Wednesday, November 8, 2017

[Herpetology • 2017] Phrynopus inti • A New Species of Phrynopus (Anura, Craugastoridae) from upper Montane Forests and High Andean Grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru


Phrynopus inti 
Lehr, von May, Moravec & Cusi, 2017

Abstract
We describe a new species of Phrynopus from the upper montane forests and high Andean grasslands (puna) of the Pui Pui Protected Forest and its close surroundings (Región Junín, central Peru) and compare it morphologically and genetically with other species of Phrynopus.
Phrynopus inti sp. n. is known from four localities outside and two localities inside the Pui Pui Protected Forest between 3350 and 3890 m a.s.l. Studied specimens of the new species are characterized by a snout-vent length of 27.2–35.2 mm in males (n = 6), and 40.4 mm in a single female, by having the skin on dorsum and flanks smooth with scattered tubercles, venter smooth, by lacking a tympanum, and males without vocal slits and nuptial pads. In life, the dorsum is pale grayish brown with or without dark brown blotches, or dorsum blackish brown with small yellow flecks, throat, chest and venter are pale grayish brown with salmon mottling, groin is pale grayish brown with salmon colored flecks, and the iris is golden orange with fine dark brown reticulations. The new species is morphologically most similar to Phrynopus kauneorum and P. juninensis. For the latter we describe the coloration in life for a specimen obtained at the type locality. A molecular phylogenetic analysis based on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences inferred that the new species is most closely related to Phrynopus kauneorumPmiroslawaeP. tautzorum, and an undescribed species distributed at high elevation in Región Pasco, central Peru.

Keywords: Andes, montane forest, puna, frogs, DNA barcoding, molecular phylogeny, Phrynopus inti, new species



Phrynopus inti sp. n.
 Phrynopus sp. A in Lehr, von May, Moravec, & Cusi (2017)

Common name: English: Inti Andes Frog. Spanish: Rana Andina Inti.

Diagnosis: A species of Phrynopus having the following combination of characters: (1) Skin on dorsum and flanks shagreen with scattered, low tubercles, more dense on dorsum; skin on venter smooth; discoidal fold absent, thoracic fold present; prominent supratympanic fold; dorsolateral folds absent; (2) tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus absent; (3) snout rounded in dorsal and lateral views; (4) upper eyelid without enlarged tubercles; width of upper eyelid narrower than IOD; cranial crests absent; (5) dentigerous processes of vomers minute or absent; (6) vocal slits and nuptial pads absent; (7) Finger I shorter than Finger II; tips of digits bulbous, rounded; (8) fingers without lateral fringes; (9) ulnar and tarsal tubercles absent; (10) heel without tubercles; inner tarsal fold absent; (11) inner metatarsal tubercle rounded, about three times as large as ovoid outer metatarsal tubercle; supernumerary plantar tubercles absent; (12) toes without lateral fringes; basal webbing absent; Toe V slightly longer than Toe III; toe tips bulbous, rounded, about as large as those on fingers; (13) in life, dorsum pale grayish brown with or without dark brown blotches or blackish brown with small yellow flecks; throat, chest and venter pale grayish brown with salmon mottling, groin pale grayish brown with salmon colored flecks; iris golden orange with fine dark brown reticulations; (14) SVL 27.2–35.2 mm in males (n = 6), and 40.4 mm in single female.

Etymology: The species epithet inti is derived from the Quechuan noun “Inti”, the Incan sun god. The golden-orange iris reminds us of the sun.

Distribution, natural history, and threat status: Phrynopus inti sp. n. is known from four localities outside and two localities inside the Pui Pui Protected Forest between 3350 and 3890 m a.s.l., covering an estimated area of 101.3 sq.km (Figs 1, 2).



Figure 4. Phrynopus inti sp. n. (A, B holotype, MUSM 31183, male, SVL 32.5 mm),
  P. juninensis (C, D MUSM 33258, female, SVL 33.0 mm),
P. kauneorum
(E, F holotype, MUSM 20459, female, SVL 29.1 mm) in dorsolateral and ventral views.
Photos by E. Lehr and R. von May (C, D).

Figure 5. Life male holotype (MUSM 31183, SVL 32.5 mm) of Phrynopus inti sp. n. in
 dorsolateral view (A), dorsal view (B), flanks, groin, anterior surfaces of thighs (C), and ventral view (D).
Photos by E. Lehr.

Figure 10. Type locality and habitats of Phrynopus inti sp. n. Satipo-Toldopampa Road at km 134 on left side of street coming from Satipo, 3350 m a.s.l., 23 June 2013
(A); Quebrada Toldopampa, 3670 m a.s.l., 22 June 2013 (B); Type locality, Quebrada Tasta, 3609 m a.s.l., 20 May 2012 (C); Antuyo, PPPF, 3700 m a.s.l., 27 June 2013 (D); Laguna Sinchon, PPPF, 3890 m a.s.l., 29 June 2013 (E).
Photos by E. Lehr.


 Edgar Lehr, Rudolf von May, Jiri Moravec and Juan Carlos Cusi. 2017. A New Species of Phrynopus (Amphibia, Anura, Craugastoridae) from upper Montane Forests and High Andean Grasslands of the Pui Pui Protected Forest in central Peru. ZooKeys. 713: 131-157.  DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.713.20776

Resumen: Describimos una nueva especie de Phrynopus de los bosques montanos altos y los pajonales altoandinos (Puna) del Bosque de Protección Pui Pui y sus áreas cercanas (Región de Junín, Perú central) y la comparamos morfológica y genéticamente con otras especies de PhrynopusPhrynopus inti sp. n. es conocido de cuatro localidades fuera y dos localidades dentro del Bosque de Protección Pui Pui entre 3350 y 3890 m s.n.m. La nueva especie se caracteriza por tener una longitud hocico-cloaca de 27.2–35.2 mm en machos (n = 6) y 40.4 mm en una hembra, por tener la piel dorsal y los flancos lisos con tubérculos dispersos, el vientre liso, por carecer de un tímpano, y los machos carecer de hendiduras vocales y almohadillas nupciales. En vida, el dorso es marrón grisáceo pálido con o sin manchas marrón oscuro o el dorso es marrón oscuro con pequeñas manchas amarillas; la garganta, pecho y vientre son marrón grisáceo pálido con motas de color salmón, la ingle es marrón grisácea con manchas de color salmón y el iris es dorado naranja con finas reticulaciones marrón oscuro. La nueva especie es morfológicamente muy similar a Phrynopus kauneorum y P. juninensis. Para este último, describimos la coloración en vida de un espécimen obtenido en la localidad tipo. Un análisis filogenético molecular basado en secuencias de ADN mitocondrial y nuclear infirió que la nueva especie está más estrechamente relacionada con Phrynopus kauneorumP. miroslawaeP. tautzorum, y una especie no descrita distribuida en zonas altoandinas de la Región Pasco, Perú central.

Palabras claves: Andes, bosque montano, puna, ranas, códigos de barras de ADN, filogenia molecular, Phrynopus inti, especie nueva

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