Sunday, February 10, 2019

[Entomology • 2019] Graphium (Pazala) wenlingae • A New Species of the Graphium (Pazala) mandarinus Group (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae) from Central Vietnam


 Graphium (Pazalawenlingae Hu, Cotton & Monastyrskii

in Hu, Condamine, Monastyrskii & Cotton, 2019.

Abstract
The Graphium (Pazalamandarinus group was recently defined and the status of taxa as well as the number of species was revised. We report here the discovery of a new species from Kon Tum plateau of the Truong Son (Annamite) Range of Central Vietnam, which we describe based on morphological and molecular evidence. Molecular phylogeny shows that the new taxonGraphium (Pazala) wenlingae Hu, Cotton & Monastyrskii sp. nov., is sister to G. (P.) daiyuanae Hu, Zhang & Cotton, 2018 plus G. (P.) confucius Hu, Duan & Cotton, 2018. Molecular dating analysis further suggests that this new species diverged from its sister clade in the Pliocene (~3.5 million years ago). The new taxon constitutes the eighth and southernmost species of the mandarinus group.

Keywords: Lepidoptera, Pazala, mandarinus-group, new species, Vietnam, Leptocircini


FIGURE 3.  Graphium (Pazalawenlingae  Hu, Cotton & Monastyrskii sp. nov.;
 red dot: holotype, yellow dots: paratypes; upperside on the first row, underside on the second row;
A–B: ♂, Ngoc Linh, Kon Tum, C. Vietnam; C: ♀, Tay Giang, Quang Nam, C. Vietnam;

scale bar = 10 mm.

Graphium (Pazalawenlingae Hu, Cotton & Monastyrskii sp. nov. 

Pazala glycerion: Monastyrskii & Devyatkin, 2000: 473. C. Vietnam (Ngoc Linh) 
Graphium (Pazala) mandarinus [partim]: Monastyrskii & Devyatkin, 2003: 12. C. Vietnam (to Lam Dong).
Graphium (Pazala) mandarinus [partim]: Monastyrskii, 2007: 96. C. Vietnam (to Lam Dong) 
Graphium (Pazala) mandarinus [partim]: Monastyrskii & Devyatkin, 2015: 15. C. Vietnam (to Kon Tum).


Differential Diagnosis: The new species resembles G. (P.) daiyuanae Hu, Zhang & Cotton, 2018, G. (P.) mandarinus kimurai Murayama, 1982, G. (P.) mandarinus fangana (K. Okano, 1986), and G. (P.) mandarinus stilwelli Cotton & Hu, 2018 (Figure 6), but can be distinguished by careful examination of the following characters: 1) size smaller than daiyuanae and mandarinus stilwelli, similar to that of mandarinus kimurai and mandarinus fangana; 2) forewing termen not oblique outwardly from apex to tornus as in daiyuanae and female mandarinus kimurai and mandarinus fangana (a); 3) upperside hindwing rather paler, the basal, lower half of sub-basal, and discal bands completely absent in both sexes (while commonly present in other taxa) (b); 4) both rings of the discal bands on the hindwing underside mostly white, except a very thin line of creamy yellow in the upper ring (c) (the upper ring typically yellow in other taxa); 5) the interspaces between coupled submarginal bands at cells M3 and M2 more irrigated with whitish scales than in other taxa (d).

Distribution: The new species is currently known only from Kon Tum plateau of Truong Son (Annamite) Range in C. Vietnam (Quang Nam and Kon Tum Provinces). We can also expect to discover this species in adjacent Gia Lai Province (e.g. Kon Ka Kinh National Park) and in Lam Dong Province (e.g. Bi Doup Nui Ba and Chu Yang Sin National Parks). 

Host plant: Unknown, presumably a plant species belonging to family Lauraceae representatives of which (e.g. genera Neolitsea, Machilus, Cinnamomum, and Persea) are host plants of such relatives as Graphium (Pazala) eurous and G. (P.) mullah (Igarashi & Fukuda 2000). 

Derivatio nominis: The specific name of this elusive new taxon was dedicated to Dr. Wen-Ling Wang, a very close friend of the first author. The species name is to be treated as a noun in apposition.


FIGURE 6. Differential diagnoses of Graphium (Pazalawenlingae Hu, Cotton & Monastyrskii sp. nov. (A: ♂, B: ♀) and similar taxa, upperside on the left half, underside on the right half;

C: G. (P.) daiyuanae Hu, Zhang & Cotton, 2018, ♂; D: ditto, ♀; E: G. (P.) mandarinus kimurai Murayama, 1982, ♂; F: ditto, ♀; G: G. (P.) mandarinus fangana (K. Okano, 1986), ♂; H: ditto, ♀; I: G. (P.) mandarinus stilwelli Cotton & Hu, 2018, ♂; J: ditto, ♀
© Zoologisches Forschungsinstitute und Museum Alexander Koenig (ZFMK), Bonn, Germany; 
scale bar = 10 mm.

FIGURE 6. Differential diagnoses of Graphium (Pazalawenlingae Hu, Cotton & Monastyrskii sp. nov. (A: ♂, B: ♀) and similar taxa, upperside on the left half, underside on the right half; C: G. (P.) daiyuanae Hu, Zhang & Cotton, 2018, ♂; D: ditto, ♀; E: G. (P.) mandarinus kimurai Murayama, 1982, ♂; F: ditto, ♀; G: G. (P.) mandarinus fangana (K. Okano, 1986), ♂; H: ditto, ♀; I: G. (P.) mandarinus stilwelli Cotton & Hu, 2018, ♂; J: ditto, ♀
 © Zoologisches Forschungsinstitute und Museum Alexander Koenig (ZFMK), Bonn, Germany; scale bar = 10 mm.


FIGURE 7. Distribution map of the Graphium (Pazala) mandarinus group, with the distribution of Graphium (Pazalawenlingae sp. nov. highlighted in a red box.


Shao-Ji Hu, Fabien L. Condamine, Alexander L. Monastyrskii and Adam M. Cotton. 2019. A New Species of the Graphium (Pazala) mandarinus Group from Central Vietnam (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae). Zootaxa.  4554(1); 286–300.  DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.4554.1.10

    


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