Wednesday, December 11, 2019

[Paleontology • 2019] Asfaltovenator vialidadiProbable Basal Allosauroid from the early Middle Jurassic Cañadón Asfalto Formation of Argentina Highlights Phylogenetic Uncertainty in Tetanuran Theropod Dinosaurs


Asfaltovenator vialidadi
 Rauhut & Pol, 2019

Illustration: Gabriel Lío

Abstract
Tetanurae, the most successful clade of theropod dinosaurs, including modern birds, split into three major clades early in their evolutionary history: Megalosauroidea, Coelurosauria, and Allosauroidea. The oldest tetanurans occur in the earliest Middle Jurassic, but the early fossil record of the clade is still poor. Here we report one of the oldest known and most complete pre-Late Jurassic tetanuran, the probable allosauroid Asfaltovenator vialidadi gen. et sp. nov., which has an unusual character combination, uniting features currently considered to be apomorphic of different tetanuran lineages. A phylogenetic analysis resulted in a monophyletic Carnosauria (Allosauroidea + Megalosauroidea), and the inclusion of the new taxon significantly changes topology within carnosaurs. The analysis shows concentrated homoplasy in proximal nodes at the base of Tetanurae, and a temporal peak at the Pliensbachian-Toarcian extinction event, recently identified as a potential driver of tetanuran radiation. These results highlight the complex morphological evolution in the early radiation of tetanuran theropods, in which convergences and parallelisms were extremely common. This pattern seems to be a common feature in rapid radiation events of major clades of vertebrates and might explain the common difficulties to unravel phylogenetic relationships of important lineages at the base of major clades.

Figure 1: Cranial anatomy of Asfaltovenator vialidadi, MPEF PV 3440.
(A) composite reconstruction of the skull and lower jaws, based on disarticulated cranial elements. (B), graphic reconstruction of articulated skull. (C), braincase in occipital view. (D,E) posterior end of left mandible in dorsal view; (D) photo; (E) outline drawing.
 Abbreviations: a, angular; aa, antarticular; ao, antorbital fenestra; aof, antorbital fossa; ar, articular; bsr, basisphenoid recess; bt, basal tubera; cp, cornual process; d, dentary; en, external nares; eor, exoccipital ridge; fm, foramen magnum; g, groove; itf, infratemporal fenestra; j, jugal; jf, jugal foramen; l, lacrimal; lf, lacrimal fenestrae; m, maxilla; mf, maxillary fenestra; n, nasal; nf, nasal foramina; o, orbit; oc, occipital condyle; pap, paroccipital process; pcf, posterior exit of mid-cerebral vein; pm, premaxilla; po, postorbital; pra, prearticular; ptf, posttemporal foramen; q, quadrate; qj, quadratojugal; sa, surangular; snf, supranarial fossa; soc, supraoccipital; sq, squamosal; stf, supratemporal fenestra. Scale bars are 10 cm (A–C) and 5 cm (D,E).

Figure 2: Selected skeletal elements of Asfaltovenator vialidadi, MPEF PV 3440.
(A) left nasal in lateral view. (B), right maxilla in lateral view. (C) anterior end of left maxilla in lateral view. (D) left ectopterygoid in ventral view. (E) jugal process of left ectopterygoid in lateral view. (F) left dentary in lateral view. (G) last two cervical vertebrae and centrum of first dorsal vertebra in left lateral view.
Abbreviations: aof, antorbital fenestra; avp, anteroventral process; en, external nares; epi, epipophysis; fao, antorbital fossa; j, facet for articulation with the jugal; l, facet for articulation with lacrimal; mf, maxillary fenestra; nc, nasal crest; ns, neural spine; pap, parapophysis; pf, pneumatic foramen; pl, pleurocoel; prz, prezygapophysis; r, ridge that forms the ventral border of the antorbital fossa; snf, supranarial fossa; vf, ventral fossa. Scale bars are 5 cm.

Systematic Palaeontology: 
Theropoda Marsh, 1881, 
Tetanurae Gauthier, 1986, 
Allosauroidea (Marsh, 1878), 

Asfaltovenator vialidadi gen. et sp. nov.


Etymology: Generic name for the Cañadón Asfalto Formation and venator, Greek for hunter. The species epithet honours the Administración de Vialidad Provincial of Chubut and the Dirección Nacional de Vialidad, for their aid to paleontological expeditions of the Museo Paleontológico Egidio Feruglio.

    

Figure 3: Skeletal reconstruction and postcranial anatomy of Asfaltovenator vialidadi, MPEF PV 3440. Centre: body outline with preserved elements indicated. (A) articulated cervical vertebrae three to five. (B) cervical vertebra 7. (C) articulated dorsal vertebrae four to seven (better preserved right side, reversed). (D) right humerus in anterior view. (E) right radius and ulna, medial view. (F) right manus, metacarpus in dorsal and digits in lateral view. (G) articulated proximal ends of right tibia and fibula in lateral and proximal views.
Abbreviations: ag, anterior groove; cc, cnemial crest; cr, cervical rib; dc, distal carpal; di, diapophysis; dpc, deltpectoral crest; ec, ectepicondyle; ent, entepicondyle; epi, epipophysis; fi, fibula; fic, fibular condyle; hy, hyposphene; im, intermedium; it, internal tuberosity; lr, lateral ridge; mc, metacarpal; ns, neural spine; ol, olecranon; pa, parapophysis; pl, pleurocoel; poz, postzygapophysis; ppdl, paradiapophyseal lamina; prz, prezygapophysis; ra, radial. Scale bars are 100 cm (skeletal reconstruction), 5 cm (A–C) and 10 cm (D–G).

Locality and Horizon: Ca. 1.6 km NE of the village of Cerro Cóndor, lacustrine layers of the Cañadón Asfalto Formation, late Toarcian to Bajocian9.

Diagnosis: Large basal tetanuran diagnosed by the following character combination (autapomorphies are marked with*): premaxillary teeth with well-developed distal, but only minute mesial serrations*; postorbital with small cornual dorsal process; exoccipital with pronounced horizontal ridges between paroccipital processes and foramen magnum*; ossified antarticular in the mandible; platycoelous cervical vertebrae; neural spines of cervical vertebrae three and four triangular and backswept*; anterior cervical epipophyses tab-like and elongated; mid-cervical vertebrae with median pit between parapophyses ventrally; ventral keel absent in posterior cervical and poorly developed in anterior dorsal vertebrae; well-developed paradiapohyseal lamina in middle and posterior dorsal vertebrae; dorsals 11 and 12 with small additional anterior centrodiapophyseal lamina*; articulated metacarpus broader than long; manual digit III significantly more slender and shorter than digits II and III.



Oliver W. M. Rauhut and Diego Pol. 2019. Probable Basal Allosauroid from the early Middle Jurassic Cañadón Asfalto Formation of Argentina Highlights Phylogenetic Uncertainty in Tetanuran Theropod Dinosaurs. Scientific Reports. 9: 18826. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-53672-7

 Hallan uno de los más antiguos y completos dinosaurios carnívoros del Jurásico


22 comments:

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    LOVE SPELLS THAT WORKS I am sharing this testimony to partners suffering in their relationships because there is an enduring solution.
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    You can as well contact Dr. Ojoka , a powerful spell-caster for solutions on his contact dr.ojokaspelltemple@gmail .com or directly on Whats App: +2348144172934 

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  2. Interesting discovery.
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    Nice artwork.

    ReplyDelete
  3. HOW I GOT MY HUSBAND BACK WITH THE HELP OF PRIEST WISDOM CONTACT ON WHATS_APP NUMBER +2348124644470

    This is my testimony about the good work of priest wisdom who help me.... I'm Ann Earnis from north Carolina USA. And am sorry for putting this on net but i will have to, by this world best spell caster that brought back my husband who left me out for past 3 years, i eventually me t this man on a blog site posting by one of is client for help, i explained everything to him and he told me about a spell caster that he had heard about and he gave me an email address to write to the spell caster to tell him my problems. In just 1 days, my husband was back to me. I just want to say thank you to this truthful and sincere spell caster, sir all you told me have come to pass and thank you sir. Please i want to tell everyone who is looking for any solution to their problem, i advice you to kindly consult this spell caster, he is real,he is powerful and whatever the spell caster tell is what will happen, because all what the spell caster told me came to pass. You can kindly contact him on: his email address is supernaturalspell1@gmail.com or directly on whats-app +2348124644470  or   https://supernaturalspell21.blogspot.com/  

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  5. I’m so excited my broken Marriage has been restored. “We recently made up, even though it was difficult. It’s been more than a month now, and everything feels like it’s returned to normal. He has began to treat me better, and it’s been a healing process for both of us. The nightmare that had lasted for almost 2 years before we broke up is finally over. It’s like we fell in love all over again! We’ve both put the past behind us, and are trying to move forward – and for the first time in a long time, the future looks a lot brighter. I can’t express in words how grateful I am Dr Great! It’s like we’ve finally rediscovered those things about each other that made us fall in love in the first place. All of the worrying and stress has simply vanished. Thank you Dr Great for saving my broken Marriage and brought my husband back to me!”. Me and my husband are living together happily again.. All thanks to Dr Great. If you have any problem contact Dr Great now and i guarantee you that he will help you contact him through

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  9. My name is SHERRY WALJER from USA Massachusetts, i want to testify to the general public how my relationship was restored back by the great power's of Dr Larry after three months of loneliness, my ex-lover called me after my contact with Dr Larry that he want us to come back and start a good home, now we are happily together again as lovers. All thanks to Dr Larry who did a love spell for me for my ex lover to return home. I will keep sharing this until people who also need help see this for his wonderful help. You can contact him on his via email assurancesolutionhome@gmail. com or whatsapp him on +2348102316854     website  http://assurancesolutionhome.website2.me/  



    My name is SHERRY WALJER from USA Massachusetts, i want to testify to the general public how my relationship was restored back by the great power's of Dr Larry after three months of loneliness, my ex-lover called me after my contact with Dr Larry that he want us to come back and start a good home, now we are happily together again as lovers. All thanks to Dr Larry who did a love spell for me for my ex lover to return home. I will keep sharing this until people who also need help see this for his wonderful help. You can contact him on his via email assurancesolutionhome@gmail. com or whatsapp him on +2348102316854     website  http://assurancesolutionhome.website2.me/  



    My name is SHERRY WALJER from USA Massachusetts, i want to testify to the general public how my relationship was restored back by the great power's of Dr Larry after three months of loneliness, my ex-lover called me after my contact with Dr Larry that he want us to come back and start a good home, now we are happily together again as lovers. All thanks to Dr Larry who did a love spell for me for my ex lover to return home. I will keep sharing this until people who also need help see this for his wonderful help. You can contact him on his via email assurancesolutionhome@gmail. com or whatsapp him on +2348102316854     website  http://assurancesolutionhome.website2.me/  

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  10. Are you in bad need of love spell to bring back your ex lover or reunite your marriage? contact Dr Sam for fast 48 hours solution. I had a problem with my husband a year and six months ago, which lead us apart. When he broke up with me, I was confuse and did not know what to do to get him back, I felt so empty inside. Until i came across Dr Sam on the internet on how He has helped so many people solve there various problem. I emailed Him and I told Him my problem and i did what he asked me to do for him to help me, to briefly make the long story short, Before I knew it, in less than 48 HOURS, my Husband gave me a call and he came back to me and told me he was sorry about what was going on between the both of us. Finally I am writing this testimony to offer my thanks and deep gratitude to you Dr Sam for keeping to your words and your promises in bringing him back to me in just 48 hours of your powerful spell casting, and for using your gifted and great powers to bring him back. If you need his help, you can email him at ( okokakspellhome@gmail.com ) or add Dr Sam on WhatsApp ( +2349060421250) or call him get all your problems solve No problem is too big for him to solve..Contact him now THANKS TO Dr Sam

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  11. Hello everyone reading this testimony. I have been rejected by my husband after three(3) years of marriage just because another woman had a spell on him and he left me and the kid to suffer. One day when I was reading through the web, I saw a post on how this spell caster Dr irosi have help a woman to get back her husband and I gave him a reply to his address and he told me that a woman had a spell on my husband and he told me that he will help me and after 3 days that I will have my husband back. I believed him and today I am glad to let you all know that this spell caster have the power to bring lovers back because I am now happy with my husband. Thanks for His great work here is his email: drirosisolutioncenter@gmail.com Or call his number  +2348118829771, Contact Dr irosi and get your relationship problem solved. Great Dr irosi could also help you with the following:
    1) Love Spells
    2) Lost Love Spells
    3) Divorce Spells
    4) Marriage Spells
    5) Binding Spell.
    6) Breakup Spells
    7) Banish a past Lover
    8.) You want to be promoted in your office/ Lottery spell
    9) want to satisfy your lover
    Contact this great man if you are having any problem for a lasting solution
    EMAIL..... drirosisolutioncenter@gmail.com

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  12. MY Name Hanna Rosin, form, (USA) After 12years of marriage, me and my husband has been into one quarrel or the other until he finally left me and moved to California to be with another woman. I felt my life was over and my kids thought they would never see their father again. i tried to be strong just for the kids but i could not control the pains that torments my heart, my heart was filled with sorrows and pains because i was really in love with my husband. Every day and night i think of him and always wish he would come back to me, I was really upset and i needed help, so i searched for help online and I came across a website that suggested that Dr Osasu can help get ex back fast. So, I felt I should give him a try. I contacted him and he told me what to do and i did it then he did a Love spell for me. 28 hours later, my husband really called me and told me that he miss me and the kids so much, So Amazing!! So that was how he came back that same day,with lots of love and joy,and he apologized for his mistake,and for the pain he caused me and the kids. Then from that day,our Marriage was now stronger than how it were before, All thanks to Dr Osasu . he is so powerful and i decided to share my story on the internet that Dr. Osasu real and powerful spell caster who i will always pray to live long to help his children in the time of trouble, if you are here and you need your Ex back or your husband moved to another woman, do not cry anymore, contact this powerful spell caster now. Here’s his contact
    Call/WhatsApp: +2347064365391
    Email: drosasu25@gmail.com

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  13. I'm from USA i want to testify of a great and powerful spell caster my husband left me and the kids for 2 weeks when i called him he didn't pick up when he came back home the 3 week he told me he wanted a divorce i was so sad i cried all night he left again i was so lonely the next day i was searching for something online when i found a spell caster called Dr Azuka who have helped so many people with their problems so i contacted him with my problems he told me it will take 24hrs and my husband will be back to me i did every thing he told me to do and the next day my husband came back kneeling and begging he canceled the divorce we are now happy together Dr Azuka can help you too email him at (dr.azukasolutionhome@gmail.com) or contact him on whats app +44 7520 636249

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  14. HOW DR. UNEME brought back my ex lover unemespellben@gmail.com
    Am DONNA, am from UK. After been in a relationship with my Boyfriend for 1 year now and we were planning to get married soon and all of a sudden he left me for another girl. of a truth, I really love this guy and never can I imagine life without him. I further tried all my best to get him back but all my effort to get him back in my life did not work out. It was on this faithful day, I came across some Testimonies on a website about this great spell caster called (Dr. UNEME) any persons claimed that he help them to renew their relationship and bring their ex lover back, I had to contact him because he was my last hope. I contacted him through his email and he assured me that in three days time my boyfriend is going to leave the other girl and come back to me and it was a very great surprise to see my boyfriend coming back to me after three days the spell was done. I am so very happy today that he came back to me and i achieved this with the help of Dr UNEME I equally want to use this opportunity to Tell/Advice to as many who need their ex back, if you need his help you can Contact him through
    EMAIL: unemespellben@gmail.com WHATSAPP HIM @ +2348143813120


    Thank You Once Again Dr.UNEME

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  17. Sometimes our life go though some tough times but we should try and hold on. If you’re looking for a way to repair or improve your marriage, then I’m glad you have found Dr Sam, and I strongly suggest you get in touch with him. In here I document my efforts in seeking reconciliation with my Girlfriend who greatly surprised me when she broke up with me a few month ago. we had been having conflict, but I never thought it would cause she abandon me but all thanks to great Dr Sam who help me to bring back my ex Girlfriend back to me .you can contact him also Email: okokakspellhome@gmail.com or whatsApp him on +2349060421250

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