Monday, April 17, 2017

[Botany • 2017] Phylogenetic Analyses Place the Monotypic Dryopolystichum within Lomariopsidaceae

Dryopolystichum phaeostigma (based on SITW10443).
Habitat Plants Peltate indusia Venation Sulcate rachis-costa architecture

The monotypic fern genus Dryopolystichum Copel. combines a unique assortment of characters that obscures its relationship to other ferns. Its thin-walled sporangium with a vertical and interrupted annulus, round sorus with peltate indusium, and petiole with several vascular bundles place it in suborder Polypodiineae, but more precise placement has eluded previous authors. Here we investigate its phylogenetic position using three plastid DNA markers, rbcL, rps4-trnS, and trnL-F, and a broad sampling of Polypodiineae. We also provide new data on Dryopolystichum including spore number counts, reproductive mode, spore SEM images, and chromosome counts. Our maximum-likelihood and Bayesian-inference phylogenetic analyses unambiguously place Dryopolystichum within Lomariopsidaceae, a position not previously suggested. Dryopolystichum was resolved as sister to a clade comprising Dracoglossum and Lomariopsis, with Cyclopeltis as sister to these, but clade support is not robust. All examined sporangia of Dryopolystichum produced 32 spores, and the chromosome number of sporophyte somatic cells is ca. 164. Flow cytometric results indicated that the genome size in the spore nuclei is approximately half the size of those from sporophyte leaf tissues, suggesting that Dryopolystichum reproduces sexually. Our findings render Lomariopsidaceae as one of the most morphologically heterogeneous fern families. A recircumscription is provided for both Lomariopsidaceae and Dryopolystichum, and selected characters are briefly discussed considering the newly generated data.

Keywords: Fern, morphology, Papua New Guinea, phylogeny, recircumscription, taxonomy, the Solomon Islands

Dryopolystichum phaeostigma (based on SITW10443).  Habitat Plants Peltate indusia Venation Sulcate rachis-costa architecture

Figure 1. Dryopolystichum phaeostigma (based on SITW10443).
Habitat Plants Peltate indusia Venation Sulcate rachis-costa architecture F Longitudinal section of the rhizome. 

We have shown, based on molecular phylogenetic evidence, the placement of Dryopolystichum within Lomariopsidaceae. A revised description was provided for both Lomariopsidaceae and Dryopolystichum resulting from a review of literature and our own observations. Future studies using an expanded dataset are necessary to resolve intergeneric relationships in Lomariopsidaceae.

Cheng-Wei Chen, Michael Sundue, Li-Yaung Kuo, Wei-Chih Teng and Yao-Moan Huang. 2017. Phylogenetic Analyses Place the Monotypic Dryopolystichum within Lomariopsidaceae.  PhytoKeys. 78; 83-107.  DOI: 10.3897/phytokeys.78.12040


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