Sunday, December 15, 2019

[PaleoOrnithology • 2019] Kupoupou stilwelli • Chatham Island Paleocene Fossils provide insight into the Palaeobiology, Evolution, and Diversity of early Penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes)


Kupoupou stilwelli
Blokland, Reid, Worthy, ...et Scofield, 2019.

 DOI: 10.26879/1009

ABSTRACT
Numerous skeletal remains recovered in situ from the late early to middle Paleocene Takatika Grit of Chatham Island, New Zealand, are among the oldest known fossils attributed to the penguin clade (Aves, Sphenisciformes). They represent a new medium-sized taxon, for which we erect a new genus and species, and a second, notably larger form. These new penguins are analysed in a parsimony and Bayesian framework using an updated and revised phylogenetic matrix, based on morphological and molecular characters, and interpreted as among the most basal of known sphenisciforms, closely related to Waimanu. While sharing numerous characteristics with the earliest wing-propelled divers, the novel taxon records the oldest occurrence of the characteristic penguin tarsometatarsus morphology. These ancient Chatham Island representatives add to a growing number and increased morphological diversity of Paleocene penguins in the New Zealand region, suggesting an origin for the group there. With their addition to other Paleocene penguins, these taxa reveal that sphenisciforms rapidly diversified as non-volant piscivores in the southern oceans following the end-Cretaceous mass extinction. They also provide further evidence for the hypothesis that their origin predates the Paleocene. This implies that stem Sphenisciformes and their sister group, the Procellariiformes, both originated in, and so may be expected to occur in, the Late Cretaceous.

Keywords: new genus; new species; palaeontology; New Zealand; phylogenetics; waterbirds


SYSTEMATIC PALAEONTOLOGY
Class AVES Linnaeus, 1758
Order SPHENISCIFORMES Sharpe, 1891

Genus KUPOUPOU gen. nov.
Type species. Kupoupou stilwelli, sp. nov.

 Etymology. From Te Re Moriori, the native language of Chatham Island, in recognition of where the fossils were recovered. “Kupoupou” meaning “diving bird”. The gender is nominated as neuter.

Diagnosis. Kupoupou, n. gen. is referred to Sphenisciformes because it shares the synapomorphy of having flattened long bones of the forewing/flipper. Kupoupou, n. gen. is characterised by the combination of the following osteological apomorphies: a bifurcated processus transversus of the axis with a dorsally protruding torus dorsalis; the processus acrocoracoideus has a rounded and protruding omal crista acrocoracoidea of the coracoid, the insertion for ligamenti acrocoraco-procoracoidale on the facies articularis clavicularis is weakly hooked with a rounded facies apicalis, a weakly defined tuberculum for the insertion of plica synovialis coracoidea, joined by a low ridge to the impressio ligamenti acrocoraco-acromiale, the latter of which is separated by the impressio ligamenti acrocoraco-procoracoidale by a groove; a well-defined labrum internum of the coracoid that is compressed in the sternal-omal direction; the distal margin of the crista bicipitalis on the humerus is nearly perpendicular to the long axis of the shaft; the distal caudal border of the olecranon of the ulna is distinctly angled, with a marked bony caudal protuberance; a dorsocaudally situated sub-triangular insertion scar for the musculus supinator on the proximal radius; a distinct caudally projecting tuberculum aponeurosis ventralis from the ventral caudal margin of the distal radius and an associated prominent ulnar depression; a proximally directed process on the phalanx III-1; a marked laterally protruding epicondylus lateralis on the femur; the sulcus for the tendon to the muscle flexor hallucis longus is bounded by medial and lateral hypotarsal crests of distinct subequal plantar projection on the tarsometatarsus; a strongly plantar projecting flange on the lateral rim of trochlea metatarsi IV.

Kupoupou stilwelli sp. nov.
  
Etymology. The type species “stilwelli” honours palaeontologist Jeffrey D. Stilwell, who led and organised the parties to recover the holotype and the only known referred specimens.

Holotype. NMNZ S.47312; associated left tarsometatarsus, left radius, and caudal vertebra.

Type locality, horizon, and age. Maunganui Beach, east of Tahatika Creek, north western Chatham Island, near 43°45’10.1”S, 176°40’46.8”W; New Zealand. The fossils come from a narrow greensand layer in outcrop on the wave platform that overlies the Upper nodular-phosphate and bone package horizon (NPB, Figure 1.3), Takatika Grit (late early-middle Paleocene, 62.5-60 Ma) (Consoli et al., 2009; Consoli and Stilwell, 2009; Hollis et al., 2017).

DESCRIPTION AND COMPARISONS

Kupoupou stilwelli n. gen. et sp.

 Kupoupou stilwelli n. gen. et sp. is a medium-sized sphenisciform (relative to all known fossil and extant penguins), likely slightly smaller than a modern adult Aptenodytes patagonicus. The referred specimens are assigned to Kupoupou stilwelli n. gen. et sp. based on similarity of overlapping skeletal elements (Figure A4), size, and their origin in the same horizon of the same bed in the Takatika Grit. The dimensions of the forewing elements reveal that Kupoupou stilwelli n. gen. et sp. was likely smaller than both Muriwaimanu tuatahi and Sequiwaimanu rosieae. Its humeri and coracoids show that it was smaller than the larger Chatham Island form described later in the text (Figure 3).

New Zealand stem penguins of broadly comparable age examined directly included Waimanu manneringi, Muriwaimanu tuatahi, ?Crossvallia waiparensis, and Sequiwaimanu rosieae. Additionally, other similarly aged taxa including the giant Waipara Greensand penguin, Kumimanu biceaeKaiika maxwelli, and Crossvallia unienwillia, were compared from relevant literature (Tambussi et al., 2005; Fordyce and Thomas, 2011; Jadwiszczak et al., 2013; Mayr et al., 2017a, 2017b, 2019).


Jacob C. Blokland, Catherine M. Reid, Trevor H. Worthy, Alan J.D. Tennyson, Julia A. Clarke, and R. Paul Scofield. 2019.  Chatham Island Paleocene Fossils provide insight into the Palaeobiology, Evolution, and Diversity of early Penguins (Aves, Sphenisciformes). Palaeontologia Electronica. 22.3.78; 1-92. DOI: 10.26879/1009 palaeo-electronica.org/content/2019/2773-chatham-island-penguins
  

12 comments:

  1. Hello my name is Kallya from USA i want to tell the world about the great and mighty spell caster called Priest Ade my husband was cheating on me and no longer committed to me and our kids when i asked him what the problem was he told me he has fell out of love for me and wanted a divorce i was so heart broken i cried all day and night but he left home i was looking for something online when i saw an article how the great and powerful Priest Ade have helped so many in similar situation like mine he email address was there so i sent him an email telling him about my problem he told me he shall return back to me within 24hrs i did everything he asked me to do the nest day to my greatest surprise my husband came back home and was crying and begging for me to forgive and accept him back he can also help you contact
    ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com

    https://ancientspiritspellcast12.wordpress.com

    Blog: https://priestade.blogspot.com

    Website http://ancientspiritspellcast.website2.me

    WhatsApp +2347059715465 .






    Hello my name is Kallya from USA i want to tell the world about the great and mighty spell caster called Priest Ade my husband was cheating on me and no longer committed to me and our kids when i asked him what the problem was he told me he has fell out of love for me and wanted a divorce i was so heart broken i cried all day and night but he left home i was looking for something online when i saw an article how the great and powerful Priest Ade have helped so many in similar situation like mine he email address was there so i sent him an email telling him about my problem he told me he shall return back to me within 24hrs i did everything he asked me to do the nest day to my greatest surprise my husband came back home and was crying and begging for me to forgive and accept him back he can also help you contact
    ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com

    https://ancientspiritspellcast12.wordpress.com

    Blog: https://priestade.blogspot.com

    Website http://ancientspiritspellcast.website2.me

    WhatsApp +2347059715465 .







    Hello my name is Kallya from USA i want to tell the world about the great and mighty spell caster called Priest Ade my husband was cheating on me and no longer committed to me and our kids when i asked him what the problem was he told me he has fell out of love for me and wanted a divorce i was so heart broken i cried all day and night but he left home i was looking for something online when i saw an article how the great and powerful Priest Ade have helped so many in similar situation like mine he email address was there so i sent him an email telling him about my problem he told me he shall return back to me within 24hrs i did everything he asked me to do the nest day to my greatest surprise my husband came back home and was crying and begging for me to forgive and accept him back he can also help you contact
    ancientspiritspellcast@yahoo.com or ancientspiritspellcast@gmail.com

    https://ancientspiritspellcast12.wordpress.com

    Blog: https://priestade.blogspot.com

    Website http://ancientspiritspellcast.website2.me

    WhatsApp +2347059715465 .

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. My name is SHERRY WALJER from USA Massachusetts, i want to testify to the general public how my relationship was restored back by the great power's of Dr Larry after three months of loneliness, my ex-lover called me after my contact with Dr Larry that he want us to come back and start a good home, now we are happily together again as lovers. All thanks to Dr Larry who did a love spell for me for my ex lover to return home. I will keep sharing this until people who also need help see this for his wonderful help. You can contact him on his via email assurancesolutionhome@gmail. com or whatsapp him on +2348102316854     website  http://assurancesolutionhome.website2.me/  



      My name is SHERRY WALJER from USA Massachusetts, i want to testify to the general public how my relationship was restored back by the great power's of Dr Larry after three months of loneliness, my ex-lover called me after my contact with Dr Larry that he want us to come back and start a good home, now we are happily together again as lovers. All thanks to Dr Larry who did a love spell for me for my ex lover to return home. I will keep sharing this until people who also need help see this for his wonderful help. You can contact him on his via email assurancesolutionhome@gmail. com or whatsapp him on +2348102316854     website  http://assurancesolutionhome.website2.me/  



      My name is SHERRY WALJER from USA Massachusetts, i want to testify to the general public how my relationship was restored back by the great power's of Dr Larry after three months of loneliness, my ex-lover called me after my contact with Dr Larry that he want us to come back and start a good home, now we are happily together again as lovers. All thanks to Dr Larry who did a love spell for me for my ex lover to return home. I will keep sharing this until people who also need help see this for his wonderful help. You can contact him on his via email assurancesolutionhome@gmail. com or whatsapp him on +2348102316854     website  http://assurancesolutionhome.website2.me/  

      Delete
    2. REAL AND GENUINE ONLINE LOVE SPELL CASTER TO BRING EX LOVER URGENTLY CALL OR WHATSAPP +2348118829899. 

      I want to use this opportunity I have to say a big thanks to Dr Great for getting back my ex husband. I’m Linda Gibson from USA, after 7 years of marriage my husband left me for another woman I did whatever I could to get him back but all I did was in vain I was sad, but I didn’t lose hope of getting him back because I had faith in God. So I search online on how to get my husband back, and I came across a post of Dr Great of how he helped a lady to get back her ex, I contacted him and told him the pain I was going through, he told me what to do and I did it, then he casted a love spell for me 48 hours later my husband called me and told me he is sorry for what he did and that he misses me very much, later that day he came back home and beg for my forgiveness, since then our love grew stronger. For the marvelous things Dr Great has done for me it would be unfair for me not to let the whole world know that such a powerful spell caster do live. If you want to get back your ex fast email Dr Great at infinitylovespell@gmail.com or infinitylovespell@yahoo.com or add him up on WhatsApp +2348118829899 Blog: lindagibson90.blogspot.com view his website http://infinitylovespell.website2.me/ or blog http://infinitylovespell1.blogspot.com







      REAL AND GENUINE ONLINE LOVE SPELL CASTER TO BRING EX LOVER URGENTLY CALL OR WHATSAPP +2348118829899. 

      I want to use this opportunity I have to say a big thanks to Dr Great for getting back my ex husband. I’m Linda Gibson from USA, after 7 years of marriage my husband left me for another woman I did whatever I could to get him back but all I did was in vain I was sad, but I didn’t lose hope of getting him back because I had faith in God. So I search online on how to get my husband back, and I came across a post of Dr Great of how he helped a lady to get back her ex, I contacted him and told him the pain I was going through, he told me what to do and I did it, then he casted a love spell for me 48 hours later my husband called me and told me he is sorry for what he did and that he misses me very much, later that day he came back home and beg for my forgiveness, since then our love grew stronger. For the marvelous things Dr Great has done for me it would be unfair for me not to let the whole world know that such a powerful spell caster do live. If you want to get back your ex fast email Dr Great at infinitylovespell@gmail.com or infinitylovespell@yahoo.com or add him up on WhatsApp +2348118829899 Blog: lindagibson90.blogspot.com view his website http://infinitylovespell.website2.me/ or blog http://infinitylovespell1.blogspot.com







      REAL AND GENUINE ONLINE LOVE SPELL CASTER TO BRING EX LOVER URGENTLY CALL OR WHATSAPP +2348118829899. 

      I want to use this opportunity I have to say a big thanks to Dr Great for getting back my ex husband. I’m Linda Gibson from USA, after 7 years of marriage my husband left me for another woman I did whatever I could to get him back but all I did was in vain I was sad, but I didn’t lose hope of getting him back because I had faith in God. So I search online on how to get my husband back, and I came across a post of Dr Great of how he helped a lady to get back her ex, I contacted him and told him the pain I was going through, he told me what to do and I did it, then he casted a love spell for me 48 hours later my husband called me and told me he is sorry for what he did and that he misses me very much, later that day he came back home and beg for my forgiveness, since then our love grew stronger. For the marvelous things Dr Great has done for me it would be unfair for me not to let the whole world know that such a powerful spell caster do live. If you want to get back your ex fast email Dr Great at infinitylovespell@gmail.com or infinitylovespell@yahoo.com or add him up on WhatsApp +2348118829899 Blog: lindagibson90.blogspot.com view his website http://infinitylovespell.website2.me/ or blog http://infinitylovespell1.blogspot.com

      Delete
  2. POWERFUL SPELL CASTER THAT BROUGHT MY EX HUSBAND BACK INTO MY LIFE AFTER HE LEFT ME EMAIL HIM VIA EMAIL INFINITYLOVESPELL@GMAIL.COM OR INFINITYLOVESPELL@YAHOO.COM ADD HIM ON WHATSAPP +2348118829899
     
    Hello my fellow friends online I'm Diana Gilbert from USA, I want to use this medium to thank Dr Great because he brought back my Ex husband. my husband left me for his ex girlfriend he had before he married me it's a difficult situation for me I called and beg him to come back he refused he said he don't love me anymore I tried every possible way to get him back all was in vain I told my friend about it and she gave me Dr Great email and I emailed him and told him my problem and he told me what to do and I did it and he cast a love spell which brought back my husband within 24 hours. If you need help in getting back together with your Ex, email Dr Great at infinitylovespell@gmail.com or infinitylovespell@yahoo.com WhatsApp him+2348118829899 view his website http://infinitylovespell.website2.me or blog http://infinitylovespell1.blogspot.com you can also visit my blog http://dianagilbert05.over-blog.com/

    ReplyDelete
  3. My name is SHERRY WALJER from USA Massachusetts, i want to testify to the general public how my relationship was restored back by the great power's of Dr Larry after three months of loneliness, my ex-lover called me after my contact with Dr Larry that he want us to come back and start a good home, now we are happily together again as lovers. All thanks to Dr Larry who did a love spell for me for my ex lover to return home. I will keep sharing this until people who also need help see this for his wonderful help. You can contact him on his via email assurancesolutionhome@gmail. com or whatsapp him on +2348102316854     website  http://assurancesolutionhome.website2.me/  




    My name is SHERRY WALJER from USA Massachusetts, i want to testify to the general public how my relationship was restored back by the great power's of Dr Larry after three months of loneliness, my ex-lover called me after my contact with Dr Larry that he want us to come back and start a good home, now we are happily together again as lovers. All thanks to Dr Larry who did a love spell for me for my ex lover to return home. I will keep sharing this until people who also need help see this for his wonderful help. You can contact him on his via email assurancesolutionhome@gmail. com or whatsapp him on +2348102316854     website  http://assurancesolutionhome.website2.me/  



    My name is SHERRY WALJER from USA Massachusetts, i want to testify to the general public how my relationship was restored back by the great power's of Dr Larry after three months of loneliness, my ex-lover called me after my contact with Dr Larry that he want us to come back and start a good home, now we are happily together again as lovers. All thanks to Dr Larry who did a love spell for me for my ex lover to return home. I will keep sharing this until people who also need help see this for his wonderful help. You can contact him on his via email assurancesolutionhome@gmail. com or whatsapp him on +2348102316854     website  http://assurancesolutionhome.website2.me/  

    ReplyDelete
  4. REAL AND GENUINE ONLINE LOVE SPELL CASTER TO BRING EX LOVER URGENTLY CALL OR WHATSAPP +2348118829899. 

    I want to use this opportunity I have to say a big thanks to Dr Great for getting back my ex husband. I’m Linda Gibson from USA, after 7 years of marriage my husband left me for another woman I did whatever I could to get him back but all I did was in vain I was sad, but I didn’t lose hope of getting him back because I had faith in God. So I search online on how to get my husband back, and I came across a post of Dr Great of how he helped a lady to get back her ex, I contacted him and told him the pain I was going through, he told me what to do and I did it, then he casted a love spell for me 48 hours later my husband called me and told me he is sorry for what he did and that he misses me very much, later that day he came back home and beg for my forgiveness, since then our love grew stronger. For the marvelous things Dr Great has done for me it would be unfair for me not to let the whole world know that such a powerful spell caster do live. If you want to get back your ex fast email Dr Great at infinitylovespell@gmail.com or infinitylovespell@yahoo.com or add him up on WhatsApp +2348118829899 Blog: lindagibson90.blogspot.com view his website http://infinitylovespell.website2.me/ or blog http://infinitylovespell1.blogspot.com

    ReplyDelete
  5. Are you in bad need of love spell to bring back your ex lover or reunite your marriage? contact Dr Sam for fast 48 hours solution. I had a problem with my husband a year and six months ago, which lead us apart. When he broke up with me, I was confuse and did not know what to do to get him back, I felt so empty inside. Until i came across Dr Sam on the internet on how He has helped so many people solve there various problem. I emailed Him and I told Him my problem and i did what he asked me to do for him to help me, to briefly make the long story short, Before I knew it, in less than 48 HOURS, my Husband gave me a call and he came back to me and told me he was sorry about what was going on between the both of us. Finally I am writing this testimony to offer my thanks and deep gratitude to you Dr Sam for keeping to your words and your promises in bringing him back to me in just 48 hours of your powerful spell casting, and for using your gifted and great powers to bring him back. If you need his help, you can email him at ( okokakspellhome@gmail.com ) or add Dr Sam on WhatsApp ( +2349060421250) or call him get all your problems solve No problem is too big for him to solve..Contact him now THANKS TO Dr Sam

    ReplyDelete
  6. Are you in bad need of love spell to bring back your ex lover or reunite your marriage? contact Dr Sam for fast 48 hours solution. I had a problem with my husband a year and six months ago, which lead us apart. When he broke up with me, I was confuse and did not know what to do to get him back, I felt so empty inside. Until i came across Dr Sam on the internet on how He has helped so many people solve there various problem. I emailed Him and I told Him my problem and i did what he asked me to do for him to help me, to briefly make the long story short, Before I knew it, in less than 48 HOURS, my Husband gave me a call and he came back to me and told me he was sorry about what was going on between the both of us. Finally I am writing this testimony to offer my thanks and deep gratitude to you Dr Sam for keeping to your words and your promises in bringing him back to me in just 48 hours of your powerful spell casting, and for using your gifted and great powers to bring him back. If you need his help, you can email him at ( okokakspellhome@gmail.com ) or add Dr Sam on WhatsApp ( +2349060421250) or call him get all your problems solve No problem is too big for him to solve..Contact him now THANKS TO Dr Sam

    ReplyDelete
  7. I would like to tell the world about a very special man, he is spell caster DR Oyinbo. I found out about DR Oyinbo through the testimonials of others that the Dr helped with on various issues. I had contacted DR Oyinbo for help in bringing back to me my girlfriend/lover, we had split over a terrible fight, I tried to reconcile but to no avail. The DR said this was a easy thing for him to do, he said he would cast a love spell on her and this would bring her back to me. I was a little disbelieving because I never heardof such a thing, but he told me to trust him, so i put faith in what he was telling me. Sure enough, 3 days after the love spell was cast, my girlfriend/lover called me and we are now back together, all because of DR Oyinbo. He also cured my hiv disease, this was done by drinking a liquid that he creates and provides for the disease. I strongly recommend that if you are having any relationship or sickness issues, contact DR Oyinbo, His email is prophetoyinbojesus@gma.com or Call/WhatsApp:+2348074066640

    ReplyDelete
  8. PROFESSIONAL SPELL CASTER WHO CAN HELP YOU WITH LOVE-SPELL TO GET YOUR EX LOVER BACK URGENTLY AFTER BREAKUP/DIVORCE EVEN IF YOUR SITUATION SEEMS HOPELESS! CONTACT: INFINITYLOVESPELL@GMAIL.COM IS CERTAINLY THE BEST SPELL CASTER ONLINE AND HIS RESULT IS 100% GUARANTEE.. 

    After 3 Years in a relationship with my Boyfriend, my Boyfriend started going out with other girls and showing me cold love, on several occasions he threatens to broke-up with me if I dare question him about his affair with other girls, I was totally devastated and confused until an old friend of mine told me about a spell caster on the internet DR GREAT who help people with their relationship and marriage problem by the powers of love Spells, At first I doubted If such thing ever exists but decided to give it a try, When I contact him, he told me everything I needed to do and I did and he helped me cast a Love Spell and within 28Hours my boyfriend came back to me and started apologizing, now he has stopped going out with girls and he is with me for good and for real. Contact this Great spell Caster for your relationship or marriage problem. 
    Here's his contact..

    CALL/WHATSAPP: +2348118829899

    EMAIL: infinitylovespell@gmail.com  OR  infinitylovespell@yahoo.com 

    WEBSITE: http://infinitylovespell.website2.me/ 

    BLOG http://infinitylovespell1.blogspot.com

    ReplyDelete
  9. What a wonderful and a straight forward spell caster that has brought back joy and happiness into my life! Am giving this testimony because am so happy, I want to thank Dr. Osasu for the great thing He has done in my life , He brought happiness back to my life, I never believed in spell casters until my life fell apart when my lover of 6 years decided to call it quit almost when we wanted to get married. I was so emotional breakdown to the extent i could not do anything reasonable again, after 2months in pain before an old friend of mine introduced me to a spell caster on line called Dr Osasu, this was after I have been scammed by various fake spell casters. I was introduced me to Dr Osasu a true Spell Caster. In less than 24 hours i saw wonders, my lover came back to me and my life got back just like a completed puzzle, and after 1month later we got married and it was just like a dream to me because i thought i had lost him forever. Thank you Dr. Osasu for helping me but most of all, Your Honesty and Fast Accurate Results. email: Drosasu25@gmail.com WhatsApp Number: +2347064365391

    ReplyDelete
  10. Sometimes our life go though some tough times but we should try and hold on. If you’re looking for a way to repair or improve your marriage, then I’m glad you have found Dr Sam, and I strongly suggest you get in touch with him. In here I document my efforts in seeking reconciliation with my Girlfriend who greatly surprised me when she broke up with me a few month ago. we had been having conflict, but I never thought it would cause she abandon me but all thanks to great Dr Sam who help me to bring back my ex Girlfriend back to me .you can contact him also Email: okokakspellhome@gmail.com or whatsApp him on +2349060421250

    ReplyDelete