Sunday, July 3, 2016

[Herpetology • 2016] Pristimantis urani • Molecular Phylogenetics of the Pristimantis lacrimosus species group (Anura: Craugastoridae) with the Description of A New Species from the Cordillera Occidental, southwestern Colombia


Pristimantis urani 
Rivera-Correa & Daza, 2016 

Abstract

The Pristimantis lacrimosus species group, with 24 species distributed in the Neotropics, is a group of arboreal frogs commonly inhabiting bromeliads. Previous studies have claimed the group to be monophyletic but few species have been included in phylogenetic analyses. In this paper, we included five additional species from the northern Andes in Colombia and tested the monophyly of this phenetic group using genetic data under a Bayesian approach. Our results show that the P. lacrimosus group represents two distant and unrelated clades. Clade “A” is endemic to Colombia while Clade “B” encompasses species distributed in Central America, Ecuador and Peru. For the first time, we reveal the phylogenetic position of P. boulengeri and a new species is described. The new taxon is most closely related to P. brevifrons from southwestern Colombia with a genetic distance of 4.3% for 16S and 10.6% for COI. Our results suggest, one more time, that morphological similarity among species in the most diverse vertebrate genus not necessarily agree with its evolutionary history and that more effort in alpha taxonomy needs to be done in order to understand the tremendous radiation of this lineage in the Neotropics.

Keywords. Cordillera Occidental, diversity, external morphology, molecular phylogenetics, taxonomy, systematics.

Fig. 2. Pristimantis urani sp. nov. in life: MHUA-A 7471, SVL 24.2 mm, holotype, adult female

Photo by F. Duarte-Cubides. DOI: 10.13128/Acta_Herpetol-16434  

Morphological description 

Pristimantis urani sp. nov. (Figs 2,5) 

Holotype. MHUA-A 7471, adult female. Colombia, Departamento de Antioquia, Municipio de Urrao, Corregimiento La Encarnación, Vereda El Maravillo, (6º30’36” N, 76º08’40” W; 2295 m a.s.l.), collected on March 14, 2012 by José Fang.

 Paratypes. MHUA-A 7467–68 adult males; MHUA-A 7469–70, MHUA-A 7472 adult females; all collected with holotype.


Diagnosis:  We assigned the new species to the genus Pristimantis on the basis of our phylogenetic results (Fig. 1). The new species is characterized by a combination of (1) skin texture of the dorsum smooth, venter weakly areolate; dorsolateral folds and discoidal fold absent; (2) tympanic membrane and tympanic annulus evident, supratympanic fold not differentiated; horizontal diameter of tympanum 33-38% of eye diameter; (3) snout broadly rounded in dorsal view (truncated by protruding nostrils), truncate in profile; (4) tubercles on upper eyelids and cranial crests absent; (5) dentigerous process of the vomer absent; (6) males with vocal slits and median subgular vocal sac; white, nonspinous nuptial pads present; (7) first finger shorter than the second; fingers III– IV bearing expanded and rounded discs about twice as wide as digits; (8) fingers with narrow lateral fringes; (9) antebrachial and ulnar tubercles absent, but a low ulnar fold present; (10) tubercles on heel and outer edge of tarsus absent; inner tarsal fold absent; (11) inner metatarsal tubercle oval, two-to-three times as long as round outer metatarsal tubercle; supernumerary plantar tubercles small and low, at the base of toes III and IV; (12) toes with narrow lateral fringes; webbing absent; fifth toe longer than third; (13) in life, dorsum light yellow to green-yellow with dark brown marks and blotches (Fig. 2); venter creamy white; (14) adults small, SVL in males 18.7–19.1 mm (18.9 ± 0.28, n = 2), in females 21.0–23.4 mm (22.5 ± 1.02, n = 4).

Fig. 1. Phylogenetic relationships within Clade “A” Pristimantis lacrimosus species group. 
Fig. 3. Pristimantis species of Clade “A”. (A) Pristimantis angustilineatus TG 1484 (Vereda Las Amarillas, Municipio del Cairo, Valle del Cauca, Colombia), adult female; (B) Pristimantis boulengeri MHUA-A 8952 (Parque Regional Natural Ucumarí, Pereira, Risaralda, Colombia), SVL 22.0 mm, adult male; (C) Pristimantis brevifrons (Finca San Pedro, Municipio de Dagua, Valle del Cauca, Colombia; not collected), adult male; (D). Pristimantis dorsopictus MHUA-A 7855, (Corregimiento de Santa Elena, Medellín, Antioquia, Colombia), SVL 24.0 mm, adult male. TG: Taran Grant field number. Photos by Taran Grant (A), J.J. Ospina-Sarria (C), M. Rivera-Correa (B, D). DOI: 10.13128/Acta_Herpetol-16434

Geographic distribution and natural history: Pristimantis urani sp. nov. is known only from type locality at elevations ca. 2300 m a.s.l., on the north-western flank of the Cordillera Occidental, Antioquia department of Colombia (Fig. 5). Limited natural history data were obtained during the collection of the series type, except that specimens were found near a creek inside a cloud montane forest, hidden in the axils of Araceae plants. The individuals were collected inactive in the morning (between 11:00–12:20 h). Female MHUA-A 7470 had developed follicles. The only other Pristimantis found to be syntopic with P. urani was P. erythropleura. Vocal behaviour or any aspect of the reproductive ecology of the species is currently unknown.


 Etymology: The specific name is a patronym for Rigoberto (Rigo) Urán, a Colombian cyclist born in Urrao, Antioquia, type locality of the new species. Rigo Uran represents, despite adversity, the struggle to become a great athlete. The new taxon is native to the northern Andes, mountains widely conquered by the Colombian cyclists.


Mauricio Rivera-Correa and Juan M. Daza. 2016. Molecular Phylogenetics of the Pristimantis lacrimosus species group (Anura: Craugastoridae) with the Description of A New Species from Colombia. Acta Herpetol. 11(1); 31-45. DOI: 10.13128/Acta_Herpetol-16434

Rana bautizada en honor a Ribogerto Urán  http://tinyurl.com/jm7pbkb via @elespectador

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