Monday, July 23, 2018

[Herpetology • 2018] Phrynopus mariellaleo • A New Species of Phrynopus (Anura: Craugastoridae) from the northeastern Andes of Peru, Its Phylogenetic Position, and Notes on the Relationships of Holoadeninae


Phrynopus mariellaleo 
Venegas, Barboza, De la Riva & Padial, 2018

 Photographs by Pablo J. Venegas.  facebook.com/CORBIDI

Abstract
We report the discovery of a geographically disjunct and morphologically distinctive species of direct-developing frog of the genus Phrynopus (Phrynopus mariellaleo sp. nov.) that changes considerably our understanding of the distribution of species in this Andean genus. The type locality lies on a subcordillera (Cerro de Campanario area) of the extreme northeastern portion of the Cordillera Central of Peru, on the headwaters of the Mayo River, Amazonas department, at 2575 m asl (6°6’42.9’’S, 77°26’24’’W). This area is situated 170 km to the NE from the northernmost record of Phrynopus known so far. Molecular phylogenetic analyses of a supermatrix (13269 aligned positions of gene sequences of four mitochondrial and ten nuclear genes) of 105 terminals (representing 93 named and 9 unnamed species of Holoadeninae) recover this new species as the sister to Phrynopus auriculatus, a species occurring more than 500 km south of the type locality of the new species. Both Phrynopus auriculatus and the new species occur at moderate elevations on the easternmost stretches of the Andean subcordilleras; their sister relationship point to a potentially broader distribution of species of Phrynopus along the poorly sampled intervening areas of the eastern hills of the Andes. The new species has a conspicuous and visibly large tympanic membrane (a trait rare in the clade), outlined by a marked bold black supratympanic fold and a black facial mask, and exhibits conspicuous dorsolateral, scapular, and middorsal Y-shaped folds. Specimens were found on the forest floor—a rocky substrate covered by a thick layer of leaf litter, moss and roots—of a primary humid montane forest (Yungas ecoregion) with scattered patches of bamboo (Chusquea spp.). Our phylogenetic analyses corroborate the monophyly of all Holoadeninae genera, including Euparkerella and Psychrophrynella, genera for which tests of monophyly were pending, and corroborates Hypodactylus nigrovittatus as part of Hypodactylus and sister to a clade that includes H. brunneus, H. elassodiscus and H. peraccai.

Keywords: Amphibia, Alto Mayo, Amazon Basin, Cordillera Central, dynamic homology, Terrarana, tree-alignment, Yungas

FIGURE 2. Dorsal (A) and ventral (B) views, and lateral view of head (C) of the female holotype (CORBIDI 11668) of Phrynopus mariellaleo sp. nov. in preservative (SVL = 39.7). Photographs by Pablo J. Venegas.

FIGURE 4. Paratypes of Phrynopus mariellaleo sp. nov. showing variation in dorsal and ventral external morphological traits.
(A, B) adult female (CORBIDI 11692), (C, D) adult female (CORBIDI 11657).

 Photographs by Pablo J. Venegas.   facebook.com/CORBIDI

Phrynopus mariellaleo sp. nov.

 Etymology. The specific name “mariellaleo” is a patronym (used as a substantive in apposition) for Mariella Leo, in recognition of her tireless efforts to preserve biological diversity in Peru. Since 1982 she has been working for the Asociación Peruana para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (APECO), one of the most important non-profit organizations dedicated to biological conservation in Peru. With APECO, Mariella continues to work for the protection of montane ecosystems in Amazonas Department, including the area where the new species was discovered.

FIGURE 4. Paratypes of Phrynopus mariellaleo sp. nov. showing variation in dorsal and ventral external morphological traits. (A, B) adult female (CORBIDI 11692), (C, D) adult female (CORBIDI 11657), and (E, F) adult male (CORBIDI 11658).
Photographs by Pablo J. Venegas.   facebook.com/CORBIDI


Pablo J. Venegas, Andy C. Barboza, Ignacio De la Riva and José M. Padial. 2018. A New Species of Phrynopus from the northeastern Andes of Peru, Its Phylogenetic Position, and Notes on the Relationships of Holoadeninae (Anura: Craugastoridae).  Zootaxa. 4446(4); 501–524.  DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4446.4.5


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