Wednesday, July 3, 2019

[Botany • 2019] Etlingera mamasarum • An Update of the Genus Etlingera (Zingiberaceae) in Sulawesi including the Description of A New Species

Etlingera mamasarum A.D.Poulsen & Ardiyani 

in Ardiyani & Poulsen, 2019.


A new species, Etlingera mamasarum A.D.Poulsen & Ardiyani was discovered in Gunung Gandangdewata National Park, West Sulawesi. It is similar to Etlingera flexuosa A.D.Poulsen but differs in having flowers which are shorter than the bracts. It is described, illustrated and DNA barcoded. Three additional species (Etlingera cylindrica A.D.Poulsen, E. grallata A.D.Poulsen, E. spinulosa A. D.Poulsen) were documented in this national park and represent new records for West Sulawesi Province. We also update information on the morphology of E. calobates A.D.Poulsen, correct an error in the typification of Alpinia chrysogynia (K.Schum.) K.Schum. and discuss the distribution of the Achasma Group of Etlingera east of Wallace’s Line.

Keywords: DNA barcoding, Etlingera calobates, E. mamasensium, E. megalocheilos, Indonesia, Zingiberales.

Fig. 1. Etlingera mamasarum A.D.Poulsen & Ardiyani, spec. nov. 
A. Fertile bract and flower. B. Bracteole. C. Calyx. D. Flower, calyx removed. E. Stamen, dorsal view. F. Labellum, flattened, dorsal view G. Stamen, lateral view H. Stamen, style and stigma, ventral view. J. Ovary and epigynous gland, dorsal view. K. Ovary and epigynous gland, ventral view. L. Fruit with ± persistent bract, bracteole and calyx. Drawn from the type by Axel Dalberg Poulsen.

Fig. 2. Etlingera mamasarum A.D.Poulsen & Ardiyani, spec. nov.
A. Leafy shoot. B. Inflorescence, lateral and front view. C. Fertile bract. D. Fertile bract and flower. E. Bracteole. F. Calyx. G. Flower, calyx removed. H. Corolla lobes. I. Labellum. J. Flower with calyx, corolla lobes and labellum removed. Photos: Marlina Ardiyani.

Etlingera mamasarum A.D.Poulsen & Ardiyani, spec. nov.

Type: Indonesia, West Sulawesi Province, Mamasa, Rantepongko Village, Gunung Gandangdewata, ..., 1,642 m, flowering and fruiting, 21 April 2016, M. Ardiyani with W. Santoso, Obet, Ama, A. Kartonegoro, D. Wulansari Sulbar 004 (Holotype: BO!; iso E!), Fig. 1, 2 & 3. DNA barcoding in Table 2. 

Diagnosis. Similar to Etlingera flexuosa A.D. Poulsen but differs in the length of the flowers which are shorter than the bracts, the longer petiole (45–55 mm in E. mamasarum vs 10–40 mm in E. flexuosa), the length to width ratio of the lamina (3.5–4 vs 4.2–5.6), the shape of the base of the lamina (rounded to cordate vs cuneate to auriculate), the size of the fertile bract (5.5−7 × 2.5−3.3 cm vs 2–5 × 0.6–2.5 cm), the position of the pedicel (4 mm stalk above the bracteole vs 1–4 mm below bracteole), the longer bracteole (3.6 cm vs 1.7–3 cm), the apices of the calyx spreading laterally to opposite sides of the flower (vs pointed straight forward), and the shape and size of the labellum (unevenly panduriform, 20–21 × 16 mm vs ovate, 17–22 × 14–20 mm).

Distribution. So far known only from the type locality at Gunung Gandangdewata. 

Habitat & Ecology. Grows in primary forest on a moderate slope not far from river at about 1,700 m. 

Etymology. The epithet honours the people of Mamasa, West Sulawesi, where the new species was found.

Local name & uses. Katimbang (Mamasa language), fruits are eaten.

 Marlina Ardiyani and Axel Dalberg Poulsen. 2019. An Update of the Genus Etlingera (Zingiberaceae) in Sulawesi including the Description of A New Species. Reinwardtia. 18(1); 49–60. DOI: 10.14203/reinwardtia.v18i1.3729

Jenis baru Etlingera mamasarum A.D.Poulsen & Ardiyani telah ditemukan di Taman Nasional Gunung Gandangdewata, Sulawesi Barat. Jenis baru ini mirip dengan Etlingera flexuosa A.D.Poulsen tetapi berbeda dalam karakter bunga yang lebih pendek dari braktea. Jenis baru tersebut dipertelakan, diilustrasikan dan dilakukan barkoding DNA. Tiga jenis lainnya (Etlingera cylindrica A.D.Poulsen, E. grallata A.D.Poulsen, E. spinulosa A.D.Poulsen) telah didokumentasikan dan merupakan rekaman baru untuk provinsi Sulawesi Barat. Informasi morfologi E. calobates A.D.Poulsen telah diperbaharui, kesalahan tipifikasi Alpinia chrysogynia (K.Schum.) K.Schum. telah dikoreksi dan informasi persebaran E. megalocheilos (Griff.) A.D.Poulsen di timur garis Wallace didiskusikan dalam tulisan ini. 
Kata Kunci: Barkoding DNA, Etlingera calobates, E. mamasarum, E. megalocheilos, Indonesia, Zingiberales.


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