Sunday, July 3, 2016

[Arachnida • 2016] Eight New Species of Charinus Simon, 1892 (Amblypygi: Charinidae) Endemic for the Brazilian Amazon, with Notes on Their Conservational Status


DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148277

Abstract
Eight new species of Charinus Simon, 1892 are described for the Brazilian Amazon, from the states of Pará (Charinus bichuetteae sp. n.C. bonaldoi sp. n.Ccarajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n.C. guto sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n.) and Amazonas (Charinus brescoviti sp. n. and Cricardoi sp. n.). All new species can be differentiated from the other species of the genus by the number of pseudo-articles in basitibia IV, the presence/absence of median eyes, and the shape of the female gonopod. Brazil now becomes the country with the largest diversity of Amblypygi in the world, with 25 known species. Half of the new species described here have a high degree of endangerment: C. bichuetteae sp. n. is threatened by the flood caused by the hydroelectric dam of Belo Monte, and C. carajas sp. n., C. ferreus sp. n. and C. orientalis sp. n. are endangered by the iron mining in Carajás municipality and surroundings. The Charinus species here described are endemic to the Amazon Region, so in order to assure their preservation, it is strongly recommended a special care with their habitats (type localities) which are facing increasing rates of destruction and deforestation.


Charinus brescoviti new species. 

Etymology. This species is named after Dr. Antônio Domingos Brescovit (Instituto Butantan, SP, BR), in recognition of his contribution to arachnology.

Diagnosis. Well-developed median and lateral eyes; small and rounded meta and mesosternum; large basal spine pedipalp distitarsus (2/3 the distal length); basitibia of leg IV divided in two pseudo articles; trichobothria of basitibia IV (bt) on the proximal third of the article; distitibia IV with 16 trichobothriae, equidistant basal trichobothria (bf, bc and sbf); brownish-yellow body color; cushion-like gonopods with small lateral projections directed backwards and internal seminal receptacles.


Charinus ricardoi new species.

Etymology. This species is named after Dr. Ricardo Pinto-da-Rocha (MZUSP, SP, BR), in recognition of his contribution to arachnology.

Diagnosis. Absent median eyes and tubercle; weakly developed and pale lateral eyes; small and rounded meta and mesosternum; small basal spine of pedipalp distitarsus, ¼ the distal spine length; pedipalp almost perpendicular to the body, similar to that of Paracharon caecus Hansen, 1921; basitibia of leg IV divided in two pseudo articles; trichobothria of basitibia IV (bt) on the proximal third of the article; distitibia IV with 16 trichobothria; equidistant basal trichobothriae of distitibia IV (bf, bc and sbf); yellowish-brown body color; cushion-like gonopods without projections and with internal seminal receptacles; gonopods very similar to that of Charinus bonaldoi sp. n. (described below), but the pedipalp proportions and the size of the pedipalp articles are larger in C. ricardoi sp. n.


Charinus bonaldoi new species. 

Etymology. This species is named after Dr. Alexandre Bragio Bonaldo (Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, PA, BR), in recognition of his contribution to arachnology.

Diagnosis. Absent median eyes and tubercle; weakly developed and pale lateral eyes; small and rounded meta and mesosternum; small basal spine of pedipalp distitarsus, ¼ the length of the distal; pedipalp almost perpendicular to body, similar to that of C. ricardoi sp. n. and Paracharon caecus; basitibia of leg IV divided in two pseudo articles; trichobothria of basitibia IV (bt) at the proximal third of the article; distitibia IV with 16 trichobothria; trichobothriae bc and sbf closer to each other than to bf; light brown body color; cushion-like gonopods without projections and with internal seminal receptacles.

Natural history. Collected in the leaf litter.


Charinus guto new species.

Etymology. This species is named after the arachnologist José Augusto Pereira Barreiros, nicknamed Guto (in memoriam), who collected some of the specimens of the type series.

Diagnosis. Absent median eyes and tubercle; well-developed lateral eyes, but pale; small and rounded meta and mesosternum; small basal spine of the distitarsus of the pedipalp, ¼ the length of the distal; tibia I with 21 articles in the and tarsus with 37; basitibia of leg IV divided in three pseudo articles; trichobothria of the basitibia IV (bt) at the proximal third of the article; distitibia IV with 14 trichobothria; equidistant basal trichobothriae of distitibia IV (bf, bc and sbf); light brown body color; cushion-like gonopods with lateral projections directed backwards covering the aperture of the internal seminal receptacles.

Natural history. Collected in the leaf litter.


Charinus carajas new species.

Etymology. This species is named after the mountain range where the species inhabits ("Serra Carajá", Caraja mountains). The name also refers to the important indigenous group called karajas or iny mahãdu, that occupy the region of the rivers Araguaia and Javaés in the states of Goiás, Mato Grosso, Tocantins and Pará, Brazil.

Diagnosis. Median and lateral eyes present, but median tubercle and lateral eyes strongly reduced; small and rounded meta and mesosternum; reduced tritosternun, slightly surpassing the base of the pedipalp coxae; dorsal femur with four spines; small basal spine of pedipalp distitarsus, ¼ the length of the distal; tibia I with 23 articles and tarsus with 42; basitibia of leg IV divided in three pseudo articles; trichobothria of basitibia IV (bt) at the proximal third of the article; distitibia IV with 16 trichobothria; equidistant basal trichobothriae of distitibia IV (bf, bc and sbf); pale yellow body color; cushion-like female gonopod with lateral projections directed backwards covering all the opening of the internal seminal receptacles (atrium); male gonopods with long, curved and wrinkled medial lobes; lateral lobes fimbriated; dorsal lobe surpassing the length of all other lobes and with elevated scales; secondary sexual dimorphism present, males with larger pedipalps, circa of two times the size of the female.

Natural history.Inside cave, in a region called canga that contains iron ore.


Charinus orientalis new species. 

Etymology.  The species name derives from the Latin orientem, which means east, referring to the name of the mountain range where the cave this species inhabits is located ("Serra Leste", east mountains).

Diagnosis. Median and lateral eyes present, but strongly reduced median tubercle and lateral eyes (as in C. carajas sp. n.); median tubercle inside a depression; small and rounded meta and mesosternum; weakly sclerotized border of the sternum; pedipalp dorsal femur with three spines; basal spine of pedipalp distitarsus circa of ¼ the length of the distal; tibia I with 21 articles and tarsus I with 37; basitibia IV divided in three pseudo articles; trichobothria of basitibia IV (bt) at the proximal third of the article; distitibia IV with 16 trichobothria; equidistant basal trichobothriae of distitibia IV (bf, bc and sbf); pale yellow body color; cushion-like female gonopod with lateral projections directed backwards covering all the opening of the internal seminal receptacles (atrium).


Fig 10. Habitus and details of the sternum and pedipalp of Charinus ferreus sp. n. (female holotype, MZSP 29104).
A. Dorsal habitus; B. Live specimen in the soil of a cave in Carajás. C. Sternum; D. Frontal view of the right pedipalp basitiba, distitiba and claw; E. Dorsal view of the right pedipalp; F. Ventral view of the right pedipalp.
Scale bars: 1 mm. Photo B by Denis Pedroso. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148277 

Charinus ferreus new species.

Etymology. The species name derives from Latin ferrum, referring to the iron ore cave from where this species were collected dwells.

Diagnosis. Absent median eyes and tubercle; weakly developed and pale lateral eyes; small and rounded meta and mesosternum; reduced tritosternun, slightly surpassing the base of the pedipalp coxa; dorsal femur with three spines; subequal spines of pedipalp basitarsus; basal spine of pedipalp distitarsus large, circa of 2/3 the length of the distal; leg tibia I with 21 articles and tarsus I with 37; basitibia IV divided in three pseudo articles; trichobothria of the basitibia IV (bt) at the proximal third of the article; distitibia IV with 16 trichobothria; basal trichobothriae of distitibia IV bc and sbf closer to each other than to bf; pale yellow body color; male gonopod with long, curved and wrinkled medial lobes; lateral lobe fimbriated; median lobe surpassing the lateral and dorsal lobes.

Natural History. Inside iron caves, in a region of Amazonia called “canga”.

Remarks. This species have troglomorphic characters, such as the almost complete absence of eyes.


Fig 11.  Habitus and details of the sternum and pedipalp of Charinus bichuetteae sp. n. (male holotype, MNRJ 09204).
A. Dorsal habitus; B. Young live specimen in the soil in Altamira. C. Sternum; D. Frontal view of the right pedipalp basitiba, distitiba and claw; E. Dorsal view of the right pedipalp; F. Ventral view of the right pedipalp.
Scale bars: 1 mm. Photo B by Denis Pedroso.  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148277

Charinus bichuetteae new species.

Etymology. This species is named after Dr. Maria Elina Bichuette (UFSCar, SP, BR), in recognition to her contribution to arachnology and cave biology.


Natural history. The specimens collected were on the wall of the caves (Gruta do China, Gruta do Sismógrafo, Caverna Sugiro-Roncador, Caverna Pedra da Cachoeira).

Diagnosis. Absent median eyes and tubercle; well-developed lateral eyes; small and rounded meta and mesosternum, strongly sclerotized; dorsal pedipalp femur with two spines; basal pedipalp distitarsus spine small, ¼ the length of the distal; Leg tibia I with 21 articles and tarsus with 37; basitibia IV divided in two pseudo articles; trichobothria of basitibia IV (bt) at the proximal third of the article; distitibia IV with 16 trichobothria; basal trichobothriae of distitibia IV bc and sbf closer to each other than to bf; pale yellow body color; cushion-like female gonopod with lateral projections directed backwards covering all the opening of the internal seminal receptacles (atrium).

Fig 12. Distributional map of the new species.
Green: ombrophilous forest. Yellow: white-sand forest (Amazonian Caatinga).

 Alessandro Ponce de Leão Giupponi and Gustavo Silva de Miranda. 2016. Eight New Species of Charinus Simon, 1892 (Arachnida: Amblypygi: Charinidae) Endemic for the Brazilian Amazon, with Notes on Their Conservational Status. PLoS ONE. 11(2):e0148277.  DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0148277


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