Tuesday, July 9, 2019

[Botany • 2019] Magnolia yajlachhi (subsect. Talauma, Magnoliaceae) • Flower of the Heart, A New Species of Ceremonial, Medicinal, Conservation and Nurse Tree Relevance in the Zapotec Culture, Sierra Norte de Oaxaca, Mexico


Magnolia yajlachhi A.Vázquez & Domínguez-Yescas

in Domínguez‐Yescas & Vázquez‐García, 2019.
 DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.393.1.2 

Abstract
A new species of Magnolia from Sierra de Juárez, Oaxaca, Mexico, is described and illustrated. Magnolia yajlachhi belongs to sect. Talauma, subsect. Talauma, locally known as “yajlachhi” (flower of the heart, in Zapotec). It shares with M. lacandonica the subglobose mature fruit and the entirely white petals, but differs from the latter in having fewer carpels and stamens; more lateral leaf veins per side; and seeds orange vs. scarlet-red. It shares with M. zoquepopolucae the subglobose fruit but differs from the latter in having fewer carpels and stamens; petals entirely white vs. purplish in the upper portion (¾); more lateral leaf-veins per side; and seeds orange vs. scarlet-red. It shares with M. mexicana a similar number of carpels and stamens but it differs from the latter in having subglobose fruits to widely ovoid-depressed vs. widely ellipsoid; more leaf-veins per side; petals entirely white vs. adaxially purplish in the upper portion (¾); and seeds orange vs. scarlet-red. A key to Mexican species of sect. Talauma subsect. Talauma is provided. This species was assessed as Critically Endangered (CR). The species has a ceremonial and medicinal, conservation and nurse tree relevance in the Zapotecan culture.

Keywords: Magnoliids, medicinal use, nurse tree, Sierra de Juárez, Talauma. Zapotec

FIGURE 3. Magnolia yajlachhi at San Juan Juquila Vijanos, Oaxaca. 
A–B. Bernardo Domínguez Yescas and his wife, Ma. Luisa Pascual-Yescas, the family that transplanted and cared for seedlings for over a decade, until the trees flowered and turned out to be a new species. C. First documented (2010) open flower at male phase for this species. D. Flower bud flower of the heart, ready to be harvested for decoration, each tree producing up to 200 flower buds. E. Female phase (1:30 pm), with ca. perpendicular sepals, partially opened for beetle entrance, closing latter at night. F. Male phase (8:01 am) fully open flower, after pollen shedding 
(Photographs: A, D–F by J.A. Vázquez-García; B–C by R. Domínguez-Yescas).

FIGURE 4. Magnolia yajlachhi.
A. Leaves from a young shoot, found under shade. B. Leave exposed to direct sunlight. C. Spathaceous bract protecting the young flower bud. D. Heart shaped flower bud fully grown. E. Flowers at female phase, with sepals at an angle of ca. 30 degrees from the axis, barely opening for beetle entrance. F. Flower at female phase with perpendicular sepals, starting to close, usually with insects inside. G. Flower with reflexed sepals at an angle of ca. 80 degrees. H. Receptive gynoecium, female phase, with stamens. I. Receptive gynoecium (female phase, with stamens removed. J. Stamens. (Photographs: A, E and H–I by J. A. Vázquez-García; B–D, F–G and J by R. Domínguez-Yescas; G and H).





Magnolia yajlachhi A.Vázquez & Domínguez-Yescas, sp. nov.

Type:— MEXICO. Oaxaca: Mpio. San Juan Juquila Vijanos, Lachi-Luguiaj or Llano de Piedra, rare in coffee plantations that used to be cloud forest habitat in secondary Liquidambar-Pinus forest, property of Procoro Pascual, ..., 1269 m, 2 Sep 2018 (fr.), Pascual Domínguez 1 (holotype: IBUG!; isotypes: CORU!, ENCB!, HUAP!, MEXU!, OAX!, SERO!, XAL!). 

Magnolia yajlachhi shares with M. lacandonica the mature subglobose fruit and entirely white petals, but differs from the latter in having carpels less numerous (36–41 vs. 61–80) and marked vs. inconspicuously marked; stamens less numerous (166–175 vs. 198–248), leaf-veins per side more numerous (13–14 vs. 10–11); and seeds orange vs. scarlet. Magnolia yajlachhi shares with M. zoquepopolucae the subglobose fruit but differs from the latter in having carpels less numerous (36–41 vs. 46–56); stamens less numerous (166–175 vs. 200), petals entirely white vs. purplish in the apical portion (¾); lateral leaf-veins per side more numerous (13–14 vs. 10–11); and seeds orange vs. scarlet. Magnolia yajlachhi shares with M. mexicana a similar number of carpels and stamens but it differs from the latter in having shorter petals (7.5–7.7 vs. 9.0–10.0 cm) and entirely white vs. adaxially purplish in the apical portion (¾); fruits smaller (5.4–10.0 vs. 10.0–15.0 cm) and widely ovoid-depressed to subglobose vs. widely ellipsoid; leaf-veins per side more numerous (13–14 vs. 10–12); and seeds orange vs. scarlet (Table 1, Fig. 8).

FIGURE 7. A. Flower bud bouquet. B. Procession of Good Friday in San Juan Yatzona, using flower buds. C. Sculpture of Jesus on a donkey decorated with flower buds. D. Men of San Juan Yatzona decorating with Magnolia flower buds. E. Altar at San Juan Yatzona´s church decorated with flower buds and bromeliads. F. Tomb in cemetery adorned with Magnolia flower buds
(Photographs: A by J. Bautista-Vargas, B by D. Sánchez-Luna, C–D and E by S. A. Hernández-Merlín, F by J. A. Vázquez-García).


Reyna Domínguez‐Yescas and José Antonio Vázquez‐García. 2019. Flower of the Heart, Magnolia yajlachhi (subsect. Talauma, Magnoliaceae), A New Species of Ceremonial, Medicinal, Conservation and Nurse Tree Relevance in the Zapotec Culture, Sierra Norte de Oaxaca, Mexico. Phytotaxa. 393(1).1; 21–34. DOI: 10.11646/phytotaxa.393.1.2

   

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