonomic Tightrope of Species Delimitation (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae). ZooKeys. 800: 1-278.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.800.26292

      

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