Saturday, June 2, 2018

[Herpetology • 2018] Phasmahyla lisbella • A New Species of Spotted Leaf Frog, Genus Phasmahyla (Anura, Phyllomedusidae) from Southeast Brazil


Phasmahyla lisbella
 Pereira, Rocha, Folly, da Silva​ & Santana,​. 2018

   DOI:  10.7717/peerj.490

Abstract

Based on concordant differences in male advertisement call, tadpole morphology, and absence of haplotype sharing in the barcoding 16S mitochondrial DNA, we describe here a new species of spotted leaf frog of the genus Phasmahyla from Atlantic Forest, State of Rio de Janeiro, Southeast Brazil. The new species is most similar to P. cochranae (type locality) and P. spectabilis (type locality). It differs from these species by the size of the calcar, moderate-sized body (snout-vent length 30.4–34.4 mm in adult eight males), and in the advertisement call. The tadpoles of Phasmahyla lisbella sp. nov. differ from P. exilis, P. spectabilis, P. timbo, P. guttata and P. jandaia because they do not have row of teeth in the anterior part; differ from P. cruzi by the shape of the anterior end of the oral disc. Through genetic data (phylogenetic distance and haplotype genealogy) we diagnosed the new species where the genetic divergences among its congeners is about 3–6% in a fragment of the 16S rRNA gene, which is above the threshold typically characterizing distinct species of anurans. However, the new species can be distinguished from other congeneric species based on an integrative approach (molecular, bioacoustics, larval, and adult morphology).


Figure 3: Phasmahyla lisbella sp. nov. in life from the type locality (ZUFMS-AMP 8803).
(A) Nocturnal and (B) diurnal coloration.

Images: (A) D.J. Santana and (B) by H. Folly.

Phasmahyla lisbella sp. nov. 

Diagnosis: The new species, Phasmahyla lisbella, is characterized by: (1) grainy dorsal skin; (2) calcar well developed and broad at the base; (3) presence of rounded purple patches in hidden areas of the arm, forearm, thigh, tibia, tarsus, and toes; (4) inner parts of legs and flanks orange colored, with numerous round violet blotches in life; (5) reduced laterodorsal glands; (6) Canthus rostralis slightly distinct; (7) eyes large, and the palpebral membranes translucent over their entire area; (8) forearms slender in males; (9) tarsus large, outer margin smooth or slightly crenulated; (10) fingers medium sized; (11) advertisement call composed by one pulsed note with only one pulse; (12) tadpoles with oral disc large and wide, with a deep recess in the dorsal margin and a less sharp recess in the ventral margin; (13) tadpoles with tooth row formula 0/2(1).






Figure 5: Tadpole. (A) Tadpole (stage 37) in lateral view; (B) in dorsal view; (C) in ventral view; (D) oral disc and (E) tadpole (stage 39) in life (ZUFMS-AMP08879).

Images: (A, B, C and E) H. Folly and (D) D.J. Santana.

 Figure 8: Habitat. (A) Habitat where the specimens was found; (B) Melastomataceae leaf; (C) Egg clutch with transparent jelly found on the leaf of the family plant Melastomataceae.
 Images: D.J. Santana.

Distribution: The new species is known only from its type locality (Fazenda Ventania, Área de Proteção Ambiental Ventania, Miracema municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil).

Etymology: The specific name is a noun, honoring Lis Alves Pereira de Oliveira da Rocha and Bella Alves Pereira Custódio da Rocha, nieces of L.C.L. Rocha. Citizens of Miracema, and future representatives for nature conservancy in the region.


Elvis Almeida Pereira, Lucas Custódio Lomba Rocha, Henrique Folly, Hélio Ricardo da Silva​ and Diego José Santana​​. 2018.  A New Species of Spotted Leaf Frog, Genus Phasmahyla (Amphibia, Phyllomedusidae) from Southeast Brazil. PeerJ. 6:e4900.  DOI:  10.7717/peerj.4900

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