Tuesday, October 31, 2017

[Ichthyology • 2017] Pseudanthias tequila • A New Species of Anthiadine Serranid from the Ogasawara and Mariana Islands

Pseudanthias tequila 
Gill, Tea & Senou, 2017


Pseudanthias tequila is described on the basis of two specimens from the Ogasawara Islands. It also is recorded from the Mariana Islands on the basis of colour photographs. The species belongs to a complex that includes P. randalli (Lubbock & Allen), P. pulcherrimus Heemstra & Randall, P. flavicauda Randall & Pyle, P. oumati Williams, Delrieu-Trottin & Planes, and a potentially new species from the Line Islands. Species within the complex are distinguished on the basis of male live colouration, morphometric details and gill-raker and scale counts. Colour photos of all five species are provided.

Keywords:  Pisces, taxonomy, ichthyology, Japan, Micronesia

Male Pseudanthias tequila: A) from Ototo-jima, Chichi-jima Islands, Ogasawara Islands, Japan (KPM-NR 179391A, photo by O. Morishita); B) from Tinian, Mariana Islands (photo by N. Tsuji)
FIGURE 6. Group of Pseudanthias tequila n. sp., Tinian, Mariana Islands, Micronesia. Photo by N. Tsuji.

Pseudanthias tequila new species 
New standard Japanese name: Bonin-hanadai
English common name: Cave anthias

Pseudanthias randalli (non Lubbock & Allen, 1978); Myers & Shephard, 1980: 316 (Blue Hole, Orote Peninsula, Guam).
Pseudanthias sp.; Myers, 1988: 140 (Guam).
Pseudanthias sp. 3; Michael, 1998: 576 (colour photo; Guam).
Pseudanthias sp. B; Myers 1999: 109, pl. 35 G (colour photo; Guam).
Pseudanthias flavicauda [non Randall & Pyle, 2001]; Myers & Donaldson, 2003: 616 (list, Marianas Islands).
Pseudanthias cf randalli; Kuiter, 2004: 61, unnumbered colour figs A and B (colour photos; Palau, Saipan and Guam).
Pseudanthias cf flavicauda; Kuiter & Debelius, 2006: 298 (colour photo; Micronesia).

Diagnosis. The following combination of characters distinguishes Pseudanthias tequila from congeners: dorsal rays X,16; anal rays III,7; pectoral rays 18; third dorsal spine prolonged in males; third segmented anal-fin ray longest; lateral-line scales 46–47; no auxiliary scales on body; interopercle and subopercle with distinct serrations in adults; males in life with upper body beneath anterior part of dorsal fin purple to pink with orange-red stripe, dorsal fin greenish yellow anteriorly, posteriorly red with blue basal area, anterior part of anal fin red, and pelvic fins bright yellow.

Habitat and distribution. Pseudanthias tequila is described on the basis of two specimens from Ototo-jima, Chichi-jima Islands, Ogasawara Islands, Japan. We also record it from Guam, Saipan and Tinian in the Mariana Islands on the basis of photographs (Figure 7). Kuiter’s (2004) photograph of an individual of “Pseudanthias cf randalli”, stated to be from Palau, is referable to P. tequila. However, R.F. Myers (pers. comm.) advised us that the photograph, by Hiroyuki Kimura, is actually from Saipan. Other photographs from Palau are referrable to the closely related P. randalli (Lubbock & Allen, 1978). The original description of Prandalli also included paratypes from Palau. Pseudanthias tequila appears to be mostly found in caves on reef slopes in 40–60 m, earning it the popular name of “cave anthias”. In Saipan and Tinian, however, it occurs in the open on reef slopes dominated by Halimeda and Caulerpa algae (Figures 4B & 6).

Etymology. The specific epithet refers to the alcoholic beverage tequila sunrise, alluding to the vibrant life colours of the males of the species. To be treated as a noun in apposition.

 Anthony C. Gill, Yi-Kai Tea and Hiroshi Senou. 2017. Pseudanthias tequila, A New Species of Anthiadine Serranid from the Ogasawara and Mariana Islands. Zootaxa. 4341(1); 67–76. DOI:  10.11646/zootaxa.4341.1.5

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