Tuesday, February 27, 2018

[Herpetology • 2018] Skin Gland Concentrations Adapted to Different Evolutionary Pressures in the Head and Posterior Regions of the Caecilian Siphonops annulatus

Siphonops annulatus (Mikan, 1920)

in Jared, Mailho-Fontana, Marques-Porto, et al., 2018.

Amphibian skin is rich in mucous glands and poison glands, secreting substances important for gas exchange and playing a fundamental role in chemical defense against predators and microorganisms. In the caecilian Siphonops annulatus (Mikan, 1920) we observed a concentration of enlarged mucous glands in the head region. In the posterior region of the body a similar concentration is made up of enlarged poison glands. These accumulations of glands structurally resemble the macroglands previously reported in anurans and salamanders. The skin glands in these regions are each surrounded by collagen walls forming a honeycomb-like structure. The collagen network in the head region firmly attaches to tiny pits in the bones of the skull. The two extremities of the body produce different secretions, containing exclusive molecules. Considering the fossorial lifestyle of caecilians, it seems evident that the secretions of the head and caudal region serve different functions. The anterior macrogland of mucous glands, rich in mucous/lipid secretion, in conjunction with the funnel-shaped head, may act to lubricate the body and penetrate the soil, thus facilitating locomotion underground. The blunt posterior end bearing an internalized macrogland of poison glands in the dermis may act in chemical defense and/or by blocking invasion of tunnels.

A limbless amphibian, known as Caecilian, Siphonops annulatus, widely distributed in Brazil. Scientists from Utah State University in the United States and Brazil’s Butantan Institute report skin gland concentrations adapted to different evolutionary pressures in the head and posterior regions of the amphibian.
photo: Carlos Jared, Butantan Institute 

Carlos Jared, Pedro Luiz Mailho-Fontana, Rafael Marques-Porto, Juliana Mozer Sciani, Daniel Carvalho Pimenta, Edmund D. Brodie Jr. and Marta Maria Antoniazzi. 2018. Skin Gland Concentrations Adapted to Different Evolutionary Pressures in the Head and Posterior Regions of the Caecilian Siphonops annulatusScientific Reports. 8, Article number: 3576.  DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-22005-5

Playing both ends: Amphibian adapted to varied evolutionary pressures  phy.so/438499863 via @physorg_com


  1. This curriculum gives you training in beauty, salon and parlor management. Become top beauty therapist. Thing of beauty is joy forever. Skin Institute

  2. Thanks for posting useful information.You have provided an nice article, Thank you very much for this one. And i hope this will be useful for many people.. and i am waiting for your next post keep on updating these kinds of knowledgeable things...Really it was an awesome article...very interesting to read..please sharing like this information......
    PHP interview questions and answers | PHP interview questions | PHP interview questions for freshers | PHP interview questions and answers for freshers | php interview questions and answers for experienced | php viva questions and answers | php based interview questions