Thursday, January 11, 2018

[Arachnida • 2018] Seven New Species of the Spider Genus Ochyrocera (Araneae, Ochyroceratidae) from Caves in Floresta Nacional de Carajás, Pará, Brazil


Ochyrocera varys Ochyrocera misspider
Brescovit, Cizauskas & Mota, 2018 


 A Ochyrocera varys sp. n., predating a Diptera Ochyrocera atlachnacha sp. n., on the web Ochyrocera misspider sp. n., couple in the web Ochyrocera varys sp. n., carrying the egg sac.
   DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.726.19778 

Abstract
Seven new species of the spider genus Ochyrocera from cave areas in Floresta Nacional de Carajás (state of Pará, northern Brazil) are described: Ochyrocera varys sp. n., Ochyrocera atlachnacha sp. n., Ochyrocera laracna sp. n., Ochyrocera aragogue sp. n., Ochyrocera misspider sp. n., Ochyrocera charlotte sp. n., and Ochyrocera ungoliant sp. n. Two groups of the species are discussed, the quinquivittata group that include specimens with an apparently bifid retrolateral apophysis in the cymbium of the male palp and the arietina group, here proposed, that include those specimens with an entire cymbium, with no retrolateral apophysis, in the male palp. Although these species were abundant inside caves, the examined specimens do not have troglomorphic characteristics and can be classified as edaphic troglophile species, capable of completing its life cycle in soil, shallow subterranean habitats, or caves.

Keywords: Amazonian region, Haplogynae, taxonomy

Figure 21. A Ochyrocera varys sp. n., predating a Diptera Ochyrocera atlachnacha sp. n., on the web Ochyrocera misspider sp. n., couple in the web Ochyrocera varys sp. n., carrying the egg sac Entrance of an iron cave Canga vegetation on rocky outcrop. 

Ochyrocera varys sp. n., predating a Diptera.  

Taxonomy
Ochyrocera Simon, 1892
Ochyrocera Simon, 1892: 565
(Type species, O. arietina Simon)

Ceruleocera Marples, 1955: 462
 (Type species by original designation C. ransfordi Marples); Brignoli 1979: 598 (Syn.)

Diagnosis: Species of the genus Ochyrocera can be distinguished by having a tracheal spiracle between the epigastric fold and spinnerets (see Pérez-González et al. 2016: fig. 8A); clypeus sloping (Fig. 1A–B); tip of labium notched (Fig. 8E); long legs; male palp without tibial apophysis; cymbium conical and with prolateral extension, with or without apical cuspule; and flexed embolus projecting forward (Fig. 1C–D).

Composition: Thirty-nine species (World Spider Catalog 2017).

Distribution: With the exception of Ochyrocera ransfordi, described by Marples (1955) from Samoa, all described species are from Mexico, Cuba, Hispaniola, Lesser Antilles, Saint Vincent, Guatemala, Venezuela, French Guiana, Ecuador, Peru, Argentina, and Brazil.


• Ochyrocera varys sp. n.

Diagnosis: Ochyrocera varys resembles Ochyrocera atlachnacha in its carapace, which is yellow and bright lime (Figs 1A–B; 4A–B) and palp with conical, elongated cymbial apophysis, and have a distal cuspule on the cymbial apophysis (Figs 1C–D, 4C–D). This species can be distinguished by the male palp having a cymbial apophysis without an accentuated lateral projection (present in O. atlachnacha) and by the curved distal area of embolus (Figs 1C–D, 2C–F); females have a thick spermathecae enveloping large pore-plates (Fig. 1E–F).

Etymology: The specific name refers to Varys, a fictional character in George R. R. Martin’s book, “A Song of Ice and Fire”. Lorde Varys is a character with a venomous spirit, known as a spider in the plot.


Distribution: Recorded from caves and epigean areas of Carajás, state of Pará, northern Brazil (Fig. 19A).


• Ochyrocera atlachnacha sp. n.

Diagnosis: Ochyrocera atlachnacha resembles O. varys by its carapace yellow and bright lime (Figs 1A–B, 4A–B) and palp with conical, elongated and distal cuspule in the cymbial apophysis (Figs 1C–D, 4C–D). It can be distinguished from the latter and other Neotropical species by the male palpal cymbium with accentuated cymbial prolateral projection (Figs 4D, 5C, E–F); females have enlarged and projected pore-plates on the inconspicuous spermathecae (Fig. 4E–F).

Etymology: The specific name refers to Atlach-Nacha, a supernatural entity from Cthulhu mythology that resembles a huge spider with an almost human face.

Distribution: Recorded exclusively from caves in Carajás, state of Pará, northern Brazil (Fig. 20B).


• Ochyrocera laracna sp. n.

Diagnosis: Ochyrocera laracna resembles O. aragogue by the yellowish-green body pattern (Figs 7A–B; 8A−B) and by the short cymbial apophysis with two distal spurs on projections (Fig. 7C–D), a unique character for both these Neotropical species. The male of the former species can be distinguished from the latter due to the palp having a flap at the distal area of embolus (Figs 7C–D; 8A−B) and a laminar spur in the curved area 8F). The female is distinguished from O. aragogue by the small distal area of the spermathecae and pore plates adjacent to the spermathecae base (Fig. 7E–F).

Etymology: The specific name refers to Laracna, a giant and very old spider created by J. R. R. Tolkien in the classic book “The Lord of the Rings”.

Distribution: Recorded from caves and epigean areas in the Carajás region, state of Pará, northern Brazil (Fig. 20A).


• Ochyrocera aragogue sp. n.

Diagnosis: Ochyrocera aragogue resembles O. laracna by the yellowish green body color pattern (Fig. 10A–B) and by the short cymbial apophysis with two distal cuspules on projections (Fig. 10C–D, 11F), a unique character for both these Neotropical species. The male can be distinguished from O. laracna by the palp with a sinuous distal area of embolus without laminar spur (Figs 10C–D, 11A–B, D). The female has an enlarged distal area of spermathecae and pore plates at the spermathecae base (Fig. 10E–F).

Etymology: The specific name refers to Aragog, a spider capable of communicating with humans and a lover of human flesh, from the literary classic “Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets”, by J.K. Rowling.

Distribution: Recorded exclusively from caves in the Carajás region, state of Pará, northern Brazil (Fig. 19B).

 Ochyrocera misspider sp. n., couple in the web.

• Ochyrocera misspider sp. n.

Etymology: The specific name refers to Little Miss Spider, a very popular spider around the world and the main character of the children’s books by David Kirk.

Diagnosis: Ochyrocera misspider is the smallest among the species from Floresta Nacional de Carajás and resembles O. caeruleoamethystina Lopez & Lopez and O. thibaudi Emerit & Lopez by the small projection in the cymbium (see Lopez and Lopez 1997, fig. 8; Emerit and Lopez 1985, fig. 1A). It can be distinguished by the male palp with an elongated tibia, twice as long as the cymbium, and by the bifid embolus (Figs 13C–D, 14A–B). Females are distinguished from other species of the genus by the genitalia with a very long and narrow medial columnar uterus externus, internally with approximately 12 chambers, and an elongated, erect and sinuous spermathecae (Fig. 13F–G).

Distribution: Recorded exclusively from caves in the Carajás region, state of Pará, northern Brazil (Fig. 19B).


• Ochyrocera charlotte sp. n.

Diagnosis: Males and females of Ochyrocera charlotte sp. n. resemble those of O. ungoliant and O. viridissima Brignoli in having a subapical cuspule in the distal area of the cymbium (Fig. 17E−F; Brignoli 1974: fig. 6) but can be distinguished from these species by their yellowish cephalic area and cream body color pattern. Males can be distinguished by their pentagonal cymbium, with cylindrical tegulum (Fig. 17E–H). Females are diagnosed by the genitalia with a very narrow medial columnar uterus externus and an elongated and medially curved spermathecae (Fig. 17C–D).

Etymology: The specific name refers to Charlotte, the spider from the classic “Charlotte’s Web” by E.B. White and a great friend of the pig named Wilbur.

Distribution: Recorded exclusively from two caves in the Carajás region, state of Pará, northern Brazil (Fig. 20B).


• Ochyrocera ungoliant sp. n.

Diagnosis: Males and females of Ochyrocera ungoliant resemble those of O. charlotte and O. viridissima Brignoli in having a subapical cuspule in the distal area of the cymbium (Fig. 18G−H; Brignoli 1974: fig. 6), but can be distinguished from these species by their intense dark green color pattern and carapace with two longitudinal yellowish-green dorsal bands (Fig. 18A–B). Males can be diagnosed by their short cymbial apophysis with a very narrow tip and embolus with lamellar area in the distal third (Fig. 18E–H); and females by their genitalia with very short medial columnar uterus externus and spermathecae with broad and furrow apex (Fig. 18C–D).

Etymology: The specific name in apposition refers to Ungoliant, an evil spider spirit created by J. R. R. Tolkien in the book “The Silmarillion”.

Distribution: Recorded exclusively from three caves in the Carajás region, state of Pará, northern Brazil (Fig. 20A).


 Antonio D. Brescovit, Igor Cizauskas and Leandro P. Mota. 2018. Seven New Species of the Spider Genus Ochyrocera from Caves in Floresta Nacional de Carajás, PA, Brazil (Araneae, Ochyroceratidae). ZooKeys. 726: 87-130.  DOI:  10.3897/zookeys.726.19778

Seven new spider species from Brazil named after 7 famous fictional spider characters https://blog.pensoft.net/2018/01/10/seven-new-spider-species-from-brazil-named-after-7-famous-fictional-spider-characters/


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